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Sample records for human germinal center

  1. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  2. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  3. Regulation of Germinal Center Reactions by B and T Cells

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    Yeonseok Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Break of B cell tolerance to self-antigens results in the development of autoantibodies and, thus, leads to autoimmunity. How B cell tolerance is maintained during active germinal center (GC reactions is yet to be fully understood. Recent advances revealed several subsets of T cells and B cells that can positively or negatively regulate GC B cell responses in vivo. IL-21-producing CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells comprise a distinct lineage of helper T cells—termed follicular helper T cells (TFH—that can provide help for the development of GC reactions where somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place. Although the function of TFH cells is beneficial in generating high affinity antibodies against infectious agents, aberrant activation of TFH cell or B cell to self-antigens results in autoimmunity. At least three subsets of immune cells have been proposed as regulatory cells that can limit such antibody-mediated autoimmunity, including follicular regulatory T cells (TFR, Qa-1 restricted CD8+ regulatory T cells (CD8+TREG, and regulatory B cells (BREG. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of GC B cell regulation with specific emphasis on the newly identified immune cell subsets involved in this process.

  4. DNA Methylation Dynamics of Germinal Center B Cells Are Mediated by AID

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    Pilar M. Dominguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in DNA methylation are required for the formation of germinal centers (GCs, but the mechanisms of such changes are poorly understood. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID has been recently implicated in DNA demethylation through its deaminase activity coupled with DNA repair. We investigated the epigenetic function of AID in vivo in germinal center B cells (GCBs isolated from wild-type (WT and AID-deficient (Aicda−/− mice. We determined that the transit of B cells through the GC is associated with marked locus-specific loss of methylation and increased methylation diversity, both of which are lost in Aicda−/− animals. Differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs between GCBs and naive B cells (NBs are enriched in genes that are targeted for somatic hypermutation (SHM by AID, and these genes form networks required for B cell development and proliferation. Finally, we observed significant conservation of AID-dependent epigenetic reprogramming between mouse and human B cells.

  5. Effect of thumus cell injections on germinal center formation in lymphoid tissues of nude (thymusless) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.B.; Caporale, L.H.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1974-01-01

    Nude mice, partially backcrossed to Balb/c or DBA/2, were injected iv with 5 x 10 7 thymus cells from the respective inbred strain. The response of these mice to immunization with Brucella abortus antigen was studied, with respect to both antibody production and the formation of germinal centers in their lymphoid tissues. The results were compared to those obtained with nude mice to which no thymus cells were given, as well as to Balb/c, DBA/2, or +/question litter mate controls. Nude mice formed less 19S as well as 7S antibody than did litter mate controls and completely lacked germinal centers in lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Those nude mice which had been injected with thymus cells made a much better secondary response, both for 19S and for 7S antibody, and had active germinal centers in their lymph nodes as early as 3 wk after thymus cell injection. Intestinal lymphoid tissue in nude mice showed only slight reconstitution of germinal center activity several months after thymus cell injection and none at earlier times. Irradiated (3000 R) thymus cells appeared as effective as normal cells in facilitating germinal center appearance and 7S antibody production in the nude mice

  6. Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab

  7. Cellular interactions in the germinal center: role of adhesion receptors and significance for the pathogenesis of AIDS and malignant lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, G.; Pals, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    The germinal center forms a specialized microenvironment that is thought to play a key role in the induction of antibody synthesis, affinity maturation of B cells, isotype switching, and memory B-cell formation. Moreover, the germinal center may also be involved in the maintenance of T-cell memory.

  8. Intravascular Large B cell Lymphoma in Taiwan: An Asian Variant of Non-germinal-center Origin

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    Min-Shu Hsieh

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Our cases of IVLBCL had a non-germinal center B origin and belonged to the Asian variant of this disease. The liver, spleen, and bone marrow, but rarely the skin or brain, were involved. Thrombocytopenia is a major risk factor for mortality in these cases.

  9. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

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    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  10. Ectopic germinal center and megalin defect in primary Sjogren syndrome with renal Fanconi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wen, Yubing; Zhou, Mengyu; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Jiang, Lanping; Li, Mingxi; Yu, Yang; Li, Xuemei; Li, Xuewang; Zhang, Wen; Lundquist, Andrew L; Chen, Limeng

    2017-06-02

    This study reports the clinical and pathological features of 12 cases of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS) with renal involvement presenting with proximal tubular dysfunction in a single center, and investigates the possible correlation of ectopic germinal center formation and megalin/cubilin down-expression. Clinical and pathological records were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect megalin, cubilin, CD21 and IL-17 expression. Patients presented with different degrees of proximal renal tubule lesion and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Renal biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis, with tubular epithelial cell degeneration, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and focal fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin, two important multiligand protein receptors on the brush border of proximal tubular epithelial cells. IL-17 secreted by Th17 subtype effector T cells was diffusely detected in the renal proximal tubule, with a negative correlation of IL-17 and megalin expression. In addition, ectopic germinal centers characterized by CD21 + follicular dendritic cells were present in the renal interstitium. In patients with a decreased eGFR, treatment with 4 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy resulted in an improved eGFR in 75% of patients. We report 12 cases of pSS characterized by Fanconi syndrome. The decreased megalin and cubilin expression may contribute to the proximal tubular reabsorption defect, possibly secondary to Th17 infiltration and formation of ectopic germinal centers.

  11. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4 + T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection

  12. Germinal center architecture disturbance during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice

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    Pelajo-Machado Marcelo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to malaria blood stage infection are in general defective, with the need for long-term exposure to the parasite to achieve immunity, and with the development of immunopathology states such as cerebral malaria in many cases. One of the potential reasons for the difficulty in developing protective immunity is the poor development of memory responses. In this paper, the potential association of cellular reactivity in lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches with immunity and pathology was evaluated during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice. Methods CBA mice were infected with 1 × 106 P. berghei ANKA-parasitized erythrocytes and killed on days 3, 6–8 and 10 of infection. The spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches were collected, fixed in Carson's formalin, cut in 5 μm sections, mounted in glass slides, stained with Lennert's Giemsa and haematoxylin-eosin and analysed with bright-field microscopy. Results Early (day 3 strong activation of T cells in secondary lymphoid organs was observed and, on days 6–8 of infection, there was overwhelming activation of B cells, with loss of conventional germinal center architecture, intense centroblast activation, proliferation and apoptosis but little differentiation to centrocytes. In the spleen, the marginal zone disappeared and the limits between the disorganized germinal center and the red pulp were blurred. Intense plasmacytogenesis was observed in the T cell zone. Conclusion The observed alterations, especially the germinal center architecture disturbance (GCAD with poor centrocyte differentiation, suggest that B cell responses during P. berghei ANKA infection in mice are defective, with potential impact on B cell memory responses.

  13. Effect of thumus cell injections on germinal center formation in lymphoid tissues of nude (thymusless) mice. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, E.B.; Caporale, L.H.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1974-09-01

    Nude mice, partially backcrossed to Balb/c or DBA/2, were injected iv with 5 x 10/sup 7/ thymus cells from the respective inbred strain. The response of these mice to immunization with Brucella abortus antigen was studied, with respect to both antibody production and the formation of germinal centers in their lymphoid tissues. The results were compared to those obtained with nude mice to which no thymus cells were given, as well as to Balb/c, DBA/2, or +/question litter mate controls. Nude mice formed less 19S as well as 7S antibody than did litter mate controls and completely lacked germinal centers in lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Those nude mice which had been injected with thymus cells made a much better secondary response, both for 19S and for 7S antibody, and had active germinal centers in their lymph nodes as early as 3 wk after thymus cell injection. Intestinal lymphoid tissue in nude mice showed only slight reconstitution of germinal center activity several months after thymus cell injection and none at earlier times. Irradiated (3000 R) thymus cells appeared as effective as normal cells in facilitating germinal center appearance and 7S antibody production in the nude mice.

  14. Polyclonal B cell differentiation and loss of gastrointestinal tract germinal centers in the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection.

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    Marc C Levesque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay in the appearance of anti-HIV-1 antibodies and of their subsequent rapid decline are not known. While the effect of HIV-1 on depletion of gut CD4(+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection is well described, we studied blood and tissue B cells soon after infection to determine the effect of early HIV-1 on these cells.In human participants, we analyzed B cells in blood as early as 17 days after HIV-1 infection, and in terminal ileum inductive and effector microenvironments beginning at 47 days after infection. We found that HIV-1 infection rapidly induced polyclonal activation and terminal differentiation of B cells in blood and in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT B cells. The specificities of antibodies produced by GALT memory B cells in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI included not only HIV-1-specific antibodies, but also influenza-specific and autoreactive antibodies, indicating very early onset of HIV-1-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Follicular damage or germinal center loss in terminal ileum Peyer's patches was seen with 88% of follicles exhibiting B or T cell apoptosis and follicular lysis.Early induction of polyclonal B cell differentiation, coupled with follicular damage and germinal center loss soon after HIV-1 infection, may explain both the high rate of decline in HIV-1-induced antibody responses and the delay in plasma antibody responses to HIV-1. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.

  15. RNA-binding protein VICKZ is expressed in a germinal center associated pattern among lymphoma subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natkunam, Y.; Vainer, G.; Zhao, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    and tumorigenesis/metastasis. We generated an antibody that recognizes all three isoforms of VICKZ protein and characterized its expression in normal lymphoid tissue and in lymphoma subtypes. In normal tonsils, VICKZ protein showed a germinal center-specific pattern of expression with staining localized...... to the cytoplasm. Among 868 non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas tested by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, staining for VICKZ protein was present in 76% (126/165) of follicular lymphoma, 78% (155/200) of DLBCL, 90% (9/10) of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, and 100% (2/2) of Burkitt lymphoma. A subset...... protein in lymphoma subtypes suggests a potential utility for VICKZ in the identification of subgroups of DLBCL associated with different prognoses....

  16. Human Performance Research Center

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    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  17. Development of ADA Against Recombinant Human Interferon Beta in Immune Tolerant Mice Requires Rapid Recruitment of CD4(+) T Cells, Induces Formation of Germinal Centers but Lacks Susceptibility for (Most) Adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, Grzegorz; Sauerborn, Melody; Boon, Louis; Schellekens, Huub; Brinks, Vera

    Immunological processes leading to formation of antidrug antibodies (Abs) against recombinant human proteins remain poorly understood. Animal and clinical studies revealed that immunogenicity shares both T-cell-dependent (requirement of CD4(+) T cells, isotype switching) and T-cell-independent

  18. Somatic mutation of EZH2 (Y641) in follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of germinal center origin | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin et al. describe recurrent somatic mutations in EZH2, a polycomb group oncogene. The mutation, found in the SET domain of this gene encoding a histone methyltransferase, is found only in a subset of lymphoma samples. Specifically, EZH2 mutations are found in about 12% of follicular lymphomas (FL) and almost 23% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) of germinal center origin. This paper goes on to demonstrate that altered EZH2 proteins, corresponding to the most frequent mutations found in human lymphomas, have reduced activity using in vitro histone methylation assays.

  19. Responses of single germinal-center B cells in T-cell-dependent microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Cebra, J J

    1991-01-01

    B cells purified from the germinal centers (GCs) of murine Peyer's patches can be stimulated in a clonal microculture containing helper T cells and dendritic cells to divide and secrete immunoglobulin. Intraclonal isotype switching occurs, and a variety of immunoglobulin isotypes, including IgA, is secreted. Memory cells, which generate clones secreting IgA exclusively, are only rarely identified in the GC B-cell subset. Such memory cells can, however, be readily identified among unfractionated Peyer's patch B cells, and in non-GC subsets of B cells. The results suggest that the GC does not contain IgA memory cells that can be restimulated in vitro to secrete only IgA. When division of GC B cells is prevented by irradiation or aphidicholin treatment, a large subset that secretes IgA as the sole immunoglobulin isotype is seen, and the output of presumably single B cells is large enough to be scored by RIA. Both helper T cells and dendritic cells are required for the phenomenon. The data indicate that commitment to IgA secretion occurs in Peyer's patch GCs and suggest that the prolific cell division known to be supported in GCs may forestall terminal differentiation of preplasmablasts to immunoglobulin secretion.

  20. Germinal Center Optimization Applied to Neural Inverse Optimal Control for an All-Terrain Tracked Robot

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    Carlos Villaseñor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are several meta-heuristics algorithms which offer solutions for multi-variate optimization problems. These algorithms use a population of candidate solutions which explore the search space, where the leadership plays a big role in the exploration-exploitation equilibrium. In this work, we propose to use a Germinal Center Optimization algorithm (GCO which implements temporal leadership through modeling a non-uniform competitive-based distribution for particle selection. GCO is used to find an optimal set of parameters for a neural inverse optimal control applied to all-terrain tracked robot. In the Neural Inverse Optimal Control (NIOC scheme, a neural identifier, based on Recurrent High Orden Neural Network (RHONN trained with an extended kalman filter algorithm, is used to obtain a model of the system, then, a control law is design using such model with the inverse optimal control approach. The RHONN identifier is developed without knowledge of the plant model or its parameters, on the other hand, the inverse optimal control is designed for tracking velocity references. Applicability of the proposed scheme is illustrated using simulations results as well as real-time experimental results with an all-terrain tracked robot.

  1. The BCL6 RD2 Domain Governs Commitment of Activated B Cells to Form Germinal Centers

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    Chuanxin Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand how the Bcl6 transcriptional repressor functions in the immune system, we disrupted its RD2 repression domain in mice. Bcl6RD2MUT mice exhibit a complete loss of germinal center (GC formation but retain normal extrafollicular responses. Bcl6RD2MUT antigen-engaged B cells migrate to the interfollicular zone and interact with cognate T helper cells. However, these cells fail to complete early GC-commitment differentiation and coalesce as nascent GC aggregates. Bcl6 directly binds and represses trafficking receptors S1pr1 and Gpr183 by recruiting Hdac2 through the RD2 domain. Deregulation of these genes impairs B cell migration and may contribute to GC failure in Bcl6RD2MUT mice. The development of functional GC-TFH cells was partially impaired in Bcl6RD2MUT mice. In contrast to Bcl6−/− mice, Bcl6RD2MUT animals experience no inflammatory disease or macrophage deregulation. These results reveal an essential role for RD2 repression in early GC commitment and striking biochemical specificity in Bcl6 control of humoral and innate immune-cell phenotypes.

  2. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation

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    Victoria Ryg-Cornejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses.

  3. Human-Centered Design Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  4. Rgs13 constrains early B cell responses and limits germinal center sizes.

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    Il-Young Hwang

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP(+ cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells.

  5. Rgs13 constrains early B cell responses and limits germinal center sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Il-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Park, Chung; Harrison, Kathleen A; Kehrl, John H

    2013-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP(+) cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells.

  6. Fungal spore germination into yeast or mycelium: possible implications of dimorphism in evolution and human pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, M. V.

    The ability of dimorphism in fungi is conventionally regarded as a reversible change between the two vegetative forms, yeast and mycelium, in response to environmental change. A zygomycetous isolate, Benjaminiella poitrasii, exhibited yeast-mycelium transition in response to the change in temperature (37-28 °C) and decrease in glucose concentration. For the first time the presence of dimorphic response during asexual and sexual spore germination is reported under the dimorphism-triggering conditions in B. poitrasii. The zygospores germinated into budding yeast when subjected to yeast-form supporting conditions. The mycelium-form favoring conditions gave rise to true mycelium. Similarly, the asexual spores displayed a dimorphic response during germination. Our observations suggest that dimorphism is an intrinsic ability present in the vegetative, asexual, and sexual forms of the fungus. As dimorphic fungi are intermediate to the unicellular yeast and the filamentous forms, understanding of the dimorphic character could be useful to trace the evolutionary relationships among taxonomically different fungi. Moreover, the implications of spore germination during the onset of pathogenesis and in drug development for human health care are discussed.

  7. Exploration of factors affecting the onset and maturation course of follicular lymphoma through simulations of the germinal center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Michael K; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2009-08-01

    Genetic mutations frequently observed in human follicular lymphoma (FL) B-cells result in aberrant expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 and surface immunoglobulins (Igs) which display one or more novel variable (V) region N-glycosylation motifs. In the present study, we develop a simulation model of the germinal center (GC) to explore how these mutations might influence the emergence and clonal expansion of key mutants which provoke FL development. The simulations employ a stochastic method for calculating the cellular dynamics, which incorporates actual IgV region sequences and a simplified hypermutation scheme. We first bring our simulations into agreement with experimental data for well-characterized normal and bcl-2(+) anti-hapten GC responses in mice to provide a model for understanding how bcl-2 expression leads to permissive selection and memory cell differentiation of weakly competitive B-cells. However, as bcl-2 expression in the GC alone is thought to be insufficient for FL development, we next monitor simulated IgV region mutations to determine the emergence times of key mutants displaying aberrant N-glycosylation motifs recurrently observed in human FL IgV regions. Simulations of 26 germline V(H) gene segments indicate that particular IgV regions have a dynamical selective advantage by virtue of the speed with which one or more of their key sites can generate N-glycosylation motifs upon hypermutation. Separate calculations attribute the high occurrence frequency of such IgV regions in FL to an ability to produce key mutants at a fast enough rate to overcome stochastic processes in the GC that hinder clonal expansion. Altogether, these simulations characterize three pathways for FL maturation through positively selected N-glycosylations, namely, via one of two key sites within germline V(H) region gene segments, or via a site in the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3) that is generated from VDJ recombination.

  8. PP4 is essential for germinal center formation and class switch recombination in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yu Chen

    Full Text Available PP4 is a serine/threonine phosphatase required for immunoglobulin (Ig VDJ recombination and pro-B/pre-B cell development in mice. To elucidate the role of PP4 in mature B cells, we ablated the catalytic subunit of murine PP4 in vivo utilizing the CD23 promoter and cre-loxP recombination and generated CD23(crePP4(F/F mice. The development of follicular and marginal zone B cells was unaffected in these mutants, but the proliferation of mature PP4-deficient B cells stimulated by in vitro treatment with either anti-IgM antibody (Ab or LPS was partially impaired. Interestingly, the induction of CD80 and CD86 expression on these stimulated B cells was normal. Basal levels of serum Igs of all isotypes were strongly reduced in CD23(crePP4(F/F mice, and their B cells showed a reduced efficiency of class switch recombination (CSR in vitro upon stimulation by LPS or LPS plus IL-4. When CD23(crePP4(F/F mice were challenged with either the T cell-dependent antigen TNP-KLH or the T cell-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, or by H1N1 virus infection, the mutant animals failed to form germinal centers (GCs in the spleen and the draining mediastinal lymph nodes, and did not efficiently mount antigen-specific humoral responses. In the resting state, PP4-deficient B cells exhibited pre-existing DNA fragmentation. Upon stimulation by DNA-damaging drug etoposide in vitro, mutant B cells showed increased cleavage of caspase 3. In addition, the mutant B cells displayed impaired CD40-mediated MAPK activation, abnormal IgM-mediated NF-κB activation, and reduced S phase entry upon IgM/CD40-stimulation. Taken together, our results establish a novel role for PP4 in CSR, and reveal crucial functions for PP4 in the maintenance of genomic stability, GC formation, and B cell-mediated immune responses.

  9. Low CXCL13 expression, splenic lymphoid tissue atrophy and germinal center disruption in severe canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselli S Silva

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13, lymphotoxin (LT-α, LT-β, CCL19, CCL21, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β, using by real time RT-PCR. The lymphoid follicles and marginal zones were smaller (3.2 and 1.9 times, respectively; Mann-Whitney, P<0.02 in animals with disorganized splenic tissue in comparison to those with organized splenic lymphoid tissue. In spleens with disorganized lymphoid tissue, the numbers of T cells and S100+ dendritic cells were decreased in the follicles, and the numbers of B cells were reduced in both the follicles and marginal zones. CXCL13 mRNA expression was lower in animals with disorganized lymphoid tissue (0.5±0.4 compared to those with organized lymphoid tissue (2.7±2.9, both relative to 18S expression, P = 0.01. These changes in the spleen were associated with higher frequency of severe disease (7/12 in the animals with disorganized than in animals with organized (2/13, Chi-square, P = 0.01 splenic lymphoid tissue. The data presented herein suggest that natural infection with Leishmania infantum is associated with the impairment of follicular dendritic cells, CXCL13 expression, B cell migration and germinal center formation and associates these changes with severe clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore the fact that this work uses dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum emphasizes the relevance of the data presented herein for the knowledge on the canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

  10. Academic Specialization and Contemporary University Humanities Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Martine W.

    2012-01-01

    Given the academic specialization endemic today in humanities disciplines, some of the most important work of humanities centers has become promoting education about the humanities in general. After charting the rise of humanities centers in the US, three characteristics of centers that enable their advancement of larger concerns of the humanities…

  11. Dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity orchestrate germinal center and plasma cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloury, Renee; Zotos, Dimitra; Zuidscherwoude, Malou; Masson, Frederick; Liao, Yang; Hasbold, Jhaguaral; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Hodgkin, Phil D.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L.; Tarlinton, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of high-affinity antibodies requires germinal center (GC) development and differentiation of long-lived plasma cells in a multilayered process that is tightly controlled by the activity of multiple transcription factors. Here, we reveal a new layer of complexity by demonstrating that dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity govern both GC and plasma cell differentiation. We show that down-regulation of Id3 in B cells is essential for releasing E2A and E2-2, which in a redundant manner are required for antigen-induced B cell differentiation. We demonstrate that this pathway controls the expression of multiple key factors, including Blimp1, Xbp1, and CXCR4, and is therefore critical for establishing the transcriptional network that controls GC B cell and plasma cell differentiation. PMID:27217539

  12. Prognostic impact of germinal center-associated proteins and chromosomal breakpoints in poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Boerma, Evert-Jan G.; van der Holt, Bronno; Schuuring, Ed; Verdonck, Leo F.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Kluin, Philip M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with a germinal center B-cell (GCB) expression profile is superior to that of non-GCB DLBCL. This conclusion is mainly derived from patients with mixed international prognostic index (IPI) risk profiles treated with CHOP-like therapy

  13. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  14. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  15. cGAS-mediated control of blood-stage malaria promotes Plasmodium-specific germinal center responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William O; Butler, Noah S; Lindner, Scott E; Akilesh, Holly M; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan Hi; Hamerman, Jessica A; Gale, Michael; Liles, W Conrad; Pepper, Marion

    2018-01-25

    Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous reports suggesting a critical, intrinsic role for cGAS in early B cell responses, cGAS-deficient (cGAS-/-) mice had no defect in the early expansion or differentiation of Plasmodium-specific B cells. As the infection proceeded, however, cGAS-/- mice exhibited higher parasite burdens and aberrant germinal center and memory B cell formation when compared with littermate controls. Antimalarial drugs were used to further demonstrate that the disrupted humoral response was not B cell intrinsic but instead was a secondary effect of a loss of parasite control. These findings therefore demonstrate that cGAS-mediated innate-sensing contributes to parasite control but is not intrinsically required for the development of humoral immunity. Our findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of pathogen burden in investigations examining how the innate immune system affects the adaptive immune response.

  16. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Jasvir S; Pilgrim, Mark J; Grewal, Suman; Kasman, Laura; Werner, Phillip; Bruorton, Mary E; London, Steven D; London, Lucille

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that salivary gland inoculation stimulates formation of ectopic germinal centers (GCs), transforming the gland into a mucosal inductive site. Intraglandular infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV; control: UV-inactivated MCMV) induces salivary gland ectopic follicles comprising cognate interactions between CD4(+) and B220(+) lymphocytes, IgM(+) and isotype-switched IgG(+) and IgA(+) B cells, antigen presenting cells, and follicular dendritic cells. B cells coexpressed the GC markers GCT (57%) and GL7 (52%), and bound the lectin peanut agglutinin. Lymphoid follicles were characterized by a 2- to 3-fold increase in mRNA for CXCL13 (lymphoid neogenesis), syndecan-1 (plasma cells), Blimp-1 (plasma cell development/differentiation), and a 2- to 6-fold increase for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, PAX5, and the nonexcised rearranged DNA of an IgA class-switch event, supporting somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination within the salivary follicles. Intraglandular inoculation also provided protection against a systemic MCMV challenge, as evidenced by decreased viral titers (10(5) plaque-forming units to undetectable), and restoration of normal salivary flow rates from a 6-fold decrease. Therefore, these features suggest that the salivary gland participates in oral mucosal immunity via generation of ectopic GCs, which function as ectopic mucosal inductive sites.

  17. Synergistic Anti-Tumor Activity of EZH2 Inhibitors and Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists in Models of Germinal Center Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Knutson

    Full Text Available Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL are treated today with a cocktail of drugs referred to as CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxyldaunorubicin, Oncovin, and Prednisone. Subsets of patients with NHL of germinal center origin bear oncogenic mutations in the EZH2 histone methyltransferase. Clinical testing of the EZH2 inhibitor EPZ-6438 has recently begun in patients. We report here that combining EPZ-6438 with CHOP in preclinical cell culture and mouse models results in dramatic synergy for cell killing in EZH2 mutant germinal center NHL cells. Surprisingly, we observe that much of this synergy is due to Prednisolone - a glucocorticoid receptor agonist (GRag component of CHOP. Dramatic synergy was observed when EPZ-6438 is combined with Prednisolone alone, and a similar effect was observed with Dexamethasone, another GRag. Remarkably, the anti-proliferative effect of the EPZ-6438+GRag combination extends beyond EZH2 mutant-bearing cells to more generally impact germinal center NHL. These preclinical data reveal an unanticipated biological intersection between GR-mediated gene regulation and EZH2-mediated chromatin remodeling. The data also suggest the possibility of a significant and practical benefit of combining EZH2 inhibitors and GRag that warrants further investigation in a clinical setting.

  18. Synergistic Anti-Tumor Activity of EZH2 Inhibitors and Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists in Models of Germinal Center Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Sarah K; Warholic, Natalie M; Johnston, L Danielle; Klaus, Christine R; Wigle, Tim J; Iwanowicz, Dorothy; Littlefield, Bruce A; Porter-Scott, Margaret; Smith, Jesse J; Moyer, Mikel P; Copeland, Robert A; Pollock, Roy M; Kuntz, Kevin W; Raimondi, Alejandra; Keilhack, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are treated today with a cocktail of drugs referred to as CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxyldaunorubicin, Oncovin, and Prednisone). Subsets of patients with NHL of germinal center origin bear oncogenic mutations in the EZH2 histone methyltransferase. Clinical testing of the EZH2 inhibitor EPZ-6438 has recently begun in patients. We report here that combining EPZ-6438 with CHOP in preclinical cell culture and mouse models results in dramatic synergy for cell killing in EZH2 mutant germinal center NHL cells. Surprisingly, we observe that much of this synergy is due to Prednisolone - a glucocorticoid receptor agonist (GRag) component of CHOP. Dramatic synergy was observed when EPZ-6438 is combined with Prednisolone alone, and a similar effect was observed with Dexamethasone, another GRag. Remarkably, the anti-proliferative effect of the EPZ-6438+GRag combination extends beyond EZH2 mutant-bearing cells to more generally impact germinal center NHL. These preclinical data reveal an unanticipated biological intersection between GR-mediated gene regulation and EZH2-mediated chromatin remodeling. The data also suggest the possibility of a significant and practical benefit of combining EZH2 inhibitors and GRag that warrants further investigation in a clinical setting.

  19. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  20. Vitrification of human germinal vesicle oocytes; before or after in vitro maturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Kasapi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of immature oocytes derived from stimulated cycles could be of great importance, particularly for urgent fertility preservation cases. The current study aimed to determine whether in vitro maturation (IVM was more successful before or after vitrification of these oocytes. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed in a private in vitro fertilization (IVF center. We collected 318 germinal vesicle (GV oocytes from 104 stimulated oocyte donation cycles. Oocytes were divided into two groups according to whether vitrification was applied at the GV stage (group 1 or in vitro matured to the metaphase II (MII stage and then vitrified (group 2. In the control group (group 3, oocytes were in vitro matured without vitrification. In all three groups, we assessed survival rate after warming, maturation rate, and MII-spindle/chromosome configurations. The chi-square test was used to compare rates between the three groups. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05 and we used Bonferroni criterion to assess statistical significance regarding the various pairs of groups. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 was used to perform statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in the survival rate after vitrification and warming of GV (93.5% and MII oocytes (90.8%. A significantly higher maturation rate occurred when IVM was performed before vitrification (82.9% compared to after vitrification (51%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of normal spindle/ chromosome configurations among warmed oocytes matured in vitro before (50.0% or after (41.2% vitrification. However, a higher incidence of normal spindle/chromosome configurations existed in the in vitro matured oocytes which were not subjected to vitrification (fresh oocytes, 77.9%. Conclusion In stimulated cycles, vitrification of in vitro matured MII oocytes rather than GV oocytes seems to be more efficient. This

  1. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    germination. Lastly, the application of metabolomics to barley grain germination provides essential data on biochemical processes, including insights into the formation of compounds that contribute to malt quality. To maximize the benefits of the 'omics' revolution to the malting industry, there is a need......Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  2. Human-centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  3. Signals sustaining human immunoglobulin V gene hypermutation in isolated germinal centre B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dahlenborg; J.D. Pound (J.); J. Gordon (Jocelynne); C.A.K. Borrebaeck (C. A K); R. Carlsson (R.)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAffinity maturation of antibody responses depends on somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin V genes. Hypermutation is initiated specifically in proliferating B cells in lymphoid germinal centres but the signals driving this process remain unknown. This study identifies signals that

  4. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Ledard, Anne; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Deveza, Mélanie; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Vergier, Béatrice; Parrens, Marie; Feuillard, Jean; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Gachard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-). As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin. Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model. A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression. These data suggest that cell-of origin is

  5. Toward human-centered algorithm design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric PS Baumer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As algorithms pervade numerous facets of daily life, they are incorporated into systems for increasingly diverse purposes. These systems’ results are often interpreted differently by the designers who created them than by the lay persons who interact with them. This paper offers a proposal for human-centered algorithm design, which incorporates human and social interpretations into the design process for algorithmically based systems. It articulates three specific strategies for doing so: theoretical, participatory, and speculative. Drawing on the author’s work designing and deploying multiple related systems, the paper provides a detailed example of using a theoretical approach. It also discusses findings pertinent to participatory and speculative design approaches. The paper addresses both strengths and challenges for each strategy in helping to center the process of designing algorithmically based systems around humans.

  6. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  7. Effect of fertilizer prepared from human feces and straw on germination, growth and development of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianlei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui; Hu, Dawei; Qin, Youcai; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste treatment is one of the most important rate-limiting steps in the material circulation and energy flow of Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In our previous work, an efficient and controllable solid waste bio-convertor has been built and a solid waste degradation efficiency of 41.0% has been reached during a 105-d BLSS experiment. However, the fermented residues should be further utilized to fulfill the closure of the system. One solution might be to use the residues as the fertilizer for plant cultivation. Thus in this study, substrates were prepared using different ratios of the fermented residues to the vermiculite. And the influences of different ratios of the fermented residues on the seed germination, growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant capacity of wheat were studied. The results showed that the optimal rate of the fermented residue was 5%. With this ratio, the seed germination reached 97.3% with the root length, shoot length and biomass production as 59 mm, 52 mm and 150 mg, respectively, at the 4th day. Besides, the highest straw height of 25.1 cm was obtained at the 21st day. The salinity adversely affected the growth and some relevant metabolic processes of wheat. The Group-40% led to the lowest seed germination of 34.7% and the minimum straw height of 15 cm. This inhibition might be caused by the high Na content of 2118 mg/kg in the fermented residues. Chlorophyll b was more sensitive to the mineral nutrition stress and affects the wheat photosynthetic characteristics. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and reduced antioxidant enzymes may contribute, directly and/or indirectly, to the decline in the observed pigment contents in wheat.

  8. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  9. Rodent neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage mimics the human brain injury, neurological consequences, and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Krafft, Paul R; Peters, Regina; Hartman, Richard E; Altay, Orhan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2012-07-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns. GMH causes neurological sequelae such as cerebral palsy, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Despite this, there is no standardized animal model of spontaneous GMH using newborn rats to depict the condition. We asked whether stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.3 U) into the ganglionic eminence of neonatal rats would reproduce the acute brain injury, gliosis, hydrocephalus, periventricular leukomalacia, and attendant neurological consequences found in humans. To test this hypothesis, we used our neonatal rat model of collagenase-induced GMH in P7 pups, and found that the levels of free-radical adducts (nitrotyrosine and 4-hyroxynonenal), proliferation (mammalian target of rapamycin), inflammation (COX-2), blood components (hemoglobin and thrombin), and gliosis (vitronectin and GFAP) were higher in the forebrain of GMH pups, than in controls. Neurobehavioral testing showed that pups with GMH had developmental delay, and the juvenile animals had significant cognitive and motor disability, suggesting clinical relevance of the model. There was also evidence of white-matter reduction, ventricular dilation, and brain atrophy in the GMH animals. This study highlights an instructive animal model of the neurological consequences after germinal matrix hemorrhage, with evidence of brain injuries that can be used to evaluate strategies in the prevention and treatment of post-hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aborted germinal center reactions and B cell memory by follicular T cells specific for a B cell receptor V region peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Ryan A; Snyder, Christopher M; St Clair, James; Wysocki, Lawrence J

    2011-07-01

    A fundamental problem in immunoregulation is how CD4(+) T cells react to immunogenic peptides derived from the V region of the BCR that are created by somatic mechanisms, presented in MHC II, and amplified to abundance by B cell clonal expansion during immunity. BCR neo Ags open a potentially dangerous avenue of T cell help in violation of the principle of linked Ag recognition. To analyze this issue, we developed a murine adoptive transfer model using paired donor B cells and CD4 T cells specific for a BCR-derived peptide. BCR peptide-specific T cells aborted ongoing germinal center reactions and impeded the secondary immune response. Instead, they induced the B cells to differentiate into short-lived extrafollicular plasmablasts that secreted modest quantities of Ig. These results uncover an immunoregulatory process that restricts the memory pathway to B cells that communicate with CD4 T cells via exogenous foreign Ag.

  11. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of germinal center origin with BCL2 translocations have poor outcome, irrespective of MYC status: a report from an International DLBCL rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visco, C.; Tzankov, A.; Xu-Monette, Z.Y.; Miranda, R.N.; Tai, Y.C.; Li, Y.; Liu, W.M.; d'Amore, E.S.; Li, Y.O.; Montes-Moreno, S.; Dybkaer, K.; Chiu, A.; Orazi, A.; Zu, Y.; Bhagat, G.; Wang, H.Y.; Dunphy, C.H.; His, E.D.; Zhao, X.F.; Choi, W.W.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Huang, Q.; Ai, W.; O'Neill, S.; Ponzoni, M.; Ferreri, A.J.; Kahl, B.S.; Winter, J.N.; Go, R.S.; Dirnhofer, S.; Piris, M.A.; Moller, M.B.; Wu, L.; Medeiros, L.J.; Young, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be classified by gene expression profiling into germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes with different prognoses after rituximab-CHOP. The importance of previously recognized prognostic markers, such as Bcl-2 protein expression and BCL2 gene abnormalities, has

  12. Mailman Segal Center for Human Development | NSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    rendition of the National Anthem sung by Jonathan Richard, a young man with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD Dean Jim & Jan Moran Family Center Village Collaborations Early Learning Programs About Early Learning Programs Family Center Preschool About Our Preschool Enrollment Family Center Infant & Toddler

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR, brown rice (BR and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  14. Mouse model of Epstein-Barr virus LMP1- and LMP2A-driven germinal center B-cell lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamitani, Takeharu; Ma, Yijie; Zhou, Hufeng; Kida, Hiroshi; Tsai, Chao-Yuan; Obana, Masanori; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Fujio, Yasushi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Zhao, Bo; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kieff, Elliott; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Yasui, Teruhito

    2017-05-02

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a major cause of immunosuppression-related B-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In these malignancies, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and LMP2A provide infected B cells with surrogate CD40 and B-cell receptor growth and survival signals. To gain insights into their synergistic in vivo roles in germinal center (GC) B cells, from which most EBV-driven lymphomas arise, we generated a mouse model with conditional GC B-cell LMP1 and LMP2A coexpression. LMP1 and LMP2A had limited effects in immunocompetent mice. However, upon T- and NK-cell depletion, LMP1/2A caused massive plasmablast outgrowth, organ damage, and death. RNA-sequencing analyses identified EBV oncoprotein effects on GC B-cell target genes, including up-regulation of multiple proinflammatory chemokines and master regulators of plasma cell differentiation. LMP1/2A coexpression also up-regulated key HL markers, including CD30 and mixed hematopoietic lineage markers. Collectively, our results highlight synergistic EBV membrane oncoprotein effects on GC B cells and provide a model for studies of their roles in immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative diseases.

  15. Germinal Center Kinases SmKIN3 and SmKIN24 Are Associated with the Sordaria macrospora Striatin-Interacting Phosphatase and Kinase (STRIPAK) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stefan; Reschka, Eva J; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex is composed of striatin, protein phosphatase PP2A and protein kinases that regulate development in animals and fungi. In the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, it is required for fruiting-body development and cell fusion. Here, we report on the presence and function of STRIPAK-associated kinases in ascomycetes. Using the mammalian germinal center kinases (GCKs) MST4, STK24, STK25 and MINK1 as query, we identified the two putative homologs SmKIN3 and SmKIN24 in S. macrospora. A BLASTP search revealed that both kinases are conserved among filamentous ascomycetes. The physical interaction of the striatin homolog PRO11 with SmKIN3 and SmKIN24 were verified by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction studies and for SmKIN3 by co-Immunoprecipitation (co-IP). In vivo localization found that both kinases were present at the septa and deletion of both Smkin3 and Smkin24 led to abnormal septum distribution. While deletion of Smkin3 caused larger distances between adjacent septa and increased aerial hyphae, deletion of Smkin24 led to closer spacing of septa and to sterility. Although phenotypically distinct, both kinases appear to function independently because the double-knockout strain ΔSmkin3/ΔSmkin24 displayed the combined phenotypes of each single-deletion strain.

  16. Germinal Center Kinases SmKIN3 and SmKIN24 Are Associated with the Sordaria macrospora Striatin-Interacting Phosphatase and Kinase (STRIPAK Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Frey

    Full Text Available The striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK complex is composed of striatin, protein phosphatase PP2A and protein kinases that regulate development in animals and fungi. In the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, it is required for fruiting-body development and cell fusion. Here, we report on the presence and function of STRIPAK-associated kinases in ascomycetes. Using the mammalian germinal center kinases (GCKs MST4, STK24, STK25 and MINK1 as query, we identified the two putative homologs SmKIN3 and SmKIN24 in S. macrospora. A BLASTP search revealed that both kinases are conserved among filamentous ascomycetes. The physical interaction of the striatin homolog PRO11 with SmKIN3 and SmKIN24 were verified by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H interaction studies and for SmKIN3 by co-Immunoprecipitation (co-IP. In vivo localization found that both kinases were present at the septa and deletion of both Smkin3 and Smkin24 led to abnormal septum distribution. While deletion of Smkin3 caused larger distances between adjacent septa and increased aerial hyphae, deletion of Smkin24 led to closer spacing of septa and to sterility. Although phenotypically distinct, both kinases appear to function independently because the double-knockout strain ΔSmkin3/ΔSmkin24 displayed the combined phenotypes of each single-deletion strain.

  17. A novel monoclonal antibody, C41, reveals IL-13Ralpha1 expression by murine germinal center B cells and follicular dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudrier, J; Graber, P; Herren, S; Berney, C; Gretener, D; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Gauchat, J F

    2000-11-01

    Responsiveness to IL-13 involves at least two chains, IL-4Ralpha and IL-13Ralpha1. Although mouse B cells express IL-4Ralpha, little is known about their expression of IL-13Ralpha chains. To investigate this topic further, we have generated a monoclonal antibody (C41) specific for murine IL-13Ralpha1. Using C41, IL-13Ralpha1 expression was detected on germinal center (GC) B cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In addition, IL-13Ralpha1 was observed on follicular dendritic cells, but not interdigitating dendritic cells in the T cell areas. Furthermore, resting B cells also expressed IL-13Ralpha1, and in the presence of IL-13 produced increased amounts of IgM in response to in vitro CD40 stimulation. However, C41 was unable to neutralize this bioactivity. The distribution of IL-13Ralpha1 on murine B cells and during GC reactions suggests a role for IL-13 during B cell differentiation.

  18. LKB1 inhibition of NF-κB in B cells prevents T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicole C; Waters, Lynnea R; Fowler, Jessica A; Lin, Mark; Cunningham, Cameron R; Brooks, David G; Rehg, Jerold E; Morse, Herbert C; Teitell, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    T-cell-dependent antigenic stimulation drives the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells, but how B cells regulate this process is unclear. We show that LKB1 expression in B cells maintains B-cell quiescence and prevents the premature formation of germinal centers (GCs). Lkb1-deficient B cells (BKO) undergo spontaneous B-cell activation and secretion of multiple inflammatory cytokines, which leads to splenomegaly caused by an unexpected expansion of T cells. Within this cytokine response, increased IL-6 production results from heightened activation of NF-κB, which is suppressed by active LKB1. Secreted IL-6 drives T-cell activation and IL-21 production, promoting T follicular helper (TFH ) cell differentiation and expansion to support a ~100-fold increase in steady-state GC B cells. Blockade of IL-6 secretion by BKO B cells inhibits IL-21 expression, a known inducer of TFH -cell differentiation and expansion. Together, these data reveal cell intrinsic and surprising cell extrinsic roles for LKB1 in B cells that control TFH -cell differentiation and GC formation, and place LKB1 as a central regulator of T-cell-dependent humoral immunity. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B Hawkins

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  20. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jared B; Jones, Mark T; Plassmann, Paul E; Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing) arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  1. Ectopic Germinal Centers and IgG4-Producing Plasmacytes Observed in Synovia of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients with Advanced Hip Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiugao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and the presence of IgG4-positive plasmacytes have been confirmed in chronic inflammatory sclerosing diseases. This study aims to investigate hip synovial tissues of ankylosing spondylitis (AS patients for IgG4-positive plasma cells and ectopic lymphoid tissues with germinal centers (GCs. Methods. Synovial samples were collected from 7 AS patients who received total hip replacement and were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD20+ B-cells, CD3+ T-cells, CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC, and CD38+ plasma cells. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgG4, IgA, IgM, and complement components C3d and C4d in synovia were evaluated. Both synovial CD21+ FDCs and IgG4-producing plasmacytes were analyzed. Results. All seven patients had severe fibrosis. Massive infiltrations of lymphocytes were found in 5 out of 7 patients’ synovia. Ectopic lymphoid tissues with CD21+ FDC networks and IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed coincidentally in two patients’ synovia. Conclusion. The pathophysiological mechanism of AS patients’ hip damage might be related to the coincidental presence of ectopic lymphoid tissue with FDCs network and IgG4-positive plasma cells identified here for the first time in AS patients’ inflamed synovial tissue.

  2. Students' Ways of Experiencing Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which…

  3. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of mammalian germinal center kinase-III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  4. A soluble form of IL-13 receptor alpha 1 promotes IgG2a and IgG2b production by murine germinal center B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudrier, J; Graber, P; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Elson, G; Berney, C; Gauchat, J F; Kosco-Vilbois, M H

    1999-08-01

    A functional IL-13R involves at least two cell surface proteins, the IL-13R alpha 1 and IL-4R alpha. Using a soluble form of the murine IL-13R alpha 1 (sIL-13R), we reveal several novel features of this system. The sIL-13R promotes proliferation and augmentation of Ag-specific IgM, IgG2a, and IgG2b production by murine germinal center (GC) B cells in vitro. These effects were enhanced by CD40 signaling and were not inhibited by an anti-IL4R alpha mAb, a result suggesting other ligands. In GC cell cultures, sIL-13R also promoted IL-6 production, and interestingly, sIL-13R-induced IgG2a and IgG2b augmentation was absent in GC cells isolated from IL-6-deficient mice. Furthermore, the effects of the sIL-13R molecule were inhibited in the presence of an anti-IL-13 mAb, and preincubation of GC cells with IL-13 enhanced the sIL-13R-mediated effects. When sIL-13R was injected into mice, it served as an adjuvant-promoting production to varying degrees of IgM and IgG isotypes. We thus propose that IL-13R alpha 1 is a molecule involved in B cell differentiation, using a mechanism that may involve regulation of IL-6-responsive elements. Taken together, our data reveal previously unknown activities as well as suggest that the ligand for the sIL-13R might be a component of the IL-13R complex or a counterstructure yet to be defined.

  5. Induction of Th1-Biased T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Defines Functionally Distinct Germinal Center Tfh Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Vijayakumar; Mylvaganam, Geetha Hanna; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Hong, Jung Joo; Iyer, Smita S; Gumber, Sanjeev; Ibegbu, Chris C; Villinger, Francois; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-09-01

    Chronic HIV infection is associated with accumulation of germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the lymphoid tissue. The GC Tfh cells can be heterogeneous based on the expression of chemokine receptors associated with T helper lineages, such as CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), and CCR6 (Th17). However, the heterogeneous nature of GC Tfh cells in the lymphoid tissue and its association with viral persistence and Ab production during chronic SIV/HIV infection are not known. To address this, we characterized the expression of CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6 on GC Tfh cells in lymph nodes following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus macaques. In SIV-naive rhesus macaques, only a small fraction of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6. However, during chronic SIV infection, the majority of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, whereas the proportion of CCR4(+) cells did not change, and CCR6(+) cells decreased. CXCR3(+), but not CXCR3(-), GC Tfh cells produced IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) and IL-21 (Tfh cytokine), whereas both subsets expressed CD40L following stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated an accumulation of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells within the hyperplastic follicles during chronic SIV infection. CXCR3(+) GC Tfh cells also expressed higher levels of ICOS, CCR5, and α4β7 and contained more copies of SIV DNA compared with CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells. However, CXCR3(+) and CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells delivered help to B cells in vitro for production of IgG. These data demonstrate that chronic SIV infection promotes expansion of Th1-biased GC Tfh cells, which are phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional GC Tfh cells and contribute to hypergammaglobulinemia and viral reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, R H M; Willemsen, H

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005, a master thesis project was carried out in the Delft University of Technology, following a similar human-centered design approach.2, 3 In that design project we also addressed the noise level insid...

  7. Rodent neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage mimics the human brain injury, neurological consequences, and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Krafft, Paul R.; Peters, Regina; Hartman, Richard E.; Altay, Orhan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns. GMH causes neurological sequelae such as cerebral palsy, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Despite this, there is no standardized animal model of spontaneous GMH using newborn rats to depict the condition. We asked whether stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.3 U) into the ganglionic eminence of neonatal rats would reproduce the acute brain injury, gliosis, hydroc...

  8. Does Every Research Library Need a Digital Humanities Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Jennifer; Erway, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    The digital humanities (DH) are attracting considerable attention and funding at the same time that this nascent field is striving for an identity. Some research libraries are making significant investments by creating digital humanities centers. However, questions about whether such investments are warranted persist across the cultural heritage…

  9. Human-centered automation: Development of a philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Curtis; Billings, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information on human-centered automation philosophy is given in outline/viewgraph form. It is asserted that automation of aircraft control will continue in the future, but that automation should supplement, not supplant the human management and control function in civil air transport.

  10. A Germination Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves using sponge seedlings to demonstrate the germination process without the usual waiting period. Discusses epigeous versus hypogeous germination, and cotyledon number and biodiversity. (JRH)

  11. Synergistic effect of oridonin and a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We demonstrate the synergistic antitumor effect of oridonin and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism may be multifunctional, involving apoptosis, AKT/mTOR and NF-kB inactivation, and ROS-mediated DNA damage response. Our findings pave the way for a new potential treatment option for non-GCB DLBCL with the combination of oridonin and NVP-BEZ235.

  12. Investigating small molecules to inhibit germinal center kinase-like kinase (GLK/MAP4K3) upstream of PKCθ phosphorylation: Potential therapy to modulate T cell dependent immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Dracka, Tricia L; Arduini, Robert; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Bhisetti, Govinda; Brickelmaier, Margot; Cahir-McFarland, Ellen; Enyedy, Istvan; Fontenot, Jason D; Hesson, Thomas; Little, Kevin; Lyssikatos, Joe; Marcotte, Douglas; McKee, Timothy; Murugan, Paramasivam; Patterson, Thomas; Peng, Hairuo; Rushe, Mia; Silvian, Laura; Spilker, Kerri; Wu, Ping; Xin, Zhili; Burkly, Linda C

    2018-06-01

    Germinal center kinase-like kinase (GLK, also known as MAP4K3) has been hypothesized to have an effect on key cellular activities, including inflammatory responses. GLK is required for activation of protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) in T cells. Controlling the activity of T helper cell responses could be valuable for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This approach circumvents previous unsuccessful approaches to target PKCθ directly. The use of structure based drug design, aided by the first crystal structure of GLK, led to the discovery of several inhibitors that demonstrate potent inhibition of GLK biochemically and in relevant cell lines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 1st AAU Workshop on Human-Centered Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 2012 AAU Workshop on Human-Centered Robotics took place on 15 Nov. 2012, at Aalborg University, Aalborg. The workshop provides a platform for robotics researchers, including professors, PhD and Master students to exchange their ideas and latest results. The objective is to foster closer...... interaction among researchers from multiple relevant disciplines in the human-centered robotics, and consequently, to promote collaborations across departments of all faculties towards making our center a center of excellence in robotics. The workshop becomes a great success, with 13 presentations, attracting...... more than 45 participants from AAU, SDU, DTI and industrial companies as well. The proceedings contain 7 full papers selected out from the full papers submitted afterwards on the basis of workshop abstracts. The papers represent major research development of robotics at AAU, including medical robots...

  14. Wings: A New Paradigm in Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    1997-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents/incidents investigations cite crew error as a causal factor (Boeing Commercial Airplane Group 1996). Human factors experts suggest that crew error has many underlying causes and should be the start of an accident investigation and not the end. One of those causes, the flight deck design, is correctable. If a flight deck design does not accommodate the human's unique abilities and deficits, crew error may simply be the manifestation of this mismatch. Pilots repeatedly report that they are "behind the aircraft" , i.e., they do not know what the automated aircraft is doing or how the aircraft is doing it until after the fact. Billings (1991) promotes the concept of "human-centered automation"; calling on designers to allocate appropriate control and information to the human. However, there is much ambiguity regarding what it mean's to be human-centered. What often are labeled as "human-centered designs" are actually designs where a human factors expert has been involved in the design process or designs where tests have shown that humans can operate them. While such designs may be excellent, they do not represent designs that are systematically produced according to some set of prescribed methods and procedures. This paper describes a design concept, called Wings, that offers a clearer definition for human-centered design. This new design concept is radically different from current design processes in that the design begins with the human and uses the human body as a metaphor for designing the aircraft. This is not because the human is the most important part of the aircraft (certainly the aircraft would be useless without lift and thrust), but because he is the least understood, the least programmable, and one of the more critical elements. The Wings design concept has three properties: a reversal in the design process, from aerodynamics-, structures-, and propulsion-centered to truly human-centered; a design metaphor that guides function

  15. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  16. Human-Centered Design for the Personal Satellite Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Gawdiak, Yuri; Thomas, Hans; Greaves, Mark; Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) is a softball-sized flying robot designed to operate autonomously onboard manned spacecraft in pressurized micro-gravity environments. We describe how the Brahms multi-agent modeling and simulation environment in conjunction with a KAoS agent teamwork approach can be used to support human-centered design for the PSA.

  17. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  18. Leveraging human-centered design in chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Pacione, Chris; Shultz, Rebecca K; Klügl, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Bridging the knowing-doing gap in the prevention of chronic disease requires deep appreciation and understanding of the complexities inherent in behavioral change. Strategies that have relied exclusively on the implementation of evidence-based data have not yielded the desired progress. The tools of human-centered design, used in conjunction with evidence-based data, hold much promise in providing an optimal approach for advancing disease prevention efforts. Directing the focus toward wide-scale education and application of human-centered design techniques among healthcare professionals will rapidly multiply their effective ability to bring the kind of substantial results in disease prevention that have eluded the healthcare industry for decades. This, in turn, would increase the likelihood of prevention by design. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human resource management in patient-centered pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J

    1994-04-01

    Patient-centered care may have the pharmacists and technicians reporting either directly or in a matrix to other than pharmacy administration. The pharmacy administrative people will need to be both effective leaders and managers utilizing excellent human resource management skills. Significant creativity and innovation will be needed for transition from departmental-based services to patient care team services. Changes in the traditional methods of recruiting, interviewing, hiring, training, developing, inspiring, evaluating, and disciplining are required in this new environment.

  20. Human Centered Design and Development for NASA's MerBoard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the design and development process for NASA's MerBoard. These devices are large interactive display screens which can be shown on the user's computer, which will allow scientists in many locations to interpret and evaluate mission data in real-time. These tools are scheduled to be used during the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) expeditions. Topics covered include: mission overview, Mer Human Centered Computers, FIDO 2001 observations and MerBoard prototypes.

  1. Human-centered automation of testing, surveillance and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, S.C.; Sun, B.K.H.

    1991-01-01

    Manual surveillance and testing of instrumentation, control and protection systems at nuclear power plants involves system and human errors which can lead to substantial plant down time. Frequent manual testing can also contribute significantly to operation and maintenance cost. Automation technology offers potential for prudent applications at the power plant to reduce testing errors and cost. To help address the testing problems and to harness the benefit of automation application, input from utilities is obtained on suitable automation approaches. This paper includes lessens from successful past experience at a few plants where some island of automation exist. The results are summarized as a set of specifications for semi automatic testing. A human-centered automation methodology is proposed with the guidelines for optimal human/computer division of tasks given. Implementation obstacles for significant changes of testing practices are identified and methods acceptable to nuclear power plants for addressing these obstacles have been suggested

  2. Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charlie C L

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products.  Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).   Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving...

  3. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  5. Human-centered design of the human-system interfaces of medical equipment: thyroid uptake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Jonathan K.R.; Farias, Marcos S.; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making healthcare increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine. Poorly design human-system interfaces can increase the risks for human error. The human-centered approach emphasizes the development of the equipment with a deep understanding of the users activities, current work practices, needs and abilities of the users. An important concept of human-centered design is that the ease-of-use of the equipment can be ensured only if users are actively incorporated in all phases of the life cycle of design process. Representative groups of users are exposed to the equipment at various stages in development, in a variety of testing, evaluation and interviewing situations. The users feedback obtained is then used to refine the design, with the result serving as input to the next interaction of design process. The limits of the approach are that the users cannot address any particular future needs without prior experience or knowledge about the equipment operation. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework that contributes to the design of the human-system interfaces, through an approach related to the users and their activities. A case study is described in which the methodological framework is being applied in development of new human-system interfaces of the thyroid uptake system. (author)

  6. Human testis-expressed sequence 101 is limitedly distributed in germinal epithelium of testis and disappears in seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Cong Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testis-expressed sequence 101 (TEX101 was found to be highly expressed in testis and involved in acrosome reaction in previous studies. Recently, the metastasis suppressor function of TEX101 in cancer was disclosed, but the comprehensive investigation of its expression has rarely been reported. In this study, the expression features of TEX101 in normal human organs and seminoma were systematically analyzed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated intense staining of TEX101 in human testis tissues; however, its expression in 27 other types of normal human organs, including the ovary, was negligible. Higher expression of TEX101 was observed in the spermatocytes and spermatids of the testis, but relatively lower staining was detected in spermatogonia. Western blotting showed a single TEX101 band of 38 kDa in human testis, but it did not correspond to the predicted molecular weight of its mature form at 21 KDa. Furthermore, we examined seminoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and found that none of the 36 samples expressed TEX101. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed TEX101 to be a testis protein that could be related to the maturation process of male germ cells. The lack of TEX101 in seminoma indicated its potential role in tumor progression. This characteristic expression of TEX101 could provide a valuable reference for understanding its biological functions.

  7. Variability of Germinative Potential among Pathogenic Species of Aspergillus

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Acacio Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate parameters influencing the germination of Aspergillus conidia. Inoculum concentration and age significantly influenced germination. Different incubation temperatures revealed significant differences among Aspergillus species. The internal human milieu provides the ideal conditions for the development of invasive disease by Aspergillus fumigatus but restricts invasion by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

  8. Japan's silver human resource centers and participant well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.

  9. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C. [comp.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  10. Is function-based control room design human-centered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2006-01-01

    Function-based approaches to system interface design appears an appealing possibility in helping designers and operators to cope with the vast amount of information needed to control complex processes. In this paper we provide evidence of operator performance analyses showing that outcome-centered performance measures may not be sufficiently informative for design. We need analyses indicating habitual patterns of using information, operator practices. We argue that practices that portray functional orienting to the task support mastery of the process. They also create potential to make use of function-based information presentation. We see that functional design is not an absolute value. Instead, such design should support communication of the functional significance of the process information to the operators in variable situations. Hence, it should facilitate development of practices that focus to interpreting this message. Successful function-based design facilitates putting operations into their contexts and is human-centered in an extended sense: It aids making sense in the complex, dynamic and uncertain environment. (authors)

  11. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  12. Human viral pathogens are pervasive in wastewater treatment center aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisebois, Evelyne; Veillette, Marc; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Lavoie, Jacques; Corbeil, Jacques; Culley, Alexander; Duchaine, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs. The presence of viruses in aerosols in different locations of individual WTCs was evaluated and the results obtained with four commonly used air samplers were compared. We detected four of the eleven viruses tested, including human adenovirus (hAdV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). The results of the metagenomic assay uncovered very few viral RNA sequences in WTC aerosols, however sequences from human DNA viruses were in much greater relative abundance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Human-Centered Design as an Integrating Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy André Boy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What is research today? Good research has to be indexed within appropriate mechanisms to be visible, considered and finally useful. These mechanisms are based on quantitative research methods and codes that are often very academic. Consequently, they impose rigorous constraints on the way results should be obtained and presented. In addition, everything people learn in academia needs to be graded. This leads to standard packaging of what should be learned and results in making people executants and not creators nor inventors. In other words, this academic standardization precludes freedom for innovation. This paper proposes Human-Centered Design (HCD as a solution to override these limitations and roadblocks. HCD involves expertise, experience, participation, modeling and simulation, complexity analysis and qualitative research. What is education today? Education is organized in silos with little attempt to integrate individual academic disciplines. Large system integration is almost never learned in engineering schools, and Human- Systems Integration (HSI even less. Instead, real-life problemsolving requires integration skills. What is design research? We often hear that design has nothing to do with research, and conversely. Putting design and research together, as complementary disciplines, contributes to combine creativity, rigorous demonstration and validation. This is somehow what HCD is about.

  14. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  15. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  16. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  17. ErgoTMC, A New Tool For Human-Centered TMC Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has recently made available a new tool to assist Transportation Management Center (TMC) managers and designers in incorporating human-centered design principles into their TMCs. ErgoTMC, a web site tailored t...

  18. Use of the Human Centered Design concept when designing ergonomic NPP control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrehot, Petr A.; Houser, Frantisek; Riha, Radek; Tuma, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Human-Centered Design is a concept aimed at reconciling human needs on the one hand and limitations posed by the design disposition of the room being designed on the other hand. This paper describes the main aspects of application of the Human-Centered Design concept to the design of nuclear power plant control rooms. (orig.)

  19. From STEM to STEAM: Toward a Human-Centered Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century was based on local linear engineering of complicated systems. We made cars, airplanes and chemical plants for example. The 21st century has opened a new basis for holistic non-linear design of complex systems, such as the Internet, air traffic management and nanotechnologies. Complexity, interconnectivity, interaction and communication are major attributes of our evolving society. But, more interestingly, we have started to understand that chaos theories may be more important than reductionism, to better understand and thrive on our planet. Systems need to be investigated and tested as wholes, which requires a cross-disciplinary approach and new conceptual principles and tools. Consequently, schools cannot continue to teach isolated disciplines based on simple reductionism. Science; Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) should be integrated together with the Arts1 to promote creativity together with rationalization, and move to STEAM (with an "A" for Arts). This new concept emphasizes the possibility of longer-term socio-technical futures instead of short-term financial predictions that currently lead to uncontrolled economies. Human-centered design (HCD) can contribute to improving STEAM education technologies, systems and practices. HCD not only provides tools and techniques to build useful and usable things, but also an integrated approach to learning by doing, expressing and critiquing, exploring possible futures, and understanding complex systems.

  20. It is time to talk about people: a human-centered healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgi Lea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Examining vulnerabilities within our current healthcare system we propose borrowing two tools from the fields of engineering and design: a Reason's system approach 1 and b User-centered design 23. Both approaches are human-centered in that they consider common patterns of human behavior when analyzing systems to identify problems and generate solutions. This paper examines these two human-centered approaches in the context of healthcare. We argue that maintaining a human-centered orientation in clinical care, research, training, and governance is critical to the evolution of an effective and sustainable healthcare system.

  1. Biochemical Changes Associated with Germinating Rice Grains and Germination Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine biochemical changes during the germination of rice grains (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan and to improve germination rate using gibberellic acid and surfactants [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (1.0 g/L and Triton-X−100 (1.0 mL/L], whole rice grains soaked in distilled water for 12 h at 30°C were germinated in the dark at 30°C for five days. The highest germination rate (77.1% was obtained on the 5th day. An increase in the content of reducing sugars from 7.3 to 58.1 mg/g DM (dry matter was observed from the 1st day of germination. Free amino acids and soluble protein contents increased to 3.69 and 5.29 mg/g DM, respectively on the 5th day of germination. Total protein content decreased from 100.5 to 91.0 g/kg DM during germination. Increases in amylolytic (1.1 to 190.0 U/g DM and proteolytic (0 to 0.12 U/g DM activities were observed during germination. Effects of different concentrations of gibberellic acid on the germination of rice grains were evaluated and 0.1 g/L was found to promote germination. When effects of gibberellic acid (0.1 g/L and surfactants were evaluated individually and together, higher germination rate was observed in the control experiment (grains germinated in distilled water, whereas giberellic acid and surfactants decreased the germination rate. Therefore, the flour obtained from the grains germinated for four days using distilled water to obtain high content of soluble materials and enzyme activities can be used in preparation of bakery items.

  2. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  3. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    TIANSAWANG,Kasarin; LUANGPITUKSA,Pairoj; VARANYANOND,Warunee; HANSAWASDI,Chanida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  4. Pattern Recognition as a Human Centered non-Euclidean Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, R.P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Regularities in the world are human defined. Patterns in the observed phenomena are there because we define and recognize them as such. Automatic pattern recognition tries to bridge the gap between human judgment and measurements made by artificial sensors. This is done in two steps: representation

  5. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad-hoc...

  6. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  7. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth between storage ... for up to 1 year and the second group was used for un-stored germination test. ... seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, ...

  8. Germination of Afrocarpus usambarensis and Podocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    farm planting. Seed germination of .... 235. Germination of Afrocarpus usambarensis and Podocarpus milanjianus seeds. Table 2. Mean seed germination of A. usambarensis and P. milanjianus. Species .... National Forestry Authority and District.

  9. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m 2 intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  10. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C

    2012-01-01

    This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely-but only where tides and currents were favourable-and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely-to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating-and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers related to fruit abscission and

  11. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  12. The mobilize center: an NIH big data to knowledge center to advance human movement research and improve mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Joy P; Hicks, Jennifer L; Hastie, Trevor; Leskovec, Jure; Ré, Christopher; Delp, Scott L

    2015-11-01

    Regular physical activity helps prevent heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic diseases, yet a broad range of conditions impair mobility at great personal and societal cost. Vast amounts of data characterizing human movement are available from research labs, clinics, and millions of smartphones and wearable sensors, but integration and analysis of this large quantity of mobility data are extremely challenging. The authors have established the Mobilize Center (http://mobilize.stanford.edu) to harness these data to improve human mobility and help lay the foundation for using data science methods in biomedicine. The Center is organized around 4 data science research cores: biomechanical modeling, statistical learning, behavioral and social modeling, and integrative modeling. Important biomedical applications, such as osteoarthritis and weight management, will focus the development of new data science methods. By developing these new approaches, sharing data and validated software tools, and training thousands of researchers, the Mobilize Center will transform human movement research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  13. Germination and storage of pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    1955-01-01

    Germination of pear pollen markedly improved when boric acid was added to the medium. The pollen was more sensitive to boron in water than in 10 % sugar solution. Supplying weak solutions of boron to pear branches before flowering resulted in a good germination of the pollen in sugar solution

  14. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  15. Quality Improvement Project to Improve Patient Satisfaction With Pain Management: Using Human-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Heisler, Scott; Katica, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In this quality improvement project, our health system developed a comprehensive, patient-centered approach to improving inpatient pain management and assessed its impact on patient satisfaction across 21 medical centers. Using human-centered design principles, a bundle of 6 individual and team nursing practices was developed. Patient satisfaction with pain management, as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems pain composite score, increased from the 25th to just under the 75th national percentile.

  16. Human-Centered Command and Control of Future Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    introduce challenges with situation awareness, automation reliance, and accountability (Bainbridge, 1983). If not carefully designed and integrated...into users’ tasks, automation’s costs can quickly outweigh its benefits. A tempting solution to compensate for inherent human cognitive limitations is... Drury & Scott, 2008; Nehme, Scott, Cummings, & Furusho, 2006; Scott & Cummings, 2006). However, there have not been detailed prescriptive task

  17. Opportunities for Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Provision in School Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Feld, Ashley L.; O'Malley, Brittany; Entzel, Pamela; Smith, Jennifer S.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine remains low among adolescents in the United States. We sought to assess barriers to HPV vaccine provision in school health centers to inform subsequent interventions. Methods: We conducted structured interviews in the fall of 2010 with staff from all 33 school health centers in North…

  18. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa.

  19. Toward a human-centered aircraft automation philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of automation in civil aircraft is examined in order to discern trends in the respective roles and functions of automation technology and the humans who operate these aircraft. The effects of advances in automation technology on crew reaction is considered and it appears that, though automation may well have decreased the frequency of certain types of human errors in flight, it may also have enabled new categories of human errors, some perhaps less obvious and therefore more serious than those it has alleviated. It is suggested that automation could be designed to keep the pilot closer to the control of the vehicle, while providing an array of information management and aiding functions designed to provide the pilot with data regarding flight replanning, degraded system operation, and the operational status and limits of the aircraft, its systems, and the physical and operational environment. The automation would serve as the pilot's assistant, providing and calculating data, watching for the unexpected, and keeping track of resources and their rate of expenditure.

  20. Research on operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding in human-centered plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Mitomo, N.

    2004-01-01

    As a human-centered plant, advanced nuclear power plant needs appropriate role sharing between human and mobile intelligent agents. Human-machine cooperation for plant operation and maintenance activities is also required with an advanced interface. Plant's maintenance is programmed using mobile robots working under the radiation environments instead of human beings. Operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding should be developed to establish adequate human and machine interface so as to induce human capabilities to the full and enable human to take responsibility for plan's operation. Plant's operation and maintenance can be cooperative activities between human and intelligent automonous agents having surveillance and control functions. Infrastructure of multi-agent simulation system for the support system has been investigated and developed based on work plans derived from the scheduler. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Human Systems Engineering for Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon B.; Stelges, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is primarily accomplished by human users of expensive and specialized equipment. In order to reduce the likelihood of human error, to reduce personal injuries, damage to hardware, and loss of mission the design process for the hardware needs to include the human's relationship with the hardware. Just as there is electrical, mechanical, and fluids, the human aspect is just as important. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate how KSC accomplishes the inclusion of the human aspect in the design using human centered hardware modeling and engineering. The presentations also explain the current and future plans for research and development for improving our human factors analysis tools and processes.

  2. Human-centered modeling in human reliability analysis: some trends based on case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron-Dupin, F.; Reer, B.; Heslinga, G.; Straeter, O.; Gerdes, V.; Saliou, G.; Ullwer, W.

    1997-01-01

    As an informal working group of researchers from France, Germany and The Netherlands created in 1993, the EARTH association is investigating significant subjects in the field of human reliability analysis (HRA). Our initial review of cases from nuclear operating experience showed that decision-based unrequired actions (DUA) contribute to risk significantly on the one hand. On the other hand, our evaluation of current HRA methods showed that these methods do not cover such actions adequately. Especially, practice-oriented guidelines for their predictive identification are lacking. We assumed that a basic cause for such difficulties was that these methods actually use a limited representation of the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) paradigm. We proposed a human-centered model, which better highlights the active role of the operators and the importance of their culture, attitudes and goals. This orientation was encouraged by our review of current HRA research activities. We therefore decided to envisage progress by identifying cognitive tendencies in the context of operating and simulator experience. For this purpose, advanced approaches for retrospective event analysis were discussed. Some orientations for improvements were proposed. By analyzing cases, various cognitive tendencies were identified, together with useful information about their context. Some of them match psychological findings already published in the literature, some of them are not covered adequately by the literature that we reviewed. Finally, this exploratory study shows that contextual and case-illustrated findings about cognitive tendencies provide useful help for the predictive identification of DUA in HRA. More research should be carried out to complement our findings and elaborate more detailed and systematic guidelines for using them in HRA studies

  3. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  4. The New Robotics-towards human-centered machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Research in robotics has moved away from its primary focus on industrial applications. The New Robotics is a vision that has been developed in past years by our own university and many other national and international research institutions and addresses how increasingly more human-like robots can live among us and take over tasks where our current society has shortcomings. Elder care, physical therapy, child education, search and rescue, and general assistance in daily life situations are some of the examples that will benefit from the New Robotics in the near future. With these goals in mind, research for the New Robotics has to embrace a broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from traditional mathematical issues of robotics to novel issues in psychology, neuroscience, and ethics. This paper outlines some of the important research problems that will need to be resolved to make the New Robotics a reality.

  5. The design of neonatal incubators: a systems-oriented, human-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T K; Shepley, M M

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary design project conducted in an academic setting reflecting a systems-oriented, human-centered philosophy in the design of neonatal incubator technologies. Graduate students in Architectural Design and Human Factors Engineering courses collaborated in a design effort that focused on supporting the needs of three user groups of incubator technologies: infant patients, family members and medical personnel. Design teams followed established human-centered design methods that included interacting with representatives from the user groups, analyzing sets of critical tasks and conducting usability studies with existing technologies. An iterative design and evaluation process produced four conceptual designs of incubators and supporting equipment that better address specific needs of the user groups. This report introduces the human-centered design approach, highlights some of the analysis findings and design solutions, and offers a set of design recommendations for future incubation technologies.

  6. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested. Mean...

  7. Detecting free radicals in biochars and determining their ability to inhibit the germination and growth of corn, wheat and rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shaohua; Pan, Bo; Li, Hao; Zhang, Di; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Biochar can benefit human society as a carbon-negative material and soil amendment. However, negative biochar impacts on plant germination and growth have been observed, and they have not been fully explained. Therefore, protocols to avoid these risks cannot be proposed. We hypothesized that the free radicals generated during charring may inhibit plant germination and growth. Significant electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals were observed in the biochars derived from several types of common biomass (corn stalk, rice, and wheat straws) and the major biopolymer components of biomass (cellulose and lignin), but not in the original materials, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of free radicals in biochars. EPR signal intensity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, and it was dominantly contributed by oxygen centered in the mixture of oxygen- and carbon-centered free radicals as the temperature increased. The free radicals in biochars induced strong ·OH radicals in the aqueous phase. Significant germination inhibition, root and shoot growth retardation and plasma membrane damage were observed for biochars with abundant free radicals. Germination inhibition and plasma membrane damage were not obvious for biochars containing low free radicals, but they were apparent at comparable concentrations of conventional contaminants, such as heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The potential risk and harm of relatively persistent free radicals in biochars must be addressed to apply them safely.

  8. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom

    2012-01-01

    Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.

  9. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues.

  10. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  11. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42 Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR on the morphology of Aβ(1-42 were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42 suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further.

  12. Seeking Humanizing Care in Patient-Centered Care Process: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash

    Patient-centered care is both a goal in itself and a tool for enhancing health outcomes. The application of patient-centered care in health care services globally however is diverse. This article reports on a study that sought to introduce patient-centered care. The aim of this study is to explore the process of providing patient-centered care in critical care units. The study used a grounded theory method. Data were collected on 5 critical care units in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Purposive and theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using 29 semistructured interviews with 27 participants (nurses, patients, and physician). Data obtained were analyzed according to the analysis stages of grounded theory and constant comparison to identify the concepts, context, and process of the study. The core category of this grounded theory is "humanizing care," which consisted of 4 interrelated phases, including patient acceptance, purposeful patient assessment and identification, understanding patients, and patient empowerment. A core category of humanizing care integrated the theory. Humanizing care was an outcome and process. Patient-centered care is a dynamic and multifaceted process provided according to the nurses' understanding of the concept. Patient-centered care does not involve repeating routine tasks; rather, it requires an all-embracing understanding of the patients and showing respect for their values, needs, and preferences.

  13. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi MH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT centers assesses (a the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91% reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50% experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.Keywords: Afghanistan, women, human rights, mental health, drug abuse treatment

  14. Development of a framework of human-centered automation for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Haney, L.N.

    1993-01-01

    Introduction of automated systems into control rooms for advanced reactor designs is often justified on the basis of increased efficiency and reliability, without a detailed assessment of how the new technologies will influence the role of the operator. Such a ''technology-centered'' approach carries with it the risk that entirely new mechanisms for human error will be introduced, resulting in some unpleasant surprises when the plant goes into operation. The aviation industry has experienced some of these surprises since the introduction of automated systems into the cockpits of advanced technology aircraft. Pilot errors have actually been induced by automated systems, especially when the pilot doesn't fully understand what the automated systems are doing during all modes of operation. In order to structure the research program for investigating these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a framework for human-centered automation. This framework is described in the NASA document Human-Centered Aircraft Automation Philosophy by Charles Billings. It is the thesis of this paper that a corresponding framework of human-centered automation should be developed for the nuclear industry. Such a framework would serve to guide the design and regulation of automated systems for advanced reactor designs, and would help prevent some of the problems that have arisen in other applications that have followed a ''technology-centered'' approach

  15. The orphan germinant receptor protein GerXAO (but not GerX3b) is essential for L-alanine induced germination in Clostridium botulinum Group II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Jason; Carter, Andrew T; Pye, Hannah V; Peck, Michael W

    2018-05-04

    Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore forming bacterium that produces the potent botulinum neurotoxin that causes a severe and fatal neuro-paralytic disease of humans and animals (botulism). C. botulinum Group II is a psychrotrophic saccharolytic bacterium that forms spores of moderate heat resistance and is a particular hazard in minimally heated chilled foods. Spore germination is a fundamental process that allows the spore to transition to a vegetative cell and typically involves a germinant receptor (GR) that responds to environmental signals. Analysis of C. botulinum Group II genomes shows they contain a single GR cluster (gerX3b), and an additional single gerA subunit (gerXAO). Spores of C. botulinum Group II strain Eklund 17B germinated in response to the addition of L-alanine, but did not germinate following the addition of exogenous Ca 2+ -DPA. Insertional inactivation experiments in this strain unexpectedly revealed that the orphan GR GerXAO is essential for L-alanine stimulated germination. GerX3bA and GerX3bC affected the germination rate but were unable to induce germination in the absence of GerXAO. No role could be identified for GerX3bB. This is the first study to identify the functional germination receptor of C. botulinum Group II.

  16. Mode 2 in action. Working across sectors to create a Center for Humanities and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyatt, S.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines recent developments in Amsterdam to establish a Center for Humanities and Technology (CHAT). The project is a collaboration between public research institutions and a private partner. To date, a White Paper has been produced that sets out a shared research agenda addressing

  17. Dragons, Ladybugs, and Softballs: Girls' STEM Engagement with Human-Centered Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoll, Andrea; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Šabanovic, Selma; Francisco, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Early experiences in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are important for getting youth interested in STEM fields, particularly for girls. Here, we explore how an after-school robotics club can provide informal STEM experiences that inspire students to engage with STEM in the future. Human-centered robotics, with its emphasis on the…

  18. Radiological and Environmental Research Division, Center for Human Radiobiology. Annual report, July 1980-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 22 papers of this annual report of the Center for Human Radiobiology. Abstracts were not written for 2 appendices which contain data on the exposure and radium-induced malignancies of 2259 persons whose radium content has been determined at least once

  19. High-Throughput Scoring of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very informative as it lacks information about start, rate, and uniformity of germination, which are highly indicative of such traits as dormancy, stress tolerance, and seed longevity. The calculation of cumulative germination curves requires information about germination percentage at various time points. We developed the GERMINATOR package: a simple, highly cost-efficient, and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The GERMINATOR package contains three modules: (I) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (II) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (III) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap, and visualization of the various germination parameters. GERMINATOR is a freely available package that allows the monitoring and analysis of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  20. Comparison of Gene Expression Profiles in Human Germinal Vesicle Before and After Cytoplasmic Transfer From Mature Oocytes in Iranian Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Hoseini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of cytoplasm transfer from mature oocytes to germinal vesicle(GVs on promoting the maturation of cytoplasm of GV at the mRNA level.Materials and methods: Sixty six in vitro fertilization (IVF operations between June 2012 and November 2013 were included in this study. Totally 120 GVs were obtained. Normal GVs were categorized into 3 groups (n = 40 randomly: the first comprised oocytes that did not receive the cytoplasm of mature oocytes; the second group comprised oocytes that did not receive the cytoplasm of mature oocytes but were incubated for 24 h; and the third group comprised oocytes that received 10-15% the cytoplasm of mature oocytes and were then incubated for 24 h. Each group was separately analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and the expression levels of selected genes were assessed.Results: The expression levels of genes involved in the cytoplasmic maturity, and energy-producing mitochondria were significantly higher in the pooled oocytes of 2nd control group than those of the 1st control and intervention groups (p < 0.001. The genes involved in the meiosis, spindle check point, DNA repairing and cell cycle checkpoint did not have any expression in the 1st and intervention groups; however, these genes were expressed in the 2nd group, significantly. In the 2nd group, the highest expression level was observed for genes involved in the DNA repairing and cell cycle checkpoint. In the intervention group, none of the genes were expressed except for energy-producing mitochondria gene; even in this case, the expression level of this gene in this group of oocytes was significantly lower than that in other groups (p < 0.001. After 24 h meiosis assumption was significantly higher in the third group than in the second group (95% vs. 68%, p < 0.001.Conclusion: The cytoplasm transfer technique is not effective in cytoplasmic maturity of the recipient GV oocytes. In contrast, 24-hr in

  1. NASA Human Health and Performance Center: Open innovation successes and collaborative projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-11-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate published the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration, setting the course for development and implementation of new business models and significant advances in external collaboration over the next five years. The strategy was updated on the basis of these accomplishments and reissued as the NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy in 2012, and continues to drive new approaches to innovation for the directorate. This short paper describes the successful execution of the strategy, driving organizational change through open innovation efforts and collaborative projects, including efforts of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC).

  2. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  3. Abstracts of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Reis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this book of abstracts / proceedings were submitted to the Scientific Commission of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development, held on 11 and 12 November 2016, at the University of Évora, Évora, Portugal, under the topic of Exercise and Health, Sports and Human Development. The content of the abstracts is solely and exclusively of its authors responsibility. The editors and the Scientific Committee of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development do not assume any responsibility for the opinions and statements expressed by the authors. Partial reproduction of the texts and their use without commercial purposes is allowed, provided the source / reference is duly mentioned.

  4. COMPARATIVE GERMINATION RESPONSES OF COWPEA AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    inadequate soil moisture (25%) in both cowpea and maize with greater effect on ... Of all factors controlling productivity, seed germination and vigour are pre- .... depth and date of first irrigation on seed cane germination of two commercial.

  5. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  6. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  7. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi-Cheng; Burgess, Kevin S; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Liu, Qiang; Fan, Xu-Li; Huang, Hui; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum , in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum) did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44%) with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35%) at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  8. Describing phytotoxic effects on cumulative germination

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Phytotoxic studies strongly depend on evaluation of germination responses, which implies the need for adequate procedures to account for distinct aspects of the germinative process. For this, indices, comparisons among treatments at various times, and model fitting have been proposed. The objective of this work is to compare the three approaches and select the one providing greater insight and precision. Speed of germination, speed of accumulated germination, the coefficient of the rate of ge...

  9. Methods for assessing Phytophthora ramorum chlamydospore germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce Eberhart; Elilzabeth Stamm; Jennifer Parke

    2013-01-01

    Germination of chlamydospores is difficult to accurately assess when chlamydospores are attached to remnants of supporting hyphae. We developed two approaches for closely observing and rigorously quantifying the frequency of chlamydospore germination in vitro. The plate marking and scanning method was useful for quantifying germination of large...

  10. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination each kind, or kind and variety, or kind and type, or kind and hybrid of agricultural seed present...

  11. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  12. NASA Human Health and Performance Center: Open Innovation Successes and Collaborative Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate published the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration, which resulted in the development and implementation of new business models and significant advances in external collaboration over the next five years. The strategy was updated on the basis of these accomplishments and reissued as the NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy in 2012, and continues to drive new approaches to innovation for the directorate. This short paper describes the open innovation successes and collaborative projects developed over this timeframe, including the efforts of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC), which was established to advance human health and performance innovations for spaceflight and societal benefit via collaboration in new markets.

  13. Human-Centered Development of an Online Social Network for Metabolic Syndrome Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Nava, Jefersson; Orozco-Sánchez, Paola A; López, Diego M; Ceron, Jesus D; Alvarez-Rosero, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a quarter of the world's population has Metabolic Syndrome (MS). To develop (and assess the users' degree of satisfaction of) an online social network for patients who suffer from Metabolic Syndrome, based on the recommendations and requirements of the Human-Centered Design. Following the recommendations of the ISO 9241-210 for Human-Centered Design (HCD), an online social network was designed to promote physical activity and healthy nutrition. In order to guarantee the active participation of the users during the development of the social network, a survey, an in-depth interview, a focal group, and usability tests were carried out with people suffering from MS. The study demonstrated how the different activities, recommendations, and requirements of the ISO 9241-210 are integrated into a traditional software development process. Early usability tests demonstrated that the user's acceptance and the effectiveness and efficiency of the social network are satisfactory.

  14. Toward human-centered man-machine system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Fumiya

    1993-01-01

    The Japanese LWR power plants are classified into 4 categories, from the viewpoints of the control panel in central control room and the extent of automation. Their characteristics are outlined. The potential weaknesses indwelt in the conventional approaches are discussed; that are the loss of applicability to the unanticipated facts and the loss of morale of the operators. The need for the construction of human-centered man-machine system is emphasized in order to overcome these potential weaknesses. The most important features required for the system are, in short term, to support operators in dificulties, and at the same time, in long term, to assure the acquisition and conservation of the personnels' morale and potential to cope with the problems. The concepts of the 'ecological interface' and 'adaptive aiding' system are introduced as the design concepts for the human-centered man-machine system. (J.P.N.)

  15. Give Design a Chance: A Case for a Human Centered Approach to Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    shortcoming, organizational theorist Jamshid Gharajedaghi suggested, “design is a vehicle for enhancement of choice and holistic thinking ” that goes beyond...To address this question and confront assumptions and current methods of thinking , there is a need for a holistic and human centered approach in...MDMP). This monograph proposes a way of thinking and planning that goes beyond current Army doctrinal methodologies to address the changing

  16. A review of the design and development processes of simulation for training in healthcare - A technology-centered versus a human-centered perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews literature about simulation systems for training in healthcare regarding the prevalence of human-centered approaches in the design and development of these systems, motivated by a tradition in this field of working technology-centered. The results show that the focus on human needs and context of use is limited. It is argued that a reduction of the focus on technical advancements in favor of the needs of the users and the healthcare community, underpinned by human factors and ergonomics theory, is favorable. Due to the low number of identified articles describing or discussing human-centered approaches it is furthermore concluded that the publication culture promotes technical descriptions and summative evaluations rather than descriptions and reflections regarding the design and development processes. Shifting the focus from a technology-centered approach to a human-centered one can aid in the process of creating simulation systems for training in healthcare that are: 1) relevant to the learning objectives, 2) adapted to the needs of users, context and task, and 3) not selected based on technical or fidelity criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human resources management in fitness centers and their relationship with the organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo García Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human capital is essential in organizations providing sports services. However, there are few studies that examine what practices are carried out and whether they, affect sports organizations achieve better results are. Therefore the aim of this paper is to analyze the practices of human resource management in private fitness centers and the relationship established with organizational performance.Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaire to 101 managers of private fitness centers in Spain, performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and linear regressions between the variables.Findings: In organizations of fitness, the findings show that training practices, reward, communication and selection are positively correlated with organizational performance.Research limitations/implications: The fact that you made a convenience sampling in a given country and reduce the extrapolation of the results to the market.Originality/value: First, it represents a contribution to the fact that there are no studies analyzing the management of human resources in sport organizations from the point of view of the top leaders. On the other hand, allows fitness center managers to adopt practices to improve organizational performance.

  18. Changes of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in germinated adlay seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Pei; Ali, Barkat; Yang, Na; Chen, Yisheng; Wu, Fengfeng; Xu, Xueming

    2017-09-01

    Over the years, germinated adlay products have been used as both food source and folk medicine. This study investigated the changes of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activities, and phenolic acid profiles of adlay seed during germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities varied with the germination stages. Germination significantly increased the free form phenolic and flavonoid contents by 112.5% and 168.3%, respectively. However, both of the bound form phenolic and flavonoid contents significantly decreased after germination. Phenolic acid compositions were quantified via HPLC analysis, and the levels of vanillic, p-coumaric, caffeic, hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids in the free phenolic extracts were found to be significantly increased. The improvement of the free and total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the germination process led to a significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities (evaluated by the ABTS, FRAP and ORAC assays). The TPC showed the highest correlation with ORAC values (r = 0.9979). Germinated adlay had higher free and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities than ungerminated adlay. This study indicates that germinated adlay could be a promising functional food, more suitable for human consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA.

  20. A Cost Analysis of Day Care Centers in Pennsylvania. Center for Human Service Development Report No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-Wei; Wise, Karl

    The purpose of this study is to provide day care center management and government funding agencies with empirical estimates of the costs of day care centers in Pennsylvania. Based on cost data obtained from the Department of Public Welfare and survey information from the Pennsylvania Day Care Study Project, average and marginal costs of day care…

  1. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  2. Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

    1973-01-01

    The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

  3. Autonomous Robot Navigation in Human-Centered Environments Based on 3D Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Dillmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient navigation of mobile platforms in dynamic human-centered environments is still an open research topic. We have already proposed an architecture (MEPHISTO for a navigation system that is able to fulfill the main requirements of efficient navigation: fast and reliable sensor processing, extensive global world modeling, and distributed path planning. Our architecture uses a distributed system of sensor processing, world modeling, and path planning units. In this arcticle, we present implemented methods in the context of data fusion algorithms for 3D world modeling and real-time path planning. We also show results of the prototypic application of the system at the museum ZKM (center for art and media in Karlsruhe.

  4. Autonomous Robot Navigation in Human-Centered Environments Based on 3D Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Peter; Strand, Marcus; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2007-12-01

    Efficient navigation of mobile platforms in dynamic human-centered environments is still an open research topic. We have already proposed an architecture (MEPHISTO) for a navigation system that is able to fulfill the main requirements of efficient navigation: fast and reliable sensor processing, extensive global world modeling, and distributed path planning. Our architecture uses a distributed system of sensor processing, world modeling, and path planning units. In this arcticle, we present implemented methods in the context of data fusion algorithms for 3D world modeling and real-time path planning. We also show results of the prototypic application of the system at the museum ZKM (center for art and media) in Karlsruhe.

  5. Nurse Knowledge Exchange Plus: Human-Centered Implementation for Spread and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mike; Heisler, Scott; Fahey, Linda; McGinnis, Juli; Whiffen, Teri L

    2015-07-01

    Kaiser Permanente implemented a new model of nursing communication at shift change-in the bedside nursing report known as the Nurse Knowledge Exchange (NKE) in 2004-but noted variations in its spread and sustainability across medical centers five years later. The six core elements of NKEplus were as follows: team rounding in the last hour before shift changes, pre-shift patient assignments that limit the number of departing nurses at shift change, unit support for uninterrupted bedside reporting, standardization for report and safety check formats, and collaboration with patients to update in-room care boards. In January 2011 Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC; Pasadena) began implementing NKEplus in 125 nursing units across 14 hospitals, with the use of human-centered design principles: creating shared understanding of the need for change, minimum specifications, and customization by frontline staff. Champion teams on each nursing unit designed and pilot tested unit-specific versions of NKEplus for four to eight weeks. Implementation occurred in waves and proceeded from medical/surgical units to specialty units. Traditional performance improvement strategies of accountability, measurement, and management were also applied. By the end of 2012, 100% of the 64 medical/surgical units and 47 (77.0%) of the 61 specialty units in KPSC medical centers implemented NKEplus-as had all but 1 of the specialty units by May 2013. The mean KPSC score on the NKEplus nursing behavior bundle improved from 65.9% in 2010 to 71.3% in the first quarter of 2014. The mean KPSC Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) score for nurse communication improved from 73.1% in 2010 to 76.4% in the first quarter of 2014 (p < . 001). Human-centered implementation appeared to help spread a new model of nursing handoffs and change the culture of professional nursing practice related to shift change.

  6. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  7. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  8. Cortical Activation during Landmark-Centered vs. Gaze-Centered Memory of Saccade Targets in the Human: An FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered. In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified. The paradigm included three tasks with identical display of visual stimuli but different auditory instructions: Landmark Saccade (remember target location relative to a visual landmark, independent of gaze, Control Saccade (remember original target location relative to gaze fixation, independent of the landmark, and a non-spatial control, Color Report (report target color. During the Delay phase, the Control and Landmark Saccade tasks activated overlapping areas in posterior parietal cortex (PPC and frontal cortex as compared to the color control, but with higher activation in PPC for target coding in the Control Saccade task and higher activation in temporal and occipital cortex for target coding in Landmark Saccade task. Gaze-centered directional selectivity was observed in superior occipital gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, whereas landmark-centered directional selectivity was observed in precuneus and midposterior intraparietal sulcus. During the Response phase after saccade direction was specified, the parietofrontal network in the left hemisphere showed higher activation for rightward than leftward saccades. Our results suggest that cortical activation for coding saccade target direction relative to a visual landmark differs from gaze-centered directional selectivity for target memory, from the mechanisms for other types of allocentric tasks, and from the directionally

  9. Expression of human ferredoxin and assembly of the [2Fe-2S] center in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, V.M.; Vickery, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding human ferredoxin, a mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] protein, was introduced into Escherichia coli by using an expression vector based on the approach of Nagai and Thogersen. Expression was under control of the λP L promoter and resulted in production of ferredoxin as a cleavable fusion protein with an amino-terminal fragment derived from bacteriophage λcII protein. The fusion protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of induced cells and was specifically cleaved to yield mature recombinant ferredoxin. The recombinant protein was shown to be identical in size to ferredoxin isolated from human placenta (13,546 Da) by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and partial amino acid sequencing. E. coli cells expressing human ferredoxin were brown in color, and absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the purified recombinant protein established that the [2Fe-2S]center was assembled and incorporated into ferredoxin in vivo. Recombinant ferredoxin was active in steroid hydroxylations when reconstituted with cytochromes P-450 sec and P-450 11β and exhibited rates comparable to those observed for ferredoxin isolated from human placenta. This expression system should be useful in production of native and structurally altered forms of human ferredoxin for studies of ferredoxin structure and function

  10. 7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity and germination tests are required, seeds for germination shall be taken from the... to size or appearance. (b) When only a germination test is required and the pure seed is estimated or...

  11. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system.

  12. Human-centered design of a cyber-physical system for advanced response to Ebola (CARE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Velin; Jagtap, Vinayak; Skorinko, Jeanine; Chernova, Sonia; Gennert, Michael; Padir, Taşkin

    2015-01-01

    We describe the process towards the design of a safe, reliable, and intuitive emergency treatment unit to facilitate a higher degree of safety and situational awareness for medical staff, leading to an increased level of patient care during an epidemic outbreak in an unprepared, underdeveloped, or disaster stricken area. We start with a human-centered design process to understand the design challenge of working with Ebola treatment units in Western Africa in the latest Ebola outbreak, and show preliminary work towards cyber-physical technologies applicable to potentially helping during the next outbreak.

  13. Environmental Research Division annual report: Center for Human Radiobiology, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This is the fourteenth Annual Report of the Center for Human Radiobiology. New cases of bone cancer and carcinoma of head sinuses are occurring at a rate of about one per year in patients who acquired radium burdens 50 to 60 years ago. Several papers deal with dosimetry of alpha-emitting radionuclides in man, in animals, or in the environment. The report concludes with an appendix containing data on the exposure of 2312 persons whose radium content has been determined and an appendix listing the classical radium-related malignancies (osteosarcomas and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid)

  14. Critical remarks on Simon Caney's humanity- centered approach to global justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Culp

    2016-09-01

    The practice-independent approach to theorizing justice (PIA holds that the social practices to which a particular conception of justice is meant to apply are of no importance for the justification of such a conception. In this paper I argue that this approach to theorizing justice is incompatible with the method of reflective equilibrium (MRE because the MRE is antithetical to a clean separation between issues of justification and application. In particular I will be maintaining that this incompatibility renders Simon Caney’s cosmopolitan theory of global justice inconsistent, because Caney claims to endorse both a humanity-centered PIA and the MRE.

  15. A Human-Centered Smart Home System with Wearable-Sensor Behavior Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianting; Liu, Ting; Shen, Chao; Wu, Hongyu; Liu, Wenyi; Su, Man; Chen, Siyun; Jia, Zhanpei

    2016-11-17

    Smart home has recently attracted much research interest owing to its potential in improving the quality of human life. How to obtain user's demand is the most important and challenging task for appliance optimal scheduling in smart home, since it is highly related to user's unpredictable behavior. In this paper, a human-centered smart home system is proposed to identify user behavior, predict their demand and schedule the household appliances. Firstly, the sensor data from user's wearable devices are monitored to profile user's full-day behavior. Then, the appliance-demand matrix is constructed to predict user's demand on home environment, which is extracted from the history of appliance load data and user behavior. Two simulations are designed to demonstrate user behavior identification, appliance-demand matrix construction and strategy of appliance optimal scheduling generation.

  16. Science, humanism, judgement, ethics: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities

  17. Zinnia Germination and Lunar Soil Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Germination testing was performed to determine the best method for germinating zinnias. This method will be used to attempt to germinate the zinnia seeds produced in space. It was found that seed shape may be critically important in determining whether a seed will germinate or not. The ability of compost and worm castings to remediate lunar regolith simulant for plant growth was tested. It was found that neither treatment effectively improves plant growth in lunar regolith simulant. A potential method of improving lunar regolith simulant by mixing it with arcillite was discovered.

  18. DOES JASMONIC ACID PREVENT THE GERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Kürşat

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of jasmonic acid on seed germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bülbül 89) was investigated in the present study. Jasmonic acid concentrations less than 1500 µM have not inhibited the seed germination, while 1500 and 2000 µM jasmonic acid levels caused atypical germination. The germination was completely inhibited at 3000 µM level of jasmonic acid. However, the seedling growth clearly slowed down with increasing concentrations of jasmonic acid. Furt...

  19. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  20. Etude des potentialites germinatives pour une regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... taux de germination a été obtenu avec des graines de petites tailles à la température ambiante (32°C). Le traitement préalable à l'eau de javel à 8% accroît le taux de germination (40% de réponse). La lumière et l'obscurité n'ont aucun effet sur la germination. Mots clés : Neocarya macrophylla, germination, régénération.

  1. Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Anderson, R. Rox; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf; Berns, Michael W.; Parrish, John A.; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Despite widespread government and public interest, there are significant barriers to translating basic science discoveries into clinical practice. Biophotonics and biomedical optics technologies can be used to overcome many of these hurdles, due, in part, to offering new portable, bedside, and accessible devices. The current JBO special issue highlights promising activities and examples of translational biophotonics from leading laboratories around the world. We identify common essential features of successful clinical translation by examining the origins and activities of three major international academic affiliated centers with beginnings traceable to the mid-late 1970s: The Wellman Center for Photomedicine (Mass General Hospital, USA), the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (University of California, Irvine, USA), and the Medical Laser Center Lübeck at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Major factors driving the success of these programs include visionary founders and leadership, multidisciplinary research and training activities in light-based therapies and diagnostics, diverse funding portfolios, and a thriving entrepreneurial culture that tolerates risk. We provide a brief review of how these three programs emerged and highlight critical phases and lessons learned. Based on these observations, we identify pathways for encouraging the growth and formation of similar programs in order to more rapidly and effectively expand the impact of biophotonics and biomedical optics on human health.

  2. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (pphenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of animal sera on Bacillus anthracis Sterne spore germination and vegetative cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, M D; Mackie, R S; Minter, Z A; Gutting, B W

    2012-08-01

     The aims of this work were to investigate the effects of sera on B. anthracis Sterne germination and growth. Sera examined included human, monkey and rabbit sera, as well as sera from eight other species.  Standard dilution plate assay (with and without heat kill) was used as a measure of germination, and spectroscopy was used to measure growth. In addition, a Coulter Counter particle counter was used to monitor germination and growth based on bacterial size. Spores germinated best in foetal bovine and monkey sera, moderately with human sera and showed limited germination in the presence of rabbit or rat sera. Vegetative bacteria grew best in foetal bovine sera and moderately in rabbit sera. Human and monkey sera supported little growth of vegetative bacteria.  The data suggested sera can have a significant impact on germination and growth of Sterne bacteria.  These data should be considered when conducting in vitro cell culture studies and may aid in interpreting in vivo infection studies. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    INTRODUCTION. Germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) is a member of ..... analysis of germin-like protein gene 2 promoter from Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica. ... esculenta Crantz) root proteome: Protein identification and differential expression.

  6. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Seed germination tests: After 72 h of fermentation in plastic bags, seeds were ... Models (GLM) procedure of the R statistical version 9.1 was used to identify traits .... L-1) had accelerated seed germination. Germination rates.

  7. Muricholic acids inhibit Clostridium difficile spore germination and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Francis

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. One such advance is the generation of a mouse-model of C. difficile infection. The development of this system is a major step forward in analyzing the genetic requirements for colonization and infection. While important, it is equally as important in understanding what differences exist between mice and humans. One of these differences is the natural bile acid composition. Bile acid-mediated spore germination is an important step in C. difficile colonization. Mice produce several different bile acids that are not found in humans. These muricholic acids have the potential to impact C. difficile spore germination. Here we find that the three muricholic acids (α-muricholic acid, β-muricholic acid and ω-muricholic acid inhibit C. difficile spore germination and can impact the growth of vegetative cells. These results highlight an important difference between humans and mice and may have an impact on C. difficile virulence in the mouse-model of C. difficile infection.

  8. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER High pressure germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with W911NF-09-l-0286 alterations in levels and types of...A moderate high pressure (mHP) of 150 megaPascals (MPa) triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores via germinant receptors (GRs), while...germination by a very high pressure (vHP) of550 MPa is GR-independent. The mHP and vHP germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with different levels ofGRs

  9. BIOSECURITY FOR REDUCING OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTIVITY AND THEIR IMPACT ON GERMINATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURES OF GERMINATED WHEAT GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a secondary metabolite of some fungi that causes very serious problems for plants, animals and humans. Various microorganisms such as bacteria and microscopic fungi have been tested for their abilities to prevent ochratoxin A contamination or detoxify foods. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduced OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus to 40.88 µg/ml ( productivity 60.69% and 13.80 µg/ml (productivity 20.48% respectively compared with the control (67.35 µg/ml (productivity 100%. The results clearly indicated that the seed germinibility in the presence of OTA was decreased with increasing concentration, whereas the germinibility was uncompletely ceased at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml of OTA. The maximum amount of germination was observed in control (without OTA treatment and at low concentration (13.80 µg/ml within 4 days. Antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase decreased in germinated grains treated with OTA. Catalase was 18.12 U/ml in grains treated with low concentration (13.80 µg/ml of OTA while at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml, it was 12.23 U/ml compared with the control (20.33 U/ml. On the other hand, peroxidase decreased only in germinated grains treated with high concentration of OTA. The ultrastructural studies indicate that there were dramatic differences between the cells of root system of wheat seedlings of grains treated and untreated with the OTA. Cell ultrastructures of treated grains with OTA showed that the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall. Plasmodesmata threads were appeared in untreated cells but not formed in treated cells.

  10. Human-centered automation and AI - Ideas, insights, and issues from the Intelligent Cockpit Aids research effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the NASA-Langley Intelligent Cockpit Aids research program, which encompasses AI, human/machine interfaces, and conventional automation. Attention is being given to decision-aiding concepts for human-centered automation, with emphasis on inflight subsystem fault management, inflight mission replanning, and communications management. The cockpit envisioned is for advanced commercial transport aircraft.

  11. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  12. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with ...

  13. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  14. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  15. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  16. Comparative Germination Responses of Cowpea and Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination, emergence and establishment phase are critical to the growth cycle of plant as it determines the density of the stand obtained. However, a number of factors including soil available moisture decrease seed germination and the rate of decline is found to vary with crop species. Pot experiment was therefore ...

  17. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered for transportation in whole or in part. The record shall show the kind of seed, lot number, date of test, percentage...

  18. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  19. High-throughput scoring of seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very

  20. The National Institutes of Health Center for Human Immunology, Autoimmunity, and Inflammation: history and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickler, Howard B; McCoy, J Philip; Nussenblatt, Robert; Perl, Shira; Schwartzberg, Pamela A; Tsang, John S; Wang, Ena; Young, Neil S

    2013-05-01

    The Center for Human Immunology, Autoimmunity, and Inflammation (CHI) is an exciting initiative of the NIH intramural program begun in 2009. It is uniquely trans-NIH in support (multiple institutes) and leadership (senior scientists from several institutes who donate their time). Its goal is an in-depth assessment of the human immune system using high-throughput multiplex technologies for examination of immune cells and their products, the genome, gene expression, and epigenetic modulation obtained from individuals both before and after interventions, adding information from in-depth clinical phenotyping, and then applying advanced biostatistical and computer modeling methods for mining these diverse data. The aim is to develop a comprehensive picture of the human "immunome" in health and disease, elucidate common pathogenic pathways in various diseases, identify and validate biomarkers that predict disease progression and responses to new interventions, and identify potential targets for new therapeutic modalities. Challenges, opportunities, and progress are detailed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  2. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  3. A human-centered framework for innovation in conservation incentive programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-12-01

    The promise of environmental conservation incentive programs that provide direct payments in exchange for conservation outcomes is that they enhance the value of engaging in stewardship behaviors. An insidious but important concern is that a narrow focus on optimizing payment levels can ultimately suppress program participation and subvert participants' internal motivation to engage in long-term conservation behaviors. Increasing participation and engendering stewardship can be achieved by recognizing that participation is not simply a function of the payment; it is a function of the overall structure and administration of the program. Key to creating innovative and more sustainable programs is fitting them within the existing needs and values of target participants. By focusing on empathy for participants, co-designing program approaches, and learning from the rapid prototyping of program concepts, a human-centered approach to conservation incentive program design enhances the propensity for discovery of novel and innovative solutions to pressing conservation issues.

  4. The Einstein Center for Epigenomics: studying the role of epigenomic dysregulation in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; Maqbool, Shahina B; Olea, Raul; Westby, Gael; Broin, Pilib Ó; Fazzari, Melissa J; Zheng, Deyou; Suzuki, Masako; Greally, John M

    2009-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of epigenetic and transcriptional dysregulation in the pathogenesis of a range of human diseases, not just in the best-studied example of cancer. It is, however, quite difficult for an individual investigator to perform these studies, as they involve genome-wide molecular assays combined with sophisticated computational analytical approaches of very large datasets that may be generated from various resources and technologies. In 2008, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, USA established a Center for Epigenomics to facilitate the research programs of its investigators, providing shared resources for genome-wide assays and for data analysis. As a result, several avenues of research are now expanding, with cancer epigenomics being complemented by studies of the epigenomics of infectious disease and a neuroepigenomics program.

  5. The Effect of Fungicides for Seed Treatment on Germination of Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Stevanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemicals, such as fungicides for seed treatment, is one of the most reliable and perhaps most efficient measures for integrated preservation of crops, and its practicing has become a legal obligation for all seed producers. This investigation was carried out in the laboratory for seed quality and phytopathology of the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac. The objective was to establish the effect of fungicides on germination energy and seed germinability (determined after treatments. Two varieties were tested due to a possibility of specific sensitivities of some varieties, so that the results acquired on one variety would not necessarily be valid for another one. Fungicides based on active ingredients from the triasol chemical group had different effects on the energy of germination of barley seeds. Applying Raxil S040-FS, the average germination of barley seeds was 79.3% for the variety Record, and 91.3% for the Grand variety. The variety Record achieved a lower value than the minimum for barley seed germination (88% stipulated by the Rules on Seed Quality of Agricultural Crops.Regardless of barley type, the product Raxil S040-FS showed a statistically significant effect on the number of atypical seedlings and increase in the number of non-germinated seeds, compared to the control.

  6. Human trafficking for organ removal in India: a victim-centered, evidence-based report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra A; Raja, Kallakurichi Rajendiran; Findley, Katie C; Kerketta, Ponsian; Anand, Vijay

    2014-02-27

    Enhancements in the national transplant law to prohibit commercial transplants in India have curbed the trade. Yet, the human rights abuse of human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) continues in various transplant centers throughout India. Beginning in September 2010 until May 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 103 victims of HTOR in India in which victims described their experiences of a commercial kidney removal in compelling detail. Victims were located in Tamil Nadu, and reference is made to the broader study that included 50 additional victims in small towns and villages in West Bengal and Karnataka. Fourteen cases (14%) in Tamil Nadu and an additional 20 cases (40%) from West Bengal and Karnataka occurred between 2009 to May 2012. The cases in Tamil Nadu ranged in age from 19 to 55 years, with an average age of 33 years in Erode and 36 years in Chennai. Fifty-seven percent of the victims in Erode are female, and 87% of the victims in Chennai are female. Twelve percent of the individuals were widowed or abandoned, 79% were married, and 91% were parents with an average of two kids. Of those interviewed, 28% had no formal education, 19% had some primary schooling, 22% had some secondary schooling, and no individuals reported schooling above high school. All victims interviewed lived in abject poverty with monthly income levels well below the national average. The majority of victims reported long lasting health, economic, social, and psychological consequences. No matter the reason expressed for an organ sale, all victims reported that they would not have agreed to the organ removal if their economic circumstances were not so dire. One hundred percent of the victims interviewed expressed that they need assistance to cope with these consequences. Human trafficking for an organ removal continues in private transplant centers throughout India, service to foreign patients is ongoing, and victims' consequences are long lasting. A rights-based response

  7. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  8. User-Centered Design for Developing Interventions to Improve Clinician Recommendation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Michelle L; Mcmullen, Carmit K; Firemark, Alison J; Naleway, Allison L; Henrikson, Nora B; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US and is associated with multiple types of cancer. Although effective HPV vaccines have been available since 2006, coverage rates in the US remain much lower than with other adolescent vaccinations. Prior research has shown that a strong recommendation from a clinician is a critical determinant in HPV vaccine uptake and coverage. However, few published studies to date have specifically addressed the issue of helping clinicians communicate more effectively with their patients about the HPV vaccine. To develop one or more novel interventions for helping clinicians make strong and effective recommendations for HPV vaccination. Using principles of user-centered design, we conducted qualitative interviews, interviews with persons from analogous industries, and a data synthesis workshop with multiple stakeholders. Five potential intervention strategies targeted at health care clinicians, youth, and their parents were developed. The two most popular choices to pursue were a values-based communication strategy and a puberty education workbook. User-centered design is a useful strategy for developing potential interventions to improve the rate and success of clinicians recommending the HPV vaccine. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness and acceptability of these interventions in clinical settings.

  9. Improving Primary Care with Human-Centered Design and Partnership-Based Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May-Lynn Andresen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to empower and activate first-line staff (FLS to improve the six-month depression remission rate in a primary care clinic. Background: Lack of workforce engagement has been identified as an emerging national problem in health care and health care leaders have urged practice redesign to foster the Triple Aim of improved population health, improved care experience, and reduced cost of care (Berwick et al., 2008. Depression is difficult to manage and often exacerbates chronic illnesses and shortens lifespans, yet despite known effective treatments, six-month remission rates are low and care practices are often inadequate. Engaging in empowering leadership behaviors has demonstrated improvement in motivation, work outcomes, and empowerment in various industry settings across the world. Core approaches include: enhancing staff self-determination, encouraging participation in decision-making, and ensuring that staff have the knowledge and tools to achieve their performance goals, in addition to leadership communications that increase confidence in staff’s potential to perform at high levels, and their recognition that their efforts have an impact on improving organizational effectiveness. Methods: In this outpatient setting, care was siloed, staff were disengaged and a hierarchical paradigm was evident. Human-centered design principles were employed to intensively explore stakeholders’ experiences and to deeply engage end users in improving depression remission rates by creating, participating, and partnering in solutions. Leadership was educated in and deployed empowering leadership behaviors, which were synergistic with design thinking, and fostered empowerment. Results: Pre- and post-surveys demonstrated statistically significant improvement in empowerment. The six-month depression remission rate increased 167%, from 7.3% (N=261 to 19.4% (N=247. Conclusion: The convergence of

  10. An approach to human-centered design of nuclear medical equipment: the system of caption of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Silva, Carlos Borges da; Santana, Marcos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Mol, Antonio Carlos Mol; Grecco, Claudio Henrique; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro

    2005-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making health care increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine and can increase the risks for human error. Human error has many causes such as performance shaping factors, organizational factors and user interface design. Poorly design human system interfaces of nuclear medical equipment can increase the risks for human error. If all nuclear medical equipment had been designed with good user interfaces, incidents and accidents could be reduced as well as he time required to learn how to use the equipment. Although some manufacturers of nuclear medical equipment have already integrate human factors principles in their products, there is still a need to steer the development of nuclear medical technology toward more human-centered approach. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology that contributes to the design, development and evaluation of nuclear medical equipment and human system interface, towards a human-centered approach. This methodology includes the ergonomic approach, based on the operator activity analysis, together with human factors standards and guidelines, questionnaires and user based testing. We describe a case study in which this methodology is being applied in evaluation of the thyroid uptake system, getting essential information and data, that ill be used in development of a new system. (author)

  11. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cheng Shao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum, in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44% with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35% at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  12. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  13. Environmental Research Division annual report: Center for Human Radiobiology, July 1983-June 1984. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of the late effects of internal radium in man, and mechanistic investigations of those effects, have continued. The current status of the study is summarized. An experimental technique for preparing thin sections of bone and the application of that technique in studying the comparative distribution of radium and plutonium are described. Radiological dental changes due to radium in man and dog are compared. Survival of human fibroblasts irradiated with alpha particles in vitro was found to be higher when the average LET was higher. In the study of the late effects of thorium in man, the relative activities of the daughter products in the lung have been determined spectrometrically in vivo. The exhalation of thoron in these persons has been investigated in relation to lung burden of thorium and to personal factors such as smoking, age, and weight. The administration of two isotopes to large mammals has been used to demonstrate that the metabolism of plutonium is independent of route of entry and to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium. The effect of thermoluminescence on a scintillation radon counting system has been investigated quantitatively. Data on the exposure of 88 persons to radium were added to the data base, bringing the total to 2400 radium cases under study by the Center for Human Radiobiology. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers

  14. A systems engineering perspective on the human-centered design of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, George M; Horst, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    The discipline of systems engineering, over the past five decades, has used a structured systematic approach to managing the "cradle to grave" development of products and processes. While elements of this approach are typically used to guide the development of information systems that instantiate a significant user interface, it appears to be rare for the entire process to be implemented. In fact, a number of authors have put forth development lifecycle models that are subsets of the classical systems engineering method, but fail to include steps such as incremental hazard analysis and post-deployment corrective and preventative actions. In that most health information systems have safety implications, we argue that the design and development of such systems would benefit by implementing this systems engineering approach in full. Particularly with regard to bringing a human-centered perspective to the formulation of system requirements and the configuration of effective user interfaces, this classical systems engineering method provides an excellent framework for incorporating human factors (ergonomics) knowledge and integrating ergonomists in the interdisciplinary development of health information systems.

  15. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The volatile fraction of diesel fuel played a major role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. - The use of plant-based systems to remediate contaminated soils has become an area of intense scientific study in recent years and it is apparent that plants which grow well in contaminated soils need to be identified and screened for use in phytoremediation technologies. This study investigated the effect of diesel fuel on germination of selected plant species. Germination response varied greatly with plant species and was species specific, as members of the same plant family showed differential sensitivity to diesel fuel contamination. Differences were also seen within plant subspecies. At relatively low levels of diesel fuel contamination, delayed seed emergence and reduced percentage germination was observed for the majority of plant species investigated. Results suggest the volatile fraction of diesel fuel played an influential role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. In addition, the remaining diesel fuel in the soil added to this inhibitory effect on germination by physically impeding water and oxygen transfer between the seed and the surrounding soil environment, thus hindering the germination response

  16. [Study on germination characteristics of Disporum cantoniense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-Chang; Luo, Chun-Li; Li, Jin-Ling; Luo, Fu-Lai; Huang, Ming-Jin

    2012-11-01

    To study the seed germination characteristic and optimal germination condition of wild Disporum cantoniense. Used wild Disporum cantoniense seed as the test materials, the rate of water absorption of the seed was determined. The germination rates under different conditions, along a temperature gradient (15, 20, 25 and 30 degres C), in light or dark, on top or between wet filter papers, and keeping or removing the seed coat, were determined respectively using petri dish method. At the same time germination trends were observed. The thousand seed weight was 33.24 g, and the seed water-absorbing reached saturation pot after soaking for 30 h. Higher germination rates were respectively recorded at 25 degrees C, between filter papers, and in dark after 24 h soaking in the pretreatment solution. The optimal condition for the germination of the seed of wild Disporum cantoniense is as follow: keeping testa, seed soaking for 24 h in seed germination agent and being incubated between wet filter papers in dark at 25 degrees C.

  17. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  18. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Lucas, H.F.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.; Stehney, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226 Ra and 228 Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  19. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Lucas, H.F.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.; Stehney, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226 Ra and 228 Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 27 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  20. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-05-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 μL) outperforming the 400 μL, and 320 μL volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean = 4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean = 2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions.

  1. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  2. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 microliters) outperforming the 400 microliters and 320 microliters volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean=4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean=2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  4. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall be tested for germination; except that in mixtures, 200 seeds of each of those... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...

  5. Operating Room-to-ICU Patient Handovers: A Multidisciplinary Human-Centered Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Noa; Bonifacio, Alberto S; Barbeito, Atilio; Schroeder, Rebecca A; Perfect, Sharon R; Wright, Melanie C; Emery, James D; Atkins, B Zane; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Mark, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    Patient handovers (handoffs) following surgery have often been characterized by poor teamwork, unclear procedures, unstructured processes, and distractions. A study was conducted to apply a human-centered approach to the redesign of operating room (OR)-to-ICU patient handovers in a broad surgical ICU (SICU) population. This approach entailed (1) the study of existing practices, (2) the redesign of the handover on the basis of the input of hand over participants and evidence in the medical literature, and (3) the study of the effects of this change on processes and communication. The Durham [North Carolina] Veterans Affairs Medical Center SICU is an 11-bed mixed surgical specialty unit. To understand the existing process for receiving postoperative patients in the SICU, ethnographic methods-a series of observations, surveys, interviews, and focus groups-were used. The handover process was redesigned to better address providers' work flow, information needs, and expectations, as well as concerns identified in the literature. Technical and communication flaws were uncovered, and the handover was redesigned to address them. For the 49 preintervention and 49 postintervention handovers, the information transfer score and number of interruptions were not significantly different. However, staff workload and team behaviors scores improved significantly, while the hand over duration was not prolonged by the new process. Handover participants were also significantly more satisfied with the new handover method. An HCD approach led to improvements in the patient handover process from the OR to the ICU in a mixed adult surgical population. Although the specific handover process would unlikely be optimal in another clinical setting if replicated exactly, the HCD foundation behind the redesign process is widely applicable.

  6. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Results of the first human papilloma virus center in Hungary (2007-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamb, Adám; Pajor, Attila; Langmár, Zoltán; Sobel, Gábor

    2011-11-06

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the 21st century. It has been established that infections with specific HPV types are contributing factors to cervical cancer. Approximately 99.7% of cervical cancers are associated with high risk HPV types. HPV testing plays an important role in the prevention, by decreasing the prevalence and the mortality of cervical cancer. There are 16 HPV-centers operating in Hungary, in which patients undergo HPV screening, cervical exams, and treatment based on standardized guidelines. The first HPV-center was founded in 2007 in Budapest, at the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University. This study aimed to define the presence and prevalence of HPV-DNA in the cervical swab samples obtained from patients in our center. Authors conducted to assess the age-specific-prevalence, and HPV type distribution, the associated cervical abnormalities, comparing our results with international data. Overall 1155 woman underwent HPV-testing and genotyping, using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 55.5% of patients had positive test for HPV DNA types, in which 38.5% for high-risk HPV DNA. Overall prevalence was the highest among females aged 15 to 25 years (62.9%). The most common HPV type found was the high risk type 16 (19.5% among the patients with positive HPV testing). Presence of high risk HPV with concurrent cervical cytological abnormality was in 32%. More than two-thirds of woman with cytological atypia (70.6%) were infected with two or more high risk HPV types. HPV 16 was detected in 32% of patients with cytological abnormalities. The results suggest that the prevalence of HPV in this study population exceeds the international data. The results attracts the attention the peak prevalence of the high risk types in the youngest age-group, and the higher risk of cervical abnormality in case of presence of two or more HPV types. The dominance of type 16 and 18 was predictable, but

  8. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of Pisum sativum and its effect on germinated seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Subinoy; Kumar, Mousumi; Haque, Smaranya; Kundu, Debajyoti

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds a...

  9. GERMINATOR: a software package for high-throughput scoring and curve fitting of Arabidopsis seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Ronny V L; Kodde, Jan; Willems, Leo A J; Ligterink, Wilco; van der Plas, Linus H W; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2010-04-01

    Over the past few decades seed physiology research has contributed to many important scientific discoveries and has provided valuable tools for the production of high quality seeds. An important instrument for this type of research is the accurate quantification of germination; however gathering cumulative germination data is a very laborious task that is often prohibitive to the execution of large experiments. In this paper we present the germinator package: a simple, highly cost-efficient and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The germinator package contains three modules: (i) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (ii) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (iii) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap and visualization of the various germination parameters. The curve-fitting module enables analysis of general cumulative germination data and can be used for all plant species. We show that the automatic scoring system works for Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica spp. seeds, but is likely to be applicable to other species, as well. In this paper we show the accuracy, reproducibility and flexibility of the germinator package. We have successfully applied it to evaluate natural variation for salt tolerance in a large population of recombinant inbred lines and were able to identify several quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance. Germinator is a low-cost package that allows the monitoring of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  10. Rethinking Human-Centered Computing: Finding the Customer and Negotiated Interactions at the Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Roxana; O'Neill, John; Mirmalek, Zara

    2003-01-01

    The breakdown in the air transportation system over the past several years raises an interesting question for researchers: How can we help improve the reliability of airline operations? In offering some answers to this question, we make a statement about Huuman-Centered Computing (HCC). First we offer the definition that HCC is a multi-disciplinary research and design methodology focused on supporting humans as they use technology by including cognitive and social systems, computational tools and the physical environment in the analysis of organizational systems. We suggest that a key element in understanding organizational systems is that there are external cognitive and social systems (customers) as well as internal cognitive and social systems (employees) and that they interact dynamically to impact the organization and its work. The design of human-centered intelligent systems must take this outside-inside dynamic into account. In the past, the design of intelligent systems has focused on supporting the work and improvisation requirements of employees but has often assumed that customer requirements are implicitly satisfied by employee requirements. Taking a customer-centric perspective provides a different lens for understanding this outside-inside dynamic, the work of the organization and the requirements of both customers and employees In this article we will: 1) Demonstrate how the use of ethnographic methods revealed the important outside-inside dynamic in an airline, specifically the consequential relationship between external customer requirements and perspectives and internal organizational processes and perspectives as they came together in a changing environment; 2) Describe how taking a customer centric perspective identifies places where the impact of the outside-inside dynamic is most critical and requires technology that can be adaptive; 3) Define and discuss the place of negotiated interactions in airline operations, identifying how these

  11. Donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen matching practices in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation: a survey of major transplantation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashvetiya, Tamara; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kukuruga, Debra; Bojovic, Branko; Christy, Michael R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-07-01

    Vascularized composite tissue allotransplant recipients are often highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens because of multiple prior blood transfusions and other reconstructive operations. The use of peripheral blood obtained from dead donors for crossmatching may be insufficient because of life support measures taken for the donor before donation. No study has been published investigating human leukocyte antigen matching practices in this field. A survey addressing human leukocyte antigen crossmatching methods was generated and sent to 22 vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation centers with active protocols worldwide. Results were compiled by center and compared using two-tailed t tests. Twenty of 22 centers (91 percent) responded to the survey. Peripheral blood was the most commonly reported donor sample for vascularized composite tissue allotransplant crossmatching [78 percent of centers (n=14)], with only 22 percent (n=4) using lymph nodes. However, 56 percent of the 18 centers (n=10) that had performed vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation reported that they harvested lymph nodes for crossmatching. Of responding individuals, 62.5 percent (10 of 16 individuals) felt that lymph nodes were the best donor sample for crossmatching. A slight majority of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant centers that have performed clinical transplants have used lymph nodes for human leukocyte antigen matching, and centers appear to be divided on the utility of lymph node harvest. The use of lymph nodes may offer a number of potential benefits. This study highlights the need for institutional review board-approved crossmatching protocols specific to vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, and the need for global databases for sharing of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation experiences.

  12. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2 Plays a Role in the Generation of Germinal Center and Memory B Cells, but Not in the Production of Antigen-Specific IgG and IgM, in Response to T-dependent Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreemanti Basu

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 has been reported to modulate B cell functions including migration, proliferation and isotype class switching. Since these processes are required for the generation of the germinal center (GC and antigen-specific plasma and memory cells following immunization with a T-dependent antigen, CB2 has the capacity to alter the quality and magnitude of T-dependent immune responses. To address this question, we immunized WT and CB2(-/- mice with the T-dependent antigen 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl (NP-chicken-gamma-globulin (CGG and measured GC B cell formation and the generation of antigen-specific B cells and serum immunoglobulin (Ig. While there was a significant reduction in the number of splenic GC B cells in CB2(-/- mice early in the response there was no detectable difference in the number of NP-specific IgM and IgG1 plasma cells. There was also no difference in NP-specific IgM and class switched IgG1 in the serum. In addition, we found no defect in the homing of plasma cells to the bone marrow (BM and affinity maturation, although memory B cell cells in the spleen were reduced in CB2(-/- mice. CB2-deficient mice also generated similar levels of antigen-specific IgM and IgG in the serum as WT following immunization with sheep red blood cells (sRBC. This study demonstrates that although CB2 plays a role in promoting GC and memory B cell formation/maintenance in the spleen, it is dispensable on all immune cell types required for the generation of antigen-specific IgM and IgG in T-dependent immune responses.

  13. Factors Affecting the Germination of Akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional and physical factors which influence the germination of akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae) were examined. Low concentrations of phosphorus (45 μM, inhibited germination. Salinities of >20‰ were inhibitory to germination. Optimum temperatures were 22°C or greater. Germination did not take place in the dark, but only very low light intensities (0.5 microeinstein m−2 s−1) were necessary to initiate germination. Red light (620 to 665 nm) was required. More than 24 h o...

  14. Imbibition and germination in the seeds of Heliotropium supinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbibition in the seeds of Heliotropium supinum L. varies under different temperatures. The optimum temperatures for imbibition and germination are also different. For germination 39% imbibition is essential, and this capability is achieved by 12-week-old seeds. With duration of dry storage imbibition increases. The imbibition and germination percentages decline on re-dry storage of seeds after embeding in mud. A soil moisture of 44% is optimal for germination. A correlation exists between imbibition and germination.

  15. Investigation of coriander germination (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriander seed yield (Coriandrum sativum L. depends of many factors during vegetation period, and also depend of seed quality. Coriander fruit (Coriandri fructus which is used like spice and in medicinal purpose, and also in food and pharmacy, in the same time is and seed material. Because of that, it is very important to take care about its quality. In this paper is analyzed seed material obtained from field experiments village Mošorin, in 2011, and investigated was conducted in harvest year, and one year later. In harvest year, germination energy in average was 38,21%, and total germination 72,75%. After one year, germination energy was statistically significant smaller - 16,50%, as like total germination which was 67,42%.

  16. Annual report of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center. April 1, 2015 - March 31, 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year (FY) 2015. In FY 2015, we were actively engaged in organizing special training courses in response to external training needs, cooperating with universities, and offering international training courses for Asian countries in addition to the regular training programs at NuHRDeC. In accordance to the annual plan for national training, we conducted training courses for radioisotopes and radiation engineers, nuclear energy engineers, and national qualification examinations, as well as for officials in Nuclear Regulatory Authority and prefectural and municipal officials in Fukushima as outreach activities in order to meet the training needs from the external organizations. We continued to enhance cooperative activities with universities, such as the acceptance of postdoctoral researchers, the cooperation according to the cooperative graduate school system, including the acceptance of students from Nuclear Professional School of University of Tokyo. Furthermore, through utilizing the remote education system, the joint course was successfully held with seven universities, and the intensive summer course and the practical exercise at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories were also conducted as part of the collaboration network with universities. The Instructor Training Program (ITP) was continually offered to the ITP participating countries (Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey and Viet Nam) in FY2015 under contact with Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. As part of the ITP, the Instructor Training Course and the Nuclear Technology Seminar were organized at NuHRDeC such as “Reactor Engineering Course” and “Basic Radiation Knowledge for School Education Seminar”. Eight and eleven countries

  17. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  18. Seed germination and sowing options [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Kim Wilkinson; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of many native species are challenging to germinate. One important thing a grower can do is learn as much as possible about the life history, ecology, and habitat of the species they wish to grow.What processes do seeds of this species go through in nature? Any observations will be valuable when trying to germinate and grow species that have little or no...

  19. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  20. Mathematical model of seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładyszewska, B.; Koper, R.; Kornarzyński, K.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical model of seed germination process was described. The model based on proposed working hypothesis leads - by analogy - to a law corresponding with Verhulst-Pearl's law, known from the theory of population kinetics. The model was applied to describe the germination kinetics of tomato seeds, Promyk field cultivar, biostimulated by laser treatment. Close agreement of experimental and model data was obtained [pl

  1. Supporting Clinical Cognition: A Human-Centered Approach to a Novel ICU Information Visualization Dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Srinivas, Preethi; Duke, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Advances in intensive care unit bedside displays/interfaces and electronic medical record (EMR) technology have not adequately addressed the topic of visual clarity of patient data/information to further reduce cognitive load during clinical decision-making. We responded to these challenges with a human-centered approach to designing and testing a decision-support tool: MIVA 2.0 (Medical Information Visualization Assistant, v.2). Envisioned as an EMR visualization dashboard to support rapid analysis of real-time clinical data-trends, our primary goal originated from a clinical requirement to reduce cognitive overload. In the study, a convenience sample of 12 participants were recruited, in which quantitative and qualitative measures were used to compare MIVA 2.0 with ICU paper medical-charts, using time-on-task, post-test questionnaires, and interviews. Findings demonstrated a significant difference in speed and accuracy with the use of MIVA 2.0. Qualitative outcomes concurred, with participants acknowledging the potential impact of MIVA 2.0 for reducing cognitive load and enabling more accurate and quicker decision-making.

  2. Implementation an human resources shared services center: Multinational company strategy in fusion context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Bittencourt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the process of implementation and management of the Shared Services Center for Human Resources, in a multinational company in the context of mergers and acquisitions. The company analyzed was called here Alpha, and is one of the largest food companies in the country that was born of a merger between Beta and Delta in 2008. The CSC may constitute a tool for strategic management of HR that allows repositioning of the role of the area in order to be more strategic at corporate level and more profitable at the operating level. The research was based on a descriptive and exploratory study of qualitative approach. Among the results, there is the fact that shared services were strategic to support, standardize and ensure the expansion of the company. The challenges found were associated with the development of a culture of service and the relationship with users and the definition of HR activities scope. The following management procedures include the adequacy of wage differences between employees, the career path limitation and the need to attract and retain talent and international expansion.

  3. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  4. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  5. Creativity and Innovation in Health Care: Tapping Into Organizational Enablers Through Human-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Christi Dining; Moody, Louise

    There is an increasing drive in health care for creativity and innovation to tackle key health challenges, improve quality and access, and reduce harm and costs. Human-centered design (HCD) is a potential approach to achieving organizational innovation. However, research suggests the nursing workforce feels unsupported to take the risks needed for innovation, and leaders may not understand the conditions required to fully support them. The aim of this study was to identify enabling conditions that support frontline nurses in their attempts to behave as champions of innovation and change. An HCD workshop was undertaken with 125 nurses employed in clinical practice at Kaiser Permanente. The workshop included empathy mapping and semistructured questions that probed participant experiences with innovation and change. The data were collated and thematic analysis undertaken through a Grounded Theory approach. The data were analyzed to identify key enabling conditions. Seven enablers emerged: personal need for a solution; challenges that have meaningful purpose; clarity of goal and control of resources; active experimentation; experiences indicating progress; positive encouragement and confidence; and provision of psychological safety. These enablers were then translated into pragmatic guidelines for leaders on how the tools of HCD may be leveraged for innovation and change in health care.

  6. Technical, organizational and human-centered requirements for the purpose of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berning, A.; Fassmann, W.; Preischl, W.

    1998-01-01

    A catalog of ergonomic recommendations for organizational measures and design of paper documented work aids for accident management situations in nuclear power plants was developed. Attention was given to provide recommendations meeting practical needs and being sufficiently flexible to allow plant specific [aptation. A weight was assigned to each recommendation indicating its importance. The development of the recommendations was based on the state of the art concerning research and practical experience. Results from walk-/talk-through experiments, training and exercises, discussions with on-site experts, and investigations of emergency manuals from German and foreign nuclear power plants were taken into account. The catalog is founded on a bro[ knowledge base covering important aspects. The catalog is intended for qualitative evaluation and design of organizational measures and procedures. The catalog shall assure high quality. The project further provides an important contribution to the standardization of organizational and human centered demands concerning accident management procedures. Thus it can contribute to develop general regulations regarding ergonomic design of accident management measures. (orig.) [de

  7. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  8. Multiple paths to similar germination behavior in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Liana T; Edwards, Brianne R; Donohue, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    Germination timing influences plant fitness, and its sensitivity to temperature may cause it to change as climate shifts. These changes are likely to be complex because temperatures that occur during seed maturation and temperatures that occur post-dispersal interact to define germination timing. We used the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana to determine how flowering time (which defines seed-maturation temperature) and post-dispersal temperature influence germination and the expression of genetic variation for germination. Germination responses to temperature (germination envelopes) changed as seeds aged, or after-ripened, and these germination trajectories depended on seed-maturation temperature and genotype. Different combinations of genotype, seed-maturation temperature, and after-ripening produced similar germination envelopes. Likewise, different genotypes and seed-maturation temperatures combined to produce similar germination trajectories. Differences between genotypes were most likely to be observed at high and low germination temperatures. The germination behavior of some genotypes responds weakly to maternal temperature but others are highly plastic. We hypothesize that weak dormancy induction could synchronize germination of seeds dispersed at different times. By contrast, we hypothesize that strongly responsive genotypes may spread offspring germination over several possible germination windows. Considering germination responses to temperature is important for predicting phenology expression and evolution in future climates. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Nicotinamidase activity is important for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lee; Holdsworth, Michael J; Gray, Julie E

    2007-08-01

    It has been suggested that nicotinamide must be degraded during germination; however, the enzyme responsible and its physiological role have not been previously studied. We have identified an Arabidopsis gene, NIC2, that is expressed at relatively high levels in mature seed, and encodes a nicotinamidase enzyme with homology to yeast and bacterial nicotinamidases. Seed of a knockout mutant, nic2-1, had reduced nicotinamidase activity, retarded germination and impaired germination potential. nic2-1 germination was restored by after-ripening or moist chilling, but remained hypersensitive to application of nicotinamide or ABA. Nicotinamide is a known inhibitor of NAD-degrading poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP enzymes) that are implicated in DNA repair. We found reduced poly(ADP)ribosylation levels in nic2-1 seed, which were restored by moist chilling. Furthermore, nic2-1 seed had elevated levels of NAD, and germination was hypersensitive to methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), suggesting that PARP activity and DNA repair responses were impaired. We suggest that nicotinamide is normally metabolized by NIC2 during moist chilling or after-ripening, which relieves inhibition of PARP activity and allows DNA repair to occur prior to germination.

  10. Annual report of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center. April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year (FY) 2014. In FY 2014, we flexibly designed special training courses corresponding with the outside training needs, while organizing the annually scheduled regular training programs. We also actively addressed the challenging issues on human resource development, such as to enhance the collaboration with academia and to organize international training for Asian countries. Besides these regular courses, we also organized the special training courses based on the outside needs, e.g. Nuclear Regulatory Authority or the people in Naraha town in Fukushima Prefecture. JAEA continued its cooperative activities with universities. In respect of the cooperation with graduate school of The University of Tokyo, we accepted nuclear major students and cooperatively conducted lectures and practical exercises for one year. In terms of the collaboration network with universities, the joint course was successfully held with six universities through utilizing the remote education system. Besides, the intensive summer course and practical exercise at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories were also conducted. Furthermore, JAEA had re-signed the agreement “Japan Nuclear Education Network” with 7 Universities in Feb. 2015 for the new participation of Nagoya University from FY 2015. Concerning International training, we continuously implemented the Instructor Training Program (ITP) by receiving the annual sponsorship from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In FY 2014, eight countries (i.e. Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) joined this Instructor training courses such as “Reactor Engineering Course”. Furthermore, we organized nuclear technology seminar courses, e.g. “Basic Radiation Knowledge for School Education”. In respect of

  11. Transforming Education for a Transition into Human-centered Economy and Post-normal Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Çepni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solutions to the major problems of our time require a radical shift in our perceptions, thinking and values. Post-normal times (characterized by complexity, chaos and contradictions, post-normal science (characterized by uncertainties, systems view of thinking, alternative perspectives, unknown unknowns, values and human-centered economy are conceptions that we need to take into consideration to define a new role for science. Managing the transition from the knowledge economy (mainly dominated by the use of analytical skills to human-centered economy (mainly dominated by the use of creativity, character, passion requires visionary leadership and a wide range of partnerships, and developing new and more comprehensive, flexible, innovative models of learning. Education today should prepare current generations for the continuously changing world of the future. The critique on modern education ranges across the political spectrum (from ‘the Right’ to ‘the Left’; across countries (both ‘western’ and ‘non-western’; across genders (within men’s, queer and feminist movements; and across worldviews (e.g. post-modernism, critical theory, neo-Marxism, critical traditionalism. These critiques all imply that ‘modern’ education has now become ‘outdated’ (Milojevic, 2005. Technology and globalization are significantly transforming work. However, education and training systems, having remained mostly static and under-invested in for decades, are largely inadequate to meet the needs of the new labour markets. How the disconnect between education systems and labour markets can be eliminated is a much disputed topic and it may require a paradigm shift in current thinking. Citizens and consumers today are experiencing a growing sense of alienation, loss of values and flexibility (Zajda, 2009. There is no form of education which would meet different needs worldwide. Education is a basic human right and it cannot be purely demand

  12. Radiological and Environmental Research Division, Center for Human Radiobiology. Annual report, July 1980-June 1981. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 22 papers of this annual report of the Center for Human Radiobiology. Abstracts were not written for 2 appendices which contain data on the exposure and radium-induced malignancies of 2259 persons whose radium content has been determined at least once. (KRM)

  13. Learning to Design Backwards: Examining a Means to Introduce Human-Centered Design Processes to Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    "Designing backwards" is presented here as a means to utilize human-centered processes in diverse educational settings to help teachers and students learn to formulate and operate design processes to achieve three sequential and interrelated goals. The first entails teaching them to effectively and empathetically identify, frame and…

  14. Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in

  15. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Saleh, Shadi; El-Jardali, Fadi; Dimassi, Hani; Mourad, Yara

    2012-11-22

    Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR), associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC) sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory). A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1-3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%), better job opportunities outside the country (35.1%) and lack of professional development (33.7%). A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits and allied health professionals. Particular attention should

  16. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alameddine Mohamad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR, associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory. A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate. Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Results Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1–3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%, better job opportunities outside the country (35.1% and lack of professional development (33.7%. A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. Conclusions The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits

  17. Germination of Avena fatua under different gaseous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, J.W.; Berrie, A.M.M.

    1966-01-01

    The atmosphere in which seeds germinate can profoundly affect the level of germination and dormancy. Seeds were germinated in atmospheres containing various concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen. At the same time the effect of light on these systems was examined. The germination of partially dormant populations of wild oat seed is inhibited by white light. This response to light is most apparent when the caryopsis is enclosed in the pales. Investigations into the effect of the ambient atmosphere on germination have indicated that, while oxygen is a necessary factor in the germination of this species, carbon dioxide also has an effect. A lack of carbon dioxide increases the degree of light inhibition of germination; 3% carbon dioxide (by volume) allows germination in light; 20% carbon dioxide inhibits germination in light and darkness at all tested oxygen concentrations.

  18. Annual report of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center. April 1, 2011 - March 31, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year 2011. In this fiscal year, we flexibly designed and conducted training courses corresponding with the needs from outside, while conducting the annually scheduled training programs, and also actively addressed the challenge of human resource development, such as to enhance the collaboration with academia and to organize international training for Asian countries. The number of trainees who completed the domestic training courses in 2011 was increased to 387, which is 14 percent more than the previous year. And also, in order to respond to the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant accident, we also newly designed and organized the special training courses on radiation survey for the subcontracting companies working with TEPCO, and the training courses on decontamination work for the construction companies in Fukushima prefecture. The total number of attendees in these special courses was 3,800 persons. JAEA continued its cooperative activities with universities. In respect of the cooperation with graduate school of University of Tokyo, we accepted 17 students and cooperatively conducted practical exercises for nuclear major. Furthermore, we also actively continued cooperation on practical exercises for students of universities which were signed in Nuclear HRD Program. In terms of the collaboration network with universities, the joint course was held with six universities through utilizing the remote education system. Furthermore, the intensive course at Okayama University and practical exercise at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA were also conducted. In respect of International training, NuHRDeC continuously implemented the Instructor Training Program (ITP) by receiving the annual sponsorship from MEXT. In fiscal year 2011, seven countries (i.e. Bangladesh

  19. Annual report of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center. April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the FY2013. In FY2013, we flexibly designed special training courses corresponding with the outside training needs, while organizing the annually scheduled regular training programs. We also actively addressed the challenging issues on human resource development, such as to enhance the collaboration with academia and to organize international training for Asian countries. The number of trainees who participated in the domestic regular training courses in 2013 was more than 300 persons. Besides these regular courses, we also organized the special training courses based on the outside needs, e.g. the training courses on radiation survey and decontamination work in Fukushima prefecture for the subcontracting companies of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) working to respond to the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident. JAEA continued its cooperative activities with universities. In respect of the cooperation with graduate school of University of Tokyo, we accepted nuclear major students and cooperatively conducted lectures and practical exercises for one year. In terms of the collaboration network with universities, the joint course was successfully held with six universities through utilizing the remote education system. Furthermore, the intensive course at Okayama University, University of Fukui, and practical exercise at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA were also conducted. In respect of International training, we continuously implemented the Instructor Training Program (ITP) by receiving the annual sponsorship from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In fiscal year 2013, eight countries (i.e. Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) joined this Instructor training courses. Furthermore, we organized nuclear

  20. Annual report of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center. April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year 2010. In this fiscal year, NuHRDeC flexibly designed and conducted as need training courses upon requests while conducting the annually scheduled training programs, and actively addressed the challenge of human resource development, such as to enhance the collaboration with academia and to expand the number of participating countries for international training. The number of trainees who completed the domestic training courses in 2010 was slightly increased to 340, which is 6 percent more than the previous year. The number of those who completed the staff technical training courses was 879 in 2010, which is 12 percent more than the previous year. As a result, the total number of trainees during this period is about 10 percent more than the previous year. In order to correspond with the needs from outside of JAEA, four temporary courses were held upon the request from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). JAEA continued its cooperative activities with universities; cooperation with graduate school of University of Tokyo, and the cooperative graduate school program was enlarged to cooperate with totally 19 graduate schools, one faculty of undergraduate school, and one technical college, including the newly joined 1 graduate school in 2010. JAEA also continued cooperative activities with Nuclear HRD Program initiated by MEXT and METI in 2007. The joint course has continued networking with six universities through utilizing the remote education system, Japan Nuclear Education Network (JNEN), and special lectures, summer and winter practice were also conducted. In respect of International training, NuHRDeC continuously implemented the Instructor Training Program (ITP) by receiving the annual sponsorship from MEXT. In fiscal year 2010, four countries (Bangladesh

  1. Annual report of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center. April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year 2012. In this fiscal year, we flexibly designed training courses corresponding with the needs from outside, while organizing the annually scheduled training programs, and also actively addressed the challenging issues on human resource development, such as to enhance the collaboration with academia and to organize international training for Asian countries. The number of trainees who completed the domestic training courses in 2012 was increased to 525, which is 30 percent more than the previous year. And also, in order to respond to the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant accident, we also organized the special training courses on radiation survey for the subcontracting companies working with TEPCO, and the training courses on decontamination work for the construction companies in Fukushima prefecture. The total number of attendees in these special courses was more than 4,000 persons. JAEA continued its cooperative activities with universities. In respect of the cooperation with graduate school of University of Tokyo, we accepted 14 students and cooperatively conducted practical exercises for nuclear major. Furthermore, we also actively continued cooperation on practical exercises for students of universities which were signed in Nuclear HRD Program. In terms of the collaboration network with universities, the joint course was held with six universities through utilizing the remote education system. Furthermore, the intensive course at Okayama University, Fukui University, and practical exercise at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA were also conducted. In respect of International training, NuHRDeC continuously implemented the Instructor Training Program (ITP) by receiving the annual sponsorship from MEXT. In fiscal year 2012, eight countries (i

  2. New human-centered linear and nonlinear motion cueing algorithms for control of simulator motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telban, Robert J.

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input

  3. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950s when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re-establish a

  4. Alternative tools to mass production and human performance indicators in sheltered work centers of Valencian community (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The most popular alternative systems to mass production at an academic level (lean manufacturing, agile manufacturing, flexible customization, mass customization... share many characteristics. Our article identifies an extensive set of alternative practices to mass production; analyzes the classification of practices in categories (Flow, TQM, TPM, Customer Relations, Supplier Relations and Human Resources Practices and analyzes the impact on several human performance indicators such as satisfaction, absenteeism, voluntary turnover, permanent contracts, knowledge, personal & social adjustment activities and integration of workers into ordinary companies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey in sheltered work centers. We use regression analysis in order to prove relations between explicative and criterion variables. Findings: The results of our research allow us to identify that human resource management and customer relationship practices have significant effects on job satisfaction, knowledge, integration into ordinary companies and personal and social adjustment. Research limitations/implications: Data came only from one industry; therefore the results would not be directly generalized to other contexts. Practical implications: Managers in Sheltered work centers can estimate the impact of the deployment of alternative tools to mass production. Originality/value: There are few papers relating lean manufacturing tools and human resources performance indicators. At the same time, there are very few research carried out in sheltered work centers context.

  5. Cyrtopodium paludicolum germination with two Tulasnella isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otieres Cirino de Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Symbiosis between orchid seeds and mycorrhizal fungi has been reported to be a determining factor in the success of germination and protocorm development in vitro. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify by molecular analysis the mycorrhizal fungus associated with Cyrtopodium paludicolum, and to evaluate its efficiency in facilitating seed germination and development. Germination experiments were carried out using a fungus isolated from C. paludicolum (CH01 and Epidendrum secundum (M65, which has been successfully used a number of times in symbiotic germination. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with treatments of CH01, M65 as well as under asymbiotic conditions. The mycobiont CH01 was successfully isolated from Cyrtopodium paludicolum and identified as Tulasnella sp. Treatments with both fungi reached a higher germination percentage than under asymbiotic conditions, indicating no specificity in the relationship between Cyrtopodium paludicolum and the fungi. The results presented have the potential to advance research into the propagation and conservation of C. paludicolum, a native of the Cerrado biome.

  6. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Aminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P1 and P2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P1×P5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P2×P5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P4×P5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96% was observed in hybrid P2×P4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI and seedling vigor index (SVI were found in hybrid P1×P5 and P2×P5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  7. Chickpea seeds germination rational parameters optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Yu A.; Ivliev, M. N.; Lemeshkin, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the influence of chickpea seeds bioactivation parameters on their enzymatic activity experimental results. Optimal bioactivation process modes were obtained by regression-factor analysis: process temperature - 13.6 °C, process duration - 71.5 h. It was found that in the germination process, the proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes activity increased, and the urease enzyme activity is reduced. The dependences of enzyme activity on chickpea seeds germination conditions were obtained by mathematical processing of experimental data. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental ones. This confirms the optimization efficiency based on experiments mathematical planning in order to determine the enzymatic activity of chickpea seeds germination optimal parameters of bioactivated seeds.

  8. Different gamma ray (60 Co) dose effects on Sorghum genotype germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabosa, Jose Nildo; Gomes, Roberto Vicente; Reis, Odemar Vicente dos; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2004-01-01

    In agriculture, applying irradiation is a very valuable way of obtaining vegetable products for human and animal consumption. Cobalt-60, one of the main sources of gamma-rays, is considered an important tool in plant breeding programs, which have the objective of promoting genetic variability of cultivars with resistance to adverse environments. In this research, the effects of different 60 Co doses on germination vigor and seed germination velocity of forage sorghum genotypes were evaluated. The study was carried out at the IPA (Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The work was installed in germination boxes, following laboratory recommendations. Thus, a experiment involving three sorghum genotypes (IPA 467-4-2, IPA 02-03-01, and Sudan 4202), five 60 Co doses (Zero, 150, 300, 350, and 400 Gy), was set up. The sees were irradiated before the beginning of the experiment being exposed to gamma rays from a 60 Co-source (cobalt irradiator) at DEN (Nuclear Engineering Department) of the UFPE (Pernambuco Federal University), Brazil. The work also had the objective of evaluating the sorghum genotypes x 60 Co dose interaction. The main results obtained showed that the sorghum genotype IPA 02-03-01 presented the greatest values of germination and vigor percentages, and seed germination velocity, when compared to the others evaluated, on 350 and 400 Gy of 60 Co doses. (author)

  9. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  10. Autotoxicity of chard and its allelopathic potentiality on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... Abbreviation: (W+C), Wheat germinated with chard; (C+W), chard germinated with ..... hull extracts which have inhibitory effect on the growth of barnyardgrass seedlings. .... John Wiley and Sons,. New York, pp. 171-188.

  11. Potential germination and initial growth of Sclerocarya birrea (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Methodology: The parameters studied for the germination test were: latency duration, germination capacity .... for family consumption or in the cosmetic industry. (Murray ... the crowns of trees and in the stall of the animals.

  12. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium ... chromium on seed germination and seedling growth- biomass in early ..... such critical regulatory mechanisms are likely to operate in seeds at ...

  13. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Parameters related to seed germination and seedlings vigour was evaluated. Results indicated that substrate do not affect seed germination and plant vigour. However ..... Annual plant reviews California, USA, pp. 50-. 6.7.

  14. Studies on seed germination and in vitro shoot multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... vitro seed germination and plantlet regeneration of this plant. ... Key words: Germination, gibberellic acid, growth regulators, node explants, Satureja ..... Abscisic Acid: A. Seed Maturation and Antistress Signal, 3rd ed. Sinauer ...

  15. Design of an advanced human-centered supervisory system for a nuclear fuel reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, B.; Lambert, M.; Martel, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the field of highly automated processes, our research concerns supervisory system design adapted to supervisory and default diagnosis by human operators. The interpretation of decisional human behaviour models shows that the tasks of human operators require different information, which has repercussions on the supervisory system design. We propose an advanced human-centred supervisory system (AHCSS) which is more adapted to human-beings, because it integrates new representation of the production system,(such as functional and behavioural aspects) with the use of advanced algorithms of detection and location. Based on an approach using these new concepts, and AHCSS was created for a nuclear fuel reprocessing system. (authors)

  16. TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ilenia; Saliba, David; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Bustamante, Sonia; Canete, Pablo F; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Paula; McNamara, Hayley A; Valvo, Salvatore; Grimbaldeston, Michele; Sweet, Rebecca A; Vohra, Harpreet; Cockburn, Ian A; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Dustin, Michael L; Doglioni, Claudio; Vinuesa, Carola G

    2017-07-20

    Protective high-affinity antibody responses depend on competitive selection of B cells carrying somatically mutated B-cell receptors by follicular helper T (T FH ) cells in germinal centres. The rapid T-B-cell interactions that occur during this process are reminiscent of neural synaptic transmission pathways. Here we show that a proportion of human T FH cells contain dense-core granules marked by chromogranin B, which are normally found in neuronal presynaptic terminals storing catecholamines such as dopamine. T FH cells produce high amounts of dopamine and release it upon cognate interaction with B cells. Dopamine causes rapid translocation of intracellular ICOSL (inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand, also known as ICOSLG) to the B-cell surface, which enhances accumulation of CD40L and chromogranin B granules at the human T FH cell synapse and increases the synapse area. Mathematical modelling suggests that faster dopamine-induced T-B-cell interactions increase total germinal centre output and accelerate it by days. Delivery of neurotransmitters across the T-B-cell synapse may be advantageous in the face of infection.

  17. A clinical decision support system for integrating tuberculosis and HIV care in Kenya: a human-centered design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalani, Caricia; Green, Eric; Owiti, Philip; Keny, Aggrey; Diero, Lameck; Yeung, Ada; Israelski, Dennis; Biondich, Paul

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of integrating HIV and tuberculosis care in rural Kenya, a team of researchers, clinicians, and technologists used the human-centered design approach to facilitate design, development, and deployment processes of new patient-specific TB clinical decision support system for medical providers. In Kenya, approximately 1.6 million people are living with HIV and have a 20-times higher risk of dying of tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis prevention and treatment medication is widely available, proven to save lives, and prioritized by the World Health Organization, ensuring that it reaches the most vulnerable communities remains challenging. Human-centered design, used in the fields of industrial design and information technology for decades, is an approach to improving the effectiveness and impact of innovations that has been scarcely used in the health field. Using this approach, our team followed a 3-step process, involving mixed methods assessment to (1) understand the situation through the collection and analysis of site observation sessions and key informant interviews; (2) develop a new clinical decision support system through iterative prototyping, end-user engagement, and usability testing; and, (3) implement and evaluate the system across 24 clinics in rural West Kenya. Through the application of this approach, we found that human-centered design facilitated the process of digital innovation in a complex and resource-constrained context.

  18. A clinical decision support system for integrating tuberculosis and HIV care in Kenya: a human-centered design approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caricia Catalani

    Full Text Available With the aim of integrating HIV and tuberculosis care in rural Kenya, a team of researchers, clinicians, and technologists used the human-centered design approach to facilitate design, development, and deployment processes of new patient-specific TB clinical decision support system for medical providers. In Kenya, approximately 1.6 million people are living with HIV and have a 20-times higher risk of dying of tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis prevention and treatment medication is widely available, proven to save lives, and prioritized by the World Health Organization, ensuring that it reaches the most vulnerable communities remains challenging. Human-centered design, used in the fields of industrial design and information technology for decades, is an approach to improving the effectiveness and impact of innovations that has been scarcely used in the health field. Using this approach, our team followed a 3-step process, involving mixed methods assessment to (1 understand the situation through the collection and analysis of site observation sessions and key informant interviews; (2 develop a new clinical decision support system through iterative prototyping, end-user engagement, and usability testing; and, (3 implement and evaluate the system across 24 clinics in rural West Kenya. Through the application of this approach, we found that human-centered design facilitated the process of digital innovation in a complex and resource-constrained context.

  19. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dorofeev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  20. Humanities mini-course curricula for midcareer health professionals at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kimberly R; George, Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    The field of medical humanities has traditionally focused on medical students and, more recently, on premedical undergraduates. Comparatively little formal humanities pedagogy has been dedicated to midcareer health professionals. To address this lack, the Department of Humanities at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center designed eight annual humanities mini-courses for faculty and staff throughout the college and medical center.These mini-courses fell into four categories: reading, reflection, and discussion; creative expression; technology; and ethics. They were geared toward midcareer health professionals who were seeking new intellectual and creative stimulation and variety in daily routine. They also provided humanities faculty the opportunity to devote attention to topics that capitalize on their professional training and that interest them personally.Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the mini-courses for four principal reasons: (1) learning the tools and methodologies of a new discipline or domain other than biomedicine, (2) using their minds and training in uncustomary ways, (3) forming new alliances with colleagues (which served to lessen the sense of professional isolation), and (4) enjoying a respite from the stressful flow of the workday. Humanities faculty facilitators provided more mixed responses but agreed that conducting the mini-courses had been a positive overall experience.Although this article provides a foundational framework for the development of a humanities mini-course series, the authors encourage others to replicate these curricula in other medical settings as an important step toward a robust pedagogy designed for midcareer health care professionals.

  1. DOG1-imposed dormancy mediates germination responses to temperature cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphey, M.; Kovach, K.; Elnacash, T.; He, H.; Bentsink, L.; Donohue, K.

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy and environment-dependent germination requirements interact to determine the timing of germination in natural environments. This study tested the contribution of the dormancy gene Delay Of Germination 1 (DOG1) to primary and secondary dormancy induction in response to environmental

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyszewska, B.; Koper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented a mathematical model of seed germination process based on the Monte Carlo method and theoretical premises resulted from the physiology of seed germination suggesting three consecutive stages: physical, biochemical and physiological. The model was experimentally verified by determination of germination characteristics for seeds of ground tomatoes, Promyk cultivar, within broad range of temperatures (from 15 to 30 deg C)

  3. Factors affecting the germination of hybrid rose achenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The smooth germination of mature Hybrid rose achenes is hampered by (i) hardseededness (HS), (ii) primary dormancy (PD) and (iii) germination polymorphism (GP). HS is owing to the hard pericarp. PD is, in principle, a natural phenomenon that protects the seeds from precocious germination. For

  4. Biorhythms in conifer seed germination during extended storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; N.I. Marnonov

    1989-01-01

    A proportion of sound seeds of conifer species do not germinate during certain periods of the year, even when conditions are favorable. Mamonov et al. (1986) report that the non-germinating seeds have apparently undergone physiological changes that affected germination. This phenomenon may be due to seasonal periodicity, or biorhythms. As early as the mid-1930'...

  5. Comparison of Germination and Viability Tests for Southern Hardwood Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; J. L. Gammage

    1967-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 3-year evaluation of 10 methods for testing germinability and viability of the seed of six species of southern hardwood. In five of the methods, the seeds were germinated. In the others, visual, biochemical, or physical properties were the criteria. Cutting tests were best for sweetgum and Nuttall oak seed, while cutting or water germination...

  6. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  7. Asymbiotic germination of immature embryos of a medicinally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H.piri

    La germination no simuotica de las semillas de orquideas. Bol. Real. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21:250-260. Knudson L (1922). Non–symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Bot. Gaz. 73:1-25. Knudson L (1925). Physiological study of the asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Bot. Gaz. 79:345-379. Lawler LJ (1984). Ethnobotany ...

  8. Human Models for Analysis of Pathways (H–MAPs) Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The need for human, organotypic culture models coupled with the requirements of contemporary toxin screening (i.e. reproducibility, high throughput, transferability...

  9. Practical aspects of temperature intervention in germination and post-germination development of bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastna, J.; Vinter, V.; Babicka, J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature dependence of germination and post-germination growth was studied in the spores of B a c i l l u s c e r e u s NCIB 8122. It was found that a temperature of 5 0 C slowed down germination, with the cells showing the capacity of synthetizing only a limited amount of proteins. The synthesis of the cellular wall, however, went on for another few hours. Thick-walled, less permeable and less metabolically active cells formed having an altered ultrastructure. A prolonged cultivation at 30 0 C resulted in the reduction of living cells while the low cultivation temperature (5 0 C) was found to have a protective effect. Pre-irradiation with 30g krad of gamma radiation increased the sensitivity of surviving cells to the cultivation conditions. Spores in the post-germination period were found to be much more resistent and alternating use of low and higher temperatures had little effect on growth

  10. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus

  11. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  12. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  13. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... Priming provides controlled hydration of seeds to a level ... water but drying them before complete germination. .... compared with the control, although, this difference was ... membrane damage, and restores germ inability to aged .... lipid per oxidation in bitter gourd seeds and effects of priming and hot.

  14. Unravelling desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia de Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    How different organisms survive in the absence or under very limited amounts of water is still an open question. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to explore the molecular basis of desiccation tolerance in seeds. We investigated the possibilities of using germinated desiccation

  15. Seed priming with antioxidants improves sunflower seed germination and seedling growth under unfavorable germination conditions

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANIC, Ivana; LEKIC, Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    The results of studying the effects of sunflower seed priming with an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (A), tocopherol (T), and glutathione (G) performed prior to accelerated ageing and a cold test are presented in this paper. Germination, the percentage of abnormal seedlings, and the lengths of both roots and shoots were monitored. The results showed that the cold test caused a drastic drop in germination, an adverse effect on the shoot length, an increase in the percentage of abnormal seed...

  16. 75 FR 2545 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program... Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); National Institutes of Health (NIH); HHS. ACTION: Announcement of report...: Background Soy infant formula is fed to infants as a supplement or replacement for human milk or cow milk...

  17. Competing Goodness: Perceptions of Person-Centered Culture Change within Human Service Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Stacey Lee

    2012-01-01

    Front and center in the endeavor to "reform" health care is the appeal to change the culture of aging within provider organizations situated in the long-term care continuum. Person-centeredness is the latest philosophical overlay to aging care and supports and services. As a dominate paradigm guiding change, the movement intends to shift…

  18. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of and its effect on germinated seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subinoy Mondal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds and seedlings. Physicochemical biomarkers were significantly changed by glyphosate exposure after 15 days. The germination of seedlings under control conditions (0 mg/L was 100% after 3 days of treatment but at 3 and 4 mg/L glyphosate, germination was reduced to 55 and 40%, respectively. Physiological parameters like root and shoot length decreased monotonically with increasing glyphosate concentration, at 14 days of observation. Average root and shoot length (n=30 in three replicates were reduced to 14.7 and 17.6%, respectively, at 4 mg/L glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content also decreased, with a similar trend to root and shoot length, but the protein content initially decreased and then increased with an increase in glyphosate concentration to 3 mg/L. The study suggests that glyphosate reduces the soluble sugar content significantly, by 21.6% (v/v. But internal sodium and potassium tissue concentrations were significantly altered by glyphosate exposure with increasing concentrations of glyphosate. Biochemical and physiological analysis also supports the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on seed germination and biochemical effects on seedlings.

  19. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  20. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  1. Defining the Risk of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Human Population Centers of the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Manore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae. albopictus and then to other humans in USA cities with variable human densities and seasonality. Mosquito-borne disease occurs when specific combinations of conditions maximize virus-to-mosquito and mosquito-to-human contact rates. We develop a mathematical model that captures the epidemiology and is informed by current data on vector ecology from urban sites. The model demonstrates that under specific but realistic conditions, fifty-percent of introductions by infectious travelers to a high human, high mosquito density city could initiate local transmission and 10% of the introductions could result in 100 or more people infected. Despite the propensity for Ae. albopictus to bite non-human vertebrates, we also demonstrate that local virus transmission and human outbreaks may occur when vectors feed from humans even just 40% of the time. Inclusion of human behavioral changes and mitigations were not incorporated into the models and would likely reduce predicted infections. This work demonstrates how a conditional series of non-average events can result in local arbovirus transmission and outbreaks of human disease, even in temperate cities.

  2. Influence of Human Factor Issues on Patient-Centered mHealth Apps' Impact; Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenbos, G A; Peute, L W; Jaspers, M W M

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the preliminary results of a literature review on studies published in 2014-2015 concerning patient-centered mHealth applications' (apps) impact. Abstracts were included when they described a mHealth app targeted at patients and reported on the effects of this app on patient care. From a total of 559 potentially relevant articles, 17 papers were finally included. Nine studies reported a positive impact of the patient-centered mHealth app on patient care; 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials. Measured impacts in the 17 studies focused on improving patients' physical activity, self-efficacy and medication adherence. Human factors issues potentially mediating these effects were discussed in all studies. Transitions in the interaction between healthcare providers and their patients were most often discussed as influencing the impact of the mHealth app. More research is needed, focussing on human issues mediating the effect of patient-centered mHealth apps to precipitate knowledge on the effectiveness of mHealth. This research should preferably be guided by socio-technical models.

  3. Designing human centered GeoVisualization application--the SanaViz--for telehealth users: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; de Araujo Novaes, Magdala; Machiavelli, Josiane; Iyengar, Sriram; Vogler, Robert; Johnson, Craig; Zhang, Jiajie; Hsu, Chiehwen E

    2012-01-01

    Public health data is typically organized by geospatial unit. GeoVisualization (GeoVis) allows users to see information visually on a map. Examine telehealth users' perceptions towards existing public health GeoVis applications and obtains users' feedback about features important for the design and development of Human Centered GeoVis application "the SanaViz". We employed a cross sectional study design using mixed methods approach for this pilot study. Twenty users involved with the NUTES telehealth center at Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, Brazil were enrolled. Open and closed ended questionnaires were used to gather data. We performed audio recording for the interviews. Information gathered included socio-demographics, prior spatial skills and perception towards use of GeoVis to evaluate telehealth services. Card sorting and sketching methods were employed. Univariate analysis was performed for the continuous and categorical variables. Qualitative analysis was performed for open ended questions. Existing Public Health GeoVis applications were difficult to use. Results found interaction features zooming, linking and brushing and representation features Google maps, tables and bar chart as most preferred GeoVis features. Early involvement of users is essential to identify features necessary to be part of the human centered GeoVis application "the SanaViz".

  4. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon.

  5. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  6. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  7. [Scientific and research experimentation center of aviation and space medicine and human engineeing celebrates 80th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanko, I M; Vorona, A A; Lapa, V V; Khomenko, M N

    2015-03-01

    The article is devoted to the history of the Research Test Center Aviation and Space Medicine and military ergonomics, now included in the Central Research Institute of the Air Force Defense Ministry. The center throughout 80 years history is a leding research organization in the country for the integrated study of the human factor in aviation and problems connected with it. The world-famous scientific schools in aviation physiology, hygiene and radiolorgy, emergency medicine, aviation psychology and ergonomics have been grounded on the basis of this center. With a high qualified scientific staff and laboratory-and-bench-scale base including unique seminatural airplanes and helicopters complexes, posters and installation simulating the impact of flight factors (centrifuge, hyperbaric chambers, shakenr vestibulyar-WIDE stands, etc.) the center has. successfully slved tasks concerning an improvement of flight crews protection from occupational hazards, ergonomic demands to capabilities of aircraft, professional and psycho-physiological training. Automatic systems of medical decision-making on assessment of the health status in the medical-flight expertise and dynamic medical supervision, planning, treatment and preventive and remedial actions aircrew training are currently 'being developed

  8. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  9. 75 FR 51815 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Exposure: Call for Information and Nomination of Scientific Experts AGENCY: National Institute of... and nomination of scientific experts. SUMMARY: CERHR is evaluating the scientific evidence regarding... information about current production levels, human exposure, use patterns, and environmental occurrence. This...

  10. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...

  11. Human-Centered Design of an mHealth App for the Prevention of Burnout Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Ángela M; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Stress-related disorders have become one of the main health problems in many countries and organizations worldwide. They can generate depression and anxiety, and could derive in work absenteeism and reduction in productivity. Design, develop, and evaluate an mHealth App for the prevention of Burnout Syndrome following the recommendations of standard User-Centered Design methodologies. 1) A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 59 faculty members and workers at the University of Cauca, Colombia using the Maslach Burnout Inventory as an instrument for measuring Burnout, accompanied by a demographic and technological questionnaire. 2) Three prototypes of the mHealth App were iteratively developed following the recommendations provided by the ISO Usability Maturity Model and the ISO User-Centered Design model. 3) Usability tests of the system were performed based on the ISO 9126 standard. The results obtained are considered positive, particularly those regarding user's satisfaction measured using the System Usability Scale.

  12. Germination and vigor of linseed seeds under different conditions of light, temperature and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., cultivated from seeds, is one of the oldest plants domesticated by humans and is popularly used as a medicine. It can be used as the raw material to produce oil and bran because it has high lipids content, fiber and proteins. Based on the economic potential of this species and the need for more information about its physiology, the goal of this study was to analyze the effects of light, temperature and water stress on the germination and vigor of linseed seeds. In experiment I the seeds were sown on paper at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC in the presence and absence of light. In experiment II, the seeds were placed on paper germitest soaked in solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 at osmotic potentials corresponding to zero, -0.10, -0.20, -0.30, -0.40, -0.50 and -0.60 MPa. To evaluate the physiological potential, the following tests were made: germination, first germination count, length and dry mass of seedlings, and water stress. It was found that the highest percentages of germination and vigor occurred at a constant temperature of 20 °C, both in the presence and absence of light. The reduction of the osmotic potential of the substrate promoted a significant decrease in the germination and vigor of the linseed seeds. Osmotic potentials equal or less than -0.30 MPa were harmful to germination and there was no normal seedling development starting at -0.50 MPa.

  13. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  14. Integrating Informational, Social, and Behavioral Exchanges Between Humans, Urban Centers, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    behaviors were solely enacted within the physical bounds of an urban center- mall , outdoor shopping plaza, or downtown, to name a few. The Internet has...Homans, G. 1974. Social Behavior , revised ed. New York: Harcourt-Brace. Langford, Gary O. 2012. Engineering Systems Integration: Theory , Metrics, and...merging of city theory ( plans , goals, aggregate functions) with physical design (Levy 2013). City planning takes into consideration the needs, benefits

  15. Point Organ Radiation Dose in Abdominal CT: Effect of Patient Off-Centering in an Experimental Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Lira, Diego; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Primak, Andrew; Xu, George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of patient off-centering on point organ radiation dose measurements in a human cadaver scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol. A human cadaver (88 years, body-mass-index 20 kg/m2) was scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol on 128-slice dual source MDCT (Definition Flash, Siemens). A total of 18 scans were performed using two scan protocols (a) 120 kV-200 mAs fixed-mA (CTDIvol 14 mGy) (b) 120 kV-125 ref mAs (7 mGy) with automatic exposure control (AEC, CareDose 4D) at three different positions (a) gantry isocenter, (b) upward off-centering and (c) downward off-centering. Scanning was repeated three times at each position. Six thimble (in liver, stomach, kidney, pancreas, colon and urinary bladder) and four MOSFET dosimeters (on cornea, thyroid, testicle and breast) were placed for calculation of measured point organ doses. Organ dose estimations were retrieved from dose-tracking software (eXposure, Radimetrics). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance. There was a significant difference between the trends of point organ doses with AEC and fixed-mA at all three positions (p 92% for both protocols; p < 0.0001). For both protocols, the highest mean difference in point doses was found for stomach and lowest for colon. Measured absorbed point doses in abdominal CT vary with patient-centering in the gantry isocenter. Due to lack of consideration of patient positioning in the dose estimation on automatic software-over estimation of the doses up to 92% was reported. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Asymbiotic germination in vitro in seeds of four species of Cuban orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loexis Rodríguez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available About the most of 300 species of Cuban native orchids is have few reference of the micropropagation in the science literature. However, the biotechnical techniques fulfill an important acting in the rescue of threatened species. By that in the laboratory of Vegetable Biotechnology of the Mountain Development Center in Guantanamo, aspects related with the germination were studied in vitro of Campylocentrum micrantrum, Encyclia cochleata, Epidendrum difforme and Oceoclade maculata using the salts of the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Knudson (1946, increasing with activate charcoal (0; 1; 2 g.l-1, Agar tachnical No. 3 6 g.l-1 and the adjusted pH at 5.6. The seeds was incubated under conditions of 16 hours light to intensity of 27 uMol.m².s-¹ and 24 ± 1 °C. The reached results showed that the germination of the studied species was obtained under different times and conditions of the medium of cultivation where it stood out for the smallest time used for the germination Encyclia cochleata to the eight weeks in the salts of Murashige and Skoog (1962 and without the addition of activated charcoal, as long as Oceoclade maculata needed 24 weeks to germinate. Key words: antioxidante, biotechnology, flowers, micropropagación, native species

  17. EFFECT OF SOME SEED TREATMENTS ON GERMINATION OF Sideritis perfoliata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay ARABACI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sideritis L. belonging to Lamiaceae family is represented with more than 150 species worldwide.. The genus is represented in Turkey by 46 species and 53 taxon within two sections among which 39 are endemic. Endemism rate (79.5% in Turkey is quite high because Turkey is one of the two major gene centers of the genus. Sideritis species are known among people with different local names such as mountain tea, highland tea, sage, sarıkız tea and tail tea. According to some recent researches, extracts obtained from Sideritis species were shown to have antistress, antiulcer, analgesic, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal effects. The interest in and the demand for this plant species has increased particularly due to its antioxidant effect. Seed germination studies of this species have great importance on determination of production strategies of medical and aromatic plants. This study was conducted to determine the effects of some pre-treatments (ethylene, gibberellin, mannitol, seaweed and cold pre-treatment on germination of Sideritis perfoliata L. which is naturally grown in western Anatolia. The study was carried out at 25/15oC day/night temperature conditions. The experiments were performed according to completely randomized design with 3 replications at Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Laboratory. Significant differences were determined between applications with respect to germination rates and germination vigor values.

  18. Economic perspective on strategic human capital management and planning for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kakoli; Chen, Zhuo Adam; Crawford, Carol A Gotway

    2009-11-01

    An organization's workforce--or human capital--is its most valuable asset. The 2002 President's Management Agenda emphasizes the importance of strategic human capital management by requiring all federal agencies to improve performance by enhancing personnel and compensation systems. In response to these directives, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) drafted its strategic human capital management plan to ensure that it is aligned strategically to support the agency's mission and its health protection goals. In this article, we explore the personnel economics literature to draw lessons from research studies that can help CDC enhance its human capital management and planning. To do so, we focus on topics that are of practical importance and empirical relevance to CDC's internal workforce and personnel needs with an emphasis on identifying promising research issues or methodological approaches. The personnel economics literature is rich with theoretically sound and empirically rigorous approaches for shaping an evidence-based approach to human capital management that can enhance incentives to attract, retain, and motivate a talented federal public health workforce, thereby promoting the culture of high-performance government.

  19. The Effect of Temperature and Water Potential on Seed Germination of Asian spiderflower (Cleome viscose L.: As Invasive Weed in Soybean Fields in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirdel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleome viscose Linn. with a common name as “Asian spiderflower”, belongs to the Capparidacea family. It is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the tropical regions of the world. It is a very competitive weed of annual crops. This plant is currently introduced as an invasive plant in soybean fields of Golestan province. There is no management recommendation to control Asian spider flower. Thus large quantities of soybean destroyed by this weed every year. Germination and emergence are the two most important stages in the life cycle of plants. Environmental factors such as temperature, light, pH, planting depth and soil moisture are known to affect seed germination and emergence of weeds. An understanding of the germination biology of Asian spider flower would facilitate the development of better management strategies for this weed. Therefore, the purposes of this research were to study the effects of temperature and water potential on Asian spider flower seed germination. Material and Methods: To evaluate the effect of temperature and water potential on seed germination and determination of seed germination cardinal temperatures of Asian spider flower, an experiment was conducted as Factorial Experiment in Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications in Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center of Golestan Province during 2013. Treatments were included temperatures with seven levels (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 38 and 400C and water potentials with six levels (0, -2, -4, -6, -8 and -10 bar. Germination was monitored daily until germination discontinued and the number of the germinated seeds was recorded. Seeds were observed twice daily and considered germinated when the radical was approximately >2mm long. To quantify the response of germination rate to temperature and to determine the cardinal temperatures for germination original beta, and modified beta, segmented and dent models were used. Water

  20. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  1. Suicidal germination for parasitic weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Binne; Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Kannan, Chinnaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga and Orobanche spp. cause severe yield losses in agriculture, especially in developing countries and the Mediterranean. Seeds of these weeds germinate by a chemical signal exuded by the roots of host plants. The radicle thus produced attaches to the root of the host plant, which can then supply nutrients to the parasite. There is an urgent need to control these weeds to ensure better agricultural production. The naturally occurring chemical signals are strigolactones (SLs), e.g. strigol and orobanchol. One option to control these weeds involves the use of SLs as suicidal germination agents, where germination takes place in the absence of a host. Owing to the lack of nutrients, the germinated seeds will die. The structure of natural SLs is too complex to allow multigram synthesis. Therefore, SL analogues are developed for this purpose. Examples are GR24 and Nijmegen-1. In this paper, the SL analogues Nijmegen-1 and Nijmegen-1 Me were applied in the field as suicidal germination agents. Both SL analogues were formulated using an appropriate EC-approved emulsifier (polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate) and applied to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields infested by Orobanche ramosa L. (hemp broomrape), following a strict protocol. Four out of 12 trials showed a reduction in broomrape of ≥95%, two trials were negative, two showed a moderate result, one was unclear and in three cases there was no Orobanche problem in the year of the trials. The trial plots were ca 2000 m 2 ; half of that area was treated with stimulant emulsion, the other half was not treated. The optimal amount of stimulant was 6.25 g ha -1 . A preconditioning prior to the treatment was a prerequisite for a successful trial. In conclusion, the suicidal germination approach to reducing O. ramosa in tobacco fields using formulated SL analogues was successful. Two other options for weed control are discussed: deactivation of stimulants prior to action and

  2. EFFECTS OF PRE-GERMINATION TREATMENTS AND STORAGE ON GERMINATION OF Astronium fraxinifolium SCHOTT (ANACARDIACEAE DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Lima Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814577The goal of this study was to evaluate the germination and the storage capacity of Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores. Six pre-germination treatments were used in the experiment: control treatment (intact diaspores; diaspores immersed in water at room temperature (25º C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 70° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 100° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1:1000 for 2 min; and diaspores mechanically scarified with sandpaper #80. To evaluate storage conditions, we tested two different types of packaging (permeable paper bag and transparent glass jar and two environmental conditions (cold chamber and room conditions, resulting in four treatments. The germination tests were performed for zero (control and 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after storage. The effects of different treatments on germination and storage of diaspores were evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. Regarding to pre-germination treatments, high germination rates were observed in the hypochlorite (98.0 ± 4.22%, control (97.0 ± 4.83%, water at room temperature (96.0 ± 6.99% and water at 70º C (83.0 ± 29.08% treatments. Thus, Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores do not present dormancy. During storage, the diaspores remained viable throughout the study period with high germination rates, except for the treatment in paper bags placed in the cold chamber, in which the diaspores lost their viability in the eighth month of storage. Therefore, this is not a recommended storage method for this species.

  3. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul Ma; Scharf, Thomas; Quinlan, Leo R; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-03-16

    Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. We report a successful implementation of the methodology for the design and development

  4. New trends in medical and service robots human centered analysis, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallereau, Christine; Pisla, Doina; Bleuler, Hannes; Rodić, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Medical and service robotics integrates several disciplines and technologies such as mechanisms, mechatronics, biomechanics, humanoid robotics, exoskeletons, and anthropomorphic hands. This book presents the most recent advances in medical and service robotics, with a stress on human aspects. It collects the selected peer-reviewed papers of the Fourth International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Nantes, France in 2015, covering topics on: exoskeletons, anthropomorphic hands, therapeutic robots and rehabilitation, cognitive robots, humanoid and service robots, assistive robots and elderly assistance, surgical robots, human-robot interfaces, BMI and BCI, haptic devices and design for medical and assistive robotics. This book offers a valuable addition to existing literature.

  5. Establishment of a Permanent Campus for the Seafarers Training Center of the Paul Hall Institute for Human Development, in Kalaelova, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dietz, Neil

    2006-01-01

    ... (the former Barber's Point Naval Air Station). The facility is located on Hawaii Army National Guard property licensed for use by the Seafarers Training Center, as the Hawaii campus of the Paul Hall Institute for Human Development...

  6. Agonistic Human Monoclonal Antibodies against Death Receptor 4 (DR4) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in licensing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to death receptor 4 ("DR4"). The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its functional receptors, DR4 and DR5, have been recognized as promising targets for cancer treatment.

  7. Human Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Glypican-2 in Neuroblastoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute’s Laboratory of Molecular Biology (NCI LMB) have developed and isolated several single domain monoclonal human antibodies against GPC2. NCI seeks parties interested in licensing or co-developing GPC2 antibodies and/or conjugates.

  8. Human-centered challenges and contributions for the implementation of automated driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beukel, Arie Paul; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Meyer, G.; Valldorf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Automated driving is expected to increase safety and efficiency of road transport. With regard to the implementation of automated driving, we observed that those aspects which need to be further developed especially relate to human capabilities. Based on this observation and the understanding that

  9. Human Factors Process Task Analysis Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure for the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    A process task analysis effort was undertaken by Dynacs Inc. commencing in June 2002 under contract from NASA YA-D6. Funding was provided through NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Code M/HQ, and Industrial Engineering and Safety (IES). The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Engineering Development Contract (EDC) Task Order was 5SMA768. The scope of the effort was to conduct a Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) of a hazardous activity and provide recommendations to eliminate or reduce the effects of errors caused by human factors. The Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Pump Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was selected for this analysis. The HF PFMEA table (see appendix A) provides an analysis of six major categories evaluated for this study. These categories include Personnel Certification, Test Procedure Format, Test Procedure Safety Controls, Test Article Data, Instrumentation, and Voice Communication. For each specific requirement listed in appendix A, the following topics were addressed: Requirement, Potential Human Error, Performance-Shaping Factors, Potential Effects of the Error, Barriers and Controls, Risk Priority Numbers, and Recommended Actions. This report summarizes findings and gives recommendations as determined by the data contained in appendix A. It also includes a discussion of technology barriers and challenges to performing task analyses, as well as lessons learned. The HF PFMEA table in appendix A recommends the use of accepted and required safety criteria in order to reduce the risk of human error. The items with the highest risk priority numbers should receive the greatest amount of consideration. Implementation of the recommendations will result in a safer operation for all personnel.

  10. Polyamine biosynthesis during germination of yeast ascospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, J V; Ferro, A J

    1979-01-01

    The role of the diamine putrescine during germination and outgrowth of ascospores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Ornithine decarboxylase activity increased and declined rapidly during germination and outgrowth; peak activity was attained after the cells had proceeded through the G1 interval of the cell cycle, whereas minimal activity was present at the completion of the first cell division. alpha-Methylornithine inhibited both ornithine decarboxylase activity and the in vivo accumulation of putrescine. In the presence of alpha-methylornithireak dormancy and proceed through one cell division. Subsequent cellular growth, however, was retarded but not completely inhibited. The supplementation of Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to sporulation medium greatly inhibited this sexual process. These data suggest that the synthesis of putrescine is not required for the breaking of spore dormancy, but that polyamine biosynthesis may be essential for meiosis and sporulation. PMID:387744

  11. Germination and storage of caranda seeds (Copernicia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caranda is a Brazilian native palm tree, belonging to Arecaceae family and occurring, predominan,t in the Brazilian Swampland. This work studied the germination and the caranda seeds storage behavior. The germination study was carried out in the temperatures of 25ºC and 30ºC in constant white light and the alternate temperature of 20/30ºC with 10 hours of darkness for the lowest temperature and 14 hours of light for the highest temperature, using paper and paper roll as substratum. At the end of test, the germination percentage, germination speed index, germination medium time and the primary root length were evaluated. After the seeds improvement, it was obtained two sub-samples destined for 30 days storage in two invironments: cold and dry chamber (16ºC/55% UR and freezer (-18ºC. The following tests, water content, germination, germination medium time and primary root length were evaluated. The caranda seeds germination in paper roll and on paper is favored by the temperature of 20/30ºC in paper roll and on paper and paper roll on 30ºC. The freezing and cold camera storage during 30 days are efficient to reduce the germination medium time of caranda seeds and to keep the germination percentage.

  12. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Lemos Varella; Gizelly Mendes Silva; Kaliane Zaira Camacho Maximiliano da Cruz; Andréia Izabel Mikovski; Josué Ribeiro da Silva Nunes; Ilio Fealho Carvalho; Maurecilne Lemes Silva

    2015-01-01

    The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of dese...

  13. Determinants of domestic violence among women attending an human immunodeficiency virus voluntary counseling and testing center in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Krupp, Karl; George, Ruja; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV) among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%), psychological abuse (69%) and sexual abuse (1%). Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%), husband's alcohol use (29%) and woman's HIV status (18%). Older women (P around the world. The findings highlight the need for additional training among health care providers in VCT centers in screening for DV, detection of signs of physical abuse and provisions and referrals for women suffering from domestic partner violence.

  14. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul MA; Scharf, Thomas; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Background Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. Objective We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. Methods We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. Results We report a successful implementation of the

  15. Human factors in computing systems: focus on patient-centered health communication at the ACM SIGCHI conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lauren; Patel, Rupa; Chen, Yunan; Shachak, Aviv

    2013-12-01

    Health Information Technologies, such as electronic health records (EHR) and secure messaging, have already transformed interactions among patients and clinicians. In addition, technologies supporting asynchronous communication outside of clinical encounters, such as email, SMS, and patient portals, are being increasingly used for follow-up, education, and data reporting. Meanwhile, patients are increasingly adopting personal tools to track various aspects of health status and therapeutic progress, wishing to review these data with clinicians during consultations. These issues have drawn increasing interest from the human-computer interaction (HCI) community, with special focus on critical challenges in patient-centered interactions and design opportunities that can address these challenges. We saw this community presenting and interacting at the ACM SIGCHI 2013, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (also known as CHI), held April 27-May 2nd, 2013 at the Palais de Congrès de Paris in France. CHI 2013 featured many formal avenues to pursue patient-centered health communication: a well-attended workshop, tracks of original research, and a lively panel discussion. In this report, we highlight these events and the main themes we identified. We hope that it will help bring the health care communication and the HCI communities closer together. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human upper limb manipulator mass center motion and mass moments of inertia variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Gergana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion control is complicated for people having traumas or neurological diseases. An underlying assumption in our work is that the motion of healthy people is optimal with respect to positioning accuracy, movement response, and energy expenditure. In this paper, a new approach for determination of the human upper limb mass-inertial characteristics is presented by using the 3D geometrical mathematical modeling analysis approach. Two examples will be given to illustrate the main features and advantages of the proposed design concepts. The objective of the work presented in this paper is a determination of the mass properties of a two joints human upper limb manipulator. Results are aimed to have application in an exoskeleton design, the design of manipulation system and external manipulation system, serving people with some motion difficulties, as well as in sport and rehabilitation.

  17. Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan A; Barner, John R; Okech, David

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons is one of the most egregious violations of human rights in modern society. Given the disproportionate effects across demographic categories of age and gender, as well as concentrated impacts within the developing world, there is a strong need for research and literature on program effectiveness and appropriate aftercare efforts for those persons whose lives and livelihoods have been impacted by trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide a scoping review of what is known about effectively helping survivors of human trafficking experiencing lack of economic opportunity and the implications for practice and future research regarding the absence of literature. From over 14,000 initial search results, this article focuses on those initiatives (N = 16) that support economic development of the individual or family after being trafficked. Implications arising from the review for trafficking policy, areas for further research, and implications for practitioners are highlighted and discussed.

  18. A Human-Centered C2 Assessment of Model and Simulation Enhanced Planning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    workload and to monitor workload across the duration of the event. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index ( TLX ) (Hart and...Wednesday and Friday). The NASA- TLX is a subjective workload assessment measure that allows users to perform subjective workload assessments on...operator(s) working with various human-machine systems. A multidimensional rating procedure, NASA- TLX derives an overall workload score based on a

  19. Building a prototype using Human-Centered design to engage older adults in healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Maskara, Sanjeev; Chiang, I-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities are higher in older adults, which is one of the key factors of rising health care costs. Health care stakeholders wish older adults to take more control of their health to delay the onset of age-related disabilities and chronic diseases. Engaging older adults in their health care decision making would cut down health care costs and prepare a health care system to be more sustainable. We used the Human-Centered Design approach to propose a prototype that more effectively engages older adults in their health care decision-making. Four participants from four different countries - Taiwan, USA, Austria, and Germany; and two facilitators from the USA participated in this study. The participants interviewed a total of four subjects in their respective countries. This study used the Human-Centered Design approach, which embraced three main phases - observation, identification, and ideation. Each phase involved brainstorming, voting, and consensus among participants. This study derived 14 insights, 20 categories, 4 themes, a conceptual framework, some potential solutions, and a prototype. This study showed that older adults could be engaged in their health care decision-making by offering them health care products and services that were user-friendly and technology enabled. A 'gradual change management plan' could assist older adults to adopt technologies more effectively. The health care products and services should be centered on the needs of older adults. Moreover, the possibilities of older adults maintaining control over their own health may rely on proper timing, a personal approach, right products, and services.

  20. A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Chen, Ying; Fasciano, Alyssa C; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan

    2018-04-01

    Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O 2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro Maturation and Embryo Development to blastocyst Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes after Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikseresht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Vitrification is a simple and ultra rapid technique for the conservation of fertility. Improving pregnancy rate associate with the use of cryopreserved oocytes would be an important advanced in human assisted reproductive technology (ART. The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival, oocytes maturation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage after vitrification of oocytes germinal vesicle-stage and multi stage Methods: In the present experimental study, germinal vesicle oocytes with or without cumulus cells were transferred to vitrification solution containing 30% (v/v ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose, either by single step or in a step-wise way. After vitrification and storage in liquid nitrogen, the oocytes were thawed and washed twice in culture medium TCM119, and then subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Data analysis was performed by using One-way variance and Tukey tests. Results: Oocytes survival, metaphase 2 stage oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo formed blastocyst in vitrification methods multistage were significantly higher than the single step procedure (P<0/05 Conclusion: The Germinal vesicle stage oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells and stepwise procedure had positive effect on the survival, maturation and developmental rate on blastocyst compared to oocytes without cumulus cell and single step procedure. Key words: Germinal Vesicle Oocyte, Blastocyst, Vitrification, Ethylene glycol

  2. Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.; Ellar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    L-[2,3- 3 H]Alanine was used to probe for metabolism of alanine during triggering of germination of spores of Bacillus megaterium KM. No detectable incorporation of label into any compound, including water, was found, indicating that any metabolism involving the alanine germinant must be at a very low rate and also that alanine racemase is absent from spores of this strain. Spores were germinated in 3 H 2 0 to find if any of the many metabolic reactions causing irreversible incorporation of 3 H into reaction products took place during triggering og germination. No incorporation was detected until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is therefore concluded that a wide variety of metabolic routes, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and amino acid metabolism are either not involved in the reactions causing the triggering of germination or operate at an extremely low rate during this process. (author)

  3. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: bg55@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  4. Human-Centered Design and Evaluation of Haptic Cueing for Teleoperation of Multiple Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyoung Il; Franchi, Antonio; Chuang, Lewis L; Kim, Junsuk; Bulthoff, Heinrich H; Giordano, Paolo Robuffo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of haptic cueing on a human operator's performance in the field of bilateral teleoperation of multiple mobile robots, particularly multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Two aspects of human performance are deemed important in this area, namely, the maneuverability of mobile robots and the perceptual sensitivity of the remote environment. We introduce metrics that allow us to address these aspects in two psychophysical studies, which are reported here. Three fundamental haptic cue types were evaluated. The Force cue conveys information on the proximity of the commanded trajectory to obstacles in the remote environment. The Velocity cue represents the mismatch between the commanded and actual velocities of the UAVs and can implicitly provide a rich amount of information regarding the actual behavior of the UAVs. Finally, the Velocity+Force cue is a linear combination of the two. Our experimental results show that, while maneuverability is best supported by the Force cue feedback, perceptual sensitivity is best served by the Velocity cue feedback. In addition, we show that large gains in the haptic feedbacks do not always guarantee an enhancement in the teleoperator's performance.

  5. Human Albumin Use in Adults in U.S. Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Jose I; Martin, Renee H; Hohmann, Samuel F; Calvillo, Eusebia; Bershad, Eric M; Venkatasubba Rao, Chethan P; Georgiadis, Alexandros; Flower, Oliver; Zygun, David; Finfer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    To determine rates and predictors of albumin administration, and estimated costs in hospitalized adults in the United States. Cohort study of adult patients from the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2009 to 2013. One hundred twenty academic medical centers and 299 affiliated hospitals. A total of 12,366,264 hospitalization records. Analysis of rates and predictors of albumin administration, and estimated costs. Overall the proportion of admissions during which albumin was administered increased from 6.2% in 2009 to 7.5% in 2013; absolute difference 1.3% (95% CI, 1.30-1.40%; p Albumin use varied geographically being lowest with no increase in hospitals in the North Eastern United States (4.9% in 2009 and 5.3% in 2013) and was more common in bigger (> 750 beds; 5.2% in 2009 and 7.3% in 2013) compared to smaller hospitals (albumin use were appropriate indication for albumin use (odds ratio, 65.220; 95% CI, 62.459-68.103); surgical admission (odds ratio, 7.942; 95% CI, 7.889-7.995); and high severity of illness (odds ratio, 8.933; 95% CI, 8.825-9.042). Total estimated albumin cost significantly increased from $325 million in 2009 to $468 million in 2013; (absolute increase of $233 million), p value less than 0.0001. The proportion of hospitalized adults in the United States receiving albumin has increased, with marked, and currently unexplained, geographic variability and variability by hospital size.

  6. A Human-Centered Approach to CV Care: Infrastructure Development in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Christopher T; Kalra, Ankur; Okello, Emmy; Lwabi, Peter; Omagino, John O; Kityo, Cissy; Kamya, Moses R; Webel, Allison R; Simon, Daniel I; Salata, Robert A; Costa, Marco A

    2018-04-20

    In this case study, we describe an ongoing approach to develop sustainable acute and chronic cardiovascular care infrastructure in Uganda that involves patient and provider participation. Leveraging strong infrastructure for HIV/AIDS care delivery, University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute and Case Western Reserve University have partnered with U.S. and Ugandan collaborators to improve cardiovascular capabilities. The collaboration has solicited innovative solutions from patients and providers focusing on education and advanced training, penicillin supply, diagnostic strategy (e.g., hand-held ultrasound), maternal health, and community awareness. Key outcomes of this approach have been the completion of formal training of the first interventional cardiologists and heart failure specialists in the country, establishment of 4 integrated regional centers of excellence in rheumatic heart disease care with a national rheumatic heart disease registry, a penicillin distribution and adherence support program focused on retention in care, access to imaging technology, and in-country capabilities to treat advanced rheumatic heart valve disease. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymbiotic germination in three Chloraea species (Orchidaceae) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, GUILLERMO; ALBORNOZ, VERÓNICA; ROMERO, CHRISTIAN; LARA, SEBASTIÁN; SÁNCHEZ-OLATE, MANUEL; RÍOS, DARCY; ATALA, CRISTIAN

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orchids require symbiotic fungi and/or specific conditions to germinate. Asymbiotic techniques have been shown successful for orchid germination. In Chile, Chloraea include many endemic, and potentially ornamental, terrestrial orchid species. In this study, individuals of Chloraea crispa, C. gavilu and C. virescens were manually autopollinated. The resulting capsules were sterilized and seeds were aseptically obtained. We evaluated asymbiotic germination in: Agar Water (AW), Knudson ...

  8. Human platelet glycoprotein IX: An adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins with flank-center-flank structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.; Williams, S.A.; Roth, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex on the surface of human platelets functions as the von Willebrand factor receptor and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. GPIX is a relatively small (M r , 17,000) protein that may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of the larger component of the complex. GPIb (M r , 165,000). Using antibody screening, the authors cloned a cDNA encoding GPIX from a human erythroleukemia cell cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. Lacking a 5' untranslated region and start codon, the cDNA sequence includes 604 nucleotides, beginning with 495 bases at the 5' end coding for 165 amino acids, followed by a stop codon and 106 noncoding bases at the 3' end. By Northern blot analysis, the GPIX cDNA hybridizes with a single 1.0-kilobase species of platelet poly(A) + RNA. Translation of the cDNA sequence gives a predicted protein sequence beginning with a truncated putative signal sequence of 5 amino acids followed by a sequence of 17 amino acids matching that determined directly by Edman degradation of intact GPIX. GPIX contains a leucine-rich glycoprotein (LRG) sequence of 24 amino acids similar to conserved LRG sequences in GPIb and other proteins from humans, Drosophila, and yeast. The role of the flank-LRG center-flank structure in the evolution and function of the LRG proteins remains to be defined

  9. Measurement of whole-body human centers of gravity and moments of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, C B; Schultz, R B; Bjorn, V S

    1998-06-01

    With the inclusion of women in combat aircraft, the question of safe ejection seat operation has been raised. The potential expanded population of combat pilots would include both smaller and larger ejection seat occupants, which could significantly affect seat performance. The method developed to measure human whole-body CG and MOI used a scale, a knife edge balance, and an inverted torsional pendulum. Subjects' moments of inertia were measured along six different axes. The inertia tensor was calculated from these values, and principal moments of inertia were then derived. Thirty-eight antropometric measurements were also taken for each subject to provide a means for direct correlation of inertial properties to body dimensions and for modeling purposes. Data collected in this study has been used to validate whole-body mass properties predictions. In addition, data will be used to improve Air Force and Navy ejection seat trajectory models for the expanded population.

  10. Differential Effects of Carbohydrates on Arabidopsis Pollen Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsche, Jörg; García Fernández, José M; Stabentheiner, Edith; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination. Whereas several di- and oligosaccharides supported pollen germination, hexoses such as glucose, fructose and mannose did not support and even considerably inhibited pollen germination when added to germination-supporting medium. Complementary experiments using glucose analogs with varying functional features, the hexokinase inhibitor mannoheptulose and the glucose-insensitive hexokinase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant gin2-1 suggested that mannose- and glucose-mediated inhibition of sucrose-supported pollen germination depends partially on hexokinase signaling. The results suggest that, in addition to their role as energy source, sugars act as signaling molecules differentially regulating the complex process of pollen germination depending on their structural properties. Thus, a sugar-dependent multilayer regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination is supported, which makes this approach a valuable experimental system for future studies addressing sugar sensing and signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of 'smoke' induced seed germination in pyroendemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. E.; Pausas, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Pyroendemics are plants in which seedling germination and successful seedling recruitment are restricted to immediate postfire environments. In many fire-prone ecosystems species cue their germination to immediate postfire conditions. Here we address how species have evolved one very specific mechanism, which is using the signal of combustion products from biomass. This is often termed ‘smoke’ stimulated germination although it was first discovered in studies of charred wood effects on germination of species strictly tied to postfire conditions (pyroendemics). Smoke stimulated germination has been reported from a huge diversity of plant species. The fact that the organic compound karrikin (a product of the degradation of cellulose) is a powerful germination cue in many species has led to the assumption that this compound is the only chemical responsible for smoke-stimulated germination. Here we show that smoke-stimulated germination is a complex trait with different compounds involved. We propose that convergent evolution is a more parsimonious model for smoke stimulated germination, suggesting that this trait evolved multiple times in response to a variety of organic and inorganic chemical triggers in smoke. The convergent model is congruent with the evolution of many other fire-related traits.

  13. Nuclear dynamics during ascospore germination in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines

    2017-01-01

    The ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a long history as a model organism for studying fungal sexual development. Starting from an ascospore, sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) develop within seven days and discharge new ascospores. Sexual development has been studied in detail, revealing genes required for perithecium formation and ascospore germination. However, the germination process per se has not yet been examined. Here I analyze nuclear dynamics during ascospore germination using a fluorescently labeled histone. Live-cell imaging revealed that nuclei are transported into germination vesicles that form on one side of the spore. Polar growth is established from these vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Germination phenology determines the propensity for facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D

    2017-09-01

    A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs.

  16. Beyond the Letter of the Law: Accessibility, Universal Design, and Human-Centered Design in Video Tutorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Clossen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how Universal and Human-Centered Design approaches can be applied to the process of library video tutorial creation in order to enhance accessibility. A series of questions that creators should consider in order to focus their design process is discussed. These questions break down various physical and cognitive limitations that users encounter, providing a framework for future video creation that is not dependent on specific software. By approaching accommodations more holistically, videos are created with accessibility in mind from their conception. Working toward the ideal of a video tutorial that is accessible to every user leads to the creation of more clearly worded, effective learning objects that are much more inclusive, making instructional concepts available to users of all abilities.

  17. "Center punch" and "whole spot" bioanalysis of apixaban in human dried blood spot samples by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Yuan, Long; Ji, Qin C; Mangus, Heidi; Song, Yan; Frost, Charles; Zeng, Jianing; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Apixaban (Eliquis™) was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Pfizer to use as an antithrombotic/anticoagulant agent and has been recently approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A clinical study of apixaban, sponsored by BMS and Pfizer, included a pilot exploratory portion to evaluate the potential for future drug concentration monitoring using dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection. For DBS sample collection, a fixed blood volume was dispensed onto a DBS card by either regular volumetric pipette (venous blood collection) or capillary dispenser (finger prick blood collection). A 96-well semi-automated liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation procedure was developed to provide clean extracts for UHPLC-MS/MS quantitation. Assays using both partial-spot center punch and whole spot punch were developed and validated. The linear dynamic ranges for all the analyses were from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) values was >0.9944 for all the validation runs. For the center punch approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 4.4% and inter-assay precision was within 2.6%. The assay accuracy, expressed as %Dev., was within ± 5.4% of the nominal concentrations. One accuracy and precision run was performed using the whole spot approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 7.1% and the accuracy was within ± 8.0% of the nominal concentrations. In contrast to the center punch approach, the whole spot approach eliminated the effect of hematocrit and high lipids on the analysis of apixaban in human DBS when an accurate sample blood volume was collected on DBS cards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: Human-Centered Linear and Nonlinear Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor); Telban, Robert J.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. Prior research identified viable features from two algorithms: the nonlinear "adaptive algorithm", and the "optimal algorithm" that incorporates human vestibular models. A novel approach to motion cueing, the "nonlinear algorithm" is introduced that combines features from both approaches. This algorithm is formulated by optimal control, and incorporates a new integrated perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. Using a time-varying control law, the matrix Riccati equation is updated in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. The neurocomputing approach was crucial in that the number of presentations of an input vector could be reduced to meet the real time requirement without degrading the quality of the motion cues.

  19. Measuring center of pressure signals to quantify human balance using multivariate multiscale entropy by designing a force platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Sue, Pei-Der; Abbod, Maysam F; Jiang, Bernard C; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2013-08-08

    To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP), known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS), has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI) system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad) to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test) and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test) with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test) and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test). The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance.

  20. Measuring Center of Pressure Signals to Quantify Human Balance Using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy by Designing a Force Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP, known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS, has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test. The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance.

  1. The role of hull in germination and salinity tolerance in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hulled and dehulled) of sunflower seeds of Opal, Shelly (Confectionary) and Pactol (Oily) were tested to determine the effects of the hull on salinity tolerance during germination. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (day), root and ...

  2. Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize (Zea mays L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Key words: Maize, NaCl, germination percentage, stress tolerance ındex, germination ındex. .... interactions between salt treatments and cultivars. This ..... Hormones and Abiotic Stresses on Germination, Growth and Phos-.

  3. Calculating germination measurements and organizing spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Ranal, Marli A.; Santana, Denise Garcia de; Ferreira, Wanessa Resende; Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan

    2009-01-01

    With the objective to minimize difficulties for beginners we are proposing the use of a conventional spreadsheet for the calculations of the main germination (or emergence) measurements, the organization of the final data for the statistical analysis and some electronic commands involved in these steps. Com o objetivo de minimizar as dificuldades dos iniciantes, estamos propondo o uso de planilhas eletrônicas convencionais para o cálculo das principais medidas de germinação (ou emergência)...

  4. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  5. An evaluation of physical and mechanical scarification methods on seed germination of Vachellia macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Seigler & Ebinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maldonado-Arciniegas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry Andean forests are ecosystems with a high diversity of flora and fauna and are at high risk of extinction due to the pressure of human activity. V. macracantha is a native species of the dry Andean forest, which has potential for reforestation and also provides benefits in agroforestry systems, due to its nitrogen fixation capacity, the supply of organic matter, the production of shade and wind protection. The multiplication of this species is limited due to the low percentage of seed germination, which present dormancy. The aim of this research was to determine the most effective scarification method for seeds germination of V. macracantha. Two types of methods were tested, the immersion in strong acids (chemical scarification, and the seed bark through filing, cutting and soaking into hot water (physical scarification. A completely randomized block design with 3 replicates was used. For the chemical methods, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acid (50% v/v were used at different exposure times: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes, respectively. Three variables were measured as follows: percentage of germination, the number of leaves and the plant height. The chemical methods did not present any significant difference in the percentage of germination. The physical method of seed filing, had achieved the highest percentage of germination with 46%, compared to control treatment, which had achieved 6%. No treatment performed significant differences in the parameters of number of leaves and plant height.

  6. Comparative seed germination traits in alpine and subalpine grasslands: higher elevations are associated with warmer germination temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, E; Jiménez-Alfaro, B; Bueno, Á

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination traits in alpine grasslands are poorly understood, despite the sensitivity of these communities to climate change. We hypothesise that germination traits predict species occurrence along the alpine-subalpine elevation gradient. Phylogenetic comparative analyses were performed using fresh seeds of 22 species from alpine and subalpine grasslands (1600-2400 m) of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain (43° N, 5° W). Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise germinability, optimum germination temperature and effect of cold and warm stratification on dormancy breaking. Variability in these traits was reduced by phylogenetic principal component analysis (phyl.PCA). Phylogenetic generalised least squares regression (PGLS) was used to fit a model in which species average elevation was predicted from their position on the PCA axes. Most subalpine species germinated in snow-like conditions, whereas most alpine species needed accumulation of warm temperatures. Phylogenetic signal was low. PCA1 ordered species according to overall germinability, whilst PCA2 ordered them according to preference for warm or cold germination. PCA2 significantly predicted species occurrence in the alpine-subalpine gradient, as higher elevation species tended to have warmer germination preferences. Our results show that germination traits in high-mountain grasslands are closely linked to the alpine-subalpine gradient. Alpine species, especially those from stripped and wind-edge communities, prefer warmer germination niches, suggesting that summer emergence prevents frost damage during seedling establishment. In contrast, alpine snowfield and subalpine grassland plants have cold germination niches, indicating that winter emergence may occur under snow to avoid drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  8. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phytohormone that induces seed dormancy. We have recently shown that germonstatin (GS), a small synthetic molecule identified by high through-put chemical genetic screenings, inhibits seed germination through up-regulating auxin signaling and inducing auxin biosynthesis. GERMOSTATIN RESISTANCE LOCUS 1 (GSR1) encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein and is responsible for GS seed germination inhibition. Its knockdown mutant gsr1 displays decreased dormancy. In this report, we show that GS is not an ABA analog and provided 2 other GS-resistant mutants related to the chemical's function in seed germination inhibition other than gsr1, suggesting that GS may have pleiotropic effects through targeting different pathway governing seed germination.

  9. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  10. Investigating the Influence of Karrikins on Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has identified a karrikin (a butenolide derative) known as 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, formed from burning cellulose, that stimulates seed germination. Here, I present ideas on how to investigate the influence of karrikins on seed germination in the laboratory.

  11. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ( 35 S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  12. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  13. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  14. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, Gilma S; Breeuwer, Pieter; Rombouts, Frans M; Abee, Tjakko; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  15. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  16. Effect of exogenous gibberellic acid on germination, seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gibberellic acid on germination and seedling growth of lettuce variety, Vista, under salinity conditions was studied. A reduction in germination percentage, roots and shoots length and fresh weight were observed under salt stress. At the same time, acid phosphatase and phytase activities in roots were reduced ...

  17. Improving the seed germination of little bluestem with selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid seed germination is an important characteristic when it comes to plant stand establishment under variable environmental conditions. This research was designed to improve the seed germination of six experimental Syn-0 lines of little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash]. Two cycle...

  18. Modelling the effect of temperature on seed germination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of germination percentage (GP) and germination speed (GS) of the seeds for some cucurbits (watermelon, melon, cucumber, summer squash, pumpkin and winter squash) was investigated by mathematical model based on temperature. The model, D = [a - (b x T) + (c x T2)] of Uzun et al. (2001), was adapted ...

  19. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  20. Asymbiotic germination of immature embryos of a medicinally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immature embryos (28 weeks after pollination) were inoculated on M (Mitra et al., 1976), and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media, with and without different growth additives. The seeds showed positive germination response in both the nutrient media but the frequency and onset of germination response and associated ...

  1. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  2. Full Length Research Paper Seed germination and in vitro plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parkia biglobosa is an important leguminous forest species which is being threatened of going into extinction in Senegal. To preserve this genetic resource of great economic value, studies on germination were carried out and in vitro conservation option through tissue culture technique was adopted. 100% of germination ...

  3. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  4. Millipede damage to germinating acorns of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford; L. R. Auchmoody; Russell S. Walters; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Millipedes have not been reported as pests of germinating acorns. Studies in Pennsylvania on the impact of insects on northern red (Quercus rubra L. seedling establishment revealed that the millipede Ptyoiulus impressus (Say) damaged the radicles of germinating acorns. Up to 17 percent of the acorn radicles in areas with heavy acorn crops were damaged in 1'991....

  5. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  6. Allelopathic effect of Jatropha curcas (Lin) leachate on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory study was conducted using sterilized petri dishes with double layer of Whatman filter paper at averagely 27oC and 70% humidity. An interval of 24, 48, 76 and 92 hours were recorded on germination studies while radicle and shoot lengths at 92nhours respectively. Decreased in germination percentage, shoot ...

  7. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity is considered as a major abiotic stress affecting germination, seedling growth and crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Many techniques are used to improve tolerance to salinity. Priming is believed to be an effective technique that increases germination, plant growth and improve yield of several ...

  8. IAA production during germination of Orobanche spp. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Slavtcho; van Onckelen, Henry; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Atanassov, Atanas; Prinsen, Els

    2004-07-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are parasitic plants, whose growth and development fully depend on the nutritional connection established between the parasite and the roots of the respective host plant. Phytohormones are known to play a role in establishing the specific Orobanche-host plant interaction. The first step in the interaction is seed germination triggered by a germination stimulant secreted by the host-plant roots. We quantified indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the seed germination of tobacco broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and sunflower broomrape (O. cumana). IAA was mainly released from Orobanche seeds in host-parasite interactions as compared to non-host-parasite interactions. Moreover, germinating seeds of O. ramosa released IAA as early as 24 h after the seeds were exposed to the germination stimulant, even before development of the germ tube. ABA levels remained unchanged during the germination of the parasites' seeds. The results presented here show that IAA production is probably part of a mechanism triggering germination upon the induction by the host factor, thus resulting in seed germination.

  9. Germination potential index of Sindh rice cultivars on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Alpha amylase activities were found to be directly correlated with germination percentage. Gradual increase in reducing sugars along with α-amylase activity was observed, while total ... seed vigor and alpha amylase activity along with germination period. .... strates for energy generation for fast and uniform.

  10. Temperature and substrate on Plukenetia volubilis L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Z. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature and substrate on the germination of P. volubilis seeds. Seeds harvested from 25 matrix plants were submitted, in two studies, to conditions of (i sowing in rolled paper towel at the temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C, for the evaluation of germination, first count of germination, germination speed index and mean time for germination, and (ii sowing in the substrates paper towel, sand, Bioplant®, Bioplant® and micron, superfine, fine, medium and coarse vermiculite. The same evaluations mentioned in the first study were conducted at the temperature of 30 oC, as well as plant growth. The treatment replicates were distributed in a completely randomized block design and the effects of temperature were compared by polynomial regression analysis. The substrates were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 0.05 probability level. The data show that the ideal range of temperature for the germination of P. volubilis is between 25 and 30 °C. The temperature of 20 °C is the minimum for germination and those above 35 °C are lethal to these seeds. The most favorable substrate for P. volubilis seed germination is micron or fine vermiculite.

  11. Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. Seed priming is an efficient technique for improvement of seed vigor, increasing germination and seedling growth. Little information has been reported on seedling development ...

  12. Tetrazolium chloride as an indicator of pine pollen germinability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton A. Cook; Robert G. Stanley

    1960-01-01

    Controlled pollination in forest tree breeding requires pollen of known germination capacity. Methods of determining pollen viability include germination in a hanging drop, in a moist atmosphere, on agar gel, or in a sugar solution (DUFFIELD, 1954; DILLON et al., 1957). Errors commonly arise in the application of these techniques because maximum...

  13. Mapping QTLs for submergence tolerance during germination in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Oryza sativa L, anaerobic germination, QTL analysis. INTRODUCTION. Two main ... The study was conducted at NG-01 greenhouse, Genome and. Mapping (GML), the .... ABC transporter family protein ..... differences of germination habits in rice seeds with special reference to plant breeding (in ...

  14. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... This study aims to determine the germination characteristics, pollen tube developments, effects of germination media and temperature and incubation durations of the pollens obtained from the four clones (11342, 11344, 11345 and 11351) of Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon Cedrus) obtained from clonal.

  15. Salt tolerance of physalis during germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.; Karlidag, H.

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl salinity on germination and emergence of Physalis ixocarpa and Physalis peruviana. Seeds of P. ixocarpa and P. peruviana were germinated by the use of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl solutions in petri dishes. Final germination percentage (FGP) decreased with the increase in NaCl concentration. Both species germinated at the ranges of salinity. P. peruviana gave the greater germination percentages under salt stress than P. ixocarpa. NaCl salinity at different concentrations adversely affected germination rates. For seedling growth, seeds of both species were sown at 10 mm depth in plastic trays filled with peat to determine final emergence percentage (FEP). The trays were irrigated manually to saturation every day with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mM NaCl solutions to maintain the level of salinity. Salinity affected seed emergence and seedlings growth more than seed germination. The study showed that no emergence of Physalis was observed at 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl salinity. Fresh and dry weights of normal seedlings were also evaluated. Salt stress significantly decreased the plant fresh and dry weight of both species. Based on the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that seedling emergence and growth is more sensitive to salt stress than seed germination in Physalis. (author)

  16. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  17. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  18. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  19. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  20. Evaluation of the Use of Periodicals Collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation and Online Search Center: Arts and Humanities Periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Özbudak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the use perodicals collections in libraries is important as perodicals report the results of the latest scientific research and they are usually more expensive than other types of library materials. In this study we evaluate the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals in the collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation Center. Although the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals was found to be lower than, say, Biomedical periodicals collection, the number of journal titles in Arts and Humanities appears to be quite satisfactory. Some suggestions are made so as to increase the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals collection.

  1. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, D H; Kuizon, M D; Marero, L M; Mallillin, A C; Cruz, E M; Madriaga, J R [Department of Science and Technology, Manila (Philippines). Food and Nutrition Research Inst.

    1994-12-31

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, D.H.; Kuizon, M.D.; Marero, L.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Cruz, E.M.; Madriaga, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. NASA as a Convener: Government, Academic and Industry Collaborations Through the NASA Human Health and Performance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    On October 18, 2010, the NASA Human Health and Performance center (NHHPC) was opened to enable collaboration among government, academic and industry members. Membership rapidly grew to 60 members (http://nhhpc.nasa.gov ) and members began identifying collaborative projects as detailed below. In addition, a first workshop in open collaboration and innovation was conducted on January 19, 2011 by the NHHPC resulting in additional challenges and projects for further development. This first workshop was a result of the SLSD successes in running open innovation challenges over the past two years. In 2008, the NASA Johnson Space Center, Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) began pilot projects in open innovation (crowd sourcing) to determine if these new internet-based platforms could indeed find solutions to difficult technical problems. From 2008 to 2010, the SLSD issued 34 challenges, 14 externally and 20 internally. The 14 external challenges were conducted through three different vendors: InnoCentive, Yet2.com and TopCoder. The 20 internal challenges were conducted using the InnoCentive platform, customized to NASA use, and promoted as NASA@Work. The results from the 34 challenges involved not only technical solutions that were reported previously at the 61st IAC, but also the formation of new collaborative relationships. For example, the TopCoder pilot was expanded by the NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate to the NASA Tournament Lab in collaboration with Harvard Business School and TopCoder. Building on these initial successes, the NHHPC workshop in January of 2011, and ongoing NHHPC member discussions, several important collaborations are in development: Space Act Agreement between NASA and GE for collaborative projects, NASA and academia for a Visual Impairment / Intracranial Hypertension summit (February 2011), NASA and the DoD through the Defense Venture Catalyst Initiative (DeVenCI) for a technical needs workshop (June 2011), NASA and the San Diego Zoo

  4. Effect of lead on imbibition, germination, and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Isaza Guzmán Isaza Guzmán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is highly reactive and it can be consequently toxic to living cells to both plants and humans. This heavy metal is a source of contamination to the environment and it disrupts natural cycles. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lead on the imbibition process, germination and growth in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L.. It was developed a system consisting of receptacles to expose flooded plants at different concentrations of the metal. Results showed that at concentrations of 5 g l-1 lead imbibition process was affected, but was more evident in bean. Germination percentage was not affected in maize seeds, while viability was affected in bean seeds. We observed statistically that there is an effect on organ growth of root, stem and leaf in both species in the presence of solution whose effect is most noticeable in bean plants. Key words: heavy metals,phytoremediation, stress, toxic substances

  5. Expression of Apoptosis Inducing-Ligands, TRAIL and Fas-L in Hydatid Cyst Germinal Layer and Normal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Spotin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hydaticosis is a zoonotic helminthic disease of human and other intermediated hosts in which larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosu transfect human. The liver and lung are the host tissues for the hydatid cyst . It is unknown which mechanisms are involved in infertility of the cyst and suppression of the fertile cyst. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression of the apoptosis inducing-ligands such as TRAIL and Fas-L in germinal layer of the cyst and human normal tissue surrounding the cyst that is one of the unknown host innate immunity mechanisms against the hydatid cyst.   Methods: In this study, four isolated hydatid cysts were used which had been diagnosed in patients by radiography and parasitological examination in Mashhad Ghaem hospital. Furthermore, the germinal layer of the cyst and accompanied normal peripheral tissues were separated by scalpel in sterile conditions. After homogenization, expression of TRAIL and Fas-L genes were studied by semi-quantitive RT-PCR method.   Results: The TRAIL and Fas-L showed significant higher level expression in germinal layer of infertile cyst than the fertile cyst and host normal tissues.   Conclusion: The host tissue-induced apoptosis of germinal layer of the fertile cysts is probably one of the infertility mechanism in patients with hydaticosis

  6. Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes into Spine Surgical Care through Visual Dashboards: Lessons Learned from Human-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Fey, Brett C; Flum, David R; Lavallee, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) draws attention to issues of importance to patients-physical function and quality of life. The integration of PRO data into clinical decisions and discussions with patients requires thoughtful design of user-friendly interfaces that consider user experience and present data in personalized ways to enhance patient care. Whereas most prior work on PROs focuses on capturing data from patients, little research details how to design effective user interfaces that facilitate use of this data in clinical practice. We share lessons learned from engaging health care professionals to inform design of visual dashboards, an emerging type of health information technology (HIT). We employed human-centered design (HCD) methods to create visual displays of PROs to support patient care and quality improvement. HCD aims to optimize the design of interactive systems through iterative input from representative users who are likely to use the system in the future. Through three major steps, we engaged health care professionals in targeted, iterative design activities to inform the development of a PRO Dashboard that visually displays patient-reported pain and disability outcomes following spine surgery. Design activities to engage health care administrators, providers, and staff guided our work from design concept to specifications for dashboard implementation. Stakeholder feedback from these health care professionals shaped user interface design features, including predefined overviews that illustrate at-a-glance trends and quarterly snapshots, granular data filters that enable users to dive into detailed PRO analytics, and user-defined views to share and reuse. Feedback also revealed important considerations for quality indicators and privacy-preserving sharing and use of PROs. Our work illustrates a range of engagement methods guided by human-centered principles and design recommendations for optimizing PRO Dashboards for patient

  7. Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes into Spine Surgical Care through Visual Dashboards: Lessons Learned from Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea L.; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Fey, Brett C.; Flum, David R.; Lavallee, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) draws attention to issues of importance to patients—physical function and quality of life. The integration of PRO data into clinical decisions and discussions with patients requires thoughtful design of user-friendly interfaces that consider user experience and present data in personalized ways to enhance patient care. Whereas most prior work on PROs focuses on capturing data from patients, little research details how to design effective user interfaces that facilitate use of this data in clinical practice. We share lessons learned from engaging health care professionals to inform design of visual dashboards, an emerging type of health information technology (HIT). Methods: We employed human-centered design (HCD) methods to create visual displays of PROs to support patient care and quality improvement. HCD aims to optimize the design of interactive systems through iterative input from representative users who are likely to use the system in the future. Through three major steps, we engaged health care professionals in targeted, iterative design activities to inform the development of a PRO Dashboard that visually displays patient-reported pain and disability outcomes following spine surgery. Findings: Design activities to engage health care administrators, providers, and staff guided our work from design concept to specifications for dashboard implementation. Stakeholder feedback from these health care professionals shaped user interface design features, including predefined overviews that illustrate at-a-glance trends and quarterly snapshots, granular data filters that enable users to dive into detailed PRO analytics, and user-defined views to share and reuse. Feedback also revealed important considerations for quality indicators and privacy-preserving sharing and use of PROs. Conclusion: Our work illustrates a range of engagement methods guided by human-centered principles and design

  8. A gene encoding an abscisic acid biosynthetic enzyme (LsNCED4) collocates with the high temperature germination locus Htg6.1 in lettuce (Lactuca sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; McHale, Leah; Dahal, Peetambar; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2011-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate when imbibed at warm temperatures, can be a significant problem in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The reliability of stand establishment would be improved by increasing the ability of lettuce seeds to germinate at high temperatures. Genes encoding germination- or dormancy-related proteins were mapped in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola accession UC96US23. This revealed several candidate genes that are located in the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature and light requirements for germination. In particular, LsNCED4, a temperature-regulated gene in the biosynthetic pathway for abscisic acid (ABA), a germination inhibitor, mapped to the center of a previously detected QTL for high temperature germination (Htg6.1) from UC96US23. Three sets of sister BC(3)S(2) near-isogenic lines (NILs) that were homozygous for the UC96US23 allele of LsNCED4 at Htg6.1 were developed by backcrossing to cv. Salinas and marker-assisted selection followed by selfing. The maximum temperature for germination of NIL seed lots with the UC96US23 allele at LsNCED4 was increased by 2-3°C when compared with sister NIL seed lots lacking the introgression. In addition, the expression of LsNCED4 was two- to threefold lower in the former NIL lines as compared to expression in the latter. Together, these data strongly implicate LsNCED4 as the candidate gene responsible for the Htg6.1 phenotype and indicate that decreased ABA biosynthesis at high imbibition temperatures is a major factor responsible for the increased germination thermotolerance of UC96US23 seeds.

  9. Salinity on the germination of seed and index of germination speed of three ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vieira Ferraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a factor that interferes on seed germination in most species. The objective of this work was to study the effects of different concentrations of NaCl on the emergence and vigor of Petunia x hybrida hort. Vilm E. ex., Torenia fournieri Lind and Tagetes patula L. seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized with five treatments (five concentrations of NaCl: zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and four replications of 50 seeds, for each species. The seeds were germinated in germitest paper at the alternating temperature of 20-30°C. Emergence (% and Emergence Rate (ER were performed daily until 14 days. Salt stress caused negative effects on the emergence and vigor on seedlings of these three ornamentals species.

  10. An RNA replication-center assay for high content image-based quantifications of human rhinovirus and coxsackievirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lötzerich Mark

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Picornaviruses are common human and animal pathogens, including polio and rhinoviruses of the enterovirus family, and hepatits A or food-and-mouth disease viruses. There are no effective countermeasures against the vast majority of picornaviruses, with the exception of polio and hepatitis A vaccines. Human rhinoviruses (HRV are the most prevalent picornaviruses comprising more than one hundred serotypes. The existing and also emerging HRVs pose severe health risks for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we developed a serotype-independent infection assay using a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody (mabJ2 detecting double-strand RNA. Results Immunocytochemical staining for RNA replication centers using mabJ2 identified cells that were infected with either HRV1A, 2, 14, 16, 37 or coxsackievirus (CV B3, B4 or A21. MabJ2 labeled-cells were immunocytochemically positive for newly synthesized viral capsid proteins from HRV1A, 14, 16, 37 or CVB3, 4. We optimized the procedure for detection of virus replication in settings for high content screening with automated fluorescence microscopy and single cell analysis. Our data show that the infection signal was dependent on multiplicity, time and temperature of infection, and the mabJ2-positive cell numbers correlated with viral titres determined in single step growth curves. The mabJ2 infection assay was adapted to determine the efficacy of anti-viral compounds and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs blocking enterovirus infections. Conclusions We report a broadly applicable, rapid protocol to measure infection of cultured cells with enteroviruses at single cell resolution. This assay can be applied to a wide range of plus-sense RNA viruses, and hence allows comparative studies of viral infection biology without dedicated reagents or procedures. This protocol also allows to directly compare results from small compound or siRNA infection screens

  11. Human-centered approaches in geovisualization design: investigating multiple methods through a long-term case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Dykes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and developed with collaborators. These processes take time but modified human-centred approaches can be effective. A scenario developed through contextual inquiry but supplemented with domain data and graphics is useful to geovis designers. Wireframe, paper and digital prototypes enable successful communication between specialist and geovis domains when incorporating real and interesting data, prompting exploratory behaviour and eliciting previously unconsidered requirements. Paper prototypes are particularly successful at eliciting suggestions, especially for novel visualization. Enabling specialists to explore their data freely with a digital prototype is as effective as using a structured task protocol and is easier to administer. Autoethnography has potential for framing the design process. We conclude that a common understanding of context of use, domain data and visualization possibilities are essential to successful geovis design and develop as this progresses. HC approaches can make a significant contribution here. However, modified approaches, applied with flexibility, are most promising. We advise early, collaborative engagement with data – through simple, transient visual artefacts supported by data sketches and existing designs – before moving to successively more sophisticated data wireframes and data prototypes. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed.

  13. Evaluation of the Use of Periodicals Collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation and Online Search Center: Arts and Humanities Periodicals

    OpenAIRE

    Elçin Özbudak

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of the use perodicals collections in libraries is important as perodicals report the results of the latest scientific research and they are usually more expensive than other types of library materials. In this study we evaluate the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals in the collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation Center. Although the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals was found to be lower than, say, Biomedical periodicals collection, the number of journal t...

  14. Effect of Different Germination Conditions on Antioxidative Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Tung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR and germinated brown rice (GBR. We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L., Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9 and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10, as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C, long soaking time (72 h, darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR. We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol. Higher temperature (36°C is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives.

  15. Frequency of dual tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients presenting at tertiary care centers at karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamon, A.R.; Zuberi, B.F.; Afsar, S.; Altaf, A.; Shah, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of dual infection of Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and document the sexual practices of infected patients. Patients were recruited in the study at both centers and tested for both HIV and TB if any one disease was identified. Diagnosis of TB was based on positive sputum AFB smear / caseous granulomatous lesion on histopathology. Diagnosis of HIV was based on positive anti-HIV serology by LISA technique. A questionnaire was also administered to all the study participants regarding demographics, sexual practices, blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. A total of 196 patients of HIV and TB were screened for the presence of dual infection (TB/HIV). Dual infection was present in 38 (19.39%) of patients. Out of 126 patients of HIV, evidence of TB was detected in 38 (30.16%). During the same duration, 70 patients of tuberculosis were screened for HIV and none was tested positive for HIV. History of illicit sexual relationship was found in 121 (96.03%) patients and 5 of these were homosexuals. Dual infection was present in patients of HIV with TB but vice versa was not documented in this study. (author)

  16. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 3. Operator information needs summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents a summary of operator information needs, identifying the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  17. Advanced Air Traffic Management Research (Human Factors and Automation): NASA Research Initiatives in Human-Centered Automation Design in Airspace Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA has initiated a significant thrust of research and development focused on providing the flight crew and air traffic managers automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area operations through the use of flexible, more fuel-efficient routing, while improving the level of safety in commercial carrier operations. In that system development, definition of cognitive requirements for integrated multi-operator dynamic aiding systems is fundamental. The core processes of control and the distribution of decision making in that control are undergoing extensive analysis. From our perspective, the human operators and the procedures by which they interact are the fundamental determinants of the safe, efficient, and flexible operation of the system. In that perspective, we have begun to explore what our experience has taught will be the most challenging aspects of designing and integrating human-centered automation in the advanced system. We have performed a full mission simulation looking at the role shift to self-separation on board the aircraft with the rules of the air guiding behavior and the provision of a cockpit display of traffic information and an on-board traffic alert system that seamlessly integrates into the TCAS operations. We have performed and initial investigation of the operational impact of "Dynamic Density" metrics on controller relinquishing and reestablishing full separation authority. (We follow the assumption that responsibility at all times resides with the controller.) This presentation will describe those efforts as well as describe the process by which we will guide the development of error tolerant systems that are sensitive to shifts in operator work load levels and dynamic shifts in the operating point of air traffic management.

  18. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Digitaria insularis ((L. Fedde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Soares de Mendonça

    Full Text Available The invasive behaviour of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis in cultivated areas is due to its strategy of aggressive regeneration, which is based on seed germination. Knowledge of the physiological ecology of this species can contribute to the development of management and control strategies. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of provenance, temperature and light on the germination of sourgrass seeds collected in the Brazilian state of São Paulo in the cities of Americana, Botucatu and São José do Rio Preto and in the state of Paraná in the city of São Miguel do Iguaçu. The seeds were left to germinate at temperatures of 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C, both with and without light. The number of normal seedlings was recorded daily from seven to 60 days. After this period, the seeds together with substrate, were transferred to 25 ºC with light, and a daily count was made for all treatments until the end of germination (75 days after sowing. The seeds of D. insularis are positively photoblastic. Seed germination in this species depends on provenance. A temperature of 4 5 °C for germination is lethal to the seeds. The temperature of 35 °C in the presence of light is the most favourable condition for seed germination.

  20. [Study on conditions of seed germination of Cistanche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue-Yi; Wang, Hua-Lei; Guo, Yu-Hai

    2007-09-01

    To study the effect of fluridone concentration, stimulating period, temperature and salt on the seed germination of three species of Cistanche. The seeds were cultured in Petri dish, and the germination percentage was counted. The highest germination percentage was observed in Cistanche tubulosa, C. deserticola, C. sala seeds pre-treated by 0.1 mg x L(-1) fluridone for 24-29 h. The optimal temperature for the seeds germination of three species of Cistanche was at 20-30 degrees C, and the seeds did not germinate at sub-or supraoptimal temperatures (5 and 35 degrees C). The salt tolerance of C. sala seeds was strong, and the critical value of NaCl concentration was 0.04 mol x L(-1). By contrast, C. tubulosa and C. deserticola seeds were more sensitive to the salt stress, the critical value of NaCl concentration was 0.02 mol x L(-1). The optimal germination condition and the method of testing germination percentage of three species of Cistanche seeds are as follow: the seeds are pre-treated by 0.1 mg x L(-1) fluridone for 24 h and then cultured at 20-30 degrees C in salt solution which concentration is lower than 0.02 mol x L(-1).

  1. [Study on physiological and germination characteristics of Tulipa edulis seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Hongjian; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Current study was conducted to investigate the seed physiological characteristics of Tulipa edulis and improve germination rate. Anatomical characteristics was observed. Seed water absorption curve was tested by soaking method. Dynamic of embryo development and germination rate as well as germination index under different conditions were recorded. And the biological test of cabbage seed was used for detecting the germination inhibitors. The embryo rate of newly matured seeds was about 10%, and there was no obstacle of water absorption on testa of T. edulis. The optimum method for embryo development was exposure to 300 mg x L(-1) gibberellin solution for 24 hours, and stratification at 25 degrees C for 70 days followed by stratification at 5 degrees C for 40 days. The germintion rate and germination index of dormancy-broken seeds under the dark environment at 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C were significantly higher than those under other conditions. Additionally, there were some germination inhibitory substances in dry seeds. The seed of T. edulis can be classified as having complex morphophysiological dormancy, and the morphological embryo dormancy played a leading role. Warm and cold stratification resulted in a fast dormancy breaking effect, and a high germination rate more than 90% could be obtained under the optimum conditions.

  2. Optimization of jenipapo in vitro seed germination process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ribeiro de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The in vitro seed germination is an effective alternative for quickly obtaining explants with sanitary quality. However, jenipapo seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, internal and external factors to seed which directly interfere in the process, they must be identified, in order to adapt better techniques to obtain seedlings. In this sense, this work aimed to optimize the in vitro germination of Genipa americana L. seeds by evaluating different factors (light quality, GA3 treatment, pre-soaking in distilled water, growing media and stratification in the dark. It was found that the seed germination of G. americana was indifferent to light, however, the best results were obtained under conditions of continuous darkness; There was no effect of the application of exogenous GA3; The pre-soaking in distilled water for 48 h contributes to obtaining better germination rates; And the reduction in MS medium salts, and laminating the pretreatment in the dark maximizes the germination potential of seeds.Therefore, the optimal conditions for in vitro germination of G. americana L. seeds requires pre-soaking in distilled water for 48 hours and inoculation into culture media consisting of 1/2 MS + 15 g L-1 sucrose, with stratification in the dark for 16 days, followed by the transfer to growth chambers with lighting provided by white fluorescent lamps.

  3. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  4. Germination traits of three weed species in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmeti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Datura stramonium are the most important weed species in Kosovo. They cause severe yield depression, contaminate fodder and negatively affect growth and reproduction of other weed species. To counteract these problems, specific strategies need to be developed. Such strategies should consider information on species germination traits. In this context, our study provides information on temperature requirements for germination. Seeds of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. stramonium were harvested in two sub-regions of Kosovo (western and eastern parts differing in climate and land use. They were set for germination experiments in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 3 to 35 °C and under field conditions. In both experiments, the germination rate differed between species and provenances. In the growth chamber experiment, germination of all three species was negligible below 15 °C and reached the highest rates between 24 and 30 °C. Seeds originating from the western part of Kosovo had higher germination rates and required a lower temperature for germination than seeds originating from the eastern part. In the field experiment, the time-dependent germination behaviour of D. stramonium differed between provenances. In general, germination started when soil temperature was above 18 °C and continued as long as the soil was moist. The results are discussed in the context of the need to develop weed management strategies against these weeds in Kosovo.

  5. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  6. Production and germination of Tussilago farfara (L. diaspores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Namur-Ochocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the production of generative diaspores in Tussilago farfara (L. was assessed in four different ecological systems. Also their morphological characteristics, as well as their germinability under natural and laboratory conditions were analysed, depending upon the age, density and size of diaspores, as well as sowing depth, substrate type and light conditions. The studies showed that diaspores: 1 were highly germinable under laboratory conditions; 2 did not germinate effectively under natural conditions; 31 were short-lived; 4 were tolerant to unfavourable habitat agents. Tussilago farfara was determined to exhibit high diaspore production only under conditions of suppresed interspecific competition.

  7. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Sealock, R.M.; Legge, G.J.F.; Grant, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.)

  8. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  9. Germination and development of pecan cultivar seedlings by seed stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of seed stratification on germination rate, germination speed, and initial development of seedlings of six pecan (Carya illinoinensis cultivars under subtropical climatic conditions in southern Brazil. For stratification, the seeds were placed in boxes with moist sand, in a cold chamber at 4°C, for 90 days. In the fourteenth week after sowing, the emergence speed index, total emergence, plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated. Seed stratification significantly improves the germination potential and morphological traits of the evaluated cultivars.

  10. Effects of seed pretreatment and seed source on germination of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of seed pre-sowing treatment and geographic source of seeds on three germination parameters of five Acacia species (GP = germination percent; GMT = germination mean time (days) and GI = germination index) were studied. Pre-sowing treatment included immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid for 5, 10 and ...

  11. 7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the percentage of germination and date of test. Each variety of vegetable seed which has a germination... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of...

  12. Human papillomavirus infection of the cervix uteri in women attending a Health Examination Center of the French social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beby-Defaux, A; Bourgoin, A; Ragot, S; Battandier, D; Lemasson, J M; Renaud, O; Bouguermouh, S; Vienne Md, Maladie de la; Agius, G

    2004-06-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central causal factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection constitutes an important step towards development of strategies for prevention. Six hundred and fifty seven cervical samples were tested for HPV using PCR with consensus primers (MY09/MY11), by genotyping (restriction and sequencing analyses) and by cervical cytology, from women who attended a Health Examination Center of the French social security. Women with no cervical smear as well as women with cytological abnormalities within the last 3 years were recruited. HPV DNA was detected in 7.3% of the women (5.3% for high-risk, 2.4% for low-risk, and 0.5% for unknown risk types) including 6 (0.9%) mixed infections. Fifteen different genotypes were detected, of which genotypes 16 (22.2%), 58 (13.0%), 18 (11.1%), 30 (9.2%), and 33 (9.2%) were the most prevalent. In age group 17-25 years, we found the highest frequencies for both any (22.1%) and high-risk (14.7%) HPV, and prevalences gradually decreased with age. 5.2% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 1.2% of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were found. The frequencies of high risk and all HPV types were significantly higher in squamous intraepithelial lesions than in those with normal and reactive/reparative changes (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of high-risk HPV in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion group (28.6%) was significantly higher than in the normal and reactive/reparative changes groups (3.4%) (P < 0.0001). HPV detection was associated with younger age, single marital and non-pregnant status (P < 0.0001), premenopausal status (P = 0.0004), and contraception (P = 0.0008). Marital status (OR 4.5; 95% CI = 2.3-9.0) and tobacco consumption (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6-5.7) were predictive independent factors of HPV infection. The French system

  13. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  14. Find a Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HRSA Health Centers care for you, even if you have no health insurance – you pay what you can afford based on your income. Health centers provide services that...

  15. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  16. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  17. Impact of Patient-centered eHealth Applications on Patient Outcomes: A Review on the Mediating Influence of Human Factor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenbos, G A; Peute, L W; Jaspers, M W M

    2016-11-10

    To examine the evidence of the impact of patient- centered eHealth applications on patient care and to analyze if and how reported human factor issues mediated the outcomes. We searched PubMed (2014-2015) for studies evaluating the impact of patient-centered eHealth applications on patient care (behavior change, self-efficacy, and patient health-related outcomes). The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS 2.0) model was used as a guidance framework to identify the reported human factors possibly impacting the effectiveness of an eHealth intervention. Of the 348 potentially relevant papers, 10 papers were included for data analysis. None of the 10 papers reported a negative impact of the eHealth intervention. Seven papers involved a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. Six of these RCTs reported a positive impact of the eHealth intervention on patient care. All 10 papers reported on human factor issues possibly mediating effects of patient-centered eHealth. Human factors involved patient characteristics, perceived social support, and (type of) interaction between patient and provider. While the amount of patient-centered eHealth interventions increases, many questions remain as to whether and to what extent human factors mediate their use and impact. Future research should adopt a formal theory-driven approach towards human factors when investigating those factors' influence on the effectiveness of these interventions. Insights could then be used to better tailor the content and design of eHealth solutions according to patient user profiles, so as to enhance eHealth interventions impact on patient behavior, self-efficacy, and health-related outcomes.

  18. Acceptability of School-Based Health Centers for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Visits: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Caitlin E; Okoloko, Edirin; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; North, Anna; Niccolai, Linda M

    2017-09-01

    Countries with high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates have achieved this success largely through school-based vaccination. Using school-based health centers (SBHCs) in the United States, where HPV vaccine remains underutilized, could improve uptake. In this mixed-methods study, we examined acceptability, facilitators, and barriers of HPV vaccination visits at SBHCs from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. We conducted qualitative interviews and structured surveys with adolescents and parents recruited from an urban, hospital-based clinic. Interviews with parents (N = 20) and adolescents (N = 20) were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis using an iterative thematic approach. Quantitative measures for a survey administered to parents (N = 131) were derived from the qualitative findings. Survey results were analyzed by chi-square tests. Many participants expressed favorable opinions of HPV vaccination at SBHCs in qualitative interviews. Facilitators included convenience, ease of scheduling, and not missing work or school. However, barriers were noted including concerns about obtaining care outside the medical home, fragmentation of medical records, and negative perceptions about SBHCs. Quantitative findings revealed that a higher proportion of parents with experience using SBHCs were willing to use a middle school (59.5%) or high school (80.5%) SBHC for HPV vaccinations compared with those who had not used SBHCs (p HPV vaccination visits at SBHCs were acceptable, and SBHC users expressed more favorable attitudes. Barriers to HPV vaccination at SBHCs can be addressed through more education about SBHCs' role, and improvement of systems to coordinate care. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  19. [Parasitological study of 78 cases of human cystic echinococcosis collected between 2005 to 2012 in Mustapha hospital center of Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Normand, A C; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M K; Chaouche, H; Ladjadj, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to know the fertility rate of the metacestodes resulting from patients suffering from hydatidosis, the one of protoscoleces's viability and by comparing the results obtained with those found elsewhere. It reports, also, the epidemiological, clinical and diagnostically aspects of the studied patients. This study has carried on 78 hydatics samples resulting from 78 patients collected between 2005 and 2012 at the laboratory of parasitology of the Mustapha hospital center of Algiers. A questionnaire on the epidemiological context (contact with an animal-host of the cycle, place of residence, presence of family cases reached of hydatidosis and knowledge on the hydatic disease) concerned 69 patients. For each sample, a direct microscopic examination is made with or without vital staining. The presence of protoscoleces made qualified the fertile cyst. Those visualized moving or resistant to eosin at 0.2% are considered viables. Indirect diagnosis is based on the techniques: passive hemagglutination, electrophoresis, Elisa IgG Echinococcus granulosus and immunoblotting IgG "Echinococcus". Molecular analysis is based on PCR and sequencing the partials fragments of two mitochondrial genes with the primers COX1 and ND1. The results obtained show that the surgical frequency of hydatidosis is significant at the young adult and at the child. The epidemiological context associated at the disease is the conjointly presence of a dog and herbivores. The fertility rate of human hydatid cysts is 88.4% and the ones of viability of the protoscoleces is 74.5%. In this series, the serology shows global positivity at 70%. The molecular characterization of five samples identify the species: E. granulosus ss. Finally, the viability and fertility rates found here are raised. Sometimes viables protoscoleses are found after use of scolicidal solution. In front of these results, the parasitical treatment is more than necessary in order to minimize the risk of occurred of

  20. Constant and alternating temperature effects on germination and early growth of scorzonera

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, A.S.; Dias, L.S.; Pereira, I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Scorzonera is a threatened species in Portugal. Given the role of temperature in germination and seedling recruitment, the performance of total germination, lag of germination, duration of germination, shape of germination, root and hypocotyl length, and relative root growth of scorzonera was investigated under constant and alternating temperatures between 10 and 25ºC. Because of scorzonera’s rarity and threatened status, seeds of cultivated scorzonera were used, providing the framework for h...

  1. Variation of germination of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seed during storage life

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić, Nevena; Todorović, Vesna; Adžić, Slađan; Zdravković, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seed is dormant, which means that the maximum germination is achieved after some time. The research was performed on one genotype (Domaci srednje dugi - DSD). The seed, studied for germination rate, originates from year 2007 and the germination variation was studied for period 2007 - 2011. Eggplant seed was dormant after yield in 2007, but the germination increased over the years. The trial was conducted at the standard germination test method, defined in the R...

  2. pre-germination treatments in castor seeds, cultivar IAC 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Gomes Damascena, Joyce; Marcia, Andreia; Santos de Souza, David; Pereira dos Santos, Marlucia; Rodrigues Pereira, Adriana; Goncalves Pereira, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different pre-germination treatments in castor beans, IAC 226. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 4 (four temperatures and four immersion times), with four replications. Pre-germination treatments were: immersion in water at room temperature (25 Celsius degrade) and immersion in hot water at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 Celsius degrade for 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes. Water content of the seeds was determined before treatments. Before and after each treatment, seeds were subjected to germination test; 20-30 Celsius degrade alternating temperature, determining the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings, dormant and dead seeds. Independent of time, immersion in 70 Celsius degrade, water was the most efficient treatment for accelerating germination of castor bean cultivar IAC 226.

  3. Germination and in vitro multiplication of Helianthemum kahiricum, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Seeds of Helianthemum kahiricum have an excellent germination rate ... of H. kahiricum on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) free growth regulators ... The kinetin had a positive effect on the multiplication and growth, but a.

  4. Germination and In Vitro Regeneration Response of Local Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    the highest germination percentage of 57.33% and percentage contamination of. 11.11% ... development of in vitro regeneration of the crop from various explant sources. The advent of ..... Effect of variety and plant growth regulators on callus.

  5. A germination test: an easy approach to know the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawar, A.; Bhatti, I.A.; Bhatti, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation is an evolving preserving technique that provides a shield against the spoilage and might have a potential to ensure the food safety and security world wide. In the present study, feasibility to apply germination test to distinguish an un-irradiated and irradiated samples of wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans was checked. Samples were irradiated to the absorbed doses ranging from 0-10 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator and were germinated in plant growth chamber. Root and shoot lengths were measured at 7th day after gamma radiation treatment. In all the irradiated samples root and shoot lengths were decreased with the increase in radiation absorbed doses. The seeds irradiated to the absorbed doses more than 2 kGy were not germinated. Germination test proved as an easy and simple method to detect irradiation in wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans irradiated even at low absorbed doses. (author)

  6. Effects of salinity stress on water uptake, germination and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, 59100 Tekirdag, ..... stresses on germination in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) .... transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) obtained by.

  7. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees ..... their pollen characteristics to be used in cross breeding ... viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in.

  8. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  9. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Salinity refers to the salt content of any given system. By nature, arid .... Effect of varying concentrations of NaCl on seed germination of Amaranthus hybridus in percentages. .... Osmotic differences could explain this phenomenon where by ...

  10. The effect of osmopriming on germination, seedling growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... affecting the oxidative metabolism such as increasing superoxide dismutase ... the adverse effect of salinity by improving germination and seedling growth .... osmoregulation by the accumulation of proline. A positive effect of ...

  11. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek ..... metabolic activities in function, such as the accumulation .... stress: possible role of trehalose in osmoregulation. Lett.

  12. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  13. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Bozena; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sery, Michal; Spatenka, Petr; Tichy, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  14. inhibition of germination and growth behavior of some cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... COWPEA VARIETIES USING NEEM (AZADIRACTA INDICA) LEAF WATER. EXTRACTS ... Keywords: Neem, Allelopathic effect, Leaf extract, Germination, Growth behavior ... and lotion today, as well as biological insecticide.

  15. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  16. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a ... feed forage seeds or reproduction organs selectively and changes the ... The mean daily air temperature ...

  17. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and Physiological Characteristics of Gmelina Arborea , Roxb. ... African Research Review ... They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed size ...

  18. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal seed germination involves a complex coordination between different seed tissues. Plasma membranes must play crucial roles in coordination and execution of germination; however, very little is known about seed plasma membrane proteomes due to limited tissue amounts combined...... with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  19. Comparison of seed priming techniques with regards to germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... investigate the effects of different priming techniques on seed germination and early seedling growth. The seeds ... methods in which the environment must be controlled for prolonged ..... Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro ...

  20. Heavy metals effect in Drosophila melanogaster germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Duque de la, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Different biological systems have been used to proof the genetic effect of heavy metals including Drosophila. In the present work chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic salts were administered to Drosophila females and males adults in order to determine the genetic effect produced by these compounds, in both femenine and masculine germinal cells. The mating system used (''Oster males'' and y 2 wsup(a)/y 2 wsup(a); e/e females) permited to determine among two succesive generations, the mutagenic effects produced by heavy metals in Drosophila. The salts administration to adult flies was made by injection. Non-disjunction, X-chromosome loss, and sex linked recessive lethals frequency was increased by heavy metals. It was observed a fertility disminution between F 1 descendants from individuals treated with the metalic salts. It was demonstrated that heavy metals can interact with genetic material at different levels in the two types of gametic cells to produce genetic damage. (author)

  1. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Digitaria insularis ((L.) Fedde)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça,Giovana Soares de; Martins,Cibele Chalita; Martins,Dagoberto; Costa,Neumárcio Vilanova da

    2014-01-01

    The invasive behaviour of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) in cultivated areas is due to its strategy of aggressive regeneration, which is based on seed germination. Knowledge of the physiological ecology of this species can contribute to the development of management and control strategies. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of provenance, temperature and light on the germination of sourgrass seeds collected in the Brazilian state of São Paulo in the cities of Americana, B...

  2. Memorandum on the effect of ozone on germinating seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheels, H; De Heen, P

    1906-01-01

    Two experiments are described the purpose of which was to ascertain the effect of ozone on germinating plants. In both experiments the plants which were not exposed to ozone had considerably longer roots and greater average weight. The number of germinations was not affected in one experiment, but was down 10% in the other. A final comment suggests that although the toxicity of ozone is well known, its use as a stimulant should not be ruled out. 2 figures.

  3. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roeder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches.

  4. Effect of Estrogen and Progeterone on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy detection in dairy cattle is an integral part of a successful animal husbandry practice. A simple seed germination technique (Punyakoti test comprises observation of differential seed germination response of wheat seeds to diluted fresh urine samples as reflected by significant inhibition of germination percentage in pregnant cow urine when compared to non pregnant cow urine. Hormone metabolites excreted through urine might affect the seed germination in pregnant cow urine. In the present study an attempt was made to test the effect of hormones (in their natural forms at different concentrations of estrogen (17-ß estradiol and progesterone on wheat and green gram germination. Stock solutions of estrogen and progesterone were prepared in alcohol (1mg/ml and serial dilutions made using distilled water to get the concentrations of T1=10, T2=1, T3=0.1 and T4=0.01 μg/ml respectively in treatment groups. About 15 seeds each of wheat and green gram were taken in sterile Petri dishes into which 15ml of each test preparation was poured. The treatments were compared with distilled water and alcohol controls. The study was conducted for a period of five days during which seed germination was observed after 48 hrs and shoot lengths were also measured by the end of study. The average seed germination and shoot length in treatment groups did not vary significantly (P>0.05 when compared with that of control groups. Thus from the present study, it can be concluded that estrogen and progesterone in their natural form will not affect seed germination and shoot length. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 241-242

  5. Constant temperatures and the rate of seed germination in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of germination of the NEM cultivar was faster than that of the QPM cultivar at all temperatures. The thermal times for median germination were 46 for QPM and 40.7 oCd for the NEM cultivar. The cardinal temperatures (base, Tb, optimum, To and ceiling, Tc) for the NEM cultivar were Tb: 7, To: 30 and Tc: 48.2 oC.

  6. Fate of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Cells Artificially Internalized into Vegetable Seeds during Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Cui, Yue; Walcott, Ronald; Chen, Jinru

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable seeds contaminated with bacterial pathogens have been linked to fresh-produce-associated outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections. This study was undertaken to observe the physiological behavior of Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cells artificially internalized into vegetable seeds during the germination process. Surface-decontaminated seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato were vacuum-infiltrated with four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC. Contaminated seeds were germinated at 25°C for 9 days, and different sprout/seedling tissues were microbiologically analyzed every other day. The internalization of Salmonella and EHEC cells into vegetable seeds was confirmed by the absence of pathogens in seed-rinsing water and the presence of pathogens in seed homogenates after postinternalization seed surface decontamination. Results show that 317 (62%) and 343 (67%) of the 512 collected sprout/seedling tissue samples were positive for Salmonella and EHEC, respectively. The average Salmonella populations were significantly larger ( P seed coat tissues, followed by the root tissues, but the mean EHEC populations from all sampled tissue sections were statistically similar, except in pregerminated seeds. Three Salmonella and two EHEC strains had significantly larger cell populations on sprout/seedling tissues than other strains used in the study. Salmonella and EHEC populations from fenugreek and alfalfa tissues were significantly larger than those from tomato and lettuce tissues. The study showed the fate of internalized human pathogens on germinating vegetable seeds and sprout/seedling tissues and emphasized the importance of using pathogen-free seeds for sprout production. IMPORTANCE The internalization of microorganisms into vegetable seeds could occur naturally and represents a possible pathway of vegetable seed contamination by human pathogens. The present study investigated the ability of two important

  7. Mechanism of fluridone-induced seed germination of cistanche tubulosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.L.; Tu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study disclosed that fluridone, a synthesis inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA), could stimulate seed germination in the holoparasitic plant Cistanche tubulosa . Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, an attempt was made to reveal the mechanism of fluridone breaking seed dormancy in C. tubulosa and to determine the contribution of hormones in this process. The ABA level in seeds initially decreased following fluridone treatment and was subsequently maintained at a concentration of 31 ng g/sup -1/ DW (dry weight) three days later. The contents of gibberellins (GAs) initially in creased and subsequently were maintained at a level of 40 ng g-1 DW after ten days. However, the increment of seed germination induced by fluridone was inhibited after the introduction of exogenous ABA or paclobutrazol (a synthesis inhibitor of GAs). Furthermore, inhibition from paclobutrazol was reversed by an additional treatment with exogenous GA3. When the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA reached 4:3, C. tubulosa seeds initiated germination. By contrast, although the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA content reached 2:1 by cold stratification, C. tubulosa seeds could not germinate unless exogenous GA3 was added. In summary, our current study revealed that (i) GAs and ABA play key roles for the seed germination of C. tubulosa , (ii) fluridone inhibited ABA biosynthesis but increased the concentration of GAs in seeds, and (iii) fluridone might initiate other processes associated with germination. (author)

  8. Temperature Effects on Cuscuta campestris Yunk. Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological characteristics of seeds and conditions for their germination havea major importance for planning and executing rational measures of weed control. Theaim of this study was to investigate the effect of different temperatures on germinationof C. campestris seeds. Three treatments (T1- storage at room temperature; T2 – exposureto 4°C for 30 days; T3 – scarification by concentrated sulphuric acid differing in manipulationwith seeds before germination were tested at different temperatures (5°C, 10°C, 15°C,20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C. Germinated seeds were counted daily for ten days andthe length of seedlings was measured on the last day. The results showed that differencesin germination of C. campestris seeds were very prominent between temperatures, as wellas between treatments T1, T2 and T3. Seeds failed to germinate at 5°C and 45°C in all treatments(T1, T2, T3. Germination ranged from 6.25 at 10°C to 96.88%, the highest percentage,achieved at 30°C.

  9. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  10. Omethoate treatment mitigates high salt stress inhibited maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Zuotong; Deng, Benliang

    2018-01-01

    Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H 2 O 2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H 2 O 2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone. Dimethylthiourea (DTMU), a specific scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, as did IMZ (imidazole), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, whereas fluridone, a specific inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, enhanced the effect of OM. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of ROS and ABA in the promotion of maize seed germination by OM under salt stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of germination and thermal treatments on folates in rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Myllymäki, Olavi; Vahteristo, Liisa; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-12-13

    Effects of germination conditions and thermal processes on folate contents of rye were investigated. Total folate contents were determined microbiologically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism, and individual folates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after affinity chromatographic purification. Germination increased the folate content by 1.7-3.8-fold, depending on germination temperature, with a maximum content of 250 micro g/100 g dry matter. Hypocotylar roots with their notably high folate concentrations (600-1180 micro g/100 g dry matter) contributed 30-50% of the folate contents of germinated grains. Germination altered the proportions of folates, increasing the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and decreasing the proportion of formylated folate compounds. Thermal treatments (extrusion, autoclaving and puffing, and IR and toasting) resulted in significant folate losses. However, folate levels in grains that were germinated and then were heat processed were higher than for native (nongerminated) grains. Opportunities to optimize rye processing to enhance folate levels in rye-based foods are discussed.

  12. The biological role of exogenic factors in broomrape germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, N.

    1987-01-01

    The often observed contradictory effect of the substances stimulating broomrape seed germination were assessed and explained. Low and optimal concentrations of these substances had a stimulating effect, while the high concentrations produced an inhibiting effect. For chemically pure mustard oil, phenylisothiocianate and allylisothiocianate such concentrations are 10 -4 to 10 -3 and more. The effectiveness of substances stimulating germination is conditioned in many cases by their watersoluble or gaseous state. The latter state of the stimulating substances is more natural, more economic and more efficient for the fumigation (in low concentrations) of the soil layer penetrated by the roots where parasitic seeds are present. A considerable number of agricultural crops, releasing by their roots essential oils containing glucosides, the hydrolysis of which results in elimination of volatile products of mustard oil type, represent natural stimulators for the germination of broomrape seeds. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation of parasitic seeds depends on their state. Dry seeds endure 80-120 krad, while moist ones - only 40-80 krad. Broomrape (O. ramosa and O. mutella) seeds begin their germination at 10 grad C. The optimal temperature for germination is 18-30 grad C, while 35-40 grad C irreversively discontinues the germination

  13. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, D. (Danuše); Turečková, V. (Veronika); Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, T. (Terezie); Strnad, M. (Miroslav); Leubner-Metzger, G. (Gerhard)

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) gene, known for providing dormancy adaptation to distinct environments, determines the optimal temperature for seed germination. By reciprocal gene-swapp...

  14. LINKING CLASSROOM AND COMMUNITY: A THEORETICAL ALIGNMENT OF SERVICE LEARNING AND A HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN METHODOLOGY IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATION DESIGN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Bowie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on social responsibility and community collaboration within higher education has led to an increased drive to include service learning in the curriculum. With its emphasis on mutually beneficial collaborations, service learning can be meaningful for both students and the community, but is challenging to manage successfully. From a design education perspective, it is interesting to note that contemporary design practice emphasises a similar approach known as a human-centered design, where users are considered and included throughout the design process. In considering both service learning and human-centred design as foundations for design pedagogy, various philosophical and methodological similarities are evident. The paper explores the relationship between a service learning community engagement approach and a human-centered design approach in contemporary communication design education. To this end, each approach is considered individually after which a joint frame of reference is presented. Butin’s service learning typology, namely the four Rs – respect, reciprocity, relevance and reflection – serves as a point of departure for the joint frame of reference. Lastly, the potential value and relevance of a combined understanding of service learning and human-centered design is considered.

  15. La organización germinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Soca Filella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las vicisitudes de estos últimos años en las economías occidentales, y sobre todo en las del arco mediterráneo, han sumido las empresas en un profundo callejón sin salida, dónde tras efectuar reducciones drásticas en sus estructuras ahora ven mermadas sus posibilidades de crecimiento. Surge el interrogante de qué tipo de crecimiento perseguimos y qué organización precisamos para conseguirlo. Vislumbramos a partir de lo acaecido en los últimos dos lustros que las organizaciones preferirán moverse dentro de unos patrones de crecimientos sostenibles, en lugar de las alocadas carreras de inicios de siglo. Este crecimiento sostenible comportará decidir que formas de organización permitirán gestionar mejor este crecimiento. Dentro del abanico de las posibilidades, planteo un tipo de organización en constante cambio que facilite la adaptación a los diversos tipos de mercados que puedan ir surgiendo en el futuro: LA ORGANIZACIÓN GERMINAL.

  16. Germinal and somatic mutations in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The role of germinal and somatic mutations in carcinogenesis leads to the conclusion that environmental carcinogens probably exert their effects via somatic mutations. Susceptibility to this process may itself be genetically determined, so we may deduce that two groups, one genetic and one non-genetic, are included in the 'environmental' class. Other individuals seem to acquire cancer even in the absence of such environmental agents, and these too may be classified into a genetic and a non-genetic group. It has been estimated that in industrial countries, the environmental groups include 70-80% of all cancer cases, but we are only beginning to know how to separate the genetic and non-genetic subgroups. The genetic subgroup of the 'non-environmental' group is very small, probably of the order of magnitude of 1-2% for cancer as a whole. The remainder, about 25%, comprises a non-genetic, non-environmental subgroup that seems to arise as a consequence of 'spontaneous' somatic mutations. The incidence of these 'background' cancers is what we should combat with preventive and therapeutic measures

  17. Aminopeptidase Activity from Germinated Jojoba Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell; Storey, Richard

    1985-01-01

    One major and two minor aminopeptidase activities from germinated jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) cotyledon extracts were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatofocusing. None of the activities were inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline. The major aminopeptidase, purified 260-fold, showed a pH optimum of 6.9 with leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, a molecular weight estimated at 14,200 by electrophoretic analysis, and an isoelectric point of 4.5 according to the chromatofocusing pattern. Activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, slightly stimulated by 1,10 phenanthroline and 2-mercaptoethanol, and not influenced by Mg2+ or diethyl pyrocarbonate. Inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by the presence of cysteine in the assay. Leucine-p-nitroanilide and leucine-β-naphthylamide were the most rapidly hydrolyzed of 11 carboxy-terminal end blocked synthetic substrates tested. No activity on endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase specific substrates was detected. The major aminopeptidase showed activity on a saline soluble, jojoba seed protein preparation and we suggest a possible physiological role for the enzyme in the concerted degradation of globulin reserve proteins during cotyledon senescence. PMID:16664465

  18. Aminopeptidase activity from germinated jojoba cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R; Storey, R

    1985-11-01

    One major and two minor aminopeptidase activities from germinated jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) cotyledon extracts were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatofocusing. None of the activities were inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline.The major aminopeptidase, purified 260-fold, showed a pH optimum of 6.9 with leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, a molecular weight estimated at 14,200 by electrophoretic analysis, and an isoelectric point of 4.5 according to the chromatofocusing pattern. Activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, slightly stimulated by 1,10 phenanthroline and 2-mercaptoethanol, and not influenced by Mg(2+) or diethyl pyrocarbonate. Inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by the presence of cysteine in the assay. Leucine-p-nitroanilide and leucine-beta-naphthylamide were the most rapidly hydrolyzed of 11 carboxy-terminal end blocked synthetic substrates tested. No activity on endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase specific substrates was detected. The major aminopeptidase showed activity on a saline soluble, jojoba seed protein preparation and we suggest a possible physiological role for the enzyme in the concerted degradation of globulin reserve proteins during cotyledon senescence.

  19. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  20. Environmental Factors that Interfere in the Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.

  1. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination...

  2. A human centered GeoVisualization framework to facilitate visual exploration of telehealth data: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; de Araujo Novaes, Magdala; Machiavelli, Josiane; Iyengar, Sriram; Vogler, Robert; Johnson, Craig; Zhang, Jiajie; Hsu, Chiehwen E

    2012-01-01

    Public health data is typically organized by geospatial units. Routine geographic monitoring of health data enables an understanding of the spatial patterns of events in terms of causes and controls. GeoVisualization (GeoVis) allows users to see information hidden both visually and explicitly on a map. Despite the applicability of GeoVis in public health, it is still underused for visualizing public health data. The objective of this study is to examine the perception of telehealth users' to utilize GeoVis as a proof of concept to facilitate visual exploration of telehealth data in Brazil using principles of human centered approach and cognitive fit theory. A mixed methods approach combining qualitative and quantitative assessments was utilized in this cross sectional study conducted at the Telehealth Center of the Federal University of Pernambuco (NUTE-UFPE), Recife, Brazil. A convenient sample of 20 participants currently involved in NUTES was drawn during a period of Sep-Oct 2011. Data was gathered using previously tested questionnaire surveys and in-person interviews. Socio-demographic Information such as age, gender, prior education, familiarity with the use of computer and GeoVis was gathered. Other information gathered included participants' prior spatial analysis skills, level of motivation and use of GeoVis in telehealth. Audio recording was done for all interviews conducted in both English and Portuguese, and transcription of the audio content to English was done by a certified translator. Univariate analysis was performed and means and standard deviations were reported for the continuous variables and frequency distributions for the categorical variables. For the open-ended questions, we utilized a grounded theory to identify themes and their relationship as they emerge from the data. Analysis of the quantitative data was performed using SAS V9.1 and qualitative data was performed using NVivo9. The average age of participants was 28 years (SD=7), a

  3. Temperature in the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimum temperature for germination of cacti vary with the species. With this work, we aimed to evaluate the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes under different temperatures. The used genotypes were: Hylocereus undatus (PB, H. polyrhizus (PV, Selenicereus megalanthus (PA, H. undatus x H. costaricensis (PH1 and H. costaricensis x H. undatus (PH2. For each genotype we used four replicates of 50 seeds, in a completely randomized design. The sowing was carried out on blotter paper in boxes type Gerbox ®, maintained at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oC constant and 15-25, 20-30 and 25-35 oC alternating with photoperiod 12 hours. The test lasted 30 days which were appraised the germination percentage, the germination speed index and the average time of germination. For seeds germination of PB, the result obtained in the temperature of 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 30 and 20-30 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. In PV, the result at 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 20 and 30 oC, being superior to the results of the others temperatures. For PA, the best result was obtained to 25 oC. In PH1, the temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30 oC presented superiors results to the others. For PH2, the result obtained in 15-25oC didn’t differ of the obtained at 25 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. The constants temperatures of 25 and 30 °C and alternating 20-30 °C are suitable for germination of H. undatus and for the hybrid H. undatus x H. costaricensis. For H. polyrhizus, constant temperatures of 20, 25 to 30 °C are suitable for seed germination. The constant temperature of 25 °C is the most suitable for the germination of S. megalanthus. For the hybrid H. costaricensis x H. undatus, constant temperature of 25 °C and alternating 15-25°C are suitable for seed germination.

  4. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  5. Human-centered sensor-based Bayesian control: Increased energy efficiency and user satisfaction in commercial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Jessica Ann

    2007-12-01

    model of a daylighted environment was designed, and a practical means of user preference identification was defined. Further, a set of general procedures were identified for the design of human-centered sensor-based decision-analytic systems, and for the identification of the allowable uncertainty in nodes of interest. To confirm generality, a vehicle health monitoring problem was defined and solved using these two procedures. 1'Daylighting' systems use sensors to determine room occupancy and available sunlight, and automatically dim the lights in response.

  6. Improving collaborative work and project management in a nuclear power plant design team: A human-centered design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Guy André; Jani, Gopal; Manera, Annalisa; Memmott, Matthew; Petrovic, Bojan; Rayad, Yassine; Stephane, Lucas; Suri, Neha

    2016-01-01

    consolidates design decisions. This human-centered design (HCD) approach also improves individual and collective familiarization with the complexity of mixing several expert contributions in NPP design. In this case, HCD is not focused on end-users, but rather on the designers themselves.

  7. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  8. Germination and growth of purple passion fruit seedlings under pre-germination treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple passion fruit plants has increased in Colombia, as a direct result of its well-accepted consumption. Therefore, there is a need for technological solutions aimed at the sustainable growth of its fruit, such as improving seed germination and decreasing phosphorus (P deficiencies, given its low availability in tropical soils. This study aimed to evaluate pre-germination treatments (control, apical and basal seed cuts, alternation of temperature, photoperiod, application of gibberellic acid and immersion in 96 % of H2SO4 and mycorrhizal dependency of purple passion fruit plants, using three levels of P in the soil solution (0.002 mg L-1, 0.02 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1, in 35 combinations with or without the inoculation of the Glomus fasciculatum mycorrhizal fungus. A completely randomized design with five replications per treatment was used. The treatment with the most significant effect for reducing the dormancy of the purple passion fruit seeds is the immersion in 96 % of H2SO4 for 20 minutes. This species shows a high mycorrhizal dependency, when coupled with 0.02 mg L-1 of P in the soil solution.

  9. Human embryonic stem cells and good manufacturing practice: Report of a 1- day workshop held at Stem Cell Biology Research Center, Yazd, 27th April 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Akyash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; “human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and good manufacturing practice (GMP” held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications.

  10. Human embryonic stem cells and good manufacturing practice: Report of a 1- day workshop held at Stem Cell Biology Research Center, Yazd, 27th April 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyash, Fatemeh; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Tahajjodi, Somayyeh Sadat; Nikukar, Habib; Farashahi Yazd, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Mostafa; D Moore, Harry; Aflatoonian, Behrouz

    2017-05-01

    This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; "human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and good manufacturing practice (GMP)" held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27 th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications.

  11. [Study on influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Long-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve reproductive efficiency and quality standard, the influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides werew studied. The fruit and seed morphological characteristics of L. macranthoides were observed, the seed water absorbing capacity was determined, and different wet sand stratification time, temperature and germination bed treatment were set up. The effects of the parameters on seed germination and seedling growth were analysed. There was no obstacles of water absorption on L. macranthoides seed, quantity for 22 h water absorption was close to saturation. In the first 80 d, with the increase of the stratification time, seed initial germination time was shortened, germination rate and germination potential was improved. Stratification for 100 d, germination rate decreased. At 15 ℃, seed germination and seedling growth indicators were the best. The seedling cotyledon width in light was significantly higher than that in dark. Seeds on the top of paper and top of sand germination rate, germination potential, and germination index was significantly higher than that of other germination bed and mildew rate is low. The optimal conditions of seeds germination test was stratified in 4 ℃ wet sand for 80 d, 15 ℃ illuminate culture on the top of paper or top of sand. The first seeding counting time was the 4th day after beginning the test, the final time was the 23th day. The germination potential statistical time was the 13th day after beginning the test. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Three Experiments Examining the Use of Electroencephalogram,Event-Related Potentials, and Heart-Rate Variability for Real-Time Human-Centered Adaptive Automation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Parasuraman, Raja; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive automation represents an advanced form of human-centered automation design. The approach to automation provides for real-time and model-based assessments of human-automation interaction, determines whether the human has entered into a hazardous state of awareness and then modulates the task environment to keep the operator in-the-loop , while maintaining an optimal state of task engagement and mental alertness. Because adaptive automation has not matured, numerous challenges remain, including what the criteria are, for determining when adaptive aiding and adaptive function allocation should take place. Human factors experts in the area have suggested a number of measures including the use of psychophysiology. This NASA Technical Paper reports on three experiments that examined the psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials, electroencephalogram, and heart-rate variability for real-time adaptive automation. The results of the experiments confirm the efficacy of these measures for use in both a developmental and operational role for adaptive automation design. The implications of these results and future directions for psychophysiology and human-centered automation design are discussed.

  13. Workforce Retention Study in support of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center human capital management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Fore, Richard; Hacker, Kelly; Reedy, Michael; Sanchez-Vahamonde, Kristi; Whelan, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In Fiscal Year 15, the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) experienced an attrition rate of 10.4% of its civilian workforce. Without mitigation, the current employee turnover could result in a loss of organizational knowledge, reduction in the number of highly skilled test center employees, and a failure for ATC to meet mission objectives, namely the execution of rigorous testing to support Department of Defense acquisition programs. ...

  14. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  15. Fully-human Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human EphrinB2 and EphB4 | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Cancer and Inflammation Program is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing fully-human monoclonal antibodies against human EphrinB2 and EphB4.

  16. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.

  17. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  18. Application of germination inhibitors in organic solvents to conifer seeds. Information report No. 0-X-371

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, A.

    1985-12-31

    Study to determine whether the germination inhibitors abscisic acid and coumarin could be applied to black spruce and jack pine seed with organic solvents to delay germination. If successful, the treatment would delay field germination of seeds sown in mid to late summer until the following spring, thus reducing the risk of immature plants being affected by late fall frosts. Results were expressed in germination value, peak day, and germination capacity on the basis of a 28-day germination period. Effects of treatment on the variables were examined by means of one-way or two-way analysis of variance with completely randomized designs.

  19. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    decontamination strategies>> Maryline DEFEZ 1𔃼, Melissa HUNTER3J Susan WELKOS :~J Christopher COTE3 1 University Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. 1...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a...8217 • Accidentally in Humans • Natural reservoir is soil • Anthrax Disease Cycle: - animals infected by soilborne spores in food and water or bites from certain

  20. Approaches to the indirect evaluation of germination and vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparisons of six seed lots of different F1 hybrid cultivars of cauliflower with similarly high laboratory germinations (above 90% separation in germination was achieved after controlled deterioration (C.D. at 24% moisture content (m.c. and 45 0C for 24 hours. This measure of vigour was related to the position of the lots on the seed survival curve and was highly predictive of the longevity of the lots when stored at 15% m.c. and 20 0C for 12 and 16 weeks. When each seed lot was deteriorated at 24% m.c. for increasing times (from 0 to 36 hours a reduction in the subsequent percentage germination was seen, which, using probit transformed percentages, was significantly and linearly related to the leakage of electrolytes into seed soak water over 24 hours. The case is made for an approach to the indirect evaluation of germination and vigour using C.D. followed by measurements of leakage that could be more discerning and rapid than the present laboratory germination test.