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Sample records for human grasping behavior

  1. From robot to human grasping simulation

    CERN Document Server

    León, Beatriz; Sancho-Bru, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    The human hand and its dexterity in grasping and manipulating objects are some of the hallmarks of the human species. For years, anatomic and biomechanical studies have deepened the understanding of the human hand’s functioning and, in parallel, the robotics community has been working on the design of robotic hands capable of manipulating objects with a performance similar to that of the human hand. However, although many researchers have partially studied various aspects, to date there has been no comprehensive characterization of the human hand’s function for grasping and manipulation of

  2. Evaluation of Human Prehension Using Grasp Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz León

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main features of the human hand is its grasping ability. Robot grasping has been studied for years and different quality measures have been proposed to evaluate the stability and manipulability of grasps. Although the human hand is obviously more complex than robot hands, the methods used in robotics might be adopted to study the human grasp. The purpose of this work is to propose a set of measures that allow the evaluation of different aspects of the human grasp. The most common robotic grasp quality measures have been adapted to the evaluation of the human hand and a new quality measure – the fatigue index – is proposed in order to incorporate the biomechanical aspect into the evaluation. The minimum set of indices that allows the evaluation of the different aspects of the grasp is obtained from the analysis of a human prehension experiment.

  3. Human Grasp Assist Device With Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon B. J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove, actuator assembly, and controller. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. Phalange rings are positioned with respect to the digit. A flexible tendon is connected at one end to one of the rings and is routed through the remaining rings. An exoskeleton positioned with respect to the digit includes hinged interconnecting members each connected to a corresponding ring, and/or a single piece of slotted material. The actuator assembly is connected to another end of the tendon. The controller calculates a tensile force in response to the measured grasping force, and commands the tensile force from the actuator assembly to thereby pull on the tendon. The exoskeleton offloads some of the tensile force from the operator's finger to the glove.

  4. Decoding natural reach-and-grasp actions from human EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Andreas; Ofner, Patrick; Pereira, Joana; Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Despite the high number of degrees of freedom of the human hand, most actions of daily life can be executed incorporating only palmar, pincer and lateral grasp. In this study we attempt to discriminate these three different executed reach-and-grasp actions utilizing their EEG neural correlates. Approach. In a cue-guided experiment, 15 healthy individuals were asked to perform these actions using daily life objects. We recorded 72 trials for each reach-and-grasp condition and from a no-movement condition. Main results. Using low-frequency time domain features from 0.3 to 3 Hz, we achieved binary classification accuracies of 72.4%, STD  ±  5.8% between grasp types, for grasps versus no-movement condition peak performances of 93.5%, STD  ±  4.6% could be reached. In an offline multiclass classification scenario which incorporated not only all reach-and-grasp actions but also the no-movement condition, the highest performance could be reached using a window of 1000 ms for feature extraction. Classification performance peaked at 65.9%, STD  ±  8.1%. Underlying neural correlates of the reach-and-grasp actions, investigated over the primary motor cortex, showed significant differences starting from approximately 800 ms to 1200 ms after the movement onset which is also the same time frame where classification performance reached its maximum. Significance. We could show that it is possible to discriminate three executed reach-and-grasp actions prominent in people’s everyday use from non-invasive EEG. Underlying neural correlates showed significant differences between all tested conditions. These findings will eventually contribute to our attempt of controlling a neuroprosthesis in a natural and intuitive way, which could ultimately benefit motor impaired end users in their daily life actions.

  5. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  6. Dependence of behavioral performance on material category in an object grasping task with monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Isao; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Goda, Naokazu; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2018-05-02

    Material perception is an essential part of our cognitive function that enables us to properly interact with our complex daily environment. One important aspect of material perception is its multimodal nature. When we see an object, we generally recognize its haptic properties as well as its visual properties. Consequently, one must examine behavior using real objects that are perceived both visually and haptically to fully understand the characteristics of material perception. As a first step, we examined whether there is any difference in the behavioral responses to different materials in monkeys trained to perform an object grasping task in which they saw and grasped rod-shaped real objects made of various materials. We found that the monkeys' behavior in the grasping task, measured based on the success rate and the pulling force, differed depending on the material category. Monkeys easily and correctly grasped objects of some materials, such as metal and glass, but failed to grasp objects of other materials. In particular, monkeys avoided grasping fur-covered objects. The differences in the behavioral responses to the material categories cannot be explained solely based on the degree of familiarity with the different materials. These results shed light on the organization of multimodal representation of materials, where their biological significance is an important factor. In addition, a monkey that avoided touching real fur-covered objects readily touched images of the same objects presented on a CRT display. This suggests employing real objects is important when studying behaviors related to material perception.

  7. Short-Term Plasticity of the Visuomotor Map during Grasping Movements in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, Daniel; Edin, Benoni B.

    2005-01-01

    During visually guided grasping movements, visual information is transformed into motor commands. This transformation is known as the "visuomotor map." To investigate limitations in the short-term plasticity of the visuomotor map in normal humans, we studied the maximum grip aperture (MGA) during the reaching phase while subjects grasped objects…

  8. Probing the reaching-grasping network in humans through multivoxel pattern decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Begliomini, Chiara; Castiello, Umberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The quest for a putative human homolog of the reaching-grasping network identified in monkeys has been the focus of many neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies in recent years. These studies have shown that the network underlying reaching-only and reach-to-grasp movements includes the superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC), the anterior part of the human intraparietal sulcus (hAIP), the ventral and the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex, and the primary motor cortex (M1). Recent evidence for a wider frontoparietal network coding for different aspects of reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions calls for a more fine-grained assessment of the reaching-grasping network in humans by exploiting pattern decoding methods (multivoxel pattern analysis--MVPA). Here, we used MPVA on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to assess whether regions of the frontoparietal network discriminate between reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions, natural and constrained grasping, different grasp types, and object sizes. Participants were required to perform either reaching-only movements or two reach-to-grasp types (precision or whole hand grasp) upon spherical objects of different sizes. Multivoxel pattern analysis highlighted that, independently from the object size, all the selected regions of both hemispheres contribute in coding for grasp type, with the exception of SPOC and the right hAIP. Consistent with recent neurophysiological findings on monkeys, there was no evidence for a clear-cut distinction between a dorsomedial and a dorsolateral pathway that would be specialized for reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions, respectively. Nevertheless, the comparison of decoding accuracy across brain areas highlighted their different contributions to reaching-only and grasping actions. Altogether, our findings enrich the current knowledge regarding the functional role of key brain areas involved in the cortical control of reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions

  9. Task Requirements Influence Sensory Integration during Grasping in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, Daniel; Edin, Benoni B.

    2004-01-01

    The sensorimotor transformations necessary for generating appropriate motor commands depend on both current and previously acquired sensory information. To investigate the relative impact (or weighting) of visual and haptic information about object size during grasping movements, we let normal subjects perform a task in which, unbeknownst to the…

  10. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  11. Grasp: Tracing, visualizing and measuring the behavior of real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Lipari, G.; Cucinotta, T.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and validating the timing behavior of real-time systems is not trivial. Many real-time operating systems and their development environments do not provide tracing support, and provide only limited visualization, measurements and analysis tools. This paper presents Grasp, a tool for

  12. Human grasping database for activities of daily living with depth, color and kinematic data streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudabayev, Artur; Rysbek, Zhanibek; Khassenova, Raykhan; Varol, Huseyin Atakan

    2018-05-29

    This paper presents a grasping database collected from multiple human subjects for activities of daily living in unstructured environments. The main strength of this database is the use of three different sensing modalities: color images from a head-mounted action camera, distance data from a depth sensor on the dominant arm and upper body kinematic data acquired from an inertial motion capture suit. 3826 grasps were identified in the data collected during 9-hours of experiments. The grasps were grouped according to a hierarchical taxonomy into 35 different grasp types. The database contains information related to each grasp and associated sensor data acquired from the three sensor modalities. We also provide our data annotation software written in Matlab as an open-source tool. The size of the database is 172 GB. We believe this database can be used as a stepping stone to develop big data and machine learning techniques for grasping and manipulation with potential applications in rehabilitation robotics and intelligent automation.

  13. Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that visually guided reaching is a composite of two movements, a Reach that advances the hand to contact the target and a Grasp that shapes the digits for target purchase. The theory is supported by biometric analyses of adult reaching, evolutionary contrasts, and differential developmental patterns for the Reach and the Grasp in visually guided reaching in human infants. The present ethological study asked whether there is evidence for a dissociated development for the Reach and the Grasp in nonvisual hand use in very early infancy. The study documents a rich array of spontaneous self-touching behavior in infants during the first six months of life and subjects the movements to analyses of body target, contact type, and Grasp. Video recordings were made of resting alert infants biweekly from birth to 6 months. In younger infants, self-touching targets included the head and trunk. As infants aged, targets became more caudal including the hips, legs, and feet. In younger infants hand contact was mainly made with the dorsum of the hand, but as infants aged contacts included palmar and eventually grasp and manipulatory contacts with the body and clothes. The relative incidence of caudal contacts and palmar contacts increased concurrently and were significantly correlated throughout the period of study. In contrast, developmental increases in self grasping emerged a few weeks after the increases observed in caudal and palmar contacts. The behavioral and temporal pattern of these spontaneous self-touching movements suggest that the Reach, in which the hand extends to make a palmar self-contact, and the Grasp, in which the digits close and make manipulatory movements, have partially independent developmental profiles. The results additionally suggest that self-touching behavior is an important developmental phase that allows for the coordination of the Reach and the Grasp prior to their use under visual

  14. Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brittany L; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2014-01-01

    The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that visually guided reaching is a composite of two movements, a Reach that advances the hand to contact the target and a Grasp that shapes the digits for target purchase. The theory is supported by biometric analyses of adult reaching, evolutionary contrasts, and differential developmental patterns for the Reach and the Grasp in visually guided reaching in human infants. The present ethological study asked whether there is evidence for a dissociated development for the Reach and the Grasp in nonvisual hand use in very early infancy. The study documents a rich array of spontaneous self-touching behavior in infants during the first 6 months of life and subjected the Reach movements to an analysis in relation to body target, contact type, and Grasp. Video recordings were made of resting alert infants biweekly from birth to 6 months. In younger infants, self-touching targets included the head and trunk. As infants aged, targets became more caudal and included the hips, then legs, and eventually the feet. In younger infants hand contact was mainly made with the dorsum of the hand, but as infants aged, contacts included palmar contacts and eventually grasp and manipulation contacts with the body and clothes. The relative incidence of caudal contacts and palmar contacts increased concurrently and were significantly correlated throughout the period of study. Developmental increases in self-grasping contacts occurred a few weeks after the increase in caudal and palmar contacts. The behavioral and temporal pattern of these spontaneous self-touching movements suggest that the Reach, in which the hand extends to make a palmar self-contact, and the Grasp, in which the digits close and make manipulatory movements, have partially independent developmental profiles. The results additionally suggest that self-touching behavior is an important developmental phase that allows the coordination of the Reach and the Grasp prior to and

  15. Scale-Dependent Grasp

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Makoto; Shirai, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the scale-dependent grasp.Suppose that a human approaches an object initially placed on atable and finally achieves an enveloping grasp. Under such initialand final conditions, he (or she) unconsciously changes the graspstrategy according to the size of objects, even though they havesimilar geometry. We call the grasp planning the scale-dependentgrasp. We find that grasp patterns are also changed according tothe surface friction and the geometry of cross section in additi...

  16. The modulation of the motor resonance triggered by reach-to-grasp movements: No role of human physical similarity as conveyed by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Barbara F M; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2017-07-01

    The activation of the mirror-neuron circuit during the observation of motor acts is thought to be the basis of human capacity to read the intentions behind the behavior of others. Growing empirical evidence shows a different activation of the mirror-neuron resonance mechanism depending on how much the observer and the observed agent share their motor repertoires. Here, the possible modulatory effect of physical similarity between the observer and the agent was investigated in three studies. We used a visuo-motor priming task in which participants were asked to categorize manipulable and non-manipulable objects into natural or man-made kinds after having watched precision and power reach-to-grasp movements. Physical similarity was manipulated by presenting reach-to-grasp movements performed by the hands of actors of three different age ranges that are adults of the same age as the participants, children, and elderly. Faster responses were observed in trials where power grip movements were performed by the adults and precision grip movements were performed by the elderly (Main Study). This finding is not in keeping with the idea that physical similarity shapes the mirror-neuron resonance. Instead, it suggests an effect of the kinematic organization of the reach-to-grasp movements, which systematically changed with the actor age as revealed by a kinematic analysis. The differential effect played by adult and elderly actor primes was lost when static grasping hands (Control Study 1) and reach-to-grasp movements with uniform kinematic profiles (Control Study 2) were used. Therefore, we found preliminary evidence that mirror-neuron resonance is not shaped by physical similarity but by the kinematics of the observed action. This finding is novel as it suggests that human ability to read the intentions behind the behavior of others may benefit from a mere visual processing of spatiotemporal patterns.

  17. Experiments in robotic sensorimotor control during grasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments is presented, using a robot manipulator, which attempt to reproduce human sensorimotor control during grasping. The work utilizes a multifingered, dexterous robot hand equipped with a fingertip force sensor to explore dynamic grasp force adjustment during manipulation. The work is primarily concerned with the relationship between the weight of an object and the grasp force required to lift it. Too weak a grasp is unstable and the object will slip from the hand. Too strong a grasp may damage the object and/or the manipulator. An algorithm is presented which reproduces observed human behavior during grasp-and-lift tasks. The algorithm uses tactile information from the sensor to dynamically adjust the grasp force during lift. It is assumed that there is no a priori knowledge about the object to be manipulated. The effects of different arm/hand postures and object surfaces is explored. Finally, the use of sensory data to detect unexpected object motion and to signal transitions between manipulation phases--with the coincident triggering of new motor programs--is investigated

  18. VisGraB: A Benchmark for Vision-Based Grasping. Paladyn Journal of Behavioral Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kootstra, Gert; Popovic, Mila; Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison

    2012-01-01

    that a large number of grasps can be executed and evaluated while dealing with dynamics and the noise and uncertainty present in the real world images. VisGraB enables a fair comparison among different grasping methods. The user furthermore does not need to deal with robot hardware, focusing on the vision......We present a database and a software tool, VisGraB, for benchmarking of methods for vision-based grasping of unknown objects with no prior object knowledge. The benchmark is a combined real-world and simulated experimental setup. Stereo images of real scenes containing several objects in different...

  19. Interlimb Transfer of Grasp Orientation is Asymmetrical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Frak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One the most fundamental aspects of the human motor system is the hemispheric asymmetry seen in behavioral specialization. Hemispheric dominance can be inferred by a contralateral hand preference in grasping. Few studies have considered grasp orientation in the context of manual lateralization and none has looked at grasp orientation with natural prehension. Thirty right-handed adults performed precision grasps of a cylinder using the thumb and index fingers, and the opposition axis (OA was defined as the line connecting these two contact points on the cylinder. Subjects made ten consecutive grasps with one hand (primary hand movements followed by ten grasps with the other hand (trailing movements. Differences between primary and trailing grasps revealed that each hemisphere is capable of programming the orientation of the OA and that primary movements with the right hand significantly influenced OA orientation of the trailing left hand. These results extend the hemispheric dominance of the left hemisphere to the final positions of fingers during prehension.

  20. Design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand posture controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Weir, Richard F ff

    2014-03-01

    An ideal myoelectric prosthetic hand should have the ability to continuously morph between any posture like an anatomical hand. This paper describes the design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping. The controller commands continuously morphing hand postures including functional grasps using between two and four surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes pairs. Four unique maps were developed to transform the EMG control signals in the principal component domain. A preliminary validation experiment was performed by 10 nonamputee subjects to determine the map with highest performance. The subjects used the myoelectric controller to morph a virtual hand between functional grasps in a series of randomized trials. The number of joints controlled accurately was evaluated to characterize the performance of each map. Additional metrics were studied including completion rate, time to completion, and path efficiency. The highest performing map controlled over 13 out of 15 joints accurately.

  1. Contactless grasp of a magnetic particle in a fluid and its application to quantifications of forces affecting its behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, S.; Hara, M.; Kawaguchi, N.; Amemiya, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the contactless grasp of a magnetic particle suspended in a fluid at rest or in motion by coil current control, and a method for estimating these forces quantitatively were developed. Four electromagnets were used to apply magnetic fields to magnetic ferrite particles (diameter, 300 nm–300 µm) in a fluid in a vessel. Particle-tracking velocimetry with high-speed image processing was used to visualize the behavior of the magnetic particles in the fluid. In addition, contactless grasp of a magnetic particle using the feedback control was accomplished. Furthermore, by making the magnetic force and the resultant force of the other forces affecting a magnetic particle be in balance, the vertical and horizontal forces affecting the minute magnetic particle, such as the viscous force or the magnetic force between magnetized particles, could be estimated quantitatively from the current in the coil of each electromagnet, without any physical contact with the particle itself. These results constitute useful information for studies on the issues in the handling of micro- or nano-particles. - Highlights: • Four electromagnets are used to apply magnetic field to magnetic ferrite particles. • Motion of magnetic particles suspended in a resting or flowing fluid is visualized. • Contactless grasp of a magnetic particle using feedback control was accomplished. • Vertical and horizontal forces affecting a particle can be estimated quantitatively. • Force between magnetized particles which approach to each other was measured

  2. Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first 6 months

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brittany L.; Karl, Jenni M.; Whishaw, Ian Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that visually guided reaching is a composite of two movements, a Reach that advances the hand to contact the target and a Grasp that shapes the digits for target purchase. The theory is supported by biometric analyses of adult reaching, evolutionary contrasts, and differential developmental patterns for the Reach and the Grasp in visually guided reaching in human infants. The present ethological study asked whether there is evidence for a dissociate...

  3. Slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG): an innate behavioral task for identification of individual experimental mice possessing functional vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Pagés, Macarena; Stiles, Robert J; Parks, Christopher A; Neier, Steven C; Radulovic, Maja; Oliveros, Alfredo; Ferrer, Alejandro; Reed, Brendan K; Wilton, Katelynn M; Schrum, Adam G

    2013-08-23

    There is significant interest in the generation of improved assays to clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision, a property that could qualify mice for inclusion in behavioral and neuroscience studies. Widely employed current methods rely on mouse responses to visual cues in assays of reflexes, depth perception, or cognitive memory. However, commonly assessed mouse reflexes can sometimes be ambiguous in their expression, while depth perception assays are sometimes confounded by variation in anxiety responses and exploratory conduct. Furthermore, in situations where experimental groups vary in their cognitive memory capacity, memory assays may not be ideal for assessing differences in vision. We have optimized a non-invasive behavioral assay that relies on an untrained, innate response to identify individual experimental mice possessing functional vision: slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG). First, we verified that SLAG performance depends on vision and not olfaction. Next, all members of an age-ranged cohort of 158 C57BL/6 mice (57 wild-type, 101 knockout, age range 44-241 days) were assessed for functional vision using the SLAG test without training or conditioning. Subjecting the population to a second innate behavioral test, Dark Chamber preference, corroborated that the functional vision assessment of SLAG was valid. We propose that the SLAG assay is immediately useful to quickly and clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision. SLAG is based on a behavioral readout with a significant innate component with no requirement for training. This will facilitate the selection of mice of known sighted status in vision-dependent experiments that focus on other types of behavior, neuroscience, and/or cognitive memory.

  4. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  5. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  6. Active Grasp Synthesis for Grasping Unknown Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çall?, B.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation is a key feature for robots which are designed to work in daily environments like homes, offices and streets. These robots do not often have manipulators that are specialized for specific tasks, but grippers that can grasp the target object. This makes grasping a crucial ability that

  7. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  8. Emergent coordination underlying learning to reach to grasp with a brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Mukta; Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Badreldin, Islam; Eleryan, Ahmed; Shattuck, Kelsey; Gururangan, Suchin; Slutzky, Marc; Osborne, Leslie; Fagg, Andrew; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2018-04-01

    The development of coordinated reach-to-grasp movement has been well studied in infants and children. However, the role of motor cortex during this development is unclear because it is difficult to study in humans. We took the approach of using a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus macaques with prior therapeutic amputations to examine the emergence of novel, coordinated reach to grasp. Previous research has shown that after amputation, the cortical area previously involved in the control of the lost limb undergoes reorganization, but prior BMI work has largely relied on finding neurons that already encode specific movement-related information. In this study, we taught macaques to cortically control a robotic arm and hand through operant conditioning, using neurons that were not explicitly reach or grasp related. Over the course of training, stereotypical patterns emerged and stabilized in the cross-covariance between the reaching and grasping velocity profiles, between pairs of neurons involved in controlling reach and grasp, and to a comparable, but lesser, extent between other stable neurons in the network. In fact, we found evidence of this structured coordination between pairs composed of all combinations of neurons decoding reach or grasp and other stable neurons in the network. The degree of and participation in coordination was highly correlated across all pair types. Our approach provides a unique model for studying the development of novel, coordinated reach-to-grasp movement at the behavioral and cortical levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Given that motor cortex undergoes reorganization after amputation, our work focuses on training nonhuman primates with chronic amputations to use neurons that are not reach or grasp related to control a robotic arm to reach to grasp through the use of operant conditioning, mimicking early development. We studied the development of a novel, coordinated behavior at the behavioral and cortical level, and the neural

  9. Grasping in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Grasping in Robotics contains original contributions in the field of grasping in robotics with a broad multidisciplinary approach. This gives the possibility of addressing all the major issues related to robotized grasping, including milestones in grasping through the centuries, mechanical design issues, control issues, modelling achievements and issues, formulations and software for simulation purposes, sensors and vision integration, applications in industrial field and non-conventional applications (including service robotics and agriculture).   The contributors to this book are experts in their own diverse and wide ranging fields. This multidisciplinary approach can help make Grasping in Robotics of interest to a very wide audience. In particular, it can be a useful reference book for researchers, students and users in the wide field of grasping in robotics from many different disciplines including mechanical design, hardware design, control design, user interfaces, modelling, simulation, sensors and hum...

  10. GRASP: A multitasking tether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRabouille

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Originally identified as Golgi stacking factors in vitro, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP family has been shown to act as membrane tethers with multiple cellular roles. As an update to previous comprehensive reviews of the GRASP family (Vinke et al., 2011 (Giuliani et al., 2011;Jarvela and Linstedt, 2012, we outline here the latest findings concerning their diverse roles. New insights into the mechanics of GRASP-mediated tethering come from recent crystal structures. The models of how GRASP65 and GRASP55 tether membranes relate directly to their role in Golgi ribbon formation in mammalian cells and the unlinking of the ribbon at the onset of mitosis. However, it is also clear that GRASPs act outside the Golgi with roles at the ER and ER exit sites (ERES. Furthermore, the proteins of this family display other roles upon cellular stress, especially in mediating unconventional secretion of both transmembrane proteins (Golgi bypass and cytoplasmic proteins (through secretory autophagosomes.

  11. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  12. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  13. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Grasp Densities for Grasp Refinement in Industrial Bin Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfauf, Benedikt; Hahn, Heiko; Bodenhagen, Leon

    in terms of object-relative gripper pose, can be learned from empirical experience, and allow the automatic choice of optimal grasps in a given scene context (object pose, workspace constraints, etc.). We will show grasp densities extracted from empirical data in a real industrial bin picking context...... generated in industrial bin-picking for grasp learning. This aim is achieved by using the novel concept of grasp densities (Detry et al., 2010). Grasp densities can describe the full variety of grasps that apply to specific objects using specific grippers. They represent the likelihood of grasp success...

  15. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  16. An expert system for automated robotic grasping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Many US Department of Energy sites and facilities will be environmentally remediated during the next several decades. A number of the restoration activities (e.g., decontamination and decommissioning of inactive nuclear facilities) can only be carried out by remote means and will be manipulation-intensive tasks. Experience has shown that manipulation tasks are especially slow and fatiguing for the human operator of a remote manipulator. In this paper, the authors present a rule-based expert system for automated, dextrous robotic grasping. This system interprets the features of an object to generate hand shaping and wrist orientation for a robot hand and arm. The system can be used in several different ways to lessen the demands on the human operator of a remote manipulation system - either as a fully autonomous grasping system or one that generates grasping options for a human operator and then automatically carries out the selected option

  17. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  18. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  19. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  20. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  1. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vinjamuri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements. Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic. Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  2. The Consequences of Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is founded on a complex interaction of influences that derive from sources both extraneous and intrinsic to the brain. It is the ways these various influences worked together in the past to fashion modern human cognition that can help elucidate the probable course of future human endeavor. A particular concern of this chapter is the way cognition has been shaped and continues to depend on prevailing environmental and ecological conditions. Whether the human predicament can be regarded simply as another response to such conditions similar to that of other organisms or something special will also be addressed. More specifically, it will be shown that, although the highly artificial niche in which most humans now live has had profound effects on ways of thinking, constraints deriving from a shared evolutionary heritage continue to have substantial effects on behavior. The way these exigencies interact will be explored in order to understand the implications for the future wellbeing of humanity.

  3. Getting the right grasp on executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L R Gonzalez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF refers to important socio-emotional and cognitive skills that are known to be highly correlated with both academic and life success. EF is a blanket term that is considered to include self-regulation, working memory, and planning. Recent studies have shown a relationship between EF and motor control. The emergence of motor control coincides with that of EF, hence understanding the relationship between these two domains could have significant implications for early detection and remediation of later EF deficits. The purpose of the current study was to investigate this relationship in young children. This study incorporated the Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and two motor assessments with a focus on precision grasping to test this hypothesis. The BRIEF is comprised of two indices of EF: 1 the Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI containing three subscales: Inhibit, Shift, and Emotional Control; 2 the Metacognition Index (MI containing five subscales: Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials, and Monitor. A global executive composite (GEC is derived from the two indices. In this study, right-handed children aged 5-6 and 9-10 were asked to: grasp-to-construct (Lego® models; and grasp-to-place (wooden blocks, while their parents completed the BRIEF questionnaire. Analysis of results indicated significant correlations between the strength of right hand preference for grasping and numerous elements of the BRIEF including the BRI, MI, and GEC. Specifically, the more the right hand was used for grasping the better the EF ratings. In addition, patterns of space-use correlated with the GEC in several subscales of the BRIEF. Finally and remarkably, the results also showed a reciprocal relationship between hand and space use for grasping and EF. These findings are discussed with respect to: 1 the developmental overlap of motor and executive functions; 2 detection of EF deficits through

  4. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris N Bayer

    Full Text Available Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab's learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab's scientific process. Third, the lab's exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom's taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects.

  5. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Chris N; Luberda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab's learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab's scientific process. Third, the lab's exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom's taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects.

  6. Visuomotor Resolution in Telerobotic Grasping with Transmission Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Afgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weber’s law is among the basic psychophysical laws of human perception. It determines that human sensitivity to change along a physical dimension, the just noticeable difference (JND, is linearly related to stimulus intensity. Conversely, in direct (natural, visually guided grasping, Weber’s law is violated and the JND does not depend on stimulus intensity. The current work examines adherence to Weber’s law in telerobotic grasping. In direct grasping, perception and action are synchronized during task performance. Conversely, in telerobotic control, there is an inherent spatial and temporal separation between perception and action. The understanding of perception–action association in such conditions may facilitate development of objective measures for telerobotic systems and contribute to improved interface design. Moreover, telerobotic systems offer a unique platform for examining underlying causes for the violation of Weber’s law during direct grasping. We examined whether, like direct grasping, telerobotic grasping with transmission delays violates Weber’s law. To this end, we examined perceptual assessment, grasp control, and grasp demonstration, using a telerobotic system with time delays in two spatial orientations: alongside and facing the robot. The examination framework was adapted to telerobotics from the framework used for examining Weber’s law in direct grasping. The variability of final grip apertures (FGAs in perceptual assessment increased with object size in adherence with Weber’s law. Similarly, the variability of maximal grip apertures in grasp demonstration approached significance in adherence with Weber’s law. In grasp control, the variability of maximal grip apertures did not increase with object size, which seems to violate Weber’s law. However, unlike in direct grasping, motion trajectories were prolonged and fragmented, and included an atypical waiting period prior to finger closure. Therefore, in

  7. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  8. Continuum robots and underactuated grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Giri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the capabilities of continuum (continuous backbone robot structures in the performance of under-actuated grasping. Continuum robots offer the potential of robust grasps over a wide variety of object classes, due to their ability to adapt their shape to interact with the environment via non-local continuum contact conditions. Furthermore, this capability can be achieved with simple, low degree of freedom hardware. However, there are practical issues which currently limit the application of continuum robots to grasping. We discuss these issues and illustrate via an experimental continuum grasping case study.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  9. Learning Objects and Grasp Affordances through Autonomous Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a system for autonomous learning of visual object representations and their grasp affordances on a robot-vision system. It segments objects by grasping and moving 3D scene features, and creates probabilistic visual representations for object detection, recognition and pose estimation...... image sequences as well as (3) a number of built-in behavioral modules on the one hand, and autonomous exploration on the other hand, the system is able to generate object and grasping knowledge through interaction with its environment....

  10. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived....... Evidence is provided, which implies that the asymmetry is caused by a self-enhancement in the initiation dynamics. These results have implications for the formation of social networks and the dynamics of the links. It is shown that the Big Five Inventory (BFI) representing a psychological profile only...

  11. Nonlinear dynamics in human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huys, Raoul [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Jirsa, Viktor K. (eds.) [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Humans engage in a seemingly endless variety of different behaviors, of which some are found across species, while others are conceived of as typically human. Most generally, behavior comes about through the interplay of various constraints - informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, and so on - operating at multiple scales in space and time. Over the years, consensus has grown in the research community that, rather than investigating behavior only from bottom up, it may be also well understood in terms of concepts and laws on the phenomenological level. Such top down approach is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization using tools from nonlinear dynamics. The present compendium brings together scientists from all over the world that have contributed to the development of their respective fields departing from this background. It provides an introduction to deterministic as well as stochastic dynamical systems and contains applications to motor control and coordination, visual perception and illusion, as well as auditory perception in the context of speech and music. (orig.)

  12. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  13. Grasp frequency and usage in daily household and machine shop tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ian M; Zheng, Joshua Z; De La Rosa, Sara; Guertler, Charlotte; Dollar, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a study of prehensile human hand use during the daily work activities of four subjects: two housekeepers and two machinists. Subjects wore a head-mounted camera that recorded their hand usage during their daily work activities in their typical place of work. For each subject, 7.45 hours of video was analyzed, recording the type of grasp being used and its duration. From this data, we extracted overall grasp frequency, duration distributions for each grasp, and common transitions between grasps. The results show that for 80 percent of the study duration the housekeepers used just five grasps and the machinists used 10. The grasping patterns for the different subjects were compared, and the overall top 10 grasps are discussed in detail. The results of this study not only lend insight into how people use their hands during daily tasks, but can also inform the design of effective robotic and prosthetic hands.

  14. Grasp force sensor for robotic hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinman, Victor D. (Inventor); Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor); Primus, Howard C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A grasp force sensor for robotic hands is disclosed. A flexible block is located in the base of each claw through which the grasp force is exerted. The block yields minute parallelogram deflection when the claws are subjected to grasping forces. A parallelogram deflection closely resembles pure translational deflection, whereby the claws remain in substantial alignment with each other during grasping. Strain gauge transducers supply signals which provide precise knowledge of and control over grasp forces.

  15. How hardwired is human behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, N

    1998-01-01

    Time and time again managers have tried to eliminate hierarchies, politics, and interorganizational rivalry--but to no avail. Why? Evolutionary psychologists would say that they are working against nature--emotional and behavioral "hardwiring" that is the legacy of our Stone Age ancestors. In this evolutionary psychology primer for executives, Nigel Nicholson explores many of the Science's central tenets. Of course, evolutionary psychology is still an emerging discipline, and its strong connection with the theory of natural selection has sparked significant controversy. But, as Nicholson suggests, evolutionary psychology is now well established enough that its insights into human instinct will prove illuminating to anyone seeking to understand why people act the way they do in organizational settings. Take gossip. According to evolutionary psychology, our Stone Age ancestors needed this skill to survive the socially unpredictable conditions of the Savannah Plain. Thus, over time, the propensity to gossip became part of our mental programming. Executives trying to eradicate gossip at work might as well try to change their employees' musical tastes. Better to put one's energy into making sure the "rumor mill" avoids dishonesty or unkindness as much as possible. Evolutionary psychology also explores the dynamics of the human group. Clans on the Savannah Plain, for example, appear to have had no more than 150 members. The message for managers? People will likely be most effective in small organizational units. As every executive knows, it pays to be an insightful student of human nature. Evolutionary psychology adds another important chapter to consider.

  16. From grasp to language: embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the macaque monkey and the discovery of a homologous "mirror system for grasping" in Broca's area in the human brain has revived the gestural origins theory of the evolution of the human capability for language, enriching it with the suggestion that mirror neurons provide the neurological core for this evolution. However, this notion of "mirror neuron support for the transition from grasp to language" has been worked out in very different ways in the Mirror System Hypothesis model [Arbib, M.A., 2005a. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: an evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28, 105-167; Rizzolatti, G., Arbib, M.A., 1998. Language within our grasp. Trends in Neuroscience 21(5), 188-194] and the Embodied Concept model [Gallese, V., Lakoff, G., 2005. The brain's concepts: the role of the sensory-motor system in reason and language. Cognitive Neuropsychology 22, 455-479]. The present paper provides a critique of the latter to enrich analysis of the former, developing the role of schema theory [Arbib, M.A., 1981. Perceptual structures and distributed motor control. In: Brooks, V.B. (Ed.), Handbook of Physiology--The Nervous System II. Motor Control. American Physiological Society, pp. 1449-1480].

  17. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure.

  18. Exploring manual asymmetries during grasping: a dynamic causal modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recording of neural activity during grasping actions in macaques showed that grasp-related sensorimotor transformations are accomplished in a circuit constituted by the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (AIP, the ventral (F5 and the dorsal (F2 region of the premotor area. In humans, neuroimaging studies have revealed the existence of a similar circuit, involving the putative homolog of macaque areas AIP, F5 and F2. These studies have mainly considered grasping movements performed with the right dominant hand and only a few studies have measured brain activity associated with a movement performed with the left non-dominant hand. As a consequence of this gap, how the brain controls for grasping movement performed with the dominant and the non-dominant hand still represents an open question. A functional resonance imaging experiment (fMRI has been conducted, and effective connectivity (Dynamic Causal Modelling, DCM was used to assess how connectivity among grasping-related areas is modulated by hand (i.e., left and right during the execution of grasping movements towards a small object requiring precision grasping. Results underlined boosted inter-hemispheric couplings between dorsal premotor cortices during the execution of movements performed with the left rather than the right dominant hand. More specifically, they suggest that the dorsal premotor cortices may play a fundamental role in monitoring the configuration of fingers when grasping movements are performed by either the right and the left hand. This role becomes particularly evident when the hand less-skilled (i.e., the left hand to perform such action is utilized. The results are discussed in light of recent theories put forward to explain how parieto-frontal connectivity is modulated by the execution of prehensile movements.

  19. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  20. Do already grasped objects activate motor affordances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iani, Cristina; Ferraro, Luca; Maiorana, Natale Vincenzo; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2018-04-07

    This study investigated whether in a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task affordance effects in response to picture of graspable objects emerge when these objects appear as already grasped. It also assessed whether the observed effects could be explained as due to spatial compatibility between the most salient part in the object/display and the hand of response rather than to action potentiation. To this aim, we conducted three behavioural experiments in which participants were required to discriminate the vertical orientation (upright vs. inverted) of an object presented in the centre of the screen, while ignoring the right-left orientation of its handle. The object could be presented alone, as already grasped, as partially masked (Experiment 1) or with a human hand close to its graspable side (Experiment 2). In addition, to assess the role of perceptual salience, the object could be presented with a human hand or a non-biological (a geometrical shape) distractor located opposite to the object's graspable side. Results showed faster responses when the object's handle was located on the same side of the responding hand with a larger effect when upright objects were shown as already grasped (Experiment 1) or when a hand was displayed close to its handle (Experiment 2), and a smaller reversed effect when the hand or the geometrical shape was located opposite to the handled side (Experiment 3). We interpreted these findings as indicating that handle orientation effects emerging in SRC tasks may result from the interplay between motor affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms.

  1. General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP): Theory manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Hopkins, A. Stewart; Kunz, Donald L.; Hinnant, Howard E.

    1990-01-01

    The general rotorcraft aeromechanical stability program (GRASP) was developed to calculate aeroelastic stability for rotorcraft in hovering flight, vertical flight, and ground contact conditions. GRASP is described in terms of its capabilities and its philosophy of modeling. The equations of motion that govern the physical system are described, as well as the analytical approximations used to derive them. The equations include the kinematical equation, the element equations, and the constraint equations. In addition, the solution procedures used by GRASP are described. GRASP is capable of treating the nonlinear static and linearized dynamic behavior of structures represented by arbitrary collections of rigid-body and beam elements. These elements may be connected in an arbitrary fashion, and are permitted to have large relative motions. The main limitation of this analysis is that periodic coefficient effects are not treated, restricting rotorcraft flight conditions to hover, axial flight, and ground contact. Instead of following the methods employed in other rotorcraft programs. GRASP is designed to be a hybrid of the finite-element method and the multibody methods used in spacecraft analysis. GRASP differs from traditional finite-element programs by allowing multiple levels of substructure in which the substructures can move and/or rotate relative to others with no small-angle approximations. This capability facilitates the modeling of rotorcraft structures, including the rotating/nonrotating interface and the details of the blade/root kinematics for various types. GRASP differs from traditional multibody programs by considering aeroelastic effects, including inflow dynamics (simple unsteady aerodynamics) and nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients.

  2. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  3. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  4. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  5. Saccadic updating of object orientation for grasping movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, L.P.J.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Reach and grasp movements are a fundamental part of our daily interactions with the environment. This spatially-guided behavior is often directed to memorized objects because of intervening eye movements that caused them to disappear from sight. How does the brain store and maintain the spatial

  6. Distinct neural patterns enable grasp types decoding in monkey dorsal premotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Li, Yue; Li, Juncheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Chiara Carrozza, Maria; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial grasp pathway, is involved in grasp movements. However, the neural ensemble firing property of PMd during grasp movements and the extent to which it can be used for grasp decoding are still unclear. Approach. To address these issues, we used multielectrode arrays to record both spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in PMd in macaque monkeys performing reaching and grasping of one of four differently shaped objects. Main results. Single and population neuronal activity showed distinct patterns during execution of different grip types. Cluster analysis of neural ensemble signals indicated that the grasp related patterns emerged soon (200-300 ms) after the go cue signal, and faded away during the hold period. The timing and duration of the patterns varied depending on the behaviors of individual monkey. Application of support vector machine model to stable activity patterns revealed classification accuracies of 94% and 89% for each of the two monkeys, indicating a robust, decodable grasp pattern encoded in the PMd. Grasp decoding using LFPs, especially the high-frequency bands, also produced high decoding accuracies. Significance. This study is the first to specify the neuronal population encoding of grasp during the time course of grasp. We demonstrate high grasp decoding performance in PMd. These findings, combined with previous evidence for reach related modulation studies, suggest that PMd may play an important role in generation and maintenance of grasp action and may be a suitable locus for brain-machine interface applications.

  7. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting d...

  8. Ground Robotic Hand Applications for the Space Program study (GRASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, William A.; Rafla, Nader I. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on a NASA-STDP effort to address research interests of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through a study entitled, Ground Robotic-Hand Applications for the Space Program (GRASP). The primary objective of the GRASP study was to identify beneficial applications of specialized end-effectors and robotic hand devices for automating any ground operations which are performed at the Kennedy Space Center. Thus, operations for expendable vehicles, the Space Shuttle and its components, and all payloads were included in the study. Typical benefits of automating operations, or augmenting human operators performing physical tasks, include: reduced costs; enhanced safety and reliability; and reduced processing turnaround time.

  9. Machine Understanding of Human Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  10. Fast human behavior analysis for scene understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior analysis has become an active topic of great interest and relevance for a number of applications and areas of research. The research in recent years has been considerably driven by the growing level of criminal behavior in large urban areas and increase of terroristic actions. Also,

  11. What a successful grasp tells about the success chances of grasps in its vicinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Detry, Renaud; Piater, Justus

    2011-01-01

    Infants gradually improve their grasping competences, both in terms of motor abilities as well as in terms of the internal shape grasp representations. Grasp densities provide a statistical model of such an internal learning process. In the concept of grasp densities, kernel density estimation...... probabilities representing grasp success in the neighborhood of a successful grasp. The anisotropy has been determined utilizing a simulation environment that allowed for evaluation of large scale experiments. The anisotropic kernel has been fitted to the conditional probabilities obtained from the experiments...

  12. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  13. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  14. Human genetics and sleep behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guangsen; Wu, David; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2017-06-01

    Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns. To conclude, we also discuss some of the sleep-related neurological disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and the potential challenges and future directions of human genetics in sleep research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene; Hassenkam, Tue; P, Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  16. A Biologically Inspired Learning to Grasp System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    possible extensive discussions of data on the premotor cortex and monkey grasping circuit with Giacomo Rizzolatti , Vittorio Gallese, to whom we express...premotor specialisation for the different types of grasps that Rizzolatti group [3] has found be formed at this age yet. Infants will need to...our gratitude. REFERENCES [1] M. Jeannerod, M.A. Arbib, G. Rizzolatti , H. Sakata, “Grasping objects: the cortical mechanisms of visuomotor

  17. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TMS over the supramarginal gyrus delays selection of appropriate grasp orientation during reaching and grasping tools for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Tomás; Holmes, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Alan; Schürmann, Martin

    2018-03-09

    Tool use, a ubiquitous part of human behaviour, requires manipulation control and knowledge of tool purpose. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological research posit that these two processes are supported by separate brain regions, ventral premotor and inferior parietal for manipulation control, and posterior middle temporal cortex for tool knowledge, lateralised to the left hemisphere. Action plans for tool use need to integrate these two separate processes, which is likely supported by the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). However, whether this integration occurs during action execution is not known. To clarify the role of the SMG we conducted two experiments in which healthy participants reached to grasp everyday tools with the explicit instruction to use them directly following their grasp. To study the integration of manipulation control and tool knowledge within a narrow time window we mechanically perturbed the orientation of the tool to force participants to correct grasp orientation 'on-line' during the reaching movement. In experiment 1, twenty healthy participants reached with their left hand to grasp a tool. Double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied, in different blocks over left or right SMG at the onset of perturbation. Kinematic data revealed delayed and erroneous online correction after TMS over left and right SMG. In Experiment 2 twelve participants reached, in different blocks, with their left or right hand and TMS was applied over SMG ipsilateral to the reaching hand. A similar effect on correction was observed for ipsilateral stimulation when reaching with the left and right hands, and no effect of or interaction with hemisphere was observed. Our findings implicate a bilateral role of the SMG in correcting movements and selection of appropriate grasp orientation during reaching to grasp tools for use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  20. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  1. Visual Descriptor Learning for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang

    2016-01-01

    by the task of grasping unknown objects given visual sensor information. The contributions from this thesis stem from three works that all relate to the task of grasping unknown objects but with particular focus on the visual representation part of the problem. First an investigation of a visual feature space...... consisting of surface features was performed. Dimensions in the visual space were varied and the effects were evaluated with the task of grasping unknown object. The evaluation was performed using a novel probabilistic grasp prediction approach based on neighbourhood analysis. The resulting success......-rates for predicting grasps were between 75% and 90% depending on the object class. The investigations also provided insights into the importance of selecting a proper visual feature space when utilising it for predicting affordances. As a consequence of the gained insights, a semi-local surface feature, the Sliced...

  2. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  3. Modeling task-specific neuronal ensembles improves decoding of grasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan J.; Soares, Alcimar B.; Rouse, Adam G.; Schieber, Marc H.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Dexterous movement involves the activation and coordination of networks of neuronal populations across multiple cortical regions. Attempts to model firing of individual neurons commonly treat the firing rate as directly modulating with motor behavior. However, motor behavior may additionally be associated with modulations in the activity and functional connectivity of neurons in a broader ensemble. Accounting for variations in neural ensemble connectivity may provide additional information about the behavior being performed. Approach. In this study, we examined neural ensemble activity in primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor cortex (PM) of two male rhesus monkeys during performance of a center-out reach, grasp and manipulate task. We constructed point process encoding models of neuronal firing that incorporated task-specific variations in the baseline firing rate as well as variations in functional connectivity with the neural ensemble. Models were evaluated both in terms of their encoding capabilities and their ability to properly classify the grasp being performed. Main results. Task-specific ensemble models correctly predicted the performed grasp with over 95% accuracy and were shown to outperform models of neuronal activity that assume only a variable baseline firing rate. Task-specific ensemble models exhibited superior decoding performance in 82% of units in both monkeys (p  <  0.01). Inclusion of ensemble activity also broadly improved the ability of models to describe observed spiking. Encoding performance of task-specific ensemble models, measured by spike timing predictability, improved upon baseline models in 62% of units. Significance. These results suggest that additional discriminative information about motor behavior found in the variations in functional connectivity of neuronal ensembles located in motor-related cortical regions is relevant to decode complex tasks such as grasping objects, and may serve the basis for more

  4. Learning to Grasp Unknown Objects Based on 3D Edge Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Kraft, Dirk; Popovic, Mila

    2010-01-01

    In this work we refine an initial grasping behavior based on 3D edge information by learning. Based on a set of autonomously generated evaluated grasps and relations between the semi-global 3D edges, a prediction function is learned that computes a likelihood for the success of a grasp using either...... an offline or an online learning scheme. Both methods are implemented using a hybrid artificial neural network containing standard nodes with a sigmoid activation function and nodes with a radial basis function. We show that a significant performance improvement can be achieved....

  5. Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for A Robot Grasping System with Different Membership Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Hamzah; Razali, Saifudin; Mohamed, Mohd Rusllim

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the membership function to the object grasping for a three fingered gripper system. The performance of three famously used membership functions is compared to identify their behavior in lifting a defined object shape. MATLAB Simulink and SimMechanics toolboxes are used to examine the performance. Our preliminary results proposed that the Gaussian membership function surpassed the two other membership functions; triangular and trapezoid memberships especially in the context of firmer grasping and less time consumption during operations. Therefore, Gaussian membership function could be the best solution when time consumption and firmer grasp are considered

  6. Human Guidance Behavior Decomposition and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feit, Andrew James

    Trained humans are capable of high performance, adaptable, and robust first-person dynamic motion guidance behavior. This behavior is exhibited in a wide variety of activities such as driving, piloting aircraft, skiing, biking, and many others. Human performance in such activities far exceeds the current capability of autonomous systems in terms of adaptability to new tasks, real-time motion planning, robustness, and trading safety for performance. The present work investigates the structure of human dynamic motion guidance that enables these performance qualities. This work uses a first-person experimental framework that presents a driving task to the subject, measuring control inputs, vehicle motion, and operator visual gaze movement. The resulting data is decomposed into subspace segment clusters that form primitive elements of action-perception interactive behavior. Subspace clusters are defined by both agent-environment system dynamic constraints and operator control strategies. A key contribution of this work is to define transitions between subspace cluster segments, or subgoals, as points where the set of active constraints, either system or operator defined, changes. This definition provides necessary conditions to determine transition points for a given task-environment scenario that allow a solution trajectory to be planned from known behavior elements. In addition, human gaze behavior during this task contains predictive behavior elements, indicating that the identified control modes are internally modeled. Based on these ideas, a generative, autonomous guidance framework is introduced that efficiently generates optimal dynamic motion behavior in new tasks. The new subgoal planning algorithm is shown to generate solutions to certain tasks more quickly than existing approaches currently used in robotics.

  7. Grasp Algorithms For Optotactile Robotic Sample Acquisition, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robotic sample acquisition is basically grasping. Multi-finger robot sample grasping devices are controlled to securely pick up samples. While optimal grasps for...

  8. Integrating Humanism and Behaviorism: Toward Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1974-01-01

    The current emphasis on performance criteria in training programs and in professional services poses a threat to the humanistically oriented helper. This article suggests a behavioral humanism as the desired solution to the dilemma and proposes some guidelines for formulating and implementing such a synthetic system. (Author)

  9. Research opportunities in human behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.

  10. Human behavioral corollary on industrial workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazil, I.; Kirmani, Z.U.; Hanif, M.; Saeed, A.; Khurshid, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights a number of initiatives taken for the introduction of behavior-based safety concepts and customized process control solutions to encourage and instill safe behavior in employees at Attock Refinery Limited (ARL), Morgah Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A Safety culture is entirely dependent on the attitude of employees towards safety. After all, those who actually perform the work are responsible for their safety as well as that of those around them, and also for any accident that occurs whilst they work. In 2005, ARL established a Health Safety Environment (HSE) Department reporting directly to the CEO and it now stands transformed into the HSEQ Department with Quality having been added to its portfolio, with the logic that it is the Quality of our systems and processes that also determines the possibility or otherwise of safe/unsafe behavior. The need was felt to measure, analyze and then control unsafe behavior at the workplace. In spite of providing safety systems and necessary hardware, incident data shows that the majority of misfortunes are triggered by employees' unsafe attitude, proclivity to take shortcuts and intuitive-based decisions, bypassing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Human behavior is a very complex subject as it is linked not only to the workplace environment but has origins from home and upbringing as well. An attempt was, nevertheless, necessary to develop a tool of customized behavioral assessment tool in order to gauge the employees' behavior. On a scale of 1-100, marks were allocated to areas including safety attitude within the department(s), working conditions, supervisor's behavior towards worker safety, job loyalty, personal attitude towards job safety, seriousness towards safety, training and the employees' view about the HSEQ department. This study, based on one-on-one interviews with employees, yielded what we will term employees' potential towards unsafe behaviors, which would facilitate subsequent planning and

  11. The extended object-grasping network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbella, Marzio; Rozzi, Stefano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2017-10-01

    Grasping is the most important skilled motor act of primates. It is based on a series of sensorimotor transformations through which the affordances of the objects to be grasped are transformed into appropriate hand movements. It is generally accepted that a circuit formed by inferior parietal areas AIP and PFG and ventral premotor area F5 represents the core circuit for sensorimotor transformations for grasping. However, selection and control of appropriate grip should also depend on higher-order information, such as the meaning of the object to be grasped, and the overarching goal of the action in which grasping is embedded. In this review, we describe recent findings showing that specific sectors of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex are instrumental in controlling higher-order aspects of grasping. We show that these prefrontal sectors control the premotor cortex through two main gateways: the anterior subdivision of ventral area F5-sub-area F5a-, and the pre-supplementary area (area F6). We then review functional studies showing that both F5a and F6, besides being relay stations of prefrontal information, also play specific roles in grasping. Namely, sub-area F5a is involved in stereoscopic analysis of 3D objects, and in planning cue-dependent grasping activity. As for area F6, this area appears to play a crucial role in determining when to execute the motor program encoded in the parieto-premotor circuit. The recent discovery that area F6 contains a set of neurons encoding specific grip types suggests that this area, besides controlling "when to go", also may control the grip type, i.e., "how to go". We conclude by discussing clinical syndromes affecting grasping actions and their possible mechanisms.

  12. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gonzalez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources. In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate, decoding (one signal to recognize, and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair, or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces in order to improve the usability of existing low

  14. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Dosen, Strahinja; Amsuess, Sebastian; Yu, Wenwei; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI) cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns) and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources). In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate), decoding (one signal to recognize), and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair), or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces) in order to improve the usability of existing low-bandwidth HMIs.

  15. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... saline, cyclic testing was performed in the pre-yield region at different strain rates, and the elastic response was determined by a stepwise stress relaxation test. The elastic stress-strain response corresponded to a second-order polynomial fit, while the viscous response showed a linear dependence...

  16. Bone indicators of grasping hands in lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fontanarrosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses were performed using the subsets of (1 carpal variables, (2 metacarpal variables, and (3 phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly

  17. Nanoindentation creep behavior of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Swain, Michael V

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the indentation creep behavior of human enamel was investigated with a nanoindentation system and a Berkovich indenter at a force of 250 mN with one-step loading and unloading method. A constant hold period of 900 s was incorporated into each test at the maximum load as well at 5 mN minimum load during unloading. The indentation creep at the maximum load and creep recovery at the minimum load was described with a double exponential function and compared with other classic viscoelastic models (Debye/Maxwell and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts). Indentation creep rate sensitivity, m, of human enamel was measured for the first time with a value of approximately 0.012. Enamel displayed both viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior similar to that of bone. These results indicate that, associated with entrapment of particulates between teeth under functional loading and sliding wear conditions, the enamel may inelastically deform but recover upon its release. This behavior may be important in explaining the excellent wear resistance, antifatigue, and crack resistant abilities of natural tooth structure. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutenedjian Mady, Carlos Eduardo; Silva Ferreira, Maurício; Itizo Yanagihara, Jurandir; Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  19. Design and fabrication of robotic gripper for grasping in minimizing contact force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Hamidreza; Pouria, Milad Jafary; Sharifi, Shahriar; Karami, Mahmoudreza

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new method to improve the kinematics of robot gripper for grasping in unstructured environments, such as space operations. The robot gripper is inspired from the human hand and kept the hand design close to the structure of human fingers to provide successful grasping capabilities. The main goal is to improve kinematic structure of gripper to increase the grasping capability of large objects, decrease the contact forces and makes a successful grasp of various objects in unstructured environments. This research will describe the development of a self-adaptive and reconfigurable robotic hand for space operations through mechanical compliance which is versatile, robust and easy to control. Our model contains two fingers, two-link and three-link, with combining a kinematic model of thumb index. Moreover, some experimental tests are performed to examine the effectiveness of the hand-made in real, unstructured tasks. The results represent that the successful grasp range is improved about 30% and the contact forces is reduced approximately 10% for a wide range of target object size. According to the obtained results, the proposed approach provides an accommodative kinematic model which makes the better grasping capability by fingers geometries for a robot gripper.

  20. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First......Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males....... A bivariate analysis indicated significant shared genetic variance between NumCh and FirstTry....

  1. Linear and nonlinear subspace analysis of hand movements during grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Phil Hengjun; Visell, Yon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated nonlinear patterns of coordination, or synergies, underlying whole-hand grasping kinematics. Prior research has shed considerable light on roles played by such coordinated degrees-of-freedom (DOF), illuminating how motor control is facilitated by structural and functional specializations in the brain, peripheral nervous system, and musculoskeletal system. However, existing analyses suppose that the patterns of coordination can be captured by means of linear analyses, as linear combinations of nominally independent DOF. In contrast, hand kinematics is itself highly nonlinear in nature. To address this discrepancy, we sought to to determine whether nonlinear synergies might serve to more accurately and efficiently explain human grasping kinematics than is possible with linear analyses. We analyzed motion capture data acquired from the hands of individuals as they grasped an array of common objects, using four of the most widely used linear and nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithms. We compared the results using a recently developed algorithm-agnostic quality measure, which enabled us to assess the quality of the dimensional reductions that resulted by assessing the extent to which local neighborhood information in the data was preserved. Although qualitative inspection of this data suggested that nonlinear correlations between kinematic variables were present, we found that linear modeling, in the form of Principle Components Analysis, could perform better than any of the nonlinear techniques we applied.

  2. Understanding human behavior in times of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    The Third Geneva Convention reflects on the values of humanism, declaring the rights of humaneness, honor, and protection before torture and final discharge of war prisoners after the end of a war. These days, the occurrences in Baghdad Central Detention Center (formerly known as Abu Ghraib Prison), the actions of British soldiers in Basra, and the inflamed public discussion of whether torture might be an appropriate method to obtain crucial information from terrorists put the Third Geneva Convention back in the spotlight. The aforementioned occurrences raise questions regarding the psychological mass phenomena that make us vulnerable to think and to act against our education, habits, and beliefs. Only an understanding of these phenomena will help us to act against behavior we condemn. This article is an attempt to show how cognition of societies and individuals slowly changes during longer conflicts. Furthermore, it tries to summarize the possibilities we have to confront these tendencies.

  3. Functional morphology of the hallucal metatarsal with implications for inferring grasping ability in extinct primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenberger, Katherine E; Boyer, Doug M; Orr, Caley M; Jacobs, Rachel L; Femiani, John C; Patel, Biren A

    2015-03-01

    Primate evolutionary morphologists have argued that selection for life in a fine branch niche resulted in grasping specializations that are reflected in the hallucal metatarsal (Mt1) morphology of extant "prosimians", while a transition to use of relatively larger, horizontal substrates explains the apparent loss of such characters in anthropoids. Accordingly, these morphological characters-Mt1 torsion, peroneal process length and thickness, and physiological abduction angle-have been used to reconstruct grasping ability and locomotor mode in the earliest fossil primates. Although these characters are prominently featured in debates on the origin and subsequent radiation of Primates, questions remain about their functional significance. This study examines the relationship between these morphological characters of the Mt1 and a novel metric of pedal grasping ability for a large number of extant taxa in a phylogenetic framework. Results indicate greater Mt1 torsion in taxa that engage in hallucal grasping and in those that utilize relatively small substrates more frequently. This study provides evidence that Carpolestes simpsoni has a torsion value more similar to grasping primates than to any scandentian. The results also show that taxa that habitually grasp vertical substrates are distinguished from other taxa in having relatively longer peroneal processes. Furthermore, a longer peroneal process is also correlated with calcaneal elongation, a metric previously found to reflect leaping proclivity. A more refined understanding of the functional associations between Mt1 morphology and behavior in extant primates enhances the potential for using these morphological characters to comprehend primate (locomotor) evolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stress prompts habit behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-06-03

    Instrumental behavior can be controlled by goal-directed action-outcome and habitual stimulus-response processes that are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Based on previous findings showing that stress modulates the interaction of "cognitive" and "habit" memory systems, we asked in the presented study whether stress may coordinate goal-directed and habit processes in instrumental learning. For this purpose, participants were exposed to stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition before they were trained to perform two instrumental actions that were associated with two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of these food outcomes was selectively devalued as subjects were saturated with that food. Next, subjects were presented the two instrumental actions in extinction. Stress before training in the instrumental task rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the food outcomes, that is stress led to habit performance. Moreover, stress reduced subjects' explicit knowledge of the action-outcome contingencies. These results demonstrate for the first time that stress promotes habits at the expense of goal-directed performance in humans.

  5. Grasp Representations Depend on Knowledge and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Seeing pictures of objects activates the motor cortex and can have an influence on subsequent grasping actions. However, the exact nature of the motor representations evoked by these pictures is unclear. For example, action plans engaged by pictures could be most affected by direct visual input and computed online based on object shape.…

  6. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman Amin

    2017-10-19

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  7. Grasping completions: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommertzen, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Lier, R.J. van

    2006-01-01

    We studied contextual effects of amodal completion in both a primed-matching task, and a grasping task in a within-subjects design with twenty-nine participants. Stimuli were partly occluded cylindrical objects that could have indentations (or protrusions) at regular intervals along the contour. The

  8. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman; Toumi, Noureddine; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  9. Emotion expression in human punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Erte; Houser, Daniel

    2005-05-17

    Evolutionary theory reveals that punishment is effective in promoting cooperation and maintaining social norms. Although it is accepted that emotions are connected to punishment decisions, there remains substantial debate over why humans use costly punishment. Here we show experimentally that constraints on emotion expression can increase the use of costly punishment. We report data from ultimatum games, where a proposer offers a division of a sum of money and a responder decides whether to accept the split, or reject and leave both players with nothing. Compared with the treatment in which expressing emotions directly to proposers is prohibited, rejection of unfair offers is significantly less frequent when responders can convey their feelings to the proposer concurrently with their decisions. These data support the view that costly punishment might itself be used to express negative emotions and suggest that future studies will benefit by recognizing that human demand for emotion expression can have significant behavioral consequences in social environments, including families, courts, companies, and markets.

  10. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown ...... and comparing vision-based grasping methods, and the creation of algorithms for bootstrapping a process of acquiring world understanding for artificial cognitive agents....... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... of the thesis are: the extension of the Early Cognitive Vision representation with a new type of feature hierarchy in the texture domain, the definition and evaluation of contour based grasping methods, the definition and evaluation of surface based grasping methods, the definition of a benchmark for testing...

  11. Functional classification of grasp strategies used by hemiplegic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia García Álvarez

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and qualify grasp-types used by patients with stroke and determine the clinical parameters that could explain the use of each grasp. Thirty-eight patients with chronic stroke-related hemiparesis and a range of motor and functional capacities (17 females and 21 males, aged 25-78, and 10 healthy subjects were included. Four objects were used (tissue packet, teaspoon, bottle and tennis ball. Participants were instructed to "grasp the object as if you are going to use it". Three trials were video-recorded for each object. A total of 456 grasps were analysed and rated using a custom-designed Functional Grasp Scale. Eight grasp-types were identified from the analysis: healthy subjects used Multi-pulpar, Pluri-digital, Lateral-pinch and Palmar grasps (Standard Grasps. Patients used the same grasps with in addition Digito-palmar, Raking, Ulnar and Interdigital grasps (Alternative Grasps. Only patients with a moderate or relatively good functional ability used Standard grasps. The correlation and regression analyses showed this was conditioned by sufficient finger and elbow extensor strength (Pluri-digital grasp; thumb extensor and wrist flexor strength (Lateral pinch or in forearm supinator strength (Palmar grasp. By contrast, the patients who had severe impairment used Alternative grasps that did not involve the thumb. These strategies likely compensate specific impairments. Regression and correlation analyses suggested that weakness had a greater influence over grasp strategy than spasticity. This would imply that treatment should focus on improving hand strength and control although reducing spasticity may be useful in some cases.

  12. On transferability and contexts when using simulated grasp databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Kraft, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    It has become a common practice to use simulation to generate large databases of good grasps for grasp planning in robotics research. However, the existence of a generic simulation context that enables the generation of high quality grasps that can be used in several different contexts such as bi...

  13. Modeling Individual Cyclic Variation in Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Emma; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-04-01

    Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series. Experiments on synthetic and real-world health-tracking data demonstrate that CyHMMs infer cycle lengths more accurately than existing methods, with 58% lower error on simulated data and 63% lower error on real-world data compared to the best-performing baseline. CyHMMs can also perform functions which baselines cannot: they can model the progression of individual features/symptoms over the course of the cycle, identify the most variable features, and cluster individual time series into groups with distinct characteristics. Applying CyHMMs to two real-world health-tracking datasets-of human menstrual cycle symptoms and physical activity tracking data-yields important insights including which symptoms to expect at each point during the cycle. We also find that people fall into several groups with distinct cycle patterns, and that these groups differ along dimensions not provided to the model. For example, by modeling missing data in the menstrual cycles dataset, we are able to discover a medically relevant group of birth control users even though information on birth control is not given to the model.

  14. Characteristics of grasping movements in a laboratory and in an everyday-like context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Züll, Anne

    2013-02-01

    To understand the principles of motor control, it is useful to know whether movements with the same physical constraints can be governed by different rules depending on the behavioral context. We therefore have recently introduced a paradigm in which subjects grasp from the same starting position to the same final object, once as a typical laboratory task and once as part of everyday-like behavior. In the laboratory context, grasping was repetitive, externally triggered and purposeless; in the everyday-like context, it was embedded in a complex activity, intentionally initiated, and served a purpose. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of data from that paradigm. Among 38 response parameters that reflected hand transport, grip shaping and object manipulation, 20 differed significantly between groups. Factor analysis further reduced them to four orthogonal factors: response speed, finger-object contact, response variability, and hand path curvature. This shows, for the first time, that behavioral context influences the execution of grasping movements in four independent ways, possibly reflecting four distinct functional modules in the motor system. This fits well with the view - derived from neurological data - that grasping is controlled by a set of interconnected brain areas which are differentially recruited to achieve different behavioral goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual grasping: closed-loop force control using electrotactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgovanovic, Nikola; Dosen, Strahinja; Djozic, Damir J; Krajoski, Goran; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously "unseen" objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control.

  16. Virtual Grasping: Closed-Loop Force Control Using Electrotactile Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Jorgovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously “unseen” objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control.

  17. Goal inferences about robot behavior : goal inferences and human response behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.A.T.; Ham, J.R.C.; Broeders, R.; De Silva, P.; Okada, M.

    2014-01-01

    This explorative research focused on the goal inferences human observers draw based on a robot's behavior, and the extent to which those inferences predict people's behavior in response to that robot. Results show that different robot behaviors cause different response behavior from people.

  18. Neurons in Primary Motor Cortex Encode Hand Orientation in a Reach-to-Grasp Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Fan, Jing; He, Jiping

    2017-08-01

    It is disputed whether those neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that encode hand orientation constitute an independent channel for orientation control in reach-to-grasp behaviors. Here, we trained two monkeys to reach forward and grasp objects positioned in the frontal plane at different orientation angles, and simultaneously recorded the activity of M1 neurons. Among the 2235 neurons recorded in M1, we found that 18.7% had a high correlation exclusively with hand orientation, 15.9% with movement direction, and 29.5% with both movement direction and hand orientation. The distributions of neurons encoding hand orientation and those encoding movement direction were not uniform but coexisted in the same region. The trajectory of hand rotation was reproduced by the firing patterns of the orientation-related neurons independent of the hand reaching direction. These results suggest that hand orientation is an independent component for the control of reaching and grasping activity.

  19. Automatic Grasp Generation and Improvement for Industrial Bin-Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Rytz, Jimmy Alison

    2014-01-01

    and achieve comparable results and that our learning approach can improve system performance significantly. Automatic bin-picking is an important industrial process that can lead to significant savings and potentially keep production in countries with high labour cost rather than outsourcing it. The presented......This paper presents work on automatic grasp generation and grasp learning for reducing the manual setup time and increase grasp success rates within bin-picking applications. We propose an approach that is able to generate good grasps automatically using a dynamic grasp simulator, a newly developed...

  20. Robust Robot Grasp Detection in Multimodal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate robot grasp detection for model free objects plays an important role in robotics. With the development of RGB-D sensors, object perception technology has made great progress. Reach feature expression by the colour and the depth data is a critical problem that needs to be addressed in order to accomplish the grasping task. To solve the problem of data fusion, this paper proposes a convolutional neural networks (CNN based approach combined with regression and classification. In the CNN model, the colour and the depth modal data are deeply fused together to achieve accurate feature expression. Additionally, Welsch function is introduced into the approach to enhance robustness of the training process. Experiment results demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method.

  1. Stereo vision based automated grasp planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Huber, L.; Silva, D.; Grasz, E.; Cadapan, L.

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy has a need for treating existing nuclear waste. Hazardous waste stored in old warehouses needs to be sorted and treated to meet environmental regulations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently experimenting with automated manipulations of unknown objects for sorting, treating, and detailed inspection. To accomplish these tasks, three existing technologies were expanded to meet the increasing requirements. First, a binocular vision range sensor was combined with a surface modeling system to make virtual images of unknown objects. Then, using the surface model information, stable grasp of the unknown shaped objects were planned algorithmically utilizing a limited set of robotic grippers. This paper is an expansion of previous work and will discuss the grasp planning algorithm

  2. Prosthetic hand sensor placement: Analysis of touch perception during the grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on their hands to perform everyday tasks. The hand is used as a tool, but also as the interface to “sense” the world. Current prosthetic hands are based on sophisticated multi-fingered structures, and include many sensors which counterpart natural proprioceptors and exteroceptors. The sensory information is used for control, but not sent to the user of the hand (amputee. Grasping without sensing is not good enough. This research is part of the development of the sensing interface for amputees, specifically addressing the analysis of human perception while grasping. The goal is to determine the small number of preferred positions of sensors on the prosthetic hand. This task has previously been approached by trying to replicate a natural sensory system characteristic for healthy humans, resulting in a multitude of redundant sensors and basic inability to make the patient aware of the sensor readings on the subconscious level. We based our artificial perception system on the reported sensations of humans when grasping various objects without seeing the objects (obstructed visual feedback. Subjects, with no known sensory deficits, were asked to report on the touch sensation while grasping. The analysis included objects of various sizes, weights, textures and temperatures. Based on this data we formed a map of the preferred positions for the sensors that is appropriate for five finger human-like robotic hand. The final map was intentionally minimized in size (number of sensors.

  3. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domellöf, Erik; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Rönnqvist, Louise; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  4. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eDomellöf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have observed investigated manual asymmetries performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored manual object-oriented behavioral strategies and hand side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left, and right, midline. Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and . The study also involved measurements of hand position opening prior to grasping., and Additionally, assessments of general hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings support the possibility of a shared underlying mechanism regarding for infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for horizontally objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal pathand vertically moving objects. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  5. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn

    2017-09-01

    Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  6. The magic grasp: motor expertise in deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of us are poor at faking actions. Kinematic studies have shown that when pretending to pick up imagined objects (pantomimed actions, we move and shape our hands quite differently from when grasping real ones. These differences between real and pantomimed actions have been linked to separate brain pathways specialized for different kinds of visuomotor guidance. Yet professional magicians regularly use pantomimed actions to deceive audiences.In this study, we tested whether, despite their skill, magicians might still show kinematic differences between grasping actions made toward real versus imagined objects. We found that their pantomimed actions in fact closely resembled real grasps when the object was visible (but displaced (Experiment 1, but failed to do so when the object was absent (Experiment 2.We suggest that although the occipito-parietal visuomotor system in the dorsal stream is designed to guide goal-directed actions, prolonged practice may enable it to calibrate actions based on visual inputs displaced from the action.

  7. A world within our grasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaradei, M.

    2006-01-01

    On October 7, 2005, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei and the IAEA itself were announced as joint recipients of the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize for their 'efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way'. Mr. ElBaradei announced that he donates all his winnings to building orphanages in his home city of Cairo. In his lecture he stated that recent United Nations High-Level Panel identified five categories of threats that we face: 1. Poverty, Infectious Disease, and Environmental Degradation; 2. Armed Conflict - both within and among States; 3. Organized Crime; 4. Terrorism; 5. Weapons of Mass Destruction. These are all 'threats without borders' - where traditional notions of national security have become obsolete. We cannot respond to these threats by building more walls, developing bigger weapons, or dispatching more troops. Quite to the contrary. By their very nature, these security threats require primarily multinational cooperation. But what is more important is that these are not separate or distinct threats. When we scratch the surface, we find them closely connected and interrelated. This underprivileged group of people on my right is no less intelligent or less worthy than their fellow human beings on the other side of the aisle. They were simply born into this fate. In the real world, this imbalance in living conditions inevitably leads to inequality of opportunity, and in many cases loss of hope. And what is worse, all too often the plight of the poor is compounded by and results in human rights abuses, a lack of good governance, and a deep sense of injustice. This combination naturally creates a most fertile breeding ground for civil wars, organized crime, and extremism in its different forms. In regions where conflicts have been left to fester for decades, countries continue to look for ways to offset their insecurities or project their power. In some

  8. Tactile Gloves for Autonomous Grasping With the NASA/DARPA Robonaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. B.; Ambrose, R. O.; Diftler, M. A.; Platt, R., Jr.; Butzer, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Tactile data from rugged gloves are providing the foundation for developing autonomous grasping skills for the NASA/DARPA Robonaut, a dexterous humanoid robot. These custom gloves compliment the human like dexterity available in the Robonaut hands. Multiple versions of the gloves are discussed, showing a progression in using advanced materials and construction techniques to enhance sensitivity and overall sensor coverage. The force data provided by the gloves can be used to improve dexterous, tool and power grasping primitives. Experiments with the latest gloves focus on the use of tools, specifically a power drill used to approximate an astronaut's torque tool.

  9. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  10. From Annotated Multimodal Corpora to Simulated Human-Like Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal corpora prove useful at different stages of the development process of embodied conversational agents. Insights into human-human communicative behaviors can be drawn from such corpora. Rules for planning and generating such behavior in agents can be derived from this information....... And even the evaluation of human-agent interactions can rely on corpus data from human-human communication. In this paper, we exemplify how corpora can be exploited at the different development steps, starting with the question of how corpora are annotated and on what level of granularity. The corpus data...

  11. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  12. Rasmussen's model of human behavior in laparoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S; Alwayn, I; Hosman, R J A W; Stassen, H G

    2003-08-01

    Compared to aviation, where virtual reality (VR) training has been standardized and simulators have proven their benefits, the objectives, needs, and means of VR training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) still have to be established. The aim of the study presented is to introduce Rasmussen's model of human behavior as a practical framework for the definition of the training objectives, needs, and means in MIS. Rasmussen distinguishes three levels of human behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behaviour. The training needs of a laparoscopic novice can be determined by identifying the specific skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior that is required for performing safe laparoscopy. Future objectives of VR laparoscopy trainers should address all three levels of behavior. Although most commercially available simulators for laparoscopy aim at training skill-based behavior, especially the training of knowledge-based behavior during complications in surgery will improve safety levels. However, the cost and complexity of a training means increases when the training objectives proceed from the training of skill-based behavior to the training of complex knowledge-based behavior. In aviation, human behavior models have been used successfully to integrate the training of skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior in a full flight simulator. Understanding surgeon behavior is one of the first steps towards a future full-scale laparoscopy simulator.

  13. First contacts and the common behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Van Brakel, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    In this paper my aim is to shed light on the common behavior of human beings by looking at '' first contacts '': the situation where people with unshared histories first meet (who don't speak one an others' language, don't have access to interpreters, etc.). The limits of the human life form are given by what is similar in the common behavior(s) of human beings. But what is similar should not be understood as something that is biologically or psychologically or transcendentally shared by all ...

  14. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  15. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  16. Teaching grasping points using natural movements

    OpenAIRE

    Isleyici, Yalim

    2014-01-01

    Research about tasks that robotic maids should be able to perform is an emerging research area such as cooking and cleaning. Among them, manipulation of clothes is one of the hardest tasks due to the fact that textile is highly deformable and it is hard to model a good grasping point on them. In literature there are certain algorithms depending on 3D information of the cloth but most of them are not robust. Among them, Fast Integral Normal 3D (FINDDD) descriptors is a promising way for ...

  17. Optimization by GRASP greedy randomized adaptive search procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Resende, Mauricio G C

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to cover GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures), a metaheuristic that has enjoyed wide success in practice with a broad range of applications to real-world combinatorial optimization problems. The state-of-the-art coverage and carefully crafted pedagogical style lends this book highly accessible as an introductory text not only to GRASP, but also to combinatorial optimization, greedy algorithms, local search, and path-relinking, as well as to heuristics and metaheuristics, in general. The focus is on algorithmic and computational aspects of applied optimization with GRASP with emphasis given to the end-user, providing sufficient information on the broad spectrum of advances in applied optimization with GRASP. For the more advanced reader, chapters on hybridization with path-relinking and parallel and continuous GRASP present these topics in a clear and concise fashion. Additionally, the book offers a very complete annotated bibliography of GRASP and combinatorial optimizat...

  18. Science and Human Behavior, dualism, and conceptual modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G E

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior is in part an attempt to solve psychology's problem with mind-body dualism by revising our everyday mentalistic conceptual scheme. In the case of descriptive mentalism (the use of mentalistic terms to describe behavior), Skinner offers behavioral "translations." In contrast, Skinner rejects explanatory mentalism (the use of mental concepts to explain behavior) and suggests how to replace it with a behaviorist explanatory framework. For experiential mentalism, Skinner presents a theory of verbal behavior that integrates the use of mentalistic language in first-person reports of phenomenal experience into a scientific framework.

  19. Robotic Hand with Flexible Fingers for Grasping Cylindrical Objects

    OpenAIRE

    柴田, 瑞穂

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a robotic hand for grasping a cylindrical object is proposed. This robotic hand has flexible fingers that can hold a cylindrical object during moving. We introduce a grasping strategy for a cylindrical object in terms of state transition graph. In this strategy the robotic hand picks up the cylindrical object utilizing a suction device before the hand grasp the object. We also design the flexible fingers; then, we investigate the validity of this robotic hand via several e...

  20. Electromyographic Grasp Recognition for a Five Fingered Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan M. Kakoty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents classification of grasp types based on surface electromyographic signals. Classification is through radial basis function kernel support vector machine using sum of wavelet decomposition coefficients of the EMG signals. In a study involving six subjects, we achieved an average recognition rate of 86%. The electromyographic grasp recognition together with a 8-bit microcontroller has been employed to control a fivefingered robotic hand to emulate six grasp types used during 70% daily living activities.

  1. Intrinsic Hand Muscle Activation for Grasp and Horizontal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Winges, Sara A.; Kundu, Bornali; Soechting, John F.; Flanders, Martha

    2007-01-01

    During object manipulation, the hand and arm muscles produce internal forces on the object (grasping forces) and forces that result in external translation or rotation of the object in space (transport forces). The present study tested whether the intrinsic hand muscles are actively involved in transport as well as grasping. Intrinsic hand muscle activity increased with increasing demands for grasp stability, but also showed the timing and directional tuning patterns appropriate for actively ...

  2. Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.

    1975-01-01

    This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.

  3. Managing distributed dynamic systems with spatial grasp technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sapaty, Peter Simon

    2017-01-01

    The book describes a novel ideology and supporting information technology for integral management of both civil and defence-orientated large, distributed dynamic systems. The approach is based on a high-level Spatial Grasp Language, SGL, expressing solutions in physical, virtual, executive and combined environments in the form of active self-evolving and self-propagating patterns spatially matching the systems to be created, modified and controlled. The communicating interpreters of SGL can be installed in key system points, which may be in large numbers (up to millions and billions) and represent equipped humans, robots, laptops, smartphones, smart sensors, etc. Operating under gestalt-inspired scenarios in SGL initially injected from any points, these systems can be effectively converted into goal-driven spatial machines (rather than computers as dealing with physical matter too) capable of responding to numerous challenges caused by growing world dynamics in the 21st century. Including numerous practical e...

  4. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care-O-bot, ...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots....

  5. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion. PMID:24039277

  6. Assessing Grasp Stability Based on Learning and Haptic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiroglu, Yasemin; Laaksonen, Janne; Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison

    2011-01-01

    a probabilistic learning framework to assess grasp stability and demonstrate that knowledge about grasp stability can be inferred using information from tactile sensors. Experiments on both simulated and real data are shown. The results indicate that the idea to exploit the learning approach is applicable...... data and machine-learning methods, including AdaBoost, support vector machines (SVMs), and hidden Markov models (HMMs). In particular, we study the effect of different sensory streams to grasp stability. This includes object information such as shape; grasp information such as approach vector; tactile...

  7. Grasping trajectories in a virtual environment adhere to Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Aviad; Berman, Sigal; Ganel, Tzvi

    2018-06-01

    Virtual-reality and telerobotic devices simulate local motor control of virtual objects within computerized environments. Here, we explored grasping kinematics within a virtual environment and tested whether, as in normal 3D grasping, trajectories in the virtual environment are performed analytically, violating Weber's law with respect to object's size. Participants were asked to grasp a series of 2D objects using a haptic system, which projected their movements to a virtual space presented on a computer screen. The apparatus also provided object-specific haptic information upon "touching" the edges of the virtual targets. The results showed that grasping movements performed within the virtual environment did not produce the typical analytical trajectory pattern obtained during 3D grasping. Unlike as in 3D grasping, grasping trajectories in the virtual environment adhered to Weber's law, which indicates relative resolution in size processing. In addition, the trajectory patterns differed from typical trajectories obtained during 3D grasping, with longer times to complete the movement, and with maximum grip apertures appearing relatively early in the movement. The results suggest that grasping movements within a virtual environment could differ from those performed in real space, and are subjected to irrelevant effects of perceptual information. Such atypical pattern of visuomotor control may be mediated by the lack of complete transparency between the interface and the virtual environment in terms of the provided visual and haptic feedback. Possible implications of the findings to movement control within robotic and virtual environments are further discussed.

  8. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  9. Human Nonverbal Behaviors, Empathy, and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne

    Nonverbal behavior is an important aspect of the film and is one of the several tools that a director uses to communicate to an audience the characters' feelings and relationships. By adding to this information their own personal responses, viewers often experience strong feelings. With reference to the social psychological research of nonverbal…

  10. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  11. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  12. Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas; Quek, F.; Yang, Yie

    2006-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  13. Human body scents: do they influence our behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, Sophie; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Pheromonal communication in the animal world has been of great research interest for a long time. While extraordinary discoveries in this field have been made, the importance of the human sense of smell was of far lower interest. Humans are seen as poor smellers and therefore research about human olfaction remains quite sparse compared with other animals. Nevertheless amazing achievements have been made during the past 15 years. This is a collection of available data on this topic and a controversial discussion on the role of putative human pheromones in our modem way of living. While the focus was definitely put on behavioral changes evoked by putative human pheromones this article also includes other important aspects such as the possible existence of a human vomeronasal organ. If pheromones do have an influence on human behavior there has to be a receptor organ. How are human body scents secreted and turned into odorous substances? And how can con-specifics detect those very odors and transmit them to the brain? Apart from that the most likely candidates for human pheromones are taken on account and their impact on human behavior is shown in various detail.

  14. Reconceptualizing Social Work Behaviors from a Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Although the human rights philosophy has relevance for many segments of the social work curriculum, the latest version of accreditation standards only includes a few behaviors specific to human rights. This deficit can be remedied by incorporating innovations found in the social work literature, which provides a wealth of material for…

  15. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  16. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  17. Grasping without sight: insights from the congenitally blind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla D Stone

    Full Text Available We reach for and grasp different sized objects numerous times per day. Most of these movements are visually-guided, but some are guided by the sense of touch (i.e. haptically-guided, such as reaching for your keys in a bag, or for an object in a dark room. A marked right-hand preference has been reported during visually-guided grasping, particularly for small objects. However, little is known about hand preference for haptically-guided grasping. Recently, a study has shown a reduction in right-hand use in blindfolded individuals, and an absence of hand preference if grasping was preceded by a short haptic experience. These results suggest that vision plays a major role in hand preference for grasping. If this were the case, then one might expect congenitally blind (CB individuals, who have never had a visual experience, to exhibit no hand preference. Two novel findings emerge from the current study: first, the results showed that contrary to our expectation, CB individuals used their right hand during haptically-guided grasping to the same extent as visually-unimpaired (VU individuals did during visually-guided grasping. And second, object size affected hand use in an opposite manner for haptically- versus visually-guided grasping. Big objects were more often picked up with the right hand during haptically-guided, but less often during visually-guided grasping. This result highlights the different demands that object features pose on the two sensory systems. Overall the results demonstrate that hand preference for grasping is independent of visual experience, and they suggest a left-hemisphere specialization for the control of grasping that goes beyond sensory modality.

  18. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra Khullar, S.; Badler, N. I.

    2001-01-01

    This research proposes a computational framework for generating visual attending behavior in an embodied simulated human agent. Such behaviors directly control eye and head motions, and guide other actions such as locomotion and reach. The implementation of these concepts, referred to as the AVA, draws on empirical and qualitative observations known from psychology, human factors and computer vision. Deliberate behaviors, the analogs of scanpaths in visual psychology, compete with involuntary attention capture and lapses into idling or free viewing. Insights provided by implementing this framework are: a defined set of parameters that impact the observable effects of attention, a defined vocabulary of looking behaviors for certain motor and cognitive activity, a defined hierarchy of three levels of eye behavior (endogenous, exogenous and idling) and a proposed method of how these types interact.

  20. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  1. Human behavioral contributions to climate change: psychological and contextual drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact, primarily through patterns of reproduction and consumption. We identify and distinguish individual, societal, and behavioral predictors of environmental impact. Relevant research in these areas (as well as areas that would be aided by greater attention by psychologists) are reviewed. We conclude by highlighting ethical issues that emerge when considering how to address human behavioral contributions to climate change.

  2. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Schlicht

    Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.

  3. Single-Grasp Object Classification and Feature Extraction with Simple Robot Hands and Tactile Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Adam J; Liarokapis, Minas V; Calli, Berk; Dollar, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    Classical robotic approaches to tactile object identification often involve rigid mechanical grippers, dense sensor arrays, and exploratory procedures (EPs). Though EPs are a natural method for humans to acquire object information, evidence also exists for meaningful tactile property inference from brief, non-exploratory motions (a 'haptic glance'). In this work, we implement tactile object identification and feature extraction techniques on data acquired during a single, unplanned grasp with a simple, underactuated robot hand equipped with inexpensive barometric pressure sensors. Our methodology utilizes two cooperating schemes based on an advanced machine learning technique (random forests) and parametric methods that estimate object properties. The available data is limited to actuator positions (one per two link finger) and force sensors values (eight per finger). The schemes are able to work both independently and collaboratively, depending on the task scenario. When collaborating, the results of each method contribute to the other, improving the overall result in a synergistic fashion. Unlike prior work, the proposed approach does not require object exploration, re-grasping, grasp-release, or force modulation and works for arbitrary object start positions and orientations. Due to these factors, the technique may be integrated into practical robotic grasping scenarios without adding time or manipulation overheads.

  4. Microsoft kinect-based artificial perception system for control of functional electrical stimulation assisted grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Kočović, Slobodan; Marković, Marko; Popović, Dejan B

    2014-01-01

    We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES.

  5. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  6. Shaping of Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics by Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Køppe, Simo

    2017-01-01

    is primarily associated with transporting the hand to the object (i.e., extrinsic object properties), the decelerating part of the reach is used as a preparation for object manipulation (i.e., prepare the grasp or the subsequent action), and the grasp is associated with manipulating the object's intrinsic...

  7. Differences in fixations between grasping and viewing objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Franz, V.H.; Gegenfurtner, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Where exactly do people look when they grasp an object? An object is usually contacted at two locations, whereas the gaze can only be at one location at the time. We investigated participants' fixation locations when they grasp objects with the contact positions of both index finger and thumb being

  8. Linguistic approach to object recognition by grasping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marik, V

    1982-01-01

    A method for recognizing both the three-dimensional object shapes and their sizes by grasping them with an antropomorphic five-finger artificial hand is described. The hand is equipped with position sensing elements in the joints of the fingers and with a tactile transducer net on the palm surface. The linguistic method uses formal grammars and languages for the pattern description. The recognition is hierarchically arranged, every level being different from the others by a formal language which has been used. On every level the pattern description is generated and verified from the symmetrical and semantical points of view. The results of the implementation of the recognition of cones, pyramides, spheres, prisms and cylinders are presented and discussed. 8 references.

  9. Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentland, Alex; Huang, Thomas S.; Huang, Th.S.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing should be about anticipatory user interfaces

  10. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  11. Evaluation of Pressure Capacitive Sensors for Application in Grasping and Manipulation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessia, Paola; Cordella, Francesca; Schena, Emiliano; Davalli, Angelo; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Zollo, Loredana

    2017-12-08

    The analysis of the human grasping and manipulation capabilities is paramount for investigating human sensory-motor control and developing prosthetic and robotic hands resembling the human ones. A viable solution to perform this analysis is to develop instrumented objects measuring the interaction forces with the hand. In this context, the performance of the sensors embedded in the objects is crucial. This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of a class of capacitive pressure sensors suitable for biomechanical analysis. The analysis was performed in three loading conditions (Distributed load, 9 Tips load, and Wave-shaped load, thanks to three different inter-elements) via a traction/compression testing machine. Sensor assessment was also carried out under human- like grasping condition by placing a silicon material with the same properties of prosthetic cosmetic gloves in between the sensor and the inter-element in order to simulate the human skin. Data show that the input-output relationship of the analyzed, sensor is strongly influenced by both the loading condition (i.e., type of inter-element) and the grasping condition (with or without the silicon material). This needs to be taken into account to avoid significant measurement error. To go over this hurdle, the sensors have to be calibrated under each specific condition in order to apply suitable corrections to the sensor output and significantly improve the measurement accuracy.

  12. Model-based automatic generation of grasping regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of automatically generating stable regions for a robotic end effector on a target object, given a model of the end effector and the object is discussed. In order to generate grasping regions, an initial valid grasp transformation from the end effector to the object is obtained based on form closure requirements, and appropriate rotational and translational symmetries are associated with that transformation in order to construct a valid, continuous grasping region. The main result of this algorithm is a list of specific, valid grasp transformations of the end effector to the target object, and the appropriate combinations of translational and rotational symmetries associated with each specific transformation in order to produce a continuous grasp region.

  13. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  14. Grasp Assist Device with Automatic Mode Control Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Laske, Evan (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A system includes a glove, sensors, actuator assemblies, and controller. The sensors include load sensors which measure an actual grasping force and attitude sensors which determine a glove attitude. The actuator assembly provides a grasp assist force to the glove. Respective locations of work cells in the work environment and permitted work tasks for each work cell are programmed into the controller. The controller detects the glove location and attitude. A work task is selected by the controller for the location. The controller calculates a required grasp assist force using measured actual grasping forces from the load sensors. The required grasp assist force is applied via the glove using the actuator assembly to thereby assist the operator in performing the identified work task.

  15. Pantomime-grasping: Advance knowledge of haptic feedback availability supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eDavarpanah Jazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping. In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials and without (i.e., PH- trials terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration – a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model. The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule. In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and stimulated (i.e., pantomime-grasping grasping.

  16. Effects of accuracy constraints on reach-to-grasp movements in cerebellar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, M K; Shimansky, Y; Stelmach, G E; Bracha, V; Bloedel, J R

    2000-11-01

    Reach-to-grasp movements of patients with pathology restricted to the cerebellum were compared with those of normal controls. Two types of paradigms with different accuracy constraints were used to examine whether cerebellar impairment disrupts the stereotypic relationship between arm transport and grip aperture and whether the variability of this relationship is altered when greater accuracy is required. The movements were made to either a vertical dowel or to a cross bar of a small cross. All subjects were asked to reach for either target at a fast but comfortable speed, grasp the object between the index finger and thumb, and lift it a short distance off the table. In terms of the relationship between arm transport and grip aperture, the control subjects showed a high consistency in grip aperture and wrist velocity profiles from trial to trial for movements to both the dowel and the cross. The relationship between the maximum velocity of the wrist and the time at which grip aperture was maximal during the reach was highly consistent throughout the experiment. In contrast, the time of maximum grip aperture and maximum wrist velocity of the cerebellar patients was quite variable from trial to trial, and the relationship of these measurements also varied considerably. These abnormalities were present regardless of the accuracy requirement. In addition, the cerebellar patients required a significantly longer time to grasp and lift the objects than the control subjects. Furthermore, the patients exhibited a greater grip aperture during reach than the controls. These data indicate that the cerebellum contributes substantially to the coordination of movements required to perform reach-to-grasp movements. Specifically, the cerebellum is critical for executing this behavior with a consistent, well-timed relationship between the transport and grasp components. This contribution is apparent even when accuracy demands are minimal.

  17. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  18. Collision-Avoidance Characteristics of Grasping. Early Signs in Hand and Arm Kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommertzen, J.; Costa e Silva, E.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Grasping an object successfully implies avoiding colliding into it before the hand is closed around the object. The present study focuses on prehension kinematics that typically reflect collision-avoidance characteristics of grasping movements. Twelve participants repeatedly grasped

  19. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  20. Reach-to-grasp movements in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the “isochrony principle” seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23658547

  1. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species’ reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets’ behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets’ social cognition and communication are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are amongst only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this review, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior and communication, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and communication. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27100195

  2. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  3. Robot Grasp Learning by Demonstration without Predefined Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A learning-based approach to autonomous robot grasping is presented. Pattern recognition techniques are used to measure the similarity between a set of previously stored example grasps and all the possible candidate grasps for a new object. Two sets of features are defined in order to characterize grasps: point attributes describe the surroundings of a contact point; point-set attributes describe the relationship between the set of n contact points (assuming an n-fingered robot gripper is used. In the experiments performed, the nearest neighbour classifier outperforms other approaches like multilayer perceptrons, radial basis functions or decision trees, in terms of classification accuracy, while computational load is not excessive for a real time application (a grasp is fully synthesized in 0.2 seconds. The results obtained on a synthetic database show that the proposed system is able to imitate the grasping behaviour of the user (e.g. the system learns to grasp a mug by its handle. All the code has been made available for testing purposes.

  4. Attention and reach-to-grasp movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cathy; Bharmal, Aamir; Kiss, Zelma H; Suchowersky, Oksana; Haffenden, Angela M

    2010-08-01

    The role of attention in grasping movements directed at common objects has not been examined in Parkinson's disease (PD), though these movements are critical to activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to determine whether patients with PD demonstrate automaticity in grasping movements directed toward common objects. Automaticity is assumed when tasks can be performed with little or no interference from concurrent tasks. Grasping performance in three patient groups (newly diagnosed, moderate, and advanced/surgically treated PD) on and off of their medication or deep brain stimulation was compared to performance in an age-matched control group. Automaticity was demonstrated by the absence of a decrement in grasping performance when attention was consumed by a concurrent spatial-visualization task. Only the control group and newly diagnosed PD group demonstrated automaticity in their grasping movements. The moderate and advanced PD groups did not demonstrate automaticity. Furthermore, the well-known effects of pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention on movement speed and muscle activation patterns did not appear to reduce the impact of attention-demanding tasks on grasping movements in those with moderate to advanced PD. By the moderate stage of PD, grasping is an attention-demanding process; this change is not ameliorated by dopaminergic or surgical treatments. These findings have important implications for activities of daily living, as devoting attention to the simplest of daily tasks would interfere with complex activities and potentially exacerbate fatigue.

  5. Grasping devices and methods in automated production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantoni, Gualtiero; Santochi, Marco; Dini, Gino

    2014-01-01

    assembly to disassembly, from aerospace to food industry, from textile to logistics) are discussed. Finally, the most recent research is reviewed in order to introduce the new trends in grasping. They provide an outlook on the future of both grippers and robotic hands in automated production processes. (C......In automated production processes grasping devices and methods play a crucial role in the handling of many parts, components and products. This keynote paper starts with a classification of grasping phases, describes how different principles are adopted at different scales in different applications...

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Grasping of Deformable Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Andreas Rune

    Automated robot solutions have for decades been increasing productivity around the world. They are attractive for being fast, accurate and able to work in dangerous and repetitive environments. In traditional applications the grasped object is kinematically attached to the Tool Center Point....... The purpose of this thesis is to address the modeling and simulation of deformable objects, as applied to robotic grasping and manipulation. The main contributions of this work are: An evaluation of 3D linear elasticity used for robot grasping as implemented by a Finite Difference Method supporting regular...

  7. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sarapultsev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004. From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007. An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  8. Immediate movement history influences reach-to-grasp action selection in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Samuel W; Wilson, Andrew D; Plumb, Mandy S; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Action selection is subject to many biases. Immediate movement history is one such bias seen in young infants. Is this bias strong enough to affect adult behavior? Adult participants reached and grasped a cylinder positioned to require either pronation or supination of the hand. Successive cylinder positions changed either randomly or systematically between trials. Random positioning led to optimized economy of movement. In contrast, systematic changes in position biased action selection toward previously selected actions at the expense of movement economy. Thus, one switches to a new movement only when the savings outweigh the costs of the switch. Immediate movement history had an even larger influence on children aged 7-15 years. This suggests that switching costs are greater in children, which is consistent with their reduced grasping experience. The presence of this effect in adults suggests that immediate movement history exerts a more widespread and pervasive influence on patterns of action selection than researchers had previously recognized.

  9. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  10. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  11. Effect of pencil grasp on the speed and legibility of handwriting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Heidi; Carnahan, Heather; Kushki, Azadeh; Polatajko, Helene; Missiuna, Cheryl; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Pencil grasps other than the dynamic tripod may be functional for handwriting. This study examined the impact of grasp on handwriting speed and legibility. We videotaped 120 typically developing fourth-grade students while they performed a writing task. We categorized the grasps they used and evaluated their writing for speed and legibility using a handwriting assessment. Using linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between grasp and handwriting. We documented six categories of pencil grasp: four mature grasp patterns, one immature grasp pattern, and one alternating grasp pattern. Multiple linear regression results revealed no significant effect for mature grasp on either legibility or speed. Pencil grasp patterns did not influence handwriting speed or legibility in this sample of typically developing children. This finding adds to the mounting body of evidence that alternative grasps may be acceptable for fast and legible handwriting. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  13. Data Mining and Visualization of Large Human Behavior Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea

    and credit card transactions – have provided us new sources for studying our behavior. In particular smartphones have emerged as new tools for collecting data about human activity, thanks to their sensing capabilities and their ubiquity. This thesis investigates the question of what we can learn about human...... behavior from this rich and pervasive mobile sensing data. In the first part, we describe a large-scale data collection deployment collecting high-resolution data for over 800 students at the Technical University of Denmark using smartphones, including location, social proximity, calls and SMS. We provide...... an overview of the technical infrastructure, the experimental design, and the privacy measures. The second part investigates the usage of this mobile sensing data for understanding personal behavior. We describe two large-scale user studies on the deployment of self-tracking apps, in order to understand...

  14. Assessing Human Judgment of Computationally Generated Swarming Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harvey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based swarm systems, aiming to replicate the flocking behavior of birds, were first introduced by Reynolds in 1987. In his initial work, Reynolds noted that while it was difficult to quantify the dynamics of the behavior from the model, observers of his model immediately recognized them as a representation of a natural flock. Considerable analysis has been conducted since then on quantifying the dynamics of flocking/swarming behavior. However, no systematic analysis has been conducted on human identification of swarming. In this paper, we assess subjects’ assessment of the behavior of a simplified version of Reynolds’ model. Factors that affect the identification of swarming are discussed and future applications of the resulting models are proposed. Differences in decision times for swarming-related questions asked during the study indicate that different brain mechanisms may be involved in different elements of the behavior assessment task. The relatively simple but finely tunable model used in this study provides a useful methodology for assessing individual human judgment of swarming behavior.

  15. Modelling primate control of grasping for robotics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleinhans, A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits that control grasping and perform related visual processing have been studied extensively in Macaque monkeys. We are developing a computational model of this system, in order to better understand its function, and to explore...

  16. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Dawn Stone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually-guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically-guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  17. An Intelligent Inference System for Robot Hand Optimal Grasp Preshaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabbar Veysel Baysal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Intelligent Inference System (IIS for the determination of an optimum preshape for multifingered robot hand grasping, given object under a manipulation task. The IIS is formed as hybrid agent architecture, by the synthesis of object properties, manipulation task characteristics, grasp space partitioning, lowlevel kinematical analysis, evaluation of contact wrench patterns via fuzzy approximate reasoning and ANN structure for incremental learning. The IIS is implemented in software with a robot hand simulation.

  18. Discrimination of complex human behavior by pigeons (Columba livia and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A J Qadri

    Full Text Available The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors ("martial arts" vs. "Indian dance". Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species.

  19. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  20. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J.; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  1. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  2. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...... of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based...

  3. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  4. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  5. Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iacoboni

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the intentions of others while watching their actions is a fundamental building block of social behavior. The neural and functional mechanisms underlying this ability are still poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-three subjects watched three kinds of stimuli: grasping hand actions without a context, context only (scenes containing objects, and grasping hand actions performed in two different contexts. In the latter condition the context suggested the intention associated with the grasping action (either drinking or cleaning. Actions embedded in contexts, compared with the other two conditions, yielded a significant signal increase in the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus and the adjacent sector of the ventral premotor cortex where hand actions are represented. Thus, premotor mirror neuron areas-areas active during the execution and the observation of an action-previously thought to be involved only in action recognition are actually also involved in understanding the intentions of others. To ascribe an intention is to infer a forthcoming new goal, and this is an operation that the motor system does automatically.

  6. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaching and grasping in primates depend on the coordination of neural activity in large frontoparietal ensembles. Here we demonstrate that primates can learn to reach and grasp virtual objects by controlling a robot arm through a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMIc that uses multiple mathematical models to extract several motor parameters (i.e., hand position, velocity, gripping force, and the EMGs of multiple arm muscles from the electrical activity of frontoparietal neuronal ensembles. As single neurons typically contribute to the encoding of several motor parameters, we observed that high BMIc accuracy required recording from large neuronal ensembles. Continuous BMIc operation by monkeys led to significant improvements in both model predictions and behavioral performance. Using visual feedback, monkeys succeeded in producing robot reach-and-grasp movements even when their arms did not move. Learning to operate the BMIc was paralleled by functional reorganization in multiple cortical areas, suggesting that the dynamic properties of the BMIc were incorporated into motor and sensory cortical representations.

  7. THE PREREQUISITES OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN ONTOGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Sozinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of moral attitudes toward unrelated individuals from different social groups may provide insights into the role of biological and cultural factors in prosocial behavior. Children (3–11 years old, N=80 were presented with moral dilemmas describing a conflict of interests between a con-specific (human and another species (animals or aliens. Participants were asked to evaluate the behavior of a human in terms of ‘good’ and ‘bad’, and to choose whom they would help: a human aggressor who benefits at the expense of a victim in vital need, or the victim. Results showed that the older children preferred to help non-human victims significantly more often than the younger children. The evaluation of human actions was related to the proportion of such preferences. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of kin selection theory, group selection theory and the system-evolutionary approach. The implications of the study for moral education are suggested.

  8. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  9. DTIC Review: Human, Social, Cultural and Behavior Modeling. Volume 9, Number 1 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...: Human, Social, Cultural and Behavior (HSCB) models are designed to help understand the structure, interconnections, dependencies, behavior, and trends associated with any collection of individuals...

  10. Training together: how another human's presence affects behavior during virtual human-based team training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite research showing that team training can lead to strong improvements in team performance, logistical difficulties can prevent team training programs from being adopted on a large scale. A proposed solution to these difficulties is the use of virtual humans to replace missing teammates. Existing research evaluating the use of virtual humans for team training has been conducted in settings involving a single human trainee. However, in the real world multiple human trainees would most likely train together. In this paper, we explore how the presence of a second human trainee can alter behavior during a medical team training program. Ninety-two nurses and surgical technicians participated in a medical training exercise, where they worked with a virtual surgeon and virtual anesthesiologist to prepare a simulated patient for surgery. The agency of the nurse and the surgical technician were varied between three conditions: human nurses and surgical technicians working together; human nurses working with a virtual surgical technician; and human surgical technicians working with a virtual nurse. Variations in agency did not produce statistically significant differences in the training outcomes, but several notable differences were observed in other aspects of the team's behavior. Specifically, when working with a virtual nurse, human surgical technicians were more likely to assist with speaking up about patient safety issues that were outside of their normal responsibilities; human trainees spent less time searching for a missing item when working with a virtual partner, likely because the virtual partner was physically unable to move throughout the room and assist with the searching process; and more breaks in presence were observed when two human teammates were present. These results show that some behaviors may be influenced by the presence of multiple human trainees, though these behaviors may not impinge on core training goals. When

  11. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  12. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  13. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0...

  14. Deformation Behavior of Human Dentin under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Zaytsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation behavior of a human dentin under compression including size and rate effects is studied. No difference between mechanical properties of crown and root dentin is found. It is mechanically isotropic high elastic and strong hard tissue, which demonstrates considerable plasticity and ability to suppress a crack growth. Mechanical properties of dentin depend on a shape of samples and a deformation rate.

  15. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  16. Modelling and Simulation of a Manipulator with Stable Viscoelastic Grasping Incorporating Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khurshid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Design, dynamics and control of a humanoid robotic hand based on anthropological dimensions, with joint friction, is modelled, simulated and analysed in this paper by using computer aided design and multibody dynamic simulation. Combined joint friction model is incorporated in the joints. Experimental values of coefficient of friction of grease lubricated sliding contacts representative of manipulator joints are presented. Human fingers deform to the shape of the grasped object (enveloping grasp at the area of interaction. A mass-spring-damper model of the grasp is developed. The interaction of the viscoelastic gripper of the arm with objects is analysed by using Bond Graph modelling method. Simulations were conducted for several material parameters. These results of the simulation are then used to develop a prototype of the proposed gripper. Bond graph model is experimentally validated by using the prototype. The gripper is used to successfully transport soft and fragile objects. This paper provides information on optimisation of friction and its inclusion in both dynamic modelling and simulation to enhance mechanical efficiency.

  17. The Human Factor: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Humanized Perception in Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states (“humanization”) seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim’s perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons’ lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others’ perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more “human-like” persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions. PMID:23082194

  18. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  19. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  20. Brain Function Overlaps When People Observe Emblems, Speech, and Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Michael; Solodkin, Ana; Buccino, Giovanni; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Small, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    A hand grasping a cup or gesturing ‘thumbs-up’, while both manual actions, have different purposes and effects. Grasping directly affects the cup, whereas gesturing ‘thumbs-up’ has an effect through an implied verbal (symbolic) meaning. Because grasping and emblematic gestures (‘emblems’) are both goal-oriented hand actions, we pursued the hypothesis that observing each should evoke similar activity in neural regions implicated in processing goal-oriented hand actions. However, because emblems express symbolic meaning, observing them should also evoke activity in regions implicated in interpreting meaning, which is most commonly expressed in language. Using fMRI to test this hypothesis, we had participants watch videos of an actor performing emblems, speaking utterances matched in meaning to the emblems, and grasping objects. Our results show that lateral temporal and inferior frontal regions respond to symbolic meaning, even when it is expressed by a single hand action. In particular, we found that left inferior frontal and right lateral temporal regions are strongly engaged when people observe either emblems or speech. In contrast, we also replicate and extend previous work that implicates parietal and premotor responses in observing goal-oriented hand actions. For hand actions, we found that bilateral parietal and premotor regions are strongly engaged when people observe either emblems or grasping. These findings thus characterize converging brain responses to shared features (e.g., symbolic or manual), despite their encoding and presentation in different stimulus modalities. PMID:23583968

  1. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Kumar, Vijay; Sreenath, Koushil

    2014-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. (papers)

  2. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches.

  3. Kinematic characteristics of tenodesis grasp in C6 quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, S; Revol, P; Fourtassi, M; Rossetti, Y; Collet, C; Rode, G

    2013-02-01

    Descriptive control case study. To analyze the kinematics of tenodesis grasp in participants with C6 quadriplegia and healthy control participants in a pointing task and two daily life tasks involving a whole hand grip (apple) or a lateral grip (floppy disk). France. Four complete participants with C6 quadriplegia were age matched with four healthy control participants. All participants were right-handed. The measured kinematic parameters were the movement time (MT), the peak velocity (PV), the time of PV (TPV) and the wrist angle in the sagittal plane at movement onset, at the TPV and at the movement end point. The participants with C6 quadriplegia had significantly longer MTs in both prehension tasks. No significant differences in TPV were found between the two groups. Unlike control participants, for both prehension tasks the wrist of participants with C6 quadriplegia was in a neutral position at movement onset, in flexion at the TPV, and in extension at the movement end point. Two main kinematic parameters characterize tenodesis grasp movements in C6 quadriplegics: wrist flexion during reaching and wrist extension during the grasping phase, and increased MT reflecting the time required to adjust the wrist's position to achieve the tenodesis grasp. These characteristics were observed for two different grips (whole hand and lateral grip). These results suggest sequential planning of reaching and tenodesis grasp, and should be taken into account for prehension rehabilitation in patients with quadriplegia.

  4. Grasp movement decoding from premotor and parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Benjamin R; Subasi, Erk; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2011-10-05

    Despite recent advances in harnessing cortical motor-related activity to control computer cursors and robotic devices, the ability to decode and execute different grasping patterns remains a major obstacle. Here we demonstrate a simple Bayesian decoder for real-time classification of grip type and wrist orientation in macaque monkeys that uses higher-order planning signals from anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (area F5). Real-time decoding was based on multiunit signals, which had similar tuning properties to cells in previous single-unit recording studies. Maximum decoding accuracy for two grasp types (power and precision grip) and five wrist orientations was 63% (chance level, 10%). Analysis of decoder performance showed that grip type decoding was highly accurate (90.6%), with most errors occurring during orientation classification. In a subsequent off-line analysis, we found small but significant performance improvements (mean, 6.25 percentage points) when using an optimized spike-sorting method (superparamagnetic clustering). Furthermore, we observed significant differences in the contributions of F5 and AIP for grasp decoding, with F5 being better suited for classification of the grip type and AIP contributing more toward decoding of object orientation. However, optimum decoding performance was maximal when using neural activity simultaneously from both areas. Overall, these results highlight quantitative differences in the functional representation of grasp movements in AIP and F5 and represent a first step toward using these signals for developing functional neural interfaces for hand grasping.

  5. Brain function overlaps when people observe emblems, speech, and grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Michael; Solodkin, Ana; Buccino, Giovanni; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Small, Steven L

    2013-07-01

    A hand grasping a cup or gesturing "thumbs-up", while both manual actions, have different purposes and effects. Grasping directly affects the cup, whereas gesturing "thumbs-up" has an effect through an implied verbal (symbolic) meaning. Because grasping and emblematic gestures ("emblems") are both goal-oriented hand actions, we pursued the hypothesis that observing each should evoke similar activity in neural regions implicated in processing goal-oriented hand actions. However, because emblems express symbolic meaning, observing them should also evoke activity in regions implicated in interpreting meaning, which is most commonly expressed in language. Using fMRI to test this hypothesis, we had participants watch videos of an actor performing emblems, speaking utterances matched in meaning to the emblems, and grasping objects. Our results show that lateral temporal and inferior frontal regions respond to symbolic meaning, even when it is expressed by a single hand action. In particular, we found that left inferior frontal and right lateral temporal regions are strongly engaged when people observe either emblems or speech. In contrast, we also replicate and extend previous work that implicates parietal and premotor responses in observing goal-oriented hand actions. For hand actions, we found that bilateral parietal and premotor regions are strongly engaged when people observe either emblems or grasping. These findings thus characterize converging brain responses to shared features (e.g., symbolic or manual), despite their encoding and presentation in different stimulus modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Human Factor: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Humanized Perception in Moral Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional ...

  7. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  8. Body odor quality predicts behavioral attractiveness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Kralevich, Alexandra; Ferdenzi, Camille; Saxton, Tamsin K; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Havlicek, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Growing effort is being made to understand how different attractive physical traits co-vary within individuals, partly because this might indicate an underlying index of genetic quality. In humans, attention has focused on potential markers of quality such as facial attractiveness, axillary odor quality, the second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and body mass index (BMI). Here we extend this approach to include visually-assessed kinesic cues (nonverbal behavior linked to movement) which are statistically independent of structural physical traits. The utility of such kinesic cues in mate assessment is controversial, particularly during everyday conversational contexts, as they could be unreliable and susceptible to deception. However, we show here that the attractiveness of nonverbal behavior, in 20 male participants, is predicted by perceived quality of their axillary body odor. This finding indicates covariation between two desirable traits in different sensory modalities. Depending on two different rating contexts (either a simple attractiveness rating or a rating for long-term partners by 10 female raters not using hormonal contraception), we also found significant relationships between perceived attractiveness of nonverbal behavior and BMI, and between axillary odor ratings and 2D:4D ratio. Axillary odor pleasantness was the single attribute that consistently predicted attractiveness of nonverbal behavior. Our results demonstrate that nonverbal kinesic cues could reliably reveal mate quality, at least in males, and could corroborate and contribute to mate assessment based on other physical traits.

  9. Application of a sensor fusion algorithm for improving grasping stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Hyun Suck; Moon, Hyung Pil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo Ja Choon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A robot hand normally employees various sensors that are packaged in small form factor, perform with delicately accurate, and cost mostly very expensive. Grasping operation of the hand relies especially on accuracy of those sensors. Even with a set of advanced sensory systems embedded in a robot hand, securing a stable grasping is still challenging task. The present work makes an attempt to improve force sensor accuracy by applying sensor fusion method. An optimal weight value sensor fusion method formulated with Kalman filters is presented and tested in the work. Using a set of inexpensive sensors, the work achieves a reliable force sensing and applies the enhanced sensor stability to an object pinch grasping.

  10. Application of a sensor fusion algorithm for improving grasping stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Hyun Suck; Moon, Hyung Pil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo Ja Choon

    2015-01-01

    A robot hand normally employees various sensors that are packaged in small form factor, perform with delicately accurate, and cost mostly very expensive. Grasping operation of the hand relies especially on accuracy of those sensors. Even with a set of advanced sensory systems embedded in a robot hand, securing a stable grasping is still challenging task. The present work makes an attempt to improve force sensor accuracy by applying sensor fusion method. An optimal weight value sensor fusion method formulated with Kalman filters is presented and tested in the work. Using a set of inexpensive sensors, the work achieves a reliable force sensing and applies the enhanced sensor stability to an object pinch grasping.

  11. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  12. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutens, C; Adriaens, D; Christiaens, J; De Kegel, B; Dierick, M; Boistel, R; Van Hoorebeke, L

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses and pipehorses both possess a prehensile tail, a unique characteristic among teleost fishes, allowing them to grasp and hold onto substrates such as sea grasses. Although studies have focused on tail grasping, the pattern of evolutionary transformations that made this possible is poorly understood. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the prehensile tail evolved independently in different syngnathid lineages, including seahorses, Haliichthys taeniophorus and several types of so-called pipehorses. This study explores the pattern that characterizes this convergent evolution towards a prehensile tail, by comparing the caudal musculoskeletal organization, as well as passive bending capacities in pipefish (representing the ancestral state), pipehorse, seahorse and H. taeniophorus. To study the complex musculoskeletal morphology, histological sectioning, μCT-scanning and phase contrast synchrotron scanning were combined with virtual 3D-reconstructions. Results suggest that the independent evolution towards tail grasping in syngnathids reflects at least two quite different strategies in which the ancestral condition of a heavy plated and rigid system became modified into a highly flexible one. Intermediate skeletal morphologies (between the ancestral condition and seahorses) could be found in the pygmy pipehorses and H. taeniophorus, which are phylogenetically closely affiliated with seahorses. This study suggests that the characteristic parallel myoseptal organization as already described in seahorse (compared with a conical organization in pipefish and pipehorse) may not be a necessity for grasping, but represents an apomorphy for seahorses, as this pattern is not found in other syngnathid species possessing a prehensile tail. One could suggest that the functionality of grasping evolved before the specialized, parallel myoseptal organization seen in seahorses. However, as the grasping system in pipehorses is a totally different one, this cannot be

  14. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  15. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  16. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard F.; Cartmill, Matt; Balow, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian hypoglossal canal transmits the nerve that supplies the muscles of the tongue. This canal is absolutely and relatively larger in modern humans than it is in the African apes (Pan and Gorilla). We hypothesize that the human tongue is supplied more richly with motor nerves than are those of living apes and propose that canal size in fossil hominids may provide an indication about the motor coordination of the tongue and reflect the evolution of speech and language. Canals of gracile Australopithecus, and possibly Homo habilis, fall within the range of extant Pan and are significantly smaller than those of modern Homo. The canals of Neanderthals and an early “modern” Homo sapiens (Skhul 5), as well as of African and European middle Pleistocene Homo (Kabwe and Swanscombe), fall within the range of extant Homo and are significantly larger than those of Pan troglodytes. These anatomical findings suggest that the vocal capabilities of Neanderthals were the same as those of humans today. Furthermore, the vocal abilities of Australopithecus were not advanced significantly over those of chimpanzees whereas those of Homo may have been essentially modern by at least 400,000 years ago. Thus, human vocal abilities may have appeared much earlier in time than the first archaeological evidence for symbolic behavior. PMID:9560291

  17. Irrational choice behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Brown, Ella R

    2018-03-01

    Choice behavior in humans has motivated a large body of research with a focus on whether decisions can be considered to be rational. In general, humans prefer having choice, as do a number of other species that have been tested, even though having increased choice does not necessarily yield a positive outcome. Humans have been found to choose an option more often only because the opportunity to select it was diminishing, an example of a deviation from economic rationality. Here we extend this paradigm to nonhuman primates in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying this finding. In this study, we presented two groups of laboratory monkeys, capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), as well as human subjects, with a computerized task in which subjects were presented with two differently colored icons. When the subject selected an icon, differing numbers of food pellets were dispensed (or points were assigned), making each icon correspond to a certain level of risk (one icon yielded 1 or 4 pellets/points and the other yielded 2 or 3). Initially, both options remained constantly available and we established choice preference scores for each subject. Then, we assessed preference patterns once the options were not continuously available. Specifically, choosing one icon would cause the other to shrink in size on the screen and eventually disappear if never selected. Selecting it would restore it to its full size. As predicted, humans shifted their risk preferences in the diminishing options phase, choosing to click on both icons more equally in order to keep both options available. At the group level, capuchin monkeys showed this pattern as well, but there was a great deal of individual variability in both capuchins and macaques. The present work suggests that there is some degree of continuity between human and nonhuman primates in the desire to have choice simply for the sake of having choice.

  18. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking on human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherek, D R

    1984-01-01

    Nicotine administered by smoking experimental cigarettes produced decreases in two types of aggressive responses elicited by low and high frequency subtractions of money which were attributed to another "person". The suppressing effects of smoking different doses of nicotine on aggressive responses was dose-dependent, in that smoking the high dose of nicotine produced more suppression than smoking the low dose. The ostensible subtraction of money from another "person", the more aggressive response option available to research subjects, was generally more sensitive to the suppressing effects of nicotine than aggressive noise delivery responses. Although this effect could be attributed to another constituent of tobacco, the dose-dependent effect observed with these cigarettes which contained the same amount of tar suggest the effects are due to nicotine. The relatively selective suppression of aggressive behavior observed in humans in the present study is highly consistent with the effects of nicotine observed in a number of infrahuman species. Nicotine has been found to suppress aggressive behavior in ants (Kostowski 1968), rats (Silverman 1971), and cats (Berntson et. al. 1976). In addition, nicotine has been observed to suppress shock elicited fighting in rats (Driscoll, Baettig 1981; Rodgers 1979; Waldbillig 1980) as well as shock elicited biting in monkeys (Hutchinson, Emley 1973). The importance of determining specificity of drug action on aggressive behavior has been repeatedly emphasized in the field of behavioral pharmacology (Sidman 1959; Cook, Kelleher 1963; Thompson, Boren 1977; Miczek, Krsiak 1979). One method employed to evaluate drug specificity and identify a general non-specific excitatory or depressant drug effect is to determine the drug effect on more than one response option which is available to the subject (Sidman 1959). In this study, the same doses of nicotine which suppressed aggressive responding increased nonaggressive monetary

  20. Development of prosthesis grasp control systems on a robotic testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerdeman, B.; Fabrizi, Ugo; Palli, Gianluca; Melchiorri, Claudio; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Modern myoelectric hand prostheses continue to increase in functionality, while their control is constrained by the limits of myoelectric input. This paper covers the development and testing of grasp control systems for multifunctional myoelectric prosthetic hands. The functionality of modern hand

  1. Hand Preference for Precision Grasping Predicts Language Lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether or not there is a relationship between hand preference for grasping and hemispheric dominance for language--and how each of these is related to other traditional measures of handedness. To do this we asked right- and left-handed participants to put together two different sets of 3D puzzles made out of big or very small…

  2. Grasping with mechanical intelligence. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nathan Thatcher

    1988-01-01

    Many robotic hands have been designed and a number have been built. Because of the difficulty of controlling and using complex hands, which usually have nine or more degrees of freedom, the simple one- or two-degree-of-freedom gripper is still the most common robotic end effector. A new category of device is presented: a medium-complexity end effector. With three to five degrees of freedom, such a tool is much easier to control and use, as well as more economical, compact and lightweight than complex hands. In order to increase the versatility, it was necessary to identify grasping primitives and to implement them in the mechanism. In addition, power and enveloping grasps are stressed over fingertip and precision grasps. The design is based upon analysis of object apprehension types, requisite characteristics for active sensing, and a determination of necessary environmental interactions. Contained are the general concepts necessary to the design of a medium-complexity end effector, an analysis of typical performance, and a computer simulation of a grasp planning algorithm specific to this type of mechanism. Finally, some details concerning the UPenn Hand-a tool designed for the research laboratory-are presented.

  3. Improvement and Neuroplasticity after Combined Rehabilitation to Forced Grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Arima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasp reflex is a distressing symptom but the need to treat or suppress it has rarely been discussed in the literature. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who had suffered cerebral infarction of the right putamen and temporal lobe 10 years previously. Forced grasping of the hemiparetic left upper limb was improved after a unique combined treatment. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A was first injected into the left biceps, wrist flexor muscles, and finger flexor muscles. Forced grasping was reduced along with spasticity of the upper limb. In addition, repetitive facilitative exercise and object-related training were performed under low-amplitude continuous neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Since this 2-week treatment improved upper limb function, we compared brain activities, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during finger pinching, before and after the combined treatment. Brain activities in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex (SMC and medial frontal cortex (MFC during pinching under electrical stimulation after treatment were greater than those before. The results suggest that training under electrical stimulation after BTX-A treatment may modulate the activities of the ipsilesional SMC and MFC and lead to functional improvement of the affected upper limb with forced grasping.

  4. Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rezai, O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monkey anterior intraparietal area (AIP) encodes visual information about three-dimensional object shape that is used to shape the hand for grasping. We modeled shape tuning in visual AIP neurons and its relationship with curvature and gradient...

  5. Development of Object and Grasping Knowledge by Robot Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    We describe a bootstrapping cognitive robot system that—mainly based on pure exploration—acquires rich object representations and associated object-specific grasp affordances. Such bootstrapping becomes possible by combining innate competences and behaviours by which the system gradually enriches...

  6. Grasping an object comfortably: orientation information is held in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, K; Verheij, R.; Voudouris, D.; Chainay, H.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that memorized information can influence real-time visuomotor control. For instance, a previously seen object (prime) influences grasping movements toward a target object. In this study, we examined how general the priming effect is: does it depend on the orientation of the target

  7. The Sliced Pineapple Grid Feature for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of grasping unknown objects utilising vision is addressed in this work by introducing a novel feature, the Sliced Pineapple Grid Feature (SPGF). The SPGF encode semi-local surfaces and allows for distinguishing structures such as “walls”,“edges” and “rims”. These structures are shown...

  8. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  9. An electromyographic analysis of two handwriting grasp patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Tavares Queiroz; da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Magna, Luis Alberto; Ferrigno, Iracema Serrat Vergotti

    2013-08-01

    Handwriting is a fundamental skill needed for the development of daily-life activities during lifetime and can be performed using different forms to hold the writing object. In this study, we monitored the sEMG activity of trapezius, biceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor digitorum superficialis during a handwriting task with two groups of subjects using different grasp patterns. Twenty-four university students (thirteen males and eleven females; mean age of 22.04±2.8years) were included in this study. We randomly invited 12 subjects that used the Dynamic Tripod grasp and 12 subjects that used the Static Tripod grasp. The static tripod group showed statistically significant changes in the sEMG activity of trapezium and biceps brachii muscles during handwriting when compared to dynamic tripod group's subjects. No significant differences were found in extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor digitorum superficialis activities among the two groups. The findings in this study suggest an increased activity of proximal muscles among subjects using a transitional grasp, indicating potential higher energy expenditure and muscular harm with the maintenance of this motor pattern in handwriting tasks, especially during the progression in academic life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of grasp compatibility on long-term memory for objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canits, Ivonne; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown action potentiation during conceptual processing of manipulable objects. In four experiments, we investigated whether these motor actions also play a role in long-term memory. Participants categorized objects that afforded either a power grasp or a precision grasp as natural or artifact by grasping cylinders with either a power grasp or a precision grasp. In all experiments, responses were faster when the affordance of the object was compatible with the type of grasp response. However, subsequent free recall and recognition memory tasks revealed no better memory for object pictures and object names for which the grasp affordance was compatible with the grasp response. The present results therefore do not support the hypothesis that motor actions play a role in long-term memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bimanual reach to grasp movements after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Britten

    Full Text Available Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in bilateral deficits in arm/hand function reducing functional independence and quality of life. To date little research has been undertaken to investigate control strategies of arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI. This study aimed to investigate unimanual and bimanual coordination in patients with acute cSCI using 3D kinematic analysis as they performed naturalistic reach to grasp actions with one hand, or with both hands together (symmetrical task, and compare this to the movement patterns of uninjured younger and older adults. Eighteen adults with a cSCI (mean 61.61 years with lesions at C4-C8, with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA grade B to D and 16 uninjured younger adults (mean 23.68 years and sixteen uninjured older adults (mean 70.92 years were recruited. Participants with a cSCI produced reach-to-grasp actions which took longer, were slower, and had longer deceleration phases than uninjured participants. These differences were exacerbated during bimanual reach-to-grasp tasks. Maximal grasp aperture was no different between groups, but reached earlier by people with cSCI. Participants with a cSCI were less synchronous than younger and older adults but all groups used the deceleration phase for error correction to end the movement in a synchronous fashion. Overall, this study suggests that after cSCI a level of bimanual coordination is retained. While there seems to be a greater reliance on feedback to produce both the reach to grasp, we observed minimal disruption of the more impaired limb on the less impaired limb. This suggests that bimanual movements should be integrated into therapy.

  13. Sequential phosphorylation of GRASP65 during mitotic Golgi disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danming Tang

    2012-09-01

    GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.

  14. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes ( TAS2Rs ) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  15. ESTIMATION OF GRASPING TORQUE USING ROBUST REACTION TORQUE OBSERVER FOR ROBOTIC FORCEPS

    OpenAIRE

    塚本, 祐介

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— In this paper, the estimation of the grasping torque of robotic forceps without the use of a force/torque sensor is discussed. To estimate the grasping torque when the robotic forceps driven by a rotary motor with a reduction gear grasps an object, a novel robust reaction torque observer is proposed. In the case where a conventional reaction force/torque observer is applied, the estimated torque includes not only the grasping torque, namely the reaction torque, but also t...

  16. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  17. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological markers of motor inhibition during human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Greenhouse, Ian; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies in humans have shown that many behaviors engage processes that suppress excitability within the corticospinal tract. Inhibition of the motor output pathway has been extensively studied in the context of action stopping, where a planned movement needs to be abruptly aborted. Recent TMS work has also revealed markers of motor inhibition during the preparation of movement. Here, we review the evidence for motor inhibition during action stopping and action preparation, focusing on studies that have used TMS to monitor changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway. We discuss how these physiological results have motivated theoretical models of how the brain selects actions, regulates movement initiation and execution, and switches from one state to another. PMID:28341235

  19. Posture of the arm when grasping spheres to place them elsewhere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, W.D.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the infinitely many ways to grasp a spherical object, regularities have been observed in the posture of the arm and the grasp orientation. In the present study, we set out to determine the factors that predict the grasp orientation and the final joint angles of reach-tograsp movements.

  20. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  1. AUTHENTICITY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN FREUD AND HEIDEGGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ ŞTEFAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research theme is the question of the authenticity of human behavior examined from two perspectives: the psychoanalytical one, developed by Sigmund Freud, and the one of philosophy of being embodied by Martin Heidegger. As concerns the Freudian psychoanalysis, I am primarily interested in the conflict among: self, ego, and superego. Because of the requisitions of the supergo, the subject mostly behaves according to the censorships imposed by this psychic instance. The self, dominated by sexuality and aggressiveness, exhibits the pulsional tendency to manifest itself in the conscious behavior of the individual. As regards the Heideggerian endeavor, I am interested in distinguishing between the authentic and non-authentic existences. In Heidegger’s vision, the nonauthentic existence manifests when we are living together with the others in society. This is the horizon of the impersonal “as it is done”, the Heideggerian das Man, which may be understood by the three dimensions: curiosity, ambiguity, and chatter. The authentic existence manifests when the individuals live on their own, in privacy, and acknowledge the fact that their existence develops over a strictly determined time period, the imminent confrontation with their own death coming closer and closer.

  2. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhamre, Hanna; Thorvaldsson, Anna; Enochson, Lars; Walkenström, Pernilla; Lindahl, Anders; Brittberg, Mats; Gatenholm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  3. From human behavior to the spread of mobile phone viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu

    Percolation theory was initiated some 50 years ago as a mathematical framework for the study of random physical processes such as the flow of a fluid through a disordered porous medium. It has been proved to be a remarkably rich theory, with applications from thermodynamic phase transitions to complex networks. In this dissertation percolation theory is used to study the diffusion process of mobile phone viruses. Some methodologies widely used in statistical physics are also applied to uncover the underlying statistical laws of human behavior and simulate the spread of mobile phone viruses in a large population. I find that while Bluetooth viruses can reach all susceptible handsets with time, they spread slowly due to human mobility, offering ample opportunities to deploy antiviral software. In contrast, viruses utilizing multimedia messaging services (MMS) could infect all users in hours, but currently a phase transition on the underlying call graph limits them to only a small fraction of the susceptible users. These results explain the lack of a major mobile virus breakout so far and predict that once a mobile operating system's market share reaches the phase transition point, viruses will pose a serious threat to mobile communications. These studies show how the large datasets and tools of statistical physics can be used to study some specific and important problems, such as the spread of mobile phone viruses.

  4. Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sanosh Kunjalukkal; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Chu, Min-Cheol; Kim, Taik Nam; Cho, Seong Jai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the crack resistance behavior (K(R)) of human enamel in relation to its microstructure. Human molar teeth were precision cut, polished and tested using Vickers micro-indentation at different loads ranging from 0.98 to 9.8 N. Five indentation load levels were considered, 20 indentation cracks for each load level were introduced on the surface of the test specimen (10 indentations per tooth) and their variability was evaluated using Weibull statistics and an empirical model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the crack morphology and propagation mechanisms involved. The results showed that enamel exhibited increasing cracking resistance (K(R)) with increasing load. It was found that the crack propagation mainly depended on the location and the microstructure it encountered. SEM showed the formation of crack bridges and crack deflection near the indentation crack tip. The crack mode was of Palmqvist type even at larger loads of 9.8 N. This was mainly attributed to the large process zone created by the interwoven lamellar rod like microstructure exhibited by the enamel surface. This study shows that there are still considerable prospects for improving dental ceramics and for mimicking the enamel structure developed by nature.

  5. Anticipatory planning and control of grasp positions and forces for dexterous two-digit manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiushi; Zhang, Wei; Santello, Marco

    2010-07-07

    Dexterous object manipulation requires anticipatory control of digit positions and forces. Despite extensive studies on sensorimotor learning of digit forces, how humans learn to coordinate digit positions and forces has never been addressed. Furthermore, the functional role of anticipatory modulation of digit placement to object properties remains to be investigated. We addressed these questions by asking human subjects (12 females, 12 males) to grasp and lift an inverted T-shaped object using precision grip at constrained or self-chosen locations. The task requirement was to minimize object roll during lift. When digit position was not constrained, subjects could have implemented many equally valid digit position-force coordination patterns. However, choice of digit placement might also have resulted in large trial-to-trial variability of digit position, hence challenging the extent to which the CNS could have relied on sensorimotor memories for anticipatory control of digit forces. We hypothesized that subjects would modulate digit placement for optimal force distribution and digit forces as a function of variable digit positions. All subjects learned to minimize object roll within the first three trials, and the unconstrained device was associated with significantly smaller grip forces but larger variability of digit positions. Importantly, however, digit load force modulation compensated for position variability, thus ensuring consistent object roll minimization on each trial. This indicates that subjects learned object manipulation by integrating sensorimotor memories with sensory feedback about digit positions. These results are discussed in the context of motor equivalence and sensorimotor integration of grasp kinematics and kinetics.

  6. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  7. GRASPING THE NATURE OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Deshapriya, J. D. P. [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Bernardi, F. [SpaceDyS, via Mario Giuntini 63, I-56023 Cascina (Pisa) (Italy); Luise, F. De [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via Mentore Maggini snd, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Perozzi, E. [Deimos Space, Strada Buchesti 75-77, Bucharest (Romania); Rossi, A. [IFAC—CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Micheli, M., E-mail: davide.perna@obspm.fr [ESA—NEOCC, ESRIN, via Galileo Galilei 64, I-00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Through their delivery of water and organics, near-Earth objects (NEOs) played an important role in the emergence of life on our planet.  However, they also pose a hazard to the Earth, as asteroid impacts could significantly affect our civilization. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) are those that, in principle, could possibly impact the Earth within the next century, producing major damage. About 1600 PHAs are currently known, from an estimated population of 4700 ± 1450. However, a comprehensive characterization of the PHA physical properties is still missing. Here we present spectroscopic observations of 14 PHAs, which we have used to derive their taxonomy, meteorite analogs, and mineralogy. Combining our results with the literature, we investigated how PHAs are distributed as a function of their dynamical and physical properties. In general, the “carbonaceous” PHAs seem to be particularly threatening, because of their high porosity (limiting the effectiveness of the main deflection techniques that could be used in space) and low inclination and minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) with the Earth (favoring more frequent close approaches). V-type PHAs also present low MOID values, which can produce frequent close approaches (as confirmed by the recent discovery of a limited space weathering on their surfaces). We also identified those specific objects that deserve particular attention because of their extreme rotational properties, internal strength, or possible cometary nature. For PHAs and NEOs in general, we identified a possible anti-correlation between the elongation and the rotational period, in the range of P{sub rot} ≈ 5–80 hr. This would be compatible with the behavior of gravity-dominated aggregates in rotational equilibrium. For periods ≳80–90 hr, such a trend stops, possibly under the influence of the YORP effect and collisions. However, the statistics is very low, and further observational and theoretical work is required

  8. Limited Fine Motor and Grasping Skills in Six-month-old Infants at High Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A.; Ross, Samuel W.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among six-month-olds at increased risk (high-risk) for ASD (N1 = 129; N2 = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between six and ten months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants. PMID:24978128

  9. Limited fine motor and grasping skills in 6-month-old infants at high risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A; Ross, Samuel W; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among 6-month-olds at increased risk (high risk) for ASD (N1  = 129; N2  = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free-play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between 6 and 10 months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  11. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  12. Grounded Object and Grasp Representations in a Cognitive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk

    developed. This work presents a system that is able to learn autonomously about objects and applicable grasps in an unknown environment through exploratory manipulation and to then use this grounded knowledge in a planning setup to address complex tasks. A set of different subsystems is needed to achieve....... The topics are ordered so that we proceed from the more general integration works towards the works describing the individual components. The first chapter gives an overview over the system that is able to learn a grounded visual object representation and a grounded grasp representation. In the following...... part, we describe how this grounding procedures can be embedded in a three cognitive level architecture. Our initial work to use a tactile sensor to enrichen the object representations as well as allow for more complex actions is presented here as well. Since our system is concerned with learning about...

  13. An Aircraft Service Staff Rostering using a Hybrid GRASP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Ip

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft ground service company is responsible for carrying out the regular tasks to aircraft maintenace between their arrival at and departure from the airport. This paper presents the application of a hybrid approach based upon greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP for rostering technical staff such that they are assigned predefined shift patterns. The rostering of staff is posed as an optimization problem with an aim of minimizing the violations of hard and soft constraints. The proposed algorithm iteratively constructs a set of solutions by GRASP. Furthermore, with multi-agent techniques, we efficiently identify an optimal roster with minimal constraint violations and fair to employees. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  15. Modelling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid eRezai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monkey anterior intraparietal area (AIP encodes visual information about three-dimensional object shape that is used to shape the hand for grasping. We modelled shape tuning in visual AIP neurons and its relationship with curvature and gradient information from the caudal intraparietal area (CIP. The main goal was to gain insight into the kinds of shape parameterizations that can account for AIP tuning and that are consistent with both the inputs to AIP and the role of AIP in grasping. We first experimented with superquadric shape parameters. We considered superquadrics because they occupy a role in robotics that is similar to AIP, in that superquadric fits are derived from visual input and used for grasp planning. We also experimented with an alternative shape parameterization that was based on an Isomap dimension reduction of spatial derivatives of depth (i.e. distance from the observer to the object surface. We considered an Isomap-based model because its parameters lacked discontinuities between similar shapes. When we matched the dimension of the Isomap to the number of superquadric parameters, the superquadric model fit the AIP data somewhat more closely. However, higher-dimensional Isomaps provided excellent fits. Also, we found that the Isomap parameters could be approximated much more accurately than superquadric parameters by feedforward neural networks with CIP-like inputs. We conclude that Isomaps, or perhaps alternative dimension reductions of visual inputs to AIP, provide a promising model of AIP electrophysiology data. However (in contrast with superquadrics further work is needed to test whether such shape parameterizations actually provide an effective basis for grasp control.

  16. The Synthesis of Force Closure Grasps in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    TASK U Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UN IT "NMUIERS ~( 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 SI. CONTROLLING OFICE NAME ANO... ARTIFICIAL INThLLIX’ ENCE LABORATORY A. 1. Memo 861 September, 1985 The Synthesis of Force-Closure Grasps In the Plane DTIC ’VeL% ,#ECTE 1 VnDcNguyenU Abstract... Artificial In- telligenmcc Liabomatory of thle Massachuset Is hInsttute of Teclhnolog3 . Support for the Lahoratot * s Artificial Intelligence research is

  17. An Aircraft Service Staff Rostering using a Hybrid GRASP Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Vincent; Wu, Gene Pak Kit; Ip, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The aircraft ground service company is responsible for carrying out the regular tasks to aircraft maintenace between their arrival at and departure from the airport. This paper presents the application of a hybrid approach based upon greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) for rostering technical staff such that they are assigned predefined shift patterns. The rostering of staff is posed as an optimization problem with an aim of minimizing the violations of hard and soft constrain...

  18. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  19. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sircova

    Full Text Available In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP, a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1 The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940 and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2 The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3 The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4 diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index. It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global

  20. Are we real when we fake? Attunement to object weight in natural and pantomimed grasping movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ansuini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that real actions and pantomimed actions tap, at least in part, different neural systems. Inspired by studies showing weight-attunement in real grasps, here we asked whether (and to what extent kinematics of pantomimed reach-to-grasp movement can reveal the weight of the pretended target. To address this question, we instructed participants (n =15 either to grasp or pretend to grasp towards two differently weighted objects, i.e., a light object and heavy object. Using linear discriminant analysis, we then proceeded to classify the weight of the target – either real or pretended – on the basis of the recorded movement patterns. Classification analysis revealed that pantomimed reach-to-grasp movements retained information about object weight, although to a lesser extent than real grasp movements. These results are discussed in relation to the mechanisms underlying the control of real and pantomimed grasping movements.

  1. Writing forces associated with four pencil grasp patterns in grade 4 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Heidi; Carnahan, Heather; Kushki, Azadeh; Polatajko, Helene; Missiuna, Cheryl; Chau, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated differences in handwriting kinetics, speed, and legibility among four pencil grasps after a 10-min copy task. METHOD. Seventy-four Grade 4 students completed a handwriting assessment before and after a copy task. Grip and axial forces were measured with an instrumented stylus and force-sensitive tablet. We used multiple linear regression to analyze the relationship between grasp pattern and grip and axial forces. RESULTS. We found no kinetic differences among grasps, whether considered individually or grouped by the number of fingers on the barrel. However, when grasps were grouped according to the thumb position, the adducted grasps exhibited higher mean grip and axial forces. CONCLUSION. Grip forces were generally similar across the different grasps. Kinetic differences resulting from thumb position seemed to have no bearing on speed and legibility. Interventions for handwriting difficulties should focus more on speed and letter formation than on grasp pattern. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Assessing university students' sexual risk behaviors as predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2018-05-09

    There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A fingertip force prediction model for grasp patterns characterised from the chaotic behaviour of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rinku; Sikdar, Debdeep; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Kumar, C S

    2018-05-19

    A stable grasp is attained through appropriate hand preshaping and precise fingertip forces. Here, we have proposed a method to decode grasp patterns from motor imagery and subsequent fingertip force estimation model with a slippage avoidance strategy. We have developed a feature-based classification of electroencephalography (EEG) associated with imagination of the grasping postures. Chaotic behaviour of EEG for different grasping patterns has been utilised to capture the dynamics of associated motor activities. We have computed correlation dimension (CD) as the feature and classified with "one against one" multiclass support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate between different grasping patterns. The result of the analysis showed varying classification accuracies at different subband levels. Broad categories of grasping patterns, namely, power grasp and precision grasp, were classified at a 96.0% accuracy rate in the alpha subband. Furthermore, power grasp subtypes were classified with an accuracy of 97.2% in the upper beta subband, whereas precision grasp subtypes showed relatively lower 75.0% accuracy in the alpha subband. Following assessment of fingertip force distributions while grasping, a nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) model with proper prediction of fingertip forces was proposed for each grasp pattern. A slippage detection strategy has been incorporated with automatic recalibration of the regripping force. Intention of each grasp pattern associated with corresponding fingertip force model was virtualised in this work. This integrated system can be utilised as the control strategy for prosthetic hand in the future. The model to virtualise motor imagery based fingertip force prediction with inherent slippage correction for different grasp types ᅟ.

  4. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  5. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  6. G3DB: A database of successful and failed grasps with RGB-D images, point clouds, mesh models and gripper parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleinhans, A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available likely values for them, and adapt to actual object properties during the grasp. Another key piece of information that is missing is the object’s 3D shape. Humans and mobile robots perceive the world from a single viewpoint, making the back and often...

  7. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors.

  8. Decoding Grasping Movements from the Parieto-Frontal Reaching Circuit in the Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Koen; Fiave, Prosper Agbesi; Vanduffel, Wim

    2018-04-01

    Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits. Indicative of their established role in grasping, object-specific grasp decoding was found in anterior intraparietal (AIP) area, inferior parietal lobule area PFG and ventral premotor region F5 of the lateral grasping circuit, and primary motor cortex. Importantly, the medial reaching circuit also conveyed robust grasp-specific information, as evidenced by significant decoding in parietal reach regions (particular V6A) and dorsal premotor region F2. These data support the proposed role of dorso-medial "reach" regions in controlling aspects of grasping and demonstrate the value of complementing univariate with more sensitive multivariate analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data in uncovering information coding in the brain.

  9. Force coordination in static manipulation tasks performed using standard and non-standard grasping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Paulo B; Jaric, Slobodan

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated coordination of the hand grip force (GF; normal component of the force acting at the hand-object contact area) and load force (LF; the tangential component) in a variety of grasping techniques and two LF directions. Thirteen participants exerted a continuous sinusoidal LF pattern against externally fixed handles applying both standard (i.e., using either the tips of the digits or the palms; the precision and palm grasps, respectively) and non-standard grasping techniques (using wrists and the dorsal finger areas; the wrist and fist grasp). We hypothesized (1) that the non-standard grasping techniques would provide deteriorated indices of force coordination when compared with the standard ones, and (2) that the nervous system would be able to adjust GF to the differences in friction coefficients of various skin areas used for grasping. However, most of the indices of force coordination remained similar across the tested grasping techniques, while the GF adjustments for the differences in friction coefficients (highest in the palm and the lowest in the fist and wrist grasp) provided inconclusive results. As hypothesized, GF relative to the skin friction was lowest in the precision grasp, but highest in the palm grasp. Therefore, we conclude that (1) the elaborate coordination of GF and LF consistently seen across the standard grasping techniques could be generalized to the non-standard ones, while (2) the ability to adjust GF using the same grasping technique to the differences in friction of various objects cannot be fully generalized to the GF adjustment when different grasps (i.e., hand segments) are used to manipulate the same object. Due to the importance of the studied phenomena for understanding both the functional and neural control aspects of manipulation, future studies should extend the current research to the transient and dynamic tasks, as well as to the general role of friction in our mechanical interactions with the environment.

  10. Visual Field Preferences of Object Analysis for Grasping with One Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada eLe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When we grasp an object using one hand, the opposite hemisphere predominantly guides the motor control of grasp movements (Davare et al. 2007; Rice et al. 2007. However, it is unclear whether visual object analysis for grasp control relies more on inputs (a from the contralateral than the ipsilateral visual field, (b from one dominant visual field regardless of the grasping hand, or (c from both visual fields equally. For bimanual grasping of a single object we have recently demonstrated a visual field preference for the left visual field (Le and Niemeier 2013a, 2013b, consistent with a general right-hemisphere dominance for sensorimotor control of bimanual grasps (Le et al., 2013. But visual field differences have never been tested for unimanual grasping. Therefore, here we asked right-handed participants to fixate to the left or right of an object and then grasp the object either with their right or left hand using a precision grip. We found that participants grasping with their right hand performed better with objects in the right visual field: maximum grip apertures (MGAs were more closely matched to the object width and were smaller than for objects in the left visual field. In contrast, when people grasped with their left hand, preferences switched to the left visual field. What is more, MGA scaling showed greater visual field differences compared to right-hand grasping. Our data suggest that, visual object analysis for unimanual grasping shows a preference for visual information from the ipsilateral visual field, and that the left hemisphere is better equipped to control grasps in both visual fields.

  11. Gaze strategies during visually-guided versus memory-guided grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Steven L; Marotta, Jonathan J

    2013-03-01

    Vision plays a crucial role in guiding motor actions. But sometimes we cannot use vision and must rely on our memory to guide action-e.g. remembering where we placed our eyeglasses on the bedside table when reaching for them with the lights off. Recent studies show subjects look towards the index finger grasp position during visually-guided precision grasping. But, where do people look during memory-guided grasping? Here, we explored the gaze behaviour of subjects as they grasped a centrally placed symmetrical block under open- and closed-loop conditions. In Experiment 1, subjects performed grasps in either a visually-guided task or memory-guided task. The results show that during visually-guided grasping, gaze was first directed towards the index finger's grasp point on the block, suggesting gaze targets future grasp points during the planning of the grasp. Gaze during memory-guided grasping was aimed closer to the blocks' centre of mass from block presentation to the completion of the grasp. In Experiment 2, subjects performed an 'immediate grasping' task in which vision of the block was removed immediately at the onset of the reach. Similar to the visually-guided results from Experiment 1, gaze was primarily directed towards the index finger location. These results support the 2-stream theory of vision in that motor planning with visual feedback at the onset of the movement is driven primarily by real-time visuomotor computations of the dorsal stream, whereas grasping remembered objects without visual feedback is driven primarily by the perceptual memory representations mediated by the ventral stream.

  12. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  13. Real-time vision, tactile cues, and visual form agnosia in pantomimed grasping: removing haptic feedback induces a switch from natural to pantomime-like grasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leslie Whitwell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators study the kinematics of grasping movements (prehension under a variety of conditions to probe visuomotor function in normal and brain-damaged individuals. When patient DF, who suffers from visual form agnosia, performs natural grasps, her in-flight hand aperture is scaled to the widths of targets ('grip scaling' that she cannot discriminate amongst. In contrast, when DF's pantomime grasps are based on a memory of a previewed object, her grip scaling is very poor. Her failure on this task has been interpreted as additional support for the dissociation between the use of object vision for action and object vision for perception. Curiously, however, when DF directs her pantomimed grasps towards a displaced imagined copy of a visible object where her fingers make contact with the surface of the table, her grip scaling does not appear to be particularly poor. In the first of two experiments, we revisit this previous work and show that her grip scaling in this real-time pantomime grasping task does not differ from controls, suggesting that terminal tactile feedback from a proxy of the target can maintain DF's grip scaling. In a second experiment with healthy participants, we tested a recent variant of a grasping task in which no tactile feedback is available (i.e. no haptic feedback by comparing the kinematics of target-directed grasps with and without haptic feedback to those of real-time pantomime grasps without haptic feedback. Compared to natural grasps, removing haptic feedback increased RT, slowed the velocity of the reach, reduced grip aperture, sharpened the slopes relating grip aperture to target width, and reduced the final grip aperture. All of these effects were also observed in the pantomime grasping task. Taken together, these results provide compelling support for the view that removing haptic feedback induces a switch from real-time visual control to one that depends more on visual perception and cognitive supervision.

  14. SEOM's Sentinel-3/OLCI' project CAWA: advanced GRASP aerosol retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, Oleg; litvinov, Pavel; Huang, Xin; Aspetsberger, Michael; Fuertes, David; Brockmann, Carsten; Fischer, Jürgen; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    The CAWA "Advanced Clouds, Aerosols and WAter vapour products for Sentinel-3/OLCI" ESA-SEOM project aims on the development of advanced atmospheric retrieval algorithms for the Sentinel-3/OLCI mission, and is prepared using Envisat/MERIS and Aqua/MODIS datasets. This presentation discusses mainly CAWA aerosol product developments and results. CAWA aerosol retrieval uses recently developed GRASP algorithm (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm described by Dubovik et al. (2014). GRASP derives extended set of atmospheric parameters using multi-pixel concept - a simultaneous fitting of a large group of pixels under additional a priori constraints limiting the time variability of surface properties and spatial variability of aerosol properties. Over land GRASP simultaneously retrieves properties of both aerosol and underlying surface even over bright surfaces. GRAPS doesn't use traditional look-up-tables and performs retrieval as search in continuous space of solution. All radiative transfer calculations are performed as part of the retrieval. The results of comprehensive sensitivity tests, as well as results obtained from real Envisat/MERIS data will be presented. The tests analyze various aspects of aerosol and surface reflectance retrieval accuracy. In addition, the possibilities of retrieval improvement by means of implementing synergetic inversion of a combination of OLCI data with observations by SLSTR are explored. Both the results of numerical tests, as well as the results of processing several years of Envisat/MERIS data illustrate demonstrate reliable retrieval of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and surface BRDF. Observed retrieval issues and advancements will be discussed. For example, for some situations we illustrate possibilities of retrieving aerosol absorption - property that hardly accessible from satellite observations with no multi-angular and polarimetric capabilities.

  15. Identifying relevant feature-action associations for grasping unmodelled objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    content. The method is provided with a large and structured set of visual features, motivated by the visual hierarchy in primates and finds relevant feature action associations automatically. We apply our method in a simulated environment on three different object sets for the case of grasp affordance...... learning. For box objects, we achieve a 0.90 success probability, 0.80 for round objects and up to 0.75 for open objects, when presented with novel objects. In this work, we in particular demonstrate the effect of choosing appropriate feature representations. We demonstrate a significant performance...

  16. Aircraft Route Recovery Based on An Improved GRASP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircrafts maintenance, temporary airport closures are common factors that disrupt normal flight schedule. The aircraft route recovery aims to recover original schedules by some strategies, including flights swaps, and cancellations, which is a NP-hard problem. This paper proposes an improved heuristic procedure based on Greedy Random Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to solve this problem. The effectiveness and high global optimization capability of the heuristic is illustrated through experiments based on large-scale problems. Compared to the original one, it is shown that the improved procedure can find feasible flight recovered schedules with lower cost in a short time.

  17. Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A.; Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Teich, Florian; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. A drawback of active prostheses is that they detach the subject from the produced forces, thereby preventing direct mechanical feedback. This can be compensated by providing somatosensory feedback to the user through mechanical or electrical stimulation, which in turn may improve the utility, sense of embodiment, and thereby increase the acceptance rate. Approach. In this study, we compared a novel approach to closing the loop, namely EMG feedback (emgFB), to classic force feedback (forceFB), using electrotactile interface in a realistic task setup. Eleven intact-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee performed a routine grasping task while receiving emgFB or forceFB. The two feedback types were delivered through the same electrotactile interface, using a mixed spatial/frequency coding to transmit 8 discrete levels of the feedback variable. In emgFB, the stimulation transmitted the amplitude of the processed myoelectric signal generated by the subject (prosthesis input), and in forceFB the generated grasping force (prosthesis output). The task comprised 150 trials of routine grasping at six forces, randomly presented in blocks of five trials (same force). Interquartile range and changes in the absolute error (AE) distribution (magnitude and dispersion) with respect to the target level were used to assess precision and overall performance, respectively. Main results. Relative to forceFB, emgFB significantly improved the precision of myoelectric commands (min/max of the significant levels) for 23%/36% as well as the precision of force control for 12%/32%, in intact-bodied subjects. Also, the magnitude and dispersion of the AE distribution were reduced. The results were similar in the amputee, showing considerable improvements. Significance. Using emgFB, the subjects therefore decreased the uncertainty of the forward pathway. Since there is a correspondence between the EMG and force, where the former anticipates the latter, the emgFB allowed for

  18. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    behaviors believed responsible for these actions. The final category of inefficient energy behaviors analyzed is vehicle use. Vehicles consume 70...transitions to a summary of collected data that includes where energy is consumed and inefficient uses resulting from human behavior . The data is...tropical areas of Southeast Asia were gathered that captured the employment of energy producing and consuming devices as well as related user behaviors

  19. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  20. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  1. Decoding complete reach and grasp actions from local primary motor cortex populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E; Shakhnarovich, Gregory; Yadollahpour, Payman; Mislow, John M K; Black, Michael J; Donoghue, John P

    2010-07-21

    How the activity of populations of cortical neurons generates coordinated multijoint actions of the arm, wrist, and hand is poorly understood. This study combined multielectrode recording techniques with full arm motion capture to relate neural activity in primary motor cortex (M1) of macaques (Macaca mulatta) to arm, wrist, and hand postures during movement. We find that the firing rate of individual M1 neurons is typically modulated by the kinematics of multiple joints and that small, local ensembles of M1 neurons contain sufficient information to reconstruct 25 measured joint angles (representing an estimated 10 functionally independent degrees of freedom). Beyond showing that the spiking patterns of local M1 ensembles represent a rich set of naturalistic movements involving the entire upper limb, the results also suggest that achieving high-dimensional reach and grasp actions with neuroprosthetic devices may be possible using small intracortical arrays like those already being tested in human pilot clinical trials.

  2. Haptically guided grasping. FMRI shows right-hemisphere parietal stimulus encoding, and bilateral dorso-ventral parietal gradients of object- and action-related processing during grasp execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eMarangon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  3. Mena-GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. © 2016 Tang et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Locomotion and Grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fulceri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000 and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS and a parent interview about adaptive skills. Results: Results revealed a substantial impairment in locomotion and grasping skills. Both fine and gross motor skills were significantly correlated with non verbal IQ and adaptive behaviours (p<0.01 but not with chronological age or ADOS scores. Children with weaker motor skills have greater cognitive and adaptive behaviours deficits. Conclusions: Motor development in ASD can be detected at preschool age and locomotion and grasping skills are substantially the most impaired area. These findings support the need to assess motor skills in preschoolers with ASD in addition to other developmental skill areas. Along with the increasingly acknowledged importance of motor skills for subsequent social, cognitive, and communicative development our findings support the need to consider motor intervention as a key area in therapeutic program to improve outcome in preschoolers with ASD.

  5. The moderating role of human values in planned behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Y.; Thøgersen, John; Ruan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    and filled out a questionnaire outside upscale supermarkets in Guangzhou. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses about personal values’ moderating effect in the theory of planned behavior. Findings – Self-transcendence values moderate the relationship between two antecedents...... and behavioral intentions: the attitude towards buying organic food and perceived behavioral control. Both of these antecedents have a stronger impact on intentions among consumers with strong selftranscendence values than among consumers with weak ones. Research limitations/implications – The study is based...

  6. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  8. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  9. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Markus; Thomas, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    ... to interpersonal consistency and interpersonal conformity here. These sources of a systematic deviation from the standard model of the homo oeconomicus result in systematic weaknesses of perception and deviations of behavior...

  10. Human Behavioral Representations with Realistic Personality and Cultural Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary, Wayne; Le Mentec, Jean-Christopher; Miller, Lynn; Read, Stephen; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2005-01-01

    ...) with pre-defined and specific personality traits and cultural characteristics. This capability meets a current and growing need for human models that exhibit personality and cultural variability...

  11. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  12. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior : A narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Both, S.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  13. Human fMRI Reveals That Delayed Action Re-Recruits Visual Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D.; Culham, Jody C.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to rememb...

  14. A comparison of antemortem tooth loss in human hunter-gatherers and non-human catarrhines: implications for the identification of behavioral evolution in the human fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Cassandra C

    2013-06-01

    Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil hominin specimens with severe antemortem tooth loss are often regarded as evidence for the precocious evolution of human-like behaviors, such as conspecific care or cooking, in ancient hominin species. The goal of this project was to ask whether the theoretical association between antemortem tooth loss and uniquely human behaviors is supported empirically in a large skeletal sample of human hunter-gatherers, chimpanzees, orangutans, and baboons. Binomial regression modeling in a Bayesian framework allows for the investigation of the effects of tooth class, genus, age, and sex on the likelihood of tooth loss. The results strongly suggest that modern humans experience more antemortem tooth loss than non-human primates and identify age in years as an important predictor. Once age is accounted for, the difference between the humans and the closest non-human genus (chimpanzees) is less pronounced; humans are still more likely on average to experience antemortem tooth loss though 95% uncertainty envelopes around the average prediction for each genus show some overlap. These analyses support theoretical links between antemortem tooth loss and modern human characteristics; humans' significantly longer life history and a positive correlation between age and antemortem tooth loss explain, in part, the reason why humans are more likely to experience tooth loss than non-human primates, but the results do not exclude behavioral differences as a contributing factor. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  16. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the under......The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified...

  17. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior.

  18. Sex-related variation in human behavior and the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Male and female fetuses differ in testosterone concentrations beginning as early as week 8 of gestation. This early hormone difference exerts permanent influences on brain development and behavior. Contemporary research shows that hormones are particularly important for the development of sex-typical childhood behavior, including toy choices, which until recently were thought to result solely from sociocultural influences. Prenatal testosterone exposure also appears to influence sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as some, but not all, sex-related cognitive, motor and personality characteristics. Neural mechanisms responsible for these hormone-induced behavioral outcomes are beginning to be identified, and current evidence suggests involvement of the hypothalamus and amygdala, as well as interhemispheric connectivity, and cortical areas involved in visual processing. PMID:20724210

  19. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  20. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  1. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  2. Reach-to-grasp movement as a minimization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Feldman, Anatol G

    2010-02-01

    It is known that hand transport and grasping are functionally different but spatially coordinated components of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements. As an extension of this notion, we suggested that body segments involved in RTG movements are controlled as a coherent ensemble by a global minimization process associated with the necessity for the hand to reach the motor goal. Different RTG components emerge following this process without pre-programming. Specifically, the minimization process may result from the tendency of neuromuscular elements to diminish the spatial gap between the actual arm-hand configuration and its virtual (referent) configuration specified by the brain. The referent configuration is specified depending on the object shape, localization, and orientation. Since the minimization process is gradual, it can be interrupted and resumed following mechanical perturbations, at any phase during RTG movements, including hand closure. To test this prediction of the minimization hypothesis, we asked subjects to reach and grasp a cube placed within the reach of the arm. Vision was prevented during movement until the hand returned to its initial position. As predicted, by arresting wrist motion at different points of hand transport in randomly selected trials, it was possible to halt changes in hand aperture at any phase, not only during hand opening but also during hand closure. Aperture changes resumed soon after the wrist was released. Another test of the minimization hypothesis was made in RTG movements to an object placed beyond the reach of the arm. It has previously been shown (Rossi et al. in J Physiol 538:659-671, 2002) that in such movements, the trunk motion begins to contribute to hand transport only after a critical phase when the shifts in the referent arm configuration have finished (at about the time when hand velocity is maximal). The minimization rule suggests that when the virtual contribution of the arm to hand transport is completed

  3. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  4. Predictive Models of Procedural Human Supervisory Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    821708, Brest , France. Page 139 of 150 Boussemart, Y. and M. L. Cummings (2010). "Predicting Supervisory Control Behavior with Hidden Markov Models...Strategies for Strike Planning. COGIS 2006 - Cognitive Systems with Interactive Sensors, Paris . Burges, C. (1998). "A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines

  5. Human Behavior Drift Detection in a Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Andrea; Trofimova, Anna A; Matteucci, Matteo; Salice, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The proposed system aims at elderly people independent living by providing an early indicator of habits changes which might be relevant for a diagnosis of diseases. It relies on Hidden Markov Model to describe the behavior observing sensors data, while Likelihood Ratio Test gives the variation within different time periods.

  6. Genetic variation and effects on human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R. A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed

  7. Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform SocialConstructionis Social constructionism is a school of thought Peter L...HUMAN, SOCIAL , CULTURAL BEHAVIOR (HSCB) MODELING WORKSHOP I: CHARACTERIZING THE CAPABILITY NEEDS FOR HSCB MODELING FINAL REPORT... Social , Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  9. Statistical Models for Predicting Threat Detection From Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Timothy; Amon, Mary J.; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2018-01-01

    Users must regularly distinguish between secure and insecure cyber platforms in order to preserve their privacy and safety. Mouse tracking is an accessible, high-resolution measure that can be leveraged to understand the dynamics of perception, categorization, and decision-making in threat detection. Researchers have begun to utilize measures like mouse tracking in cyber security research, including in the study of risky online behavior. However, it remains an empirical question to what extent real-time information about user behavior is predictive of user outcomes and demonstrates added value compared to traditional self-report questionnaires. Participants navigated through six simulated websites, which resembled either secure “non-spoof” or insecure “spoof” versions of popular websites. Websites also varied in terms of authentication level (i.e., extended validation, standard validation, or partial encryption). Spoof websites had modified Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and authentication level. Participants chose to “login” to or “back” out of each website based on perceived website security. Mouse tracking information was recorded throughout the task, along with task performance. After completing the website identification task, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their security knowledge and degree of familiarity with the websites simulated during the experiment. Despite being primed to the possibility of website phishing attacks, participants generally showed a bias for logging in to websites versus backing out of potentially dangerous sites. Along these lines, participant ability to identify spoof websites was around the level of chance. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic models were used to compare the accuracy of two-factor (i.e., website security and encryption level), survey-based (i.e., security knowledge and website familiarity), and real-time measures (i.e., mouse tracking) in predicting risky online behavior during phishing

  10. Statistical Models for Predicting Threat Detection From Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kelley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Users must regularly distinguish between secure and insecure cyber platforms in order to preserve their privacy and safety. Mouse tracking is an accessible, high-resolution measure that can be leveraged to understand the dynamics of perception, categorization, and decision-making in threat detection. Researchers have begun to utilize measures like mouse tracking in cyber security research, including in the study of risky online behavior. However, it remains an empirical question to what extent real-time information about user behavior is predictive of user outcomes and demonstrates added value compared to traditional self-report questionnaires. Participants navigated through six simulated websites, which resembled either secure “non-spoof” or insecure “spoof” versions of popular websites. Websites also varied in terms of authentication level (i.e., extended validation, standard validation, or partial encryption. Spoof websites had modified Uniform Resource Locator (URL and authentication level. Participants chose to “login” to or “back” out of each website based on perceived website security. Mouse tracking information was recorded throughout the task, along with task performance. After completing the website identification task, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their security knowledge and degree of familiarity with the websites simulated during the experiment. Despite being primed to the possibility of website phishing attacks, participants generally showed a bias for logging in to websites versus backing out of potentially dangerous sites. Along these lines, participant ability to identify spoof websites was around the level of chance. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic models were used to compare the accuracy of two-factor (i.e., website security and encryption level, survey-based (i.e., security knowledge and website familiarity, and real-time measures (i.e., mouse tracking in predicting risky online behavior

  11. Statistical Models for Predicting Threat Detection From Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Timothy; Amon, Mary J; Bertenthal, Bennett I

    2018-01-01

    Users must regularly distinguish between secure and insecure cyber platforms in order to preserve their privacy and safety. Mouse tracking is an accessible, high-resolution measure that can be leveraged to understand the dynamics of perception, categorization, and decision-making in threat detection. Researchers have begun to utilize measures like mouse tracking in cyber security research, including in the study of risky online behavior. However, it remains an empirical question to what extent real-time information about user behavior is predictive of user outcomes and demonstrates added value compared to traditional self-report questionnaires. Participants navigated through six simulated websites, which resembled either secure "non-spoof" or insecure "spoof" versions of popular websites. Websites also varied in terms of authentication level (i.e., extended validation, standard validation, or partial encryption). Spoof websites had modified Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and authentication level. Participants chose to "login" to or "back" out of each website based on perceived website security. Mouse tracking information was recorded throughout the task, along with task performance. After completing the website identification task, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their security knowledge and degree of familiarity with the websites simulated during the experiment. Despite being primed to the possibility of website phishing attacks, participants generally showed a bias for logging in to websites versus backing out of potentially dangerous sites. Along these lines, participant ability to identify spoof websites was around the level of chance. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic models were used to compare the accuracy of two-factor (i.e., website security and encryption level), survey-based (i.e., security knowledge and website familiarity), and real-time measures (i.e., mouse tracking) in predicting risky online behavior during phishing attacks

  12. Responses of mirror neurons in area F5 to hand and tool grasping observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Magali J.; Caruana, Fausto; Jezzini, Ahmad; Escola, Ludovic; Intskirveli, Irakli; Grammont, Franck; Gallese, Vittorio; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that discharge both during the execution of a motor act and during observation of the same or similar motor act performed by another individual. However, the extent to which mirror neurons coding a motor act with a specific goal (e.g., grasping) might also respond to the observation of a motor act having the same goal, but achieved with artificial effectors, is not yet established. In the present study, we addressed this issue by recording mirror neurons from the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) of two monkeys trained to grasp objects with pliers. Neuron activity was recorded during the observation and execution of grasping performed with the hand, with pliers and during observation of an experimenter spearing food with a stick. The results showed that virtually all neurons responding to the observation of hand grasping also responded to the observation of grasping with pliers and, many of them to the observation of spearing with a stick. However, the intensity and pattern of the response differed among conditions. Hand grasping observation determined the earliest and the strongest discharge, while pliers grasping and spearing observation triggered weaker responses at longer latencies. We conclude that F5 grasping mirror neurons respond to the observation of a family of stimuli leading to the same goal. However, the response pattern depends upon the similarity between the observed motor act and the one executed by the hand, the natural motor template. PMID:20577726

  13. Development of Reaching and Grasping Skills in Infants with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of such intrinsic factors as age and Down syndrome on the development of reaching and grasping skills and on overall gross motor skill, and to test the influence of the…

  14. Software for relativistic atomic structure theory: The grasp project at oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, F.A.; Grant, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    GRASP is an acronym for General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The objective of the GRASP project at Oxford is to produce user-friendly state-of-the-art multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) software packages for rleativistic atomic structure theory

  15. GRASP55 Senses Glucose Deprivation through O-GlcNAcylation to Promote Autophagosome-Lysosome Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Leibin; Lak, Behnam; Li, Jie; Jokitalo, Eija; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2018-04-23

    The Golgi apparatus is the central hub for protein trafficking and glycosylation in the secretory pathway. However, how the Golgi responds to glucose deprivation is so far unknown. Here, we report that GRASP55, the Golgi stacking protein located in medial- and trans-Golgi cisternae, is O-GlcNAcylated by the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT under growth conditions. Glucose deprivation reduces GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. De-O-GlcNAcylated GRASP55 forms puncta outside of the Golgi area, which co-localize with autophagosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes. GRASP55 depletion reduces autophagic flux and results in autophagosome accumulation, while expression of an O-GlcNAcylation-deficient mutant of GRASP55 accelerates autophagic flux. Biochemically, GRASP55 interacts with LC3-II on the autophagosomes and LAMP2 on late endosomes/lysosomes and functions as a bridge between LC3-II and LAMP2 for autophagosome and lysosome fusion; this function is negatively regulated by GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. Therefore, GRASP55 senses glucose levels through O-GlcNAcylation and acts as a tether to facilitate autophagosome maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Reaching and Grasping skills in infants with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Campos, A.C.; Rocha, N.A.C.F.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of such intrinsic factors as age and Down syndrome on the development of reaching and grasping skills and on overall

  17. A GRASP algorithm for the container stowage slot planning problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parreno, Francisco; Pacino, Dario; Alvarez-Valdes, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    in clusters along the vessel. For each of those clusters a specific position for each container must be found. Compared to previous studies, we have introduced two new features: the explicit handling of rolled out containers and the inclusion of separations rules for dangerous cargo. We present a novel......This work presents a generalization of the Slot Planning Problem which raises when the liner shipping industry needs to plan the placement of containers within a vessel (stowage planning). State-of-the-art stowage planning relies on a heuristic decomposition where containers are first distributed...... integer programming formulation and a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) to solve the problem. The approach is able to find high-quality solution within 1 s. We also provide comparison with the state-of-the-art on an existing and a new set of benchmark instances. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd...

  18. Grasp Assist Device with Shared Tendon Actuator Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bergelin, Bryan J. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist device includes a glove with first and second tendon-driven fingers, a tendon, and a sleeve with a shared tendon actuator assembly. Tendon ends are connected to the respective first and second fingers. The actuator assembly includes a drive assembly having a drive axis and a tendon hook. The tendon hook, which defines an arcuate surface slot, is linearly translatable along the drive axis via the drive assembly, e.g., a servo motor thereof. The flexible tendon is routed through the surface slot such that the surface slot divides the flexible tendon into two portions each terminating in a respective one of the first and second ends. The drive assembly may include a ball screw and nut. An end cap of the actuator assembly may define two channels through which the respective tendon portions pass. The servo motor may be positioned off-axis with respect to the drive axis.

  19. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; DeJong, Stacey L; Cherry, Kendra M; Lang, Catherine E

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in poststroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with poststroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared with the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment.

  20. Virtual Control of Prosthetic Hand Based on Grasping Patterns and Estimated Force from Semg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoelectric prosthetic hands aim to serve upper limb amputees. The myoelectric control of the hand grasp action is a kind of real-time or online method. Thus it is of great necessity to carry on a study of online prosthetic hand electrical control. In this paper, the strategy of simultaneous EMG decoding of grasping patterns and grasping force was realized by controlling a virtual multi-degree-freedom prosthetic hand and a real one-degree-freedom prosthetic hand simultaneously. The former realized the grasping patterns from the recognition of the sEMG pattern. The other implemented the grasping force from sEMG force decoding. The results show that the control method is effective and feasible.

  1. A Grasp-Pose Generation Method Based on Gaussian Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM-based grasp-pose generation method is proposed in this paper. Through offline training, the GMM is set up and used to depict the distribution of the robot's reachable orientations. By dividing the robot's workspace into small 3D voxels and training the GMM for each voxel, a look-up table covering all the workspace is built with the x, y and z positions as the index and the GMM as the entry. Through the definition of Task Space Regions (TSR, an object's feasible grasp poses are expressed as a continuous region. With the GMM, grasp poses can be preferentially sampled from regions with high reachability probabilities in the online grasp-planning stage. The GMM can also be used as a preliminary judgement of a grasp pose's reachability. Experiments on both a simulated and a real robot show the superiority of our method over the existing method.

  2. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  3. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  4. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  5. Associative learning and the control of human dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2007-07-01

    Most of our food likes and disliked are learned. Relevant forms of associative learning have been identified in animals. However, observations of the same associative processes are relatively scarce in humans. The first section of this paper outlines reasons why this might be the case. Emphasis is placed on recent research exploring individual differences and the importance or otherwise of hunger and contingency awareness. The second section briefly considers the effect of learning on meal size, and the author revisits the question of how learned associations might come to influence energy intake in humans.

  6. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Tropf, Felix C; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F; Chasman, Daniel I; Nolte, Ilja M; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F; McMahon, George; Meddens, S Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; Faul, Jessica D; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; de Haan, Hugoline G; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Ring, Susan M; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F; Zondervan, Krina T; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F; Lee, James J; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  7. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; De Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Van Der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; De Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; De Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrikke; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; De Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Roy Thurik, A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior - age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) - has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  8. Methodological and reporting quality in laboratory studies of human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Bevelander, K.E.; Field, M.; Jones, A.

    2018-01-01

    The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human

  9. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  10. A Human-Centered Smart Home System with Wearable-Sensor Behavior Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianting; Liu, Ting; Shen, Chao; Wu, Hongyu; Liu, Wenyi; Su, Man; Chen, Siyun; Jia, Zhanpei

    2016-11-17

    Smart home has recently attracted much research interest owing to its potential in improving the quality of human life. How to obtain user's demand is the most important and challenging task for appliance optimal scheduling in smart home, since it is highly related to user's unpredictable behavior. In this paper, a human-centered smart home system is proposed to identify user behavior, predict their demand and schedule the household appliances. Firstly, the sensor data from user's wearable devices are monitored to profile user's full-day behavior. Then, the appliance-demand matrix is constructed to predict user's demand on home environment, which is extracted from the history of appliance load data and user behavior. Two simulations are designed to demonstrate user behavior identification, appliance-demand matrix construction and strategy of appliance optimal scheduling generation.

  11. Behavioral Responses to Epidemics in an Online Experiment: Using Virtual Diseases to Study Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a ‘self-protection fatigue’ effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time. PMID:23326360

  12. Motion Segments Decomposition of RGB-D Sequences for Human Behavior Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Devanne , Maxime; Berretti , Stefano; Pala , Pietro; Wannous , Hazem; Daoudi , Mohamed; Bimbo , Alberto ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a framework for analyzing and understanding human behavior from depth videos. The proposed solution first employs shape analysis of the human pose across time to decompose the full motion into short temporal segments representing elementary motions. Then, each segment is characterized by human motion and depth appearance around hand joints to describe the change in pose of the body and the interaction with objects. Finally , the sequence of te...

  13. Behavioral Correlations Associated with Fear of Humans Differ between Rural and Urban Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Carrete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies are fundamental to understanding how animal populations face global change. Although much research has centered upon the idea that individuals can adaptively modify their behaviors to cope with environmental changes, recent evidence supports the existence of individual differences in suites of correlated behaviors. However, little is known about how selection can change these behavioral structures in populations subject to different environmental constraints. The colonization of urban environments by birds has been related to their inter-individual variability in their fear of humans, measured as their flight initiation distance to an approaching human, such that urban life would select for fearless individuals. This behavior has been demonstrated to be heritable and highly consistent throughout the adult lifespan of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia. Here, we experimentally assessed, in field conditions, whether urban life involves changes in other behaviors such as exploration and antipredatory response through their correlation with fear of humans. Breeding urban birds were more fearless toward humans and were quicker to explore a new food resource and defend their nests from predators than their rural counterparts. However, while fear of humans positively correlated with exploration and antipredatory response in the rural population, it only correlated with exploration in the urban one. Predator release in urban environments could relax—and even counterselect—antipredator behaviors, thus dismantling the behavioral correlation existent in natural populations. Altogether, our results suggest that rural and urban animals may differ in some behavioral aspects, may be as a consequence of the selection processes acting during the colonization of urban areas as well as the different ecological environments encountered by individuals.

  14. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology. PMID:27966546

  15. To drink or grasp? How bullet ants ( Paraponera clavata) differentiate between sugars and proteins in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer; Larson, Hannah K.; Tellez, Peter; McGlynn, Terrence P.

    2013-12-01

    Flexibility in behavior can increase the likelihood that a forager may respond optimally in a fluctuating environment. Nevertheless, physiological or neuronal constraints may result in suboptimal responses to stimuli. We observed foraging workers of the giant tropical ant (also referred to as the "bullet ant"), Paraponera clavata, as they reacted to liquid solutions with varying concentrations of sugar and protein. We show that when protein/sucrose concentration is high, many bullet ants will often try to grasp at the droplet, rather than gather it by drinking. Because P. clavata actively hunt for prey, fixed action patterns and rapid responses to protein may be adaptively important, regardless of the medium in which it is presented. We conclude that, in P. clavata, food-handling decisions are made in response to the nutrient content of the food rather than the texture of the food. Further, we suggest that colonies that maintain a mixture of individuals with consistent fixed or flexible behavioral responses to food-handling decisions may be better adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions, and we propose future studies that could address this.

  16. Sex-linked strategies of human reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, K; Urribarri, D; Chacon, G C; Diaz, G; Torres, A; Herzog, G

    1993-01-01

    We present data on fertility characteristics in the Venezuelan population for each sex separately, allowing a detailed comparative analysis of the variance in fertility between males and females. We show that the fertility distribution for both sexes is discontinuous, that the average female has a larger number of offspring per individual than the average male, and that highly fertile males outnumber highly fertile females so that the total number of offspring produced by males and females is balanced. Results indicate that a few males are responsible for a relative higher fertility of the average female and that interactions between polyandric females with monogamic and polygynic males are common. Among the Yanomami, a relatively unacculturated hunter-gatherer-horticulturist tribe, similar differences in fertility distribution of both sexes are apparent. The data suggest that human populations contain statistically distinct subpopulations, with different reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of complex interactions among human populations which are not evident from the study of individuals or groups.

  17. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...

  18. Cognitive genomics: Linking genes to behavior in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Konopka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.

  19. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  20. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    Full Text Available The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG and one known (rs8679684 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104 and Border Collie (N = 103 dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  1. On Understanding the Human Nature of Good and Bad Behavior in Business: A Behavioral Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe numerous scandals in business, such as those at AIG, Tyco, WorldCom, Enron and Ahold, have made all of us concerned about the emergence of unethical and irresponsible behavior in organizations. Such widespread corruption in business and politics has, as result, prompted a growth of

  2. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    was applied to detect people. To assess the quality of the trajectories generated by the CV software, a sample of Ground Truth (GT) trajectories were digitized manually for all individuals simultaneously present in the scene in parts of the video recorded. The manual digitization was done in the T......-Analyst software developed at Lund University. Tracks of people walking alone or in social groups of different sizes were recorded, as well as people waiting, people having a conversation, and people dragging their bikes or pushing prams or wheelchairs. The tracks of ‘facers’ working for a charity organization...... will be to develop advanced methods in GIS to enable extraction of behavioral parameters for different classes of tracks that can be used to calibrate models of pedestrian movement. Our approach to tracking urban public life should be seen as a supplement to the traditional qualitative and intuitive manual...

  3. Bounded rationality and risk perception in human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)

  4. Contrasting Web Robot and Human Behaviors with Network Models

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kyle; Doran, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The web graph is a commonly-used network representation of the hyperlink structure of a website. A network of similar structure to the web graph, which we call the session graph has properties that reflect the browsing habits of the agents in the web server logs. In this paper, we apply session graphs to compare the activity of humans against web robots or crawlers. Understanding these properties will enable us to improve models of HTTP traffic, which can be used to predict and generate reali...

  5. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  6. Grasps Recognition and Evaluation of Stroke Patients for Supporting Rehabilitation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Leon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke survivors often suffer impairments on their wrist and hand. Robot-mediated rehabilitation techniques have been proposed as a way to enhance conventional therapy, based on intensive repeated movements. Amongst the set of activities of daily living, grasping is one of the most recurrent. Our aim is to incorporate the detection of grasps in the machine-mediated rehabilitation framework so that they can be incorporated into interactive therapeutic games. In this study, we developed and tested a method based on support vector machines for recognizing various grasp postures wearing a passive exoskeleton for hand and wrist rehabilitation after stroke. The experiment was conducted with ten healthy subjects and eight stroke patients performing the grasping gestures. The method was tested in terms of accuracy and robustness with respect to intersubjects’ variability and differences between different grasps. Our results show reliable recognition while also indicating that the recognition accuracy can be used to assess the patients’ ability to consistently repeat the gestures. Additionally, a grasp quality measure was proposed to measure the capabilities of the stroke patients to perform grasp postures in a similar way than healthy people. These two measures can be potentially used as complementary measures to other upper limb motion tests.

  7. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Morita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces—such as metal, paper, film, and so on—thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects—aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block—considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  8. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Nobutomo; Nogami, Hirofumi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2018-01-23

    The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV) and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces-such as metal, paper, film, and so on-thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV) by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects-aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block-considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  9. Motivational state, reward value, and Pavlovian cues differentially affect skilled forelimb grasping in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clauser, Larissa; Kasper, Hansjörg; Schwab, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in previous studies. In rodents, skilled motor performance has been successfully modeled with the skilled grasping task, in which animals use their forepaw to grasp for sugar pellet rewards through a narrow window. Using sugar pellets, the skilled grasping task is inherently tied to motivation processes. In the present study, we performed three experiments modulating animals’ motivation during skilled grasping by changing the motivational state, presenting different reward value ratios, and displaying Pavlovian stimuli. We found in all three studies that motivation affected the speed of skilled grasping movements, with the strongest effects seen due to motivational state and reward value. Furthermore, accuracy of the movement, measured in success rate, showed a strong dependence on motivational state as well. Pavlovian cues had only minor effects on skilled grasping, but results indicate an inverse Pavlovian-instrumental transfer effect on movement speed. These findings have broad implications considering the increasing use of skilled grasping in studies of motor system structure, function, and recovery after injuries. PMID:27194796

  10. A novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects using C-shape configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Meijer, Jonathan; Wisse, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    Increasing grasping efficiency is very important for the robots to grasp unknown objects especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. To achieve this, a new algorithm is proposed based on the C-shape configuration. Specifically, the geometric model of the used under-actuated gripper is approximated as a C-shape. To obtain an appropriate graspable position, this C-shape configuration is applied to fit geometric model of an unknown object. The geometric model of unknown object is constructed by using a single-view partial point cloud. To examine the algorithm using simulations, a comparison of the commonly used motion planners is made. The motion planner with the highest number of solved runs, lowest computing time and the shortest path length is chosen to execute grasps found by this grasping algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that excellent grasping efficiency is achieved by adopting our algorithm. To validate this algorithm, experiment tests are carried out using a UR5 robot arm and an under-actuated gripper. The experimental results show that steady grasping actions are obtained. Hence, this research provides a novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects.

  11. Monocular-Based 6-Degree of Freedom Pose Estimation Technology for Robotic Intelligent Grasping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are expected to undertake ever more advanced tasks in the modern manufacturing industry, such as intelligent grasping, in which robots should be capable of recognizing the position and orientation of a part before grasping it. In this paper, a monocular-based 6-degree of freedom (DOF pose estimation technology to enable robots to grasp large-size parts at informal poses is proposed. A camera was mounted on the robot end-flange and oriented to measure several featured points on the part before the robot moved to grasp it. In order to estimate the part pose, a nonlinear optimization model based on the camera object space collinearity error in different poses is established, and the initial iteration value is estimated with the differential transformation. Measuring poses of the camera are optimized based on uncertainty analysis. Also, the principle of the robotic intelligent grasping system was developed, with which the robot could adjust its pose to grasp the part. In experimental tests, the part poses estimated with the method described in this paper were compared with those produced by a laser tracker, and results show the RMS angle and position error are about 0.0228° and 0.4603 mm. Robotic intelligent grasping tests were also successfully performed in the experiments.

  12. A classification scheme of erroneous behaviors for human error probability estimations based on simulator data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2017-01-01

    Because it has been indicated that empirical data supporting the estimates used in human reliability analysis (HRA) is insufficient, several databases have been constructed recently. To generate quantitative estimates from human reliability data, it is important to appropriately sort the erroneous behaviors found in the reliability data. Therefore, this paper proposes a scheme to classify the erroneous behaviors identified by the HuREX (Human Reliability data Extraction) framework through a review of the relevant literature. A case study of the human error probability (HEP) calculations is conducted to verify that the proposed scheme can be successfully implemented for the categorization of the erroneous behaviors and to assess whether the scheme is useful for the HEP quantification purposes. Although continuously accumulating and analyzing simulator data is desirable to secure more reliable HEPs, the resulting HEPs were insightful in several important ways with regard to human reliability in off-normal conditions. From the findings of the literature review and the case study, the potential and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. - Highlights: • A taxonomy of erroneous behaviors is proposed to estimate HEPs from a database. • The cognitive models, procedures, HRA methods, and HRA databases were reviewed. • HEPs for several types of erroneous behaviors are calculated as a case study.

  13. Aging and human sexual behavior: biocultural perspectives - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A novel device for grasping assessment during functional tasks: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolinne Portela Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and first results obtained in a study with a novel device that allows the analysis of grasping quality. Such a device is able to acquire motion information of upper limbs allowing kinetic of manipulation analysis as well. A pilot experiment was carried out with six groups of typically developing children aged between 5 and 10 years old, with 7-8 children in each one. The device, designed to emulate a glass, has an optical system composed by one digital camera and a special convex mirror that together allow image acquisition of grasping hand posture when it is grasped and manipulated. It also carries an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU that captures motion data as acceleration, orientation, and angular velocities. The novel instrumented object is used in our approach to evaluate functional tasks performance in quantitative terms. During tests each child was invited to grasp the cylindrical part of the device that was placed on the top of a table, simulating the task of drinking a glass of water. In the sequence the child was oriented to transport the device back to the starting position and release it. The task was repeated 3 times for each child. A grasping hand posture evaluation is presented as an example to evaluate grasping quality. Additionally, motion patterns obtained with the triasl performed with the different groups are presented and discussed. This device is attractive due to its portable characteristics, the small size and its ability to evaluate grasping form. The results may be also useful to analyze the evolution of the rehabilitation process through reach-to-grasping movement and the grasping images analysis.

  16. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design

  17. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  18. GRASP [GRound-Water Adjunct Sensitivity Program]: A computer code to perform post-SWENT [simulator for water, energy, and nuclide transport] adjoint sensitivity analysis of steady-state ground-water flow: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.L.; RamaRao, B.S.; McNeish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    GRASP (GRound-Water Adjunct Senstivity Program) computes measures of the behavior of a ground-water system and the system's performance for waste isolation, and estimates the sensitivities of these measures to system parameters. The computed measures are referred to as ''performance measures'' and include weighted squared deviations of computed and observed pressures or heads, local Darcy velocity components and magnitudes, boundary fluxes, and travel distance and time along travel paths. The sensitivities are computed by the adjoint method and are exact derivatives of the performance measures with respect to the parameters for the modeled system, taken about the assumed parameter values. GRASP presumes steady-state, saturated grondwater flow, and post-processes the results of a multidimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) finite-difference flow code. This document describes the mathematical basis for the model, the algorithms and solution techniques used, and the computer code design. The implementation of GRASP is verified with simple one- and two-dimensional flow problems, for which analytical expressions of performance measures and sensitivities are derived. The linkage between GRASP and multidimensional finite-difference flow codes is described. This document also contains a detailed user's manual. The use of GRASP to evaluate nuclear waste disposal issues has been emphasized throughout the report. The performance measures and their sensitivities can be employed to assist in directing data collection programs, expedite model calibration, and objectively determine the sensitivity of projected system performance to parameters

  19. Complex modulation of fingertip forces during precision grasp and lift after theta burst stimulation over the dorsal premotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drljačić Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adaptive control and fingertip force synchronization of precise grasp stability during unimanual manipulation of small objects represents an illustrative example of highly fractionated movements that are foundation of fine motor control. It is assumed that this process is controlled by several motor areas of the frontal lobe, particularly applicable to the primary motor (M-1 and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd. Aiming to examine the role of PMd during fine coordination of fingertip forces we applied theta burst repetitive magnetic stimulation (TBS to disrupt neural processing in that cortical area. Methods. Using a single-blind, randomized, crossover design, 10 healthy subjects (29 ± 3.9 years received single sessions of continuous TBS (cTBS600, intermittent TBS (iTBS600, or sham stimulation, separate from one another at least one week, over the PMd region of dominant hemisphere. Precision grasp and lift were assessed by instrumented device, recording grip (G and load (L forces, during three manipulation tasks (ramp-and-hold, oscillation force producing and simple lifting tasks, with each hand separately, before and after interventions. Results. We observed the improvement of task performance related to constant error (CE in oscillation task with the dominant hand (DH after the iTBS (p = 0.009. On the contrary, the cTBS reduced variable error (VE for non-dominant hand (NH, p = 0.005. Considering force coordination we found that iTBS worsened variables for NH (G/L ratio, p = 0.017; cross-correlation of the G and L, p = 0.047; Gain, p = 0.047. Conclusion. These results demonstrate the ability of TBS to modulate fingertip forces during precision grasping and lifting, when applied over PMd. These findings support the role of PMd in human motor control and forces generation required to hold small objects stable in our hands.

  20. Statistical Identification of Composed Visual Features Indicating High Likelihood of Grasp Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Bodenhagen, Leon; Krüger, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    configurations of three 3D surface features that predict grasping actions with a high success probability. The strategy is based on first computing spatial relations between visual entities and secondly, exploring the cross-space of these relational feature space and grasping actions. The data foundation...... for identifying such indicative feature constellations is generated in a simulated environment wherein visual features are extracted and a large amount of grasping actions are evaluated through dynamic simulation. Based on the identified feature constellations, we validate by applying the acquired knowledge...

  1. Organizational behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Culture conditions that favor rapid multiplication of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC) also support long-term serial propagation of the cells. This is routinely achieved when HUV-EC are grown in Medium 199 (M-199) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) and endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), on a human fibronectin (HFN) matrix. The HUV-EC can shift from a proliferative to an organized state when the in vitro conditions are changed from those favoring low density proliferation to those supporting high density survival. When ECGF and HFN are omitted, cultures fail to achieve confluence beyond the first or second passage: the preconfluent cultures organize into tubular structures after 4-6 wk. Some tubes become grossly visible and float in the culture medium, remaining tethered to the plastic dish at either end of the tube. On an ultrastructural level, the tubes consist of cells, held together by junctional complexes, arranged so as to form a lumen. The smallest lumens are formed by one cell folding over to form a junction with itself. The cells contain Weibel-Palade bodies and factor VIII-related antigen. The lumens contain granular, fibrillar and amorphous debris. Predigesting the HFN matrix with trypsin (10 min, 37 degrees C) or plasmin significantly accelerates tube formation. Thrombin and plasminogen activator had no apparent effect. Disruption of the largest tubes with trypsin/EDTA permits the cells to revert to a proliferative state if plated on HFN, in M-199, FBS, and ECGF. These observations indicate that culture conditions that do not favor proliferation permit attainment of a state of nonterminal differentiation (organization) by the endothelial cell. Furthermore, proteolytic modification of the HFN matrix may play an important role in endothelial organization. PMID:6813338

  2. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The evolution of human cultural behavior: notes on Darwinism and complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mikael; Murrieta, Rui Sérgio Sereni

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes three schools that can be understood as central in studies of the evolution of human behavior within the paradigm of evolution by natural selection: human behavioral ecology (HBE), evolutionary psychology, and dual inheritance. These three streams of thought are used to depict the Darwinist landscape and pinpoint its strong suits and limitations. Theoretical gaps were identified that seem to reduce these schools' ability to account for the diversity of human evolutionary behavior. Their weak points include issues related to the concept of reproductive success, types of adaptation, and targets of selection. An interdisciplinary approach is proposed as the solution to this dilemma, where complex adaptive systems would serve as a source.

  5. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Samuel

    2009-06-05

    Since Darwin, intergroup hostilities have figured prominently in explanations of the evolution of human social behavior. Yet whether ancestral humans were largely "peaceful" or "warlike" remains controversial. I ask a more precise question: If more cooperative groups were more likely to prevail in conflicts with other groups, was the level of intergroup violence sufficient to influence the evolution of human social behavior? Using a model of the evolutionary impact of between-group competition and a new data set that combines archaeological evidence on causes of death during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene with ethnographic and historical reports on hunter-gatherer populations, I find that the estimated level of mortality in intergroup conflicts would have had substantial effects, allowing the proliferation of group-beneficial behaviors that were quite costly to the individual altruist.

  6. Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-28

    navigate in an unstructured environment to a specific target or location. 15. SUBJECT TERMS autonomous vehicles , fuzzy logic, learning behavior...ANSI-Std Z39-18 Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior FINAL REPORT 9/28/2006 Dean B. Edwards Department...the future, as greater numbers of autonomous vehicles are employed, it is hoped that lower LONG-TERM GOALS Use LAGR (Learning Applied to Ground Robots

  7. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human--Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language--behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, ``internal dynamics'' refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language--behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language--behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  8. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  9. Modeling the behavior of human body tissues on penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, A.; Brazil, A. L.; Popovici, D.; Jiga, G.; Lebon, F.

    2018-02-01

    Several procedures in medicine (such as anesthesia, injections, biopsies and percutaneous treatments) involve a needle insertion. Such procedures operate without vision of the internal involved areas. Physicians and anesthetists rely on manual (force and tactile) feedback to guide their movements, so a number of medical practice is strongly based on manual skill. In order to be expert in the execution of such procedures the medical students must practice a number of times, but before practice in a real patient they must be trained in some place and a virtual environment, using Virtual Reality (VR) or Augmented Reality (AR) is the best possible solution for such training. In a virtual environment the success of user practices is improved by the addition of force output using haptic device to improve the manual sensations in the interactions between user and computer. Haptic devices enable simulate the physical restriction of the diverse tissues and force reactions to movements of operator hands. The trainees can effectively "feel" the reactions to theirs movements and receive immediate feedback from the actions executed by them in the implemented environment. However, in order to implement such systems, the tissue reaction to penetration and cutting must be modeled. A proper model must emulate the physical sensations of the needle action in the skin, fat, muscle, and so one, as if it really done in a patient that is as they are holding a real needle and feeling each tissue resistance when inserting it through the body. For example an average force value for human skin puncture is 6.0 N, it is 2.0 N for subcutaneous fat tissue and 4.4 N for muscles: this difference of sensations to penetration of each layers trespassed by the needle makes possible to suppose the correct position inside the body. This work presents a model for tissues before and after the cutting that with proper assumptions of proprieties can model any part of human body. It was based on experiments

  10. Structural behavior of human lumbar intervertebral disc under direct shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Häussler, Kim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Wolfram, Uwe

    2015-03-18

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex, flexible joint between adjacent vertebral bodies that provides load transmission while permitting movements of the spinal column. Finite element models can be used to help clarify why and how IVDs fail or degenerate. To do so, it is of importance to validate those models against controllable experiments. Due to missing experimental data, shear properties are not used thus far in validating finite element models. This study aimed to investigate the structural shear properties of human lumbar IVDs in posteroanterior (PA) and laterolateral (LL) loading directions. Fourteen lumbar IVDs (median age: 49 years) underwent direct shear in PA and LL loading directions. A custom-build shear device was used in combination with a materials testing machine to load the specimens until failure. Shear stiffness, ultimate shear force and displacement, and work to failure were determined. Each specimen was tested until complete or partial disruption. Median stiffness in PA direction was 490 N/mm and in LL direction 568 N/mm. Median ultimate shear force in the PA direction was 2,877 N and in the LL direction 3,199 N. Work to failure was 12 Nm in the PA and 9 Nm in the LL direction. This study was an experiment to subject IVDs to direct shear. The results could help us to understand the structure and function of IVDs with regard to mechanical spinal stability, and they can be used to validate finite element models of the IVD.

  11. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people’s health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people’s self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user’s conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users’ behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user’s context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  12. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  15. Closed-loop control of grasping with a myoelectric hand prosthesis: which are the relevant feedback variables for force control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninu, Andrei; Dosen, Strahinja; Muceli, Silvia; Rattay, Frank; Dietl, Hans; Farina, Dario

    2014-09-01

    In closed-loop control of grasping by hand prostheses, the feedback information sent to the user is usually the actual controlled variable, i.e., the grasp force. Although this choice is intuitive and logical, the force production is only the last step in the process of grasping. Therefore, this study evaluated the performance in controlling grasp strength using a hand prosthesis operated through a complete grasping sequence while varying the feedback variables (e.g., closing velocity, grasping force), which were provided to the user visually or through vibrotactile stimulation. The experiments were conducted on 13 volunteers who controlled the Otto Bock Sensor Hand Speed prosthesis. Results showed that vibrotactile patterns were able to replace the visual feedback. Interestingly, the experiments demonstrated that direct force feedback was not essential for the control of grasping force. The subjects were indeed able to control the grip strength, predictively, by estimating the grasping force from the prosthesis velocity of closing. Therefore, grasping without explicit force feedback is not completely blind, contrary to what is usually assumed. In our study we analyzed grasping with a specific prosthetic device, but the outcomes are also applicable for other devices, with one or more degrees-of-freedom. The necessary condition is that the electromyography (EMG) signal directly and proportionally controls the velocity/grasp force of the hand, which is a common approach among EMG controlled prosthetic devices. The results provide important indications on the design of closed-loop EMG controlled prosthetic systems.

  16. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard J.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Veltink, Peter H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional

  18. Manipulation of Unknown Objects to Improve the Grasp Quality Using Tactile Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Andrés; Suárez, Raúl

    2018-05-03

    This work presents a novel and simple approach in the area of manipulation of unknown objects considering both geometric and mechanical constraints of the robotic hand. Starting with an initial blind grasp, our method improves the grasp quality through manipulation considering the three common goals of the manipulation process: improving the hand configuration, the grasp quality and the object positioning, and, at the same time, prevents the object from falling. Tactile feedback is used to obtain local information of the contacts between the fingertips and the object, and no additional exteroceptive feedback sources are considered in the approach. The main novelty of this work lies in the fact that the grasp optimization is performed on-line as a reactive procedure using the tactile and kinematic information obtained during the manipulation. Experimental results are shown to illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  19. A Strategy for Grasping unknown Objects based on Co-Planarity and Colour Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila; Kraft, Dirk; Bodenhagen, Leon

    2010-01-01

    with a reasonable success rate in rather complex environments (i.e., cluttered scenes with multiple objects). Moreover, we have embedded the algorithm within a cognitive system that allows for autonomous exploration and learning in different contexts. First, the system is able to perform long action sequences which......, although the grasping attempts not being always successful, can recover from mistakes and more importantly, is able to evaluate the success of the grasps autonomously by haptic feedback (i.e., by a force torque sensor at the wrist and proprioceptive information about the distance of the gripper after...... a gasping attempt). Such labelled data is then used for improving the initially hard-wired algorithm by learning. Moreover, the grasping behaviour has been used in a cognitive system to trigger higher level processes such as object learning and learning of object specific grasping....

  20. The visual neuroscience of robotic grasping achieving sensorimotor skills through dorsal-ventral stream integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chinellato, Eris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents interdisciplinary research that pursues the mutual enrichment of neuroscience and robotics. Building on experimental work, and on the wealth of literature regarding the two cortical pathways of visual processing - the dorsal and ventral streams - we define and implement, computationally and on a real robot, a functional model of the brain areas involved in vision-based grasping actions. Grasping in robotics is largely an unsolved problem, and we show how the bio-inspired approach is successful in dealing with some fundamental issues of the task. Our robotic system can safely perform grasping actions on different unmodeled objects, denoting especially reliable visual and visuomotor skills. The computational model and the robotic experiments help in validating theories on the mechanisms employed by the brain areas more directly involved in grasping actions. This book offers new insights and research hypotheses regarding such mechanisms, especially for what concerns the interaction between the...

  1. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Capoccia; Michael Masters; Scott Risser

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken hus...

  2. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  3. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; McHale, Timothy S; Carré, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review field studies of human male hormones and reproductive behavior. We first discuss life history theory and related conceptual considerations. As illustrations, distinctive features of human male life histories such as coalitional aggression, long-term partnering and paternal care are noted, along with their relevance to overall reproductive effort and developmental plasticity. We address broad questions about what constitutes a human male field study of hormones and behavior, including the kinds of hormone and behavioral measures employed in existing studies. Turning to several sections of empirical review, we present and discuss evidence for links between prenatal and juvenile androgens and sexual attraction and aggression. This includes the proposal that adrenal androgens-DHEA and androstenedione-may play functional roles during juvenility as part of a life-stage specific system. We next review studies of adult male testosterone responses to competition, with these studies emphasizing men's involvement in individual and team sports. These studies show that men's testosterone responses differ with respect to variables such as playing home/away, winning/losing, and motivation. Field studies of human male hormones and sexual behavior also focus on testosterone, showing some evidence of patterned changes in men's testosterone to sexual activity. Moreover, life stage-specific changes in male androgens may structure age-related differences in sexual behavior, including decreases in sexual behavior with senescence. We overview the considerable body of research on male testosterone, partnerships and paternal care, noting the variation in social context and refinements in research design. A few field studies provide insight into relationships between partnering and paternal behavior and prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In the third section of the review, we discuss patterns, limitations and directions for future research. This

  4. Modeling Human Steering Behavior During Path Following in Teleoperation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirinejad, Hossein; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model representing the human steering performance in teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). Human steering performance in teleoperation is considerably different from the performance in regular onboard driving situations due to significant communication delays in teleoperation systems and limited information human teleoperators receive from the vehicle sensory system. Mathematical models capturing the teleoperation performance are a key to making the development and evaluation of teleoperated UGV technologies fully simulation based and thus more rapid and cost-effective. However, driver models developed for the typical onboard driving case do not readily address this need. To fill the gap, this paper adopts a cognitive model that was originally developed for a typical highway driving scenario and develops a tuning strategy that adjusts the model parameters in the absence of human data to reflect the effect of various latencies and UGV speeds on driver performance in a teleoperated path-following task. Based on data collected from a human subject test study, it is shown that the tuned model can predict both the trend of changes in driver performance for different driving conditions and the best steering performance of human subjects in all driving conditions considered. The proposed model with the tuning strategy has a satisfactory performance in predicting human steering behavior in the task of teleoperated path following of UGVs. The established model is a suited candidate to be used in place of human drivers for simulation-based studies of UGV mobility in teleoperation systems.

  5. Grasp planning for a reconfigurable parallel robot with an underactuated arm structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riedel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach of grasp planning is applied to find out the appropriate grasp points for a reconfigurable parallel robot called PARAGRIP (Parallel Gripping. This new handling system is able to manipulate objects in the six-dimensional Cartesian space by several robotic arms using only six actuated joints. After grasping, the contact elements at the end of the underactuated arm mechanisms are connected to the object which forms a closed loop mechanism similar to the architecture of parallel manipulators. As the mounting and grasp points of the arms can easily be changed, the manipulator can be reconfigured to match the user's preferences and needs. This paper raises the question, how and where these grasp points are to be placed on the object to perform well for a certain manipulation task.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  6. Preschool children adapt grasping movements to upcoming object manipulations: Evidence from a dial rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Oliver; Büschelberger, Juliane; Janczyk, Markus

    2018-03-01

    In adults, the motor plans for object-directed grasping movements reflects the anticipated requirements of intended future object manipulations. This prospective mode of planning has been termed second-order planning. Surprisingly, second-order planning is thought to be fully developed only by 10 years of age, when children master seemingly more complex motor skills. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that already 5- and 6-year-old children consistently use second-order planning but that this ability does not become apparent in tasks that are traditionally used to probe it. We asked 5- and 6-year-olds and adults to grasp and rotate a circular dial in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Although children's grasp selections were less consistent on an intra- and inter-individual level than adults' grasp selections, all children adjusted their grasps to the upcoming dial rotations. By contrast, in an also administered bar rotation task, only a subset of children adjusted their grasps to different bar rotations, thereby replicating previous results. The results indicate that 5- and 6-year-olds consistently use second-order planning in a dial rotation task, although this ability does not become apparent in bar rotation tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New version: GRASP2K relativistic atomic structure package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Bieroń, J.; Fischer, C. Froese; Grant, I. P.

    2013-09-01

    A revised version of GRASP2K [P. Jönsson, X. He, C. Froese Fischer, I.P. Grant, Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 597] is presented. It supports earlier non-block and block versions of codes as well as a new block version in which the njgraf library module [A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, Comput. Phys. Commun. 50 (1988) 375] has been replaced by the librang angular package developed by Gaigalas based on the theory of [G. Gaigalas, Z.B. Rudzikas, C. Froese Fischer, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 30 (1997) 3747, G. Gaigalas, S. Fritzsche, I.P. Grant, Comput. Phys. Commun. 139 (2001) 263]. Tests have shown that errors encountered by njgraf do not occur with the new angular package. The three versions are denoted v1, v2, and v3, respectively. In addition, in v3, the coefficients of fractional parentage have been extended to j=9/2, making calculations feasible for the lanthanides and actinides. Changes in v2 include minor improvements. For example, the new version of rci2 may be used to compute quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections only from selected orbitals. In v3, a new program, jj2lsj, reports the percentage composition of the wave function in LSJ and the program rlevels has been modified to report the configuration state function (CSF) with the largest coefficient of an LSJ expansion. The bioscl2 and bioscl3 application programs have been modified to produce a file of transition data with one record for each transition in the same format as in ATSP2K [C. Froese Fischer, G. Tachiev, G. Gaigalas, M.R. Godefroid, Comput. Phys. Commun. 176 (2007) 559], which identifies each atomic state by the total energy and a label for the CSF with the largest expansion coefficient in LSJ intermediate coupling. All versions of the codes have been adapted for 64-bit computer architecture. Program SummaryProgram title: GRASP2K, version 1_1 Catalogue identifier: ADZL_v1_1 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZL_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library

  8. Human Behavior and Environmental Sustainability: promoting a pro-environmental behavior by harnessing the social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusafieh, Shaden; Razem, Maiss

    2017-11-01

    Recently, technological advancements in the sustainable design field have allowed us to reduce the ecological impact of the built environment, to reduce consumption of non-renewable resources, to create healthy environments and in some cases may even rehabilitate the ecosystem. Nevertheless, several studies have been carried out showing that sustainable technology does not automatically lead to environmentally friendly behaviors in its users. Various environmental problems threaten environmental sustainability and many of these problems are rooted in human behavior. Unfortunately, there is a lack in studies which take into consideration the human behavior influences within a sustainable built environment. We believe that the built environment should be used to support human goals and requirements, but at the same time we should consider it as a context in which human values and behaviors are cultivated. This research aimed to help in promoting environmental sustainability by using architectural design in changing relevant human behavior toward an environmentally friendly behavior. In order to achieve this, the research adopted Environment-centered Approach to gain more acute perspective into the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior, focusing on social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment. It appears that environmental psychology's merits have high potential in changing behavior within the built environment. The research provides a systematic approach for selecting, assessing, evaluating the behaviors to be changed and the factors that determine them. Furthermore, this approach helps in choosing the best interventions that could be applied in built environment to encourage such a sustainable behavior. This study tried to construct an agenda for further researches to find particular architectural design elements and strategies that we can harness to develop a pro-environment human behavior.

  9. Intelligent Systems Approach for Automated Identification of Individual Control Behavior of a Human Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator?s control behavior, however little research has been done to identify an individual based on control behavior. The hypothesis investigated is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Two enhancements to existing human operator models, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented. One enhancement accounts for the testing control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust the control strategy. This uses the Artificial Neural Network which can be fine-tuned to model the testing control. Another enhancement takes the form of an equiripple filter which conditions the control system power spectrum. A novel automated parameter identification technique was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models. This utilizes a Genetic Algorithm based optimization engine called the Bit-Climbing Algorithm. Enhancements were validated using experimental data obtained from three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. This manuscript also addresses applying human operator models to evaluate the effectiveness of motion feedback when simulating actual pilot control behavior in a flight simulator.

  10. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  11. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  12. Data-Driven Modeling of Target Human Behavior in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Military Operations Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. Gordon Cooke, MEME Gladstone Reid, MSBMS Robert DeMarco, MSBMS Charles Sheridan BA John...stress, and human behavior modeling and simulation issues. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the TBRL. He was also a Chief

  13. Human Behavior Based Exploratory Model for Successful Implementation of Lean Enterprise in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Rupy; Chason, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    Currently available Lean tools such as Lean Assessments, Value Stream Mapping, and Process Flow Charting focus on system requirements and overlook human behavior. A need is felt for a tool that allows one to baseline personnel, determine personnel requirements and align system requirements with personnel requirements. Our exploratory model--The…

  14. The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

  15. An Animal Model for Collective Behavior in Humans: The Impact of Manipulated Trust and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    political choice, in consumer preferences , etc.). Numerous terms and theories have been posited in order to explain this group effect (‘Herd morality’; ‘Herd...human collective behavior (e.g. in the stock market, in political choice, in consumer preferences , etc), as well as disclosing the underlying

  16. Rational behavior in decision making. A comparison between humans, computers and fast and frugal strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Rational behavior in decision making. A comparison between humans, computers, and fast and frugal strategies Chris Snijders and Frits Tazelaar (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands) Real life decisions often have to be made in "noisy" circumstances: not all crucial information is

  17. Defy or ally : Neuroendocrine regulation of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution has created a human brain that is characterized by a layered, hierarchical organization. These superimposed layers have gradually evolved to generate ever more complex forms of socio-emotional behavior. The present thesis centers on the neurobiological substrates that generate this

  18. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  19. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  20. Dynamic Socialized Gaussian Process Models for Human Behavior Prediction in a Health Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yelong; Phan, NhatHai; Xiao, Xiao; Jin, Ruoming; Sun, Junfeng; Piniewski, Brigitte; Kil, David; Dou, Dejing

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence. The SGP model naturally incorporates personal behavior factor and social correlation factor (i.e., the homophily principle: Friends tend to perform similar behaviors) into a unified model. And it models the social influence factor (i.e., an individual's behavior can be affected by his/her friends) implicitly in dynamic social correlation schemes. The detailed experimental evaluation has shown the SGP model achieves better prediction accuracy compared with most of baseline methods. However, a Socialized Random Forest model may perform better at the beginning compared with the SGP model. One of the main reasons is the dynamic social correlation function is purely based on the users' sequential behaviors without considering other physical activity-related features. To address this issue, we further propose a novel “multi-feature SGP model” (mfSGP) which improves the SGP model by using multiple physical activity-related features in the dynamic social correlation learning. Extensive experimental results illustrate that the mfSGP model clearly outperforms all other models in terms of prediction accuracy and running time. PMID:27746515

  1. Homeostasis lighting control based on relationship between lighting environment and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Risa; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although each person has own preferences, living spaces which can respond to various preferences and needs have not become reality. Focusing on the lighting environments which influence on the impression of living spaces, this research aims to offer comfortable lighting environments for each resident by a flexible control. This research examines the relationship between lighting environments and human behaviors considering colored lights. In accord with the relationship, this research proposes an illuminance-color control system which flexibly changes spatial environments responding to human conditions. Firstly, the psychological evaluation was conducted in order to build human models for various environments. As a result, preferred lighting environments for each examinee were determined for particular behaviors. Moreover, satisfaction levels of lighting environments were calculated by using seven types of impression of the environments as parameters. The results were summarized as human models. Secondly, this research proposed "Homeostasis Lighting Control System", which employs the human models. Homeostasis lighting control system embodies the algorithm of homeostasis, which is one of the functions of the physiological adaptation. Human discomfort feelings are obtained automatically by the sensor agent robot. The system can offer comfortable lighting environments without controlling environments by residents autonomously based on the information from the robot. This research takes into accounts both illuminance and color. The robot communicates with the server which contains human models, then the system corresponds to individuals. Combining these three systems, the proposed system can effectively control the lighting environment. At last, the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by simulation experiments.

  2. Evaluation technology of human behavior cognition; Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Deformation behavior of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Dmitry; Panfilov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is considered in comparison with human dentin. This deformation scheme allows estimating the total response from all levels of the hierarchical composite material in contrast with the indentation, which are limited by the mesoscopic and microscopic scales. It was shown for the first time that dental enamel is the strength (up to 1850MPa) hard tissue, which is able to consider some elastic (up to 8%) and plastic (up to 5%) deformation under compression. In so doing, it is almost undeformable substance under the creep condition. Mechanical properties of human enamel depend on the geometry of sample. Human dentin exhibits the similar deformation behavior under compression, but the values of its elasticity (up to 40%) and plasticity (up to 18%) are much more, while its strength (up to 800MPa) is less in two times. Despite the difference in mechanical properties, human enamel is able to suppress the cracking alike dentin. Deformation behavior under the compression of the samples contained DEJ as the same to dentin. This feature allows a tooth to be elastic-plastic (as dentin) and wear resistible (as enamel), simultaneously. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal grasp planning for a dexterous robotic hand using the volume of a generalized force ellipsoid during accepted flattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grasp planning method based on the volume and flattening of a generalized force ellipsoid is proposed to improve the grasping ability of a dexterous robotic hand. First, according to the general solution of joint torques for a dexterous robotic hand, a grasping indicator for the dexterous hand—the maximum volume of a generalized external force ellipsoid and the minimum volume of a generalized contact internal force ellipsoid during accepted flattening—is proposed. Second, an optimal grasp planning method based on a task is established using the grasping indicator as an objective function. Finally, a simulation analysis and grasping experiment are performed. Results show that when the grasping experiment is conducted with the grasping configuration and positions of contact points optimized using the proposed grasping indicator, the root-mean-square values of the joint torques and contact internal forces of the dexterous hand are at a minimum. The effectiveness of the proposed grasping planning method is thus demonstrated.

  5. Human papillomavirus vaccine and sexual behavior among adolescent and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole C; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines to prevent certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated cancers are recommended for routine use among young women. Nationally representative reports of vaccine uptake have not explored the relationship between HPV vaccine initiation and various sexual behaviors. Explore sexual behavior and demographic correlates of HPV vaccine initiation from a nationally representative survey of adolescent and young adult women. In 2007-2008, a total of 1243 girls/women aged 15-24 years responded to questions about receiving HPV vaccine in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). In 2010, demographic and sexual behavior correlates were evaluated in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age. HPV vaccine initiation was higher among those aged 15-19 years than those aged 20-24 years (30.3% vs 15.9%, p19 years. No association was found between HPV vaccination and risky sexual behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Spatiotemporal detection of unusual human population behavior using mobile phone data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Dobra

    Full Text Available With the aim to contribute to humanitarian response to disasters and violent events, scientists have proposed the development of analytical tools that could identify emergency events in real-time, using mobile phone data. The assumption is that dramatic and discrete changes in behavior, measured with mobile phone data, will indicate extreme events. In this study, we propose an efficient system for spatiotemporal detection of behavioral anomalies from mobile phone data and compare sites with behavioral anomalies to an extensive database of emergency and non-emergency events in Rwanda. Our methodology successfully captures anomalous behavioral patterns associated with a broad range of events, from religious and official holidays to earthquakes, floods, violence against civilians and protests. Our results suggest that human behavioral responses to extreme events are complex and multi-dimensional, including extreme increases and decreases in both calling and movement behaviors. We also find significant temporal and spatial variance in responses to extreme events. Our behavioral anomaly detection system and extensive discussion of results are a significant contribution to the long-term project of creating an effective real-time event detection system with mobile phone data and we discuss the implications of our findings for future research to this end.

  7. Human behavioral biology: commentary on Lerner and von Eye's sociobiology and human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Burgess, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that in their examination of arguments forwarded by sociobiologists to account for key features of human development, R. M. Lerner and A. von Eye (see record 1992-23071-001) misunderstand the role of general theory in science. They also fail to characterize the work of sociobiologists

  8. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  9. Combining fMRI and behavioral measures to examine the process of human learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Emberson, Lauren L; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-03-01

    Prior to the advent of fMRI, the primary means of examining the mechanisms underlying learning were restricted to studying human behavior and non-human neural systems. However, recent advances in neuroimaging technology have enabled the concurrent study of human behavior and neural activity. We propose that the integration of behavioral response with brain activity provides a powerful method of investigating the process through which internal representations are formed or changed. Nevertheless, a review of the literature reveals that many fMRI studies of learning either (1) focus on outcome rather than process or (2) are built on the untested assumption that learning unfolds uniformly over time. We discuss here various challenges faced by the field and highlight studies that have begun to address them. In doing so, we aim to encourage more research that examines the process of learning by considering the interrelation of behavioral measures and fMRI recording during learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Stefani

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed when the observed (and simulated movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  11. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  12. Concatenation of Observed Grasp Phases with Observer’s Distal Movements: A Behavioural and TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific’s action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals. PMID:24278395

  13. How Weight Affects the Perceived Spacing between the Thumb and Fingers during Grasping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie A Butler

    Full Text Available We know much about mechanisms determining the perceived size and weight of lifted objects, but little about how these properties of size and weight affect the body representation (e.g. grasp aperture of the hand. Without vision, subjects (n = 16 estimated spacing between fingers and thumb (perceived grasp aperture while lifting canisters of the same width (6.6cm but varied weights (300, 600, 900, and 1200 g. Lifts were performed by movement of either the wrist, elbow or shoulder to examine whether lifting with different muscle groups affects the judgement of grasp aperture. Results for perceived grasp aperture were compared with changes in perceived weight of objects of different sizes (5.2, 6.6, and 10 cm but the same weight (600 g. When canisters of the same width but different weights were lifted, perceived grasp aperture decreased 4.8% [2.2 ‒ 7.4] (mean [95% CI]; P < 0.001 from the lightest to the heaviest canister, no matter how they were lifted. For objects of the same weight but different widths, perceived weight decreased 42.3% [38.2 ‒ 46.4] from narrowest to widest (P < 0.001, as expected from the size-weight illusion. Thus, despite a highly distorted perception of the weight of objects based on their size, we conclude that proprioceptive afferents maintain a reasonably stable perception of the aperture of the grasping hand over a wide range of object weights. Given the small magnitude of this 'weight-grasp aperture' illusion, we propose the brain has access to a relatively stable 'perceptual ruler' to aid the manipulation of different objects.

  14. Patterns of muscle activity underlying object-specific grasp by the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, T; Spinks, R L; Umilta, M A; Lemon, R N

    2004-09-01

    During object grasp, a coordinated activation of distal muscles is required to shape the hand in relation to the physical properties of the object. Despite the fundamental importance of the grasping action, little is known of the muscular activation patterns that allow objects of different sizes and shapes to be grasped. In a study of two adult macaque monkeys, we investigated whether we could distinguish between EMG activation patterns associated with grasp of 12 differently shaped objects, chosen to evoke a wide range of grasping postures. Each object was mounted on a horizontal shuttle held by a weak spring (load force 1-2 N). Objects were located in separate sectors of a "carousel," and inter-trial rotation of the carousel allowed sequential presentation of the objects in pseudorandom order. EMG activity from 10 to 12 digit, hand, and arm muscles was recorded using chronically implanted electrodes. We show that the grasp of different objects was characterized by complex but distinctive patterns of EMG activation. Cluster analysis shows that these object-related EMG patterns were specific and consistent enough to identify the object unequivocally from the EMG recordings alone. EMG-based object identification required a minimum of six EMGs from simultaneously recorded muscles. EMG patterns were consistent across recording sessions in a given monkey but showed some differences between animals. These results identify the specific patterns of activity required to achieve distinct hand postures for grasping, and they open the way to our understanding of how these patterns are generated by the central motor network.

  15. Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents' behavioral rules for groundwater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Quinn, Christopher J.; Cai, Ximing; Garfinkle, Noah W.

    2017-11-01

    For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents' behavioral rules arise from agents' bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a "gray box" approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents' decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents' pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

  16. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  17. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  18. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  19. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  20. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  1. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  2. Human exposure to a 60 Hz, 1800 micro tesla magnetic field: a neuro behavioral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, A.; Corbacio, M.; Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W.; Beuter, A.; Goulet, D.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.; Plante, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of time-varying magnetic fields (MF) on humans have been actively investigated for the past three decades. One important unanswered question that scientists continue to investigate is the potential for MF exposure to have acute effects on human biology. Different strategies have been used to tackle this question using various physiological, neuro-physiological and behavioral indicators. For example, researchers investigating electro-encephalography (EEG) have reported that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) MF can increase the resting occipital alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) [1, 2]. Interestingly, other studies have demonstrated that human motor behavior can be modulated by ELF MF exposure, reporting that such an exposure can reduce anteroposterior standing balance oscillations [3, 4] or decrease physiological tremor intensity [5]. However, the main limitation in this domain is the difficulty of reproducing the results. A possible reason for this is the large variety of experimental approaches employed. Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effects of a 60 Hz, 1800 μT MF exposure on physiological (i.e. heart rate and peripheral blood perfusion), neuro-physiological (brain electrical activity), and behavioral (postural oscillations, voluntary motor functions, and physiological tremor) aspects in humans using a single experimental procedure.Though the results from this study suggest a subtle reduction of human standing balance as well as a subtle increase of physiological tremor amplitude with MF exposure, no effect appeared on other investigated parameters, suggesting that one hour of 60 Hz, 1800 μT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the electrical activity of the brain. (authors)

  3. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  4. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; DeJong, Stacey L.; Cherry, Kendra M.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in post-stroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with post-stroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared to the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment. PMID:22357103

  5. Continuous grasp algorithm applied to economic dispatch problem of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2010-07-01

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)

  6. Viewing geometry determines the contribution of binocular vision to the online control of grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Watt, Simon J

    2017-12-01

    Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback. Thus, online grasp control relying selectively on binocular feedback would not be robust to natural changes in viewing geometry. Alternatively, sensory integration theory suggests that different signals contribute according to their relative precision, in which case the role of binocular feedback should depend on viewing geometry, rather than being 'hard-wired'. We manipulated viewing geometry, and assessed the role of binocular feedback by measuring the effects on grasping of occluding one eye at movement onset. Loss of binocular feedback resulted in a significantly less extended final slow-movement phase when hand and object were separated primarily in the frontoparallel plane (where binocular information is relatively imprecise), compared to when they were separated primarily along the line of sight (where binocular information is relatively precise). Consistent with sensory integration theory, this suggests the role of binocular (and monocular) vision in online grasp control is not a fixed, 'architectural' property of the visuo-motor system, but arises instead from the interaction of viewer and situation, allowing robust online control across natural variations in viewing geometry.

  7. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  8. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.

  9. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Examination on Impact of Air Ions toward Human Social Disorder Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesha-Tri-Chandrasa

    2000-01-01

    Air ions are something that people can not see and feel. However, they exist surrounding human life. Imbalance inhalation of air ions can affect central nervous system, and physically it will affect human activities and create social disorder behavior. Some investigations have proved the relation above and devices for anticipating ionization have been innovated and available on the market. Furthermore, it has been found that individual resistance against ionization is different between genders. Therefore it is important to study character and to anticipate effects of ions and ionization, in order to build more comfortable environment. (author)

  11. More on contamination: the use of asymmetric molecular behavior to identify authentic ancient human DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Svensson, Emma M; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    concerning the authenticity of such data. Although several methods have been developed to the purpose of authenticating ancient DNA (aDNA) results, while they are useful in faunal research, most of the methods have proven complicated to apply to ancient human DNA. Here, we investigate in detail...... the reliability of one of the proposed criteria, that of appropriate molecular behavior. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing, we have quantified the relative levels of authentic aDNA and contaminant human DNA sequences recovered from archaeological dog and cattle remains. In doing...

  12. Scale-free fluctuations in behavioral performance: delineating changes in spontaneous behavior of humans with induced sleep deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi K Ochab

    Full Text Available The timing and dynamics of many diverse behaviors of mammals, e.g., patterns of animal foraging or human communication in social networks exhibit complex self-similar properties reproducible over multiple time scales. In this paper, we analyze spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded in two different conditions: during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. After separating activity from rest with a pre-defined activity threshold, we have detected distinct statistical features of duration times of these two states. The cumulative distributions of activity periods follow a stretched exponential shape, and remain similar for both control and sleep deprived individuals. In contrast, rest periods, which follow power-law statistics over two orders of magnitude, have significantly distinct distributions for these two groups and the difference emerges already after the first night of shortened sleep. We have found steeper distributions for sleep deprived individuals, which indicates fewer long rest periods and more turbulent behavior. This separation of power-law exponents is the main result of our investigations, and might constitute an objective measure demonstrating the severity of sleep deprivation and the effects of sleep disorders.

  13. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  14. Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Peter; Bressan, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA that was incorporated into our DNA millions of years ago is implicated in mental disorders; (c) many of us carry the cells of another human in our brains; and (d) under the regulation of viruslike elements, the paternally inherited and maternally inherited copies of some genes compete for domination in the offspring, on whom they have opposite physical and behavioral effects. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these selfish entities. The overarching message is that we are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Knowledge, Behaviors, and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus Among Nursing Students in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Yılmaz, Hatice; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2017-01-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is transmitted through sexual contact and can cause cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV) in nursing students in a baccalaureate program. This study was conducted with a sample of 624 students. Data were collected via questionnaires administered during the first class time. Students' knowledge about HPV was high; 90.5% knew HPV can cause cervical cancer; 94.6% recognized it as a sexually transmitted disease. Although; 87.7% stated a vaccine is available to protect women from HPV, nearly all participants (98.1%) had not received HPV vaccination. Findings show students' level of knowledge about HPV's risk factors and modes of transmission were high. However, this knowledge did not translate into engagement in health related behaviors such as being vaccinated against HPV.

  16. Specifics of Gender Manifestation of Prosocial and Antisocial Features in Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatyr Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the gender factors in the formation of prosociality – asociality in humans. A set of indicators reflecting the quantitative and qualitative terms motivational prerequisites of social behavior is presented. The estimation actualization needs are characterized as the beginning of the centripetal and focused on the involvement of the individual in society. Comparative analysis and accentuation of personality traits identified predominance of cycles, emotive and exaltation on the background of male domination of reactive aggression and masculinity. Assessment of the severity of empathy revealed the advantage of emotional and intuitive channels in the group of women relative to men. Undertaken study allowed to determine the presence of specific features of the formation of prosocial behavior of women, where the key element is the dominance of emotional factors initiation of social behavior, and situational mode, reactive response.

  17. A Review of Domestic Dogs' ("Canis Familiaris") Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…

  18. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  19. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  20. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  1. Explicit instructions and consolidation promote rewiring of automatic behaviors in the human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi-Hallgató, Emese; Janacsek, Karolina; Vékony, Teodóra; Tasi, Lia Andrea; Kerepes, Leila; Hompoth, Emőke Adrienn; Bálint, Anna; Németh, Dezső

    2017-06-29

    One major challenge in human behavior and brain sciences is to understand how we can rewire already existing perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills or habits. Here we aimed to characterize one aspect of rewiring, namely, how we can update our knowledge of sequential/statistical regularities when they change. The dynamics of rewiring was explored from learning to consolidation using a unique experimental design which is suitable to capture the effect of implicit and explicit processing and the proactive and retroactive interference. Our results indicate that humans can rewire their knowledge of such regularities incidentally, and consolidation has a critical role in this process. Moreover, old and new knowledge can coexist, leading to effective adaptivity of the human mind in the changing environment, although the execution of the recently acquired knowledge may be more fluent than the execution of the previously learned one. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes underlying behavior change, and can provide insights into how we can boost behavior change in various contexts, such as sports, educational settings or psychotherapy.

  2. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  3. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Prat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine. The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements, they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  5. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G; Puaud, Simon J; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  6. A General Contact Force Analysis of an Under-Actuated Finger in Robot Hand Grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Vinh Ha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a mathematical analysis of contact forces for the under-actuated finger in a general under-actuated robotic hand during grasping. The concept of under-actuation in robotic grasping with fewer actuators than degrees of freedom (DOF, through the use of springs and mechanical limits, allows the hand to adjust itself to an irregularly shaped object without complex control strategies and sensors. Here the main concern is the contact forces, which are important elements in grasping tasks, based on the proposed mathematical analysis of their distributions of the n-DOF under-actuated finger. The simulation results, along with the 3-DOF finger from the ADAMS model, show the effectiveness of the mathematical analysis method, while comparing them with the measured results. The system can find magnitudes of the contact forces at the contact positions between the phalanges and the object.

  7. Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Garg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

  8. GRASP2: visualization, surface properties, and electrostatics of macromolecular structures and sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrey, Donald; Honig, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The widespread use of the original version of GRASP revealed the importance of the visualization of physicochemical and structural properties on the molecular surface. This chapter describes a new version of GRASP that contains many new capabilities. In terms of analysis tools, the most notable new features are sequence and structure analysis and alignment tools and the graphical integration of sequence and structural information. Not all the new GRASP2 could be described here and more capabilities are continually being added. An on-line manual, details on obtaining the software, and technical notes about the program and the Troll software library can be found at the Honig laboratory Web site (http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu).

  9. From a meso- to micro-scale connectome: Array Tomography and mGRASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun eKim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping mammalian synaptic connectivity has long been an important goal of neuroscience because knowing how neurons and brain areas are connected underpins an understanding of brain function. Meeting this goal requires advanced techniques with single synapse resolution and large-scale capacity, especially at multiple scales tethering the meso- and micro-scale connectome. Among several advanced LM-based connectome technologies, Array Tomography (AT and mammalian GFP-Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners (mGRASP can provide relatively high-throughput mapping synaptic connectivity at multiple scales. AT- and mGRASP-assisted circuit mapping (ATing and mGRASPing, combined with techniques such as retrograde virus, brain clearing techniques, and activity indicators will help unlock the secrets of complex neural circuits. Here, we discuss these useful new tools to enable mapping of brain circuits at multiple scales, some functional implications of spatial synaptic distribution, and future challenges and directions of these endeavors.

  10. Impaired anticipatory control of grasp during obstacle crossing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Tara L; Diermayr, Gudrun; Albert, Frederic

    2012-05-16

    During self-paced walking, people with Parkinson's disease maintain anticipatory control during object grasping. However, common functional tasks often include carrying an object while changing step patterns mid-path and maneuvering over obstacles, increasing task complexity and attentional demands. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of Parkinson's disease on the modulation of grasping force changes as a function of gait-related inertial forces. Subjects with Parkinson's disease maintained the ability to scale and to couple over time their grip and inertial forces while walking at irregular step lengths, but were unable to maintain the temporal coupling of grasping forces compared to controls during obstacle crossing. We suggest that this deterioration in anticipatory control is associated with the increased demands of task complexity and attention during obstacle crossing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research on Visual Servo Grasping of Household Objects for Nonholonomic Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangsheng Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of visual servo grasping of household objects for nonholonomic mobile manipulator. Firstly, a new kind of artificial object mark based on QR (Quick Response Code is designed, which can be affixed to the surface of household objects. Secondly, after summarizing the vision-based autonomous mobile manipulation system as a generalized manipulator, the generalized manipulator’s kinematic model is established, the analytical inverse kinematic solutions of the generalized manipulator are acquired, and a novel active vision based camera calibration method is proposed to determine the hand-eye relationship. Finally, a visual servo switching control law is designed to control the service robot to finish object grasping operation. Experimental results show that QR Code-based artificial object mark can overcome the difficulties brought by household objects’ variety and operation complexity, and the proposed visual servo scheme makes it possible for service robot to grasp and deliver objects efficiently.

  12. A circular feature-based pose measurement method for metal part grasping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chenrui; He, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Xinyue

    2017-01-01

    The grasping of circular metal parts such as bearings and flanges is a common task in industry. Limited by low texture and repeated features, the point-feature-based method is not applicable in pose measurement of these parts. In this paper, we propose a novel pose measurement method for grasping circular metal parts. This method is based on cone degradation and involves a monocular camera. To achieve higher measurement accuracy, a position-based visual servoing method is presented to continuously control an eye-in-hand, six-degrees-of-freedom robot arm to grasp the part. The uncertainty of the part’s coordinate frame during the control process is solved by defining a fixed virtual coordinate frame. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the factors that affect measurement accuracy are analyzed. (paper)

  13. The influence of grasping habits and object orientation on motor planning in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of habitual grasp strategies and object orientation on motor planning in 3-year-olds and 4- to 5-year-old children and adults. Participants were required to rotate different vertically oriented objects around 180°. Usually, adults perform this task by grasping objects with an awkward grip (thumb and index finger pointing downward) at the beginning of the movement, in order to finish it with a comfortable hand position. This pattern corresponds to the well-known end-state comfort effect (ESC) in grasp planning. The presented objects were associated with different habitual grasp orientations that either corresponded with the grasp direction required to reach end-state comfort (downward) or implied a contrary grasp orientation (upward). Additionally, they were presented either in their usual, canonical orientation (e.g., shovel with the blade oriented downward versus cup with its opening oriented upward) or upside down. As dependent variable we analyzed the number of grips conforming to the end-state comfort principle (ESC score) realized in each object type and orientation condition. The number of grips conforming to ESC strongly increased with age. In addition, the extent to which end-state comfort was considered was influenced by the actual orientation of the objects' functional parts. Thus, in all age-groups the ESC score was highest when the functional parts of the objects were oriented downward (shovel presented canonically with blade pointing downward, cup presented upside down) and corresponded to the hand orientation needed to realize ESC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of human abdominal wall connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Laure; De Meulaere, Maurice; Witz, Jean-François; Nováček, Vit; Turquier, Frédéric; Hoc, Thierry; Brieu, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall sheathing tissues are commonly involved in hernia formation. However, there is very limited work studying mechanics of all tissues from the same donor which prevents a complete understanding of the abdominal wall behavior and the differences in these tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the mechanical properties of the linea alba and the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths from a macroscopic point of view. Eight full-thickness human anterior abdominal walls of both genders were collected and longitudinal and transverse samples were harvested from the three sheathing connective tissues. The total of 398 uniaxial tensile tests was conducted and the mechanical characteristics of the behavior (tangent rigidities for small and large deformations) were determined. Statistical comparisons highlighted heterogeneity and non-linearity in behavior of the three tissues under both small and large deformations. High anisotropy was observed under small and large deformations with higher stress in the transverse direction. Variabilities in the mechanical properties of the linea alba according to the gender and location were also identified. Finally, data dispersion correlated with microstructure revealed that macroscopic characterization is not sufficient to fully describe behavior. Microstructure consideration is needed. These results provide a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall sheathing tissues as well as the directions for microstructure-based constitutive model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Large animals as potential models of human mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Michał; Danek, Janusz; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2017-12-30

    Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This data indicates many large animal disorders which can be models to examine the above human mental and behavioral disorders.

  16. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  17. Multisession, noninvasive closed-loop neuroprosthetic control of grasping by upper limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, H A; Paek, A Y; Contreras-Vidal, J L

    2016-01-01

    Upper limb amputation results in a severe reduction in the quality of life of affected individuals due to their inability to easily perform activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that translate grasping intent from the brain's neural activity into prosthetic control may increase the level of natural control currently available in myoelectric prostheses. Current BMI techniques demonstrate accurate arm position and single degree-of-freedom grasp control but are invasive and require daily recalibration. In this study we tested if transradial amputees (A1 and A2) could control grasp preshaping in a prosthetic device using a noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG)-based closed-loop BMI system. Participants attempted to grasp presented objects by controlling two grasping synergies, in 12 sessions performed over 5 weeks. Prior to closed-loop control, the first six sessions included a decoder calibration phase using action observation by the participants; thereafter, the decoder was fixed to examine neuroprosthetic performance in the absence of decoder recalibration. Ability of participants to control the prosthetic was measured by the success rate of grasping; ie, the percentage of trials within a session in which presented objects were successfully grasped. Participant A1 maintained a steady success rate (63±3%) across sessions (significantly above chance [41±5%] for 11 sessions). Participant A2, who was under the influence of pharmacological treatment for depression, hormone imbalance, pain management (for phantom pain as well as shoulder joint inflammation), and drug dependence, achieved a success rate of 32±2% across sessions (significantly above chance [27±5%] in only two sessions). EEG signal quality was stable across sessions, but the decoders created during the first six sessions showed variation, indicating EEG features relevant to decoding at a smaller timescale (100ms) may not be stable. Overall, our results show that (a) an EEG

  18. Towards human behavior recognition based on spatio temporal features and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabri, Sawsen; Ouarda, Wael; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    Security and surveillance are vital issues in today's world. The recent acts of terrorism have highlighted the urgent need for efficient surveillance. There is indeed a need for an automated system for video surveillance which can detect identity and activity of person. In this article, we propose a new paradigm to recognize an aggressive human behavior such as boxing action. Our proposed system for human activity detection includes the use of a fusion between Spatio Temporal Interest Point (STIP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HoG) features. The novel feature called Spatio Temporal Histogram Oriented Gradient (STHOG). To evaluate the robustness of our proposed paradigm with a local application of HoG technique on STIP points, we made experiments on KTH human action dataset based on Multi Class Support Vector Machines classification. The proposed scheme outperforms basic descriptors like HoG and STIP to achieve 82.26% us an accuracy value of classification rate.

  19. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  20. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R. B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Panagiota, Kalafati Ioanna; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathy; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tonjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Daniela, Toniolo; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Geus, Eco JC.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Felicita, Sala Cinzia; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Michela, Traglia; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior – age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) – has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report the largest genome-wide association study to date of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study, and four additional loci in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to play a role – either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression – in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing our understanding of these complex traits. PMID:27798627

  1. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiszberg, A M; Johnson, A K; Sadler, L J; Carroll, J A; Dailey, J W; Krebs, N

    2009-12-01

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor-intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavioral studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy in the time spent at the waterer and the number of visits to the waterer by individually housed nursery pigs between human observers scoring video files using Observer software (OBS) and an automatic water meter Hobo (WM, control) affixed onto the waterline. Eleven PIC USA genotype gilts (22 +/- 2 d of age; 6.5 +/- 1.4 kg of BW) were housed individually in pens with ad libitum access to a corn-based starter ration and one nipple waterer. Behavior was collected on d 0 (day of weaning), 7, and 14 of the trial using 1 color camera positioned over 4 attached pens and a RECO-204 DVR at 1 frame per second. For the OBS method, 2 experienced observers recorded drinking behavior from the video files, which was defined as when the gilt placed her mouth over the nipple waterer. Data were analyzed using nonparametric methods and the general linear model and regression procedures in SAS. The experimental unit was the individual pen housing 1 gilt. The GLM model included the method of observation (WM vs. OBS) and time (24 h) as variables, and the gilt nested within method was used as the error term. Gilts consumed more water (P = 0.04) on d 14 than on d 0. The time of day affected (P waterer regardless of the method. However, the OBS method underestimated (P waterer (3.48 +/- 0.33 visits/h for OBS vs. 4.94 +/- 0.33 for WM) and overestimated (P waterer (22.6 +/- 1.46 s/h for OBS vs. 13.9 +/- 1.43 for WM) compared with WM. The relationship between the 2 methods for prediction of time spent at the waterer and number of visits made by the gilts was weak (R(2) = 0.56 and 0.69, respectively). Collectively

  2. An Introduction of Behavior-Based Safety Program in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lim, Hyeon Kyo

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods and approaches for a human error assessment that is valuable for investigating the causes of undesirable events and counter-plans to prevent their recurrence in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is behavior-based safety refers to the process of using a proactive approach to safety and health management. It either focuses on risk of behaviors that can lead to an injury, or on safe behaviors that can contribute to injury prevention. Early applications of behavior based safety included the construction and manufacturing industries, but today behavior based safety is applied to a wide variety of industries and service lines. This behavior based safety program can offer a set of significant human error countermeasures to be considered for human error in NPPs as well as other fields of industry. The current methods for the human error prevention in NPPs are several techniques such as Self-Check, Peer Check, Concurrent Verification, 3-way Communication, etc. However, it is not enough to grasp the whole human error problems in operations because the things are needed in fields are a behavior technique not a simple knowledge. Therefore, we applied a behavior based safety program on the current methods

  3. MULTIPLE HUMAN TRACKING IN COMPLEX SITUATION BY DATA ASSIMILATION WITH PEDESTRIAN BEHAVIOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nakanishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method of multiple human tracking is proposed. The key concept is that to assume a tracking process as a data assimilation process. Despite the importance of understanding pedestrian behavior in public space with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control, automatic human tracking in complex situation is still challenging when people move close to each other or are occluded by others. For this difficulty, we stochastically combine existing tracking method by image processing with simulation models of walking behavior. We describe a system in a form of general state space model and define the components of the model according to the review on related works. Then we apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station. We show the high performance of the method, as well as compare the result with other model to present the advantage of integrating the behavior model to the tracking method. We also show the method's ability to acquire passenger flow information such as ticket gate choice and OD data automatically from the tracking result.

  4. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH 2 ), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH 3 ), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH 2 ) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH 3 ). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH 2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH 3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  5. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  6. Ontology-Based High-Level Context Inference for Human Behavior Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Villalonga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the automatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based method that combines low-level primitives of behavior, namely activity, locations and emotions, unprecedented to date, to intelligently derive more meaningful high-level context information. The paper contributes with a new open ontology describing both low-level and high-level context information, as well as their relationships. Furthermore, a framework building on the developed ontology and reasoning models is presented and evaluated. The proposed method proves to be robust while identifying high-level contexts even in the event of erroneously-detected low-level contexts. Despite reasonable inference times being obtained for a relevant set of users and instances, additional work is required to scale to long-term scenarios with a large number of users.

  7. Ontology-Based High-Level Context Inference for Human Behavior Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Lee, Sungyoung; Banos, Oresti

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the automatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based method that combines low-level primitives of behavior, namely activity, locations and emotions, unprecedented to date, to intelligently derive more meaningful high-level context information. The paper contributes with a new open ontology describing both low-level and high-level context information, as well as their relationships. Furthermore, a framework building on the developed ontology and reasoning models is presented and evaluated. The proposed method proves to be robust while identifying high-level contexts even in the event of erroneously-detected low-level contexts. Despite reasonable inference times being obtained for a relevant set of users and instances, additional work is required to scale to long-term scenarios with a large number of users. PMID:27690050

  8. Behavioral simulation of a nuclear power plant operator crew for human-machine system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, K.; Shimada, T.; Kondo, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article proposes an architecture of behavioral simulation of an operator crew in a nuclear power plant including group processes and interactions between the operators and their working environment. An operator model was constructed based on the conceptual human information processor and then substantiated as a knowledge-based system with multiple sets of knowledge base and blackboard, each of which represents an individual operator. From a trade-off between reality and practicality, we adopted an architecture of simulation that consists of the operator, plant and environment models in order to consider operator-environment interactions. The simulation system developed on this framework and called OCCS was tested using a scenario of BWR plant operation. The case study showed that operator-environment interactions have significant effects on operator crew performance and that they should be considered properly for simulating behavior of human-machine systems. The proposed architecture contributed to more realistic simulation in comparison with an experimental result, and a good prospect has been obtained that computer simulation of an operator crew is feasible and useful for human-machine system design. (orig.)

  9. Reward-based behaviors and emotional processing in human with narcolepsy-cataplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBayard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ajor advances in the past decade have led a better understanding of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy caused by the early loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons. Although a role for hypocretin in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness state is widely recognized, other functions, not necessarily related to arousal, have been identified. Hence, the hypocretin system enhances signaling in the mesolimbic pathways regulating reward processing, emotion and mood regulation, and addiction. Although studies on hypocretin-deficient mice have shown that hypocretin plays an essential role in reward-seeking, depression-like behavior and addiction, results in human narcolepsy remained subject to debate. Most of studies revealed that hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy patients either drug-free or medicated with psychostimulant had preferences towards risky choices in a decision-making task under ambiguity together with higher frequency of depressive symptoms and binge eating disorder compared to controls. However, human studies mostly reported the lack of association with pathological impulsivity and gambling, and substance and alcohol abuse in the context of narcolepsy-cataplexy. Prospective larger studies are required to confirm these findings in drug-free and medicated patients with narcolepsy. Inclusion of patients with other central hypersomnias without hypocretin deficiency will provide answer to the major question of the role of the hypocretin system in reward-based behaviors and emotional processing in humans.

  10. Neuroimmune Pathways in Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Behavioral and Genetic Studies in Rodents and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gizelle; Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Immune or brain proinflammatory signaling has been linked to some of the behavioral effects of alcohol. Immune signaling appears to regulate voluntary ethanol intake in rodent models, and ethanol intake activates the immune system in multiple models. This bidirectional link raises the possibility that consumption increases immune signaling, which in turn further increases consumption in a feed-forward cycle. Data from animal and human studies provide overlapping support for the involvement of immune-related genes and proteins in alcohol action, and combining animal and human data is a promising approach to systematically evaluate and nominate relevant pathways. Based on rodent models, neuroimmune pathways may represent unexplored, nontraditional targets for medication development to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent relapse. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are one class of anti-inflammatory medications that demonstrate antiaddictive properties for alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Expression of immune-related genes is altered in animals and humans following chronic alcohol exposure, and the regulatory influences of specific mRNAs, microRNAs, and activated cell types are areas of intense study. Ultimately, the use of multiple datasets combined with behavioral validation will be needed to link specific neuroimmune pathways to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25175860

  11. Effects of controlled element dynamics on human feedforward behavior in ramp-tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurense, Vincent A; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus René M; Mulder, Max

    2015-02-01

    In real-life manual control tasks, human controllers are often required to follow a visible and predictable reference signal, enabling them to use feedforward control actions in conjunction with feedback actions that compensate for errors. Little is known about human control behavior in these situations. This paper investigates how humans adapt their feedforward control dynamics to the controlled element dynamics in a combined ramp-tracking and disturbance-rejection task. A human-in-the-loop experiment is performed with a pursuit display and vehicle-like controlled elements, ranging from a single integrator through second-order systems with a break frequency at either 3, 2, or 1 rad/s, to a double integrator. Because the potential benefits of feedforward control increase with steeper ramp segments in the target signal, three steepness levels are tested to investigate their possible effect on feedforward control with the various controlled elements. Analyses with four novel models of the operator, fitted to time-domain data, reveal feedforward control for all tested controlled elements and both (nonzero) tested levels of ramp steepness. For the range of controlled element dynamics investigated, it is found that humans adapt to these dynamics in their feedforward response, with a close to perfect inversion of the controlled element dynamics. No significant effects of ramp steepness on the feedforward model parameters are found.

  12. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  14. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi DOI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.

  16. Classification of right-hand grasp movement based on EMOTIV Epoc+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobing, T. A. M. L.; Prawito, Wijaya, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    Combinations of BCT elements for right-hand grasp movement have been obtained, providing the average value of their classification accuracy. The aim of this study is to find a suitable combination for best classification accuracy of right-hand grasp movement based on EEG headset, EMOTIV Epoc+. There are three movement classifications: grasping hand, relax, and opening hand. These classifications take advantage of Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD) phenomenon that makes it possible to differ relaxation, imagery, and movement state from each other. The combinations of elements are the usage of Independent Component Analysis (ICA), spectrum analysis by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), maximum mu and beta power with their frequency as features, and also classifier Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Radial Basis Function (RBF). The average values of classification accuracy are ± 83% for training and ± 57% for testing. To have a better understanding of the signal quality recorded by EMOTIV Epoc+, the result of classification accuracy of left or right-hand grasping movement EEG signal (provided by Physionet) also be given, i.e.± 85% for training and ± 70% for testing. The comparison of accuracy value from each combination, experiment condition, and external EEG data are provided for the purpose of value analysis of classification accuracy.

  17. Dynamic optimal grasping of a circular object with gravity using robotic soft-fingertips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodríguez Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Object manipulation usually requires dexterity, encoded as the ability to roll, which is very difficult to achieve with robotic hands based on point contact models (subject to holonomic constraints. As an alternative for dexterous manipulation, deformable contact with hemispherical shape fingertips has been proposed to yield naturally a rolling constraint. It entails dexterity at the expense of dealing with normal and tangential forces, as well as more elaborated models and control schemes. Furthermore, the essential feature of the quality of grasp can be addressed with this type of robot hands, but it has been overlooked for deformable contact. In this paper, a passivity-based controller that considers an optimal grasping measure is proposed for robotic hands with hemispherical deformable fingertips, to manipulate circular dynamic objects. Optimal grasping that minimizes the contact wrenches is achieved through fingertip rolling until normal forces pass through the center of mass of the object, aligning the relative angle between these normal forces. The case of a circular object is developed in detail, though our proposal can be extended to objects with an arbitrary shape that admit a local decomposition by a circular curvature. Simulation and experimental results show convergence under various conditions, wherein rolling and tangent forces become instrumental to achieve such a quality of grasp.

  18. Electrotactile feedback improves performance and facilitates learning in the routine grasping task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Isaković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of electrotactile feedback in closed loop training of force control during the routine grasping task. The feedback was provided using an array electrode and a simple six-level spatial coding, and the experiment was conducted in three amputee subjects. The psychometric tests confirmed that the subjects could perceive and interpret the electrotactile feedback with a high success rate. The subjects performed the routine grasping task comprising 4 blocks of 60 grasping trials. In each trial, the subjects employed feedforward control to close the hand and produce the desired grasping force (four levels. First (baseline and the last (validation session were performed in open loop, while the second and the third session (training included electrotactile feedback. The obtained results confirmed that using the feedback improved the accuracy and precision of the force control. In addition, the subjects performed significantly better in the validation vs. baseline session, therefore suggesting that electrotactile feedback can be used for learning and training of myoelectric control.

  19. Electrotactile Feedback Improves Performance and Facilitates Learning in the Routine Grasping Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaković, Milica; Belić, Minja; Štrbac, Matija; Popović, Igor; Došen, Strahinja; Farina, Dario; Keller, Thierry

    2016-06-13

    Aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of electrotactile feedback in closed loop training of force control during the routine grasping task. The feedback was provided using an array electrode and a simple six-level spatial coding, and the experiment was conducted in three amputee subjects. The psychometric tests confirmed that the subjects could perceive and interpret the electrotactile feedback with a high success rate. The subjects performed the routine grasping task comprising 4 blocks of 60 grasping trials. In each trial, the subjects employed feedforward control to close the hand and produce the desired grasping force (four levels). First (baseline) and the last (validation) session were performed in open loop, while the second and the third session (training) included electrotactile feedback. The obtained results confirmed that using the feedback improved the accuracy and precision of the force control. In addition, the subjects performed significantly better in the validation vs. baseline session, therefore suggesting that electrotactile feedback can be used for learning and training of myoelectric control.

  20. Utilization of old vibro-acoustic measuring equipment to grasp basic concepts of vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that even old vibro-acoustic (analog) equipment can be used as a very suitable teaching equipment to grasp basic principles of measurements in an era, when measurement equipments are more-or-less treated as ‘black-boxes’, i.e. the user cannot see directly how...