WorldWideScience

Sample records for human geography ecology

  1. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage…

  2. Introduction of Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    1.1 General information Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography (XIEG), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), was established on 7 July, 1998, by merging of two previously exist- ing institutes of CAS, namely Institute of Geography

  3. Perspectives on Political Geography in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Jonathan; Smothers-Marcello, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Two trends have remade the field of political geography over the past quarter-century. First, a revision of taken-for-granted concepts that amounted to "spatial determinism." Second, pioneering many new and emerging concepts such as political ecology. Both trends are important contributions to the evolving section of the AP Human…

  4. Introduction of Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.1 General information Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography(XIEG),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS),was established on 7 July,1998,by merging of two previously existing institutes of CAS,namely Institute of Geography (IOG,established in 1961)and Institute of Biology,Pedology and Desert Research(IBPDR,established in 1965).

  5. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  6. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  7. Humanizing the Writing in Cultural Geography Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Ann E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how cultural geography textbooks can be written to improve the portrayal of people and cultures. Author's criticism is based on a study of cultural and human geography textbooks current in 1976 which revealed a predominance of male images and an abstract style of presentation. (Author/AV)

  8. Politics: critical essays in human geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.

    2008-01-01

    Depending on the breadth or narrowness of the understanding of politics and the political, 'politics' in human geography is defined as either the operation of power in all social relations or the workings of power directed to or by the state. This volume avoids the two extremes by acknowledging the

  9. Perspectives on Cultural Geography in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher; Johnston-Anumonwo, Ibipo

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected current concerns in cultural geography and the way it is taught. It includes coverage of cultural convergence and divergence, race and gender as culturally defined topics, and best teaching practices, including those related to analyzing controversial issues. Two important geographical models are laid…

  10. Perspectives on Urban Geography in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton-Short, Lisa; Monk, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    "Perspectives on Urban Geography" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. In this article, urban core revitalization and rising suburban poverty are considered as two challenges facing cities in developed countries; and industrialization and the growth of megacities as two challenges facing cities in developing…

  11. The Nature of Geography and Its Perspectives in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander B.; Hare, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    AP Human Geography students need to develop an understanding of what it means to examine the world around them from a geographic perspective. Focusing attention on geography's concern with spatial relationships, place characteristics, and geographic context helps student appreciate the nature of the discipline and the insights it offers. These…

  12. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  13. The human footprint in Mexico: physical geography and historical legacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte González-Abraham

    Full Text Available Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony.

  14. The human footprint in Mexico: physical geography and historical legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Kolb, Melanie; Bezaury Creel, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a) physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b) historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony.

  15. Both geography and ecology contribute to mating isolation in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Schwartz

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation--either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.

  16. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  17. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  18. Mobile Learning in a Human Geography Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Claire; Tate, Nicholas; Dickie, Jennifer; Brown, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on reusable mobile digital learning resources designed to assist human geography undergraduate students in exploring the geographies of life in Dublin. Developing active learning that goes beyond data collection to encourage observation and thinking in the field is important. Achieving this in the context of large class sizes…

  19. Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-01

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

  20. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  1. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  2. Networked Intermedia Agenda Setting: The Geography of a Hyperlinked Scandinavian News Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøvaag, Helle; Stavelin, Eirik; Karlsson, Michael

    How does agenda setting work within the hyperlinked Scandinavian news ecology? This paper investigates intermedia agenda setting within and between the local, regional, national and supra-national levels in Sweden, Denmark and Norway; analyses the center/periphery dimensions of hyperlink connecti......, social geography and hyperlinked news agendas in Scandinavia, adding to the research on the political implications of the Internet on national public spheres....

  3. International Center for Arid Land Ecology was established by Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,CAS and University of California,Riverside,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Invited by Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Professor Charles Lois, the vice chancellor of University of California, Riverside, USA, with his colleagues, visited the Institute and went to National Fukang Ecosystem

  4. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  5. What Can Human Geography Offer Climate Change Modelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of Geography may be one of the most prominent and oldest disciplines in the conceptualization of human–environment interactions that integrates elements from both natural and social sciences. Yet, much research on society–environment interactions on climate change reduces human...... conceptual modelling of climate change adaption and mitigation. In other words, geographical representations do matter. In the following we will first reflect upon what I shall call spatio-temporal tides and waves of the human environment theme to examine the methodological grounds on which climate change...

  6. The role of geography in human adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Coop

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Various observations argue for a role of adaptation in recent human evolution, including results from genome-wide studies and analyses of selection signals at candidate genes. Here, we use genome-wide SNP data from the HapMap and CEPH-Human Genome Diversity Panel samples to study the geographic distributions of putatively selected alleles at a range of geographic scales. We find that the average allele frequency divergence is highly predictive of the most extreme F(ST values across the whole genome. On a broad scale, the geographic distribution of putatively selected alleles almost invariably conforms to population clusters identified using randomly chosen genetic markers. Given this structure, there are surprisingly few fixed or nearly fixed differences between human populations. Among the nearly fixed differences that do exist, nearly all are due to fixation events that occurred outside of Africa, and most appear in East Asia. These patterns suggest that selection is often weak enough that neutral processes -- especially population history, migration, and drift -- exert powerful influences over the fate and geographic distribution of selected alleles.

  7. The role of geography in human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, Graham; Pickrell, Joseph K; Novembre, John; Kudaravalli, Sridhar; Li, Jun; Absher, Devin; Myers, Richard M; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Feldman, Marcus W; Pritchard, Jonathan K

    2009-06-01

    Various observations argue for a role of adaptation in recent human evolution, including results from genome-wide studies and analyses of selection signals at candidate genes. Here, we use genome-wide SNP data from the HapMap and CEPH-Human Genome Diversity Panel samples to study the geographic distributions of putatively selected alleles at a range of geographic scales. We find that the average allele frequency divergence is highly predictive of the most extreme F(ST) values across the whole genome. On a broad scale, the geographic distribution of putatively selected alleles almost invariably conforms to population clusters identified using randomly chosen genetic markers. Given this structure, there are surprisingly few fixed or nearly fixed differences between human populations. Among the nearly fixed differences that do exist, nearly all are due to fixation events that occurred outside of Africa, and most appear in East Asia. These patterns suggest that selection is often weak enough that neutral processes -- especially population history, migration, and drift -- exert powerful influences over the fate and geographic distribution of selected alleles.

  8. Does geography or ecology best explain 'cultural' variation among chimpanzee communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Marshack, Joshua L

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been paid to geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior, but few studies have applied quantitative techniques to explain this variation. Here, we apply methods typically utilized in macroecology to explain variation in the putative cultural traits of chimpanzees. We analyzed published data containing 39 behavioral traits from nine chimpanzee communities. We used a canonical correspondence analysis to examine the relative importance of environmental characteristics and geography, which may be a proxy for inter-community gene flow and/or social transmission, for explaining geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior. We found that geography, and longitude in particular, was the best predictor of behavioral variation. Chimpanzee communities in close longitudinal proximity to each other exhibit similar behavioral repertoires, independent of local ecological factors. No ecological variables were significantly related to behavioral variation. These results support the idea that inter-community dispersal patterns have played a major role in structuring behavioral variation. We cannot be certain whether behavioral variation has a genetic basis, is the result of innovation and diffusion, or a combination of the two. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress in the human geography of the Maghreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, K; Lawless, R I

    1987-03-01

    Sutton and Lawless review a selection of the prolific literature on the Maghreb's human geography published from the late 1970s onward. The pedigree of the discipline in Maghreb was established by several notable geographers who lived, researched, and wrote there. Augustin Bernard's writings on rural settlement, his atlas, and study of Algeria are still cited. Jean Despois's regional study with Raynal and his work on Tunisia, together with the detailed rural research of Jean Poncet, provides a particularly rich coverage for that country. Jean Dresch's early work on Morocco exemplified an early critique of the contemporaneous uncritical colonial human geography. The Sahara's fascination also inspired pioneering studies by Robert Capot-Rey. The work of these notables and others provided a solid background of geographical literature on the Maghreb to be supplemented, criticized, and challenged by more recent researchers, sometimes pupils of the above individuals, and increasingly North African by birth. The tradition of general texts on the Maghreb has continued, though increasingly with systematic approaches replacing regional appraisals. The geography of the decolonization of the Maghreb by Isnard has been replaced by a study summarizing recent collaborative work by a team of French geographers. The Saharan extensions of the Maghreb states have often been linked in general works, sometimes being juxtaposed against the Maghreb as in the essays offered to Jean Despois. Lawless and Findlay's collaborative study juxtaposes geographical studies of each country's economic development with political scientists' evaluations of their sociopolitical development. This review limits itself largely to geographers and geographical journals, only occasionally including significant works from other subject areas, and to 1977-1978 publications, with a few notable exceptions. The spatial juxtaposition of contrasting approaches to economic development, liberal market economy

  10. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2014-03-07

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister-non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities.

  11. Geography as destiny? Social and ecological resilience in rangelands of the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Social-ecological systems perspectives focus on the reciprocal relationships between human and natural ecosystem elements and how these interactions determine human well-being, ecological state change, and land use change. In the arid southwestern US, which is dominated...

  12. A Critical Approach to Discipline of Human Geography as an Apparatus for State Hegemony in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the hegemony of political power on the discipline of human geography in Turkey. Throughout the history of the country, human geography curricula have been aligned with the nationalist and hegemonic power politics of state authorities instead of being guided by universal norms, thus ignoring Turkey's sociopolitical and cultural…

  13. A Critical Approach to Discipline of Human Geography as an Apparatus for State Hegemony in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the hegemony of political power on the discipline of human geography in Turkey. Throughout the history of the country, human geography curricula have been aligned with the nationalist and hegemonic power politics of state authorities instead of being guided by universal norms, thus ignoring Turkey's sociopolitical and cultural…

  14. Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Looking Back and Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanegran, David A.; Zeigler, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, AP Human Geography has grown in numbers and spread to almost every state. This article synopsizes the early history of the subject, summarizes the course and the exam, highlights positive impacts on the discipline of geography, and focuses on the following three issues: teachers who come to the course having majored in…

  15. Perspectives on the Development and Future of Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrant, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography faced a number of hurdles that nearly derailed the course before it launched in 2000-2001. A dedicated cadre of geography professionals and high school teachers rose to the challenge and the course remains one of the fastest growing AP courses currently offered by College Board. Seventeen readers and leaders…

  16. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  17. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  18. Ecology and Human Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  19. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frachetti, Michael D.; Smith, C. Evan; Traub, Cynthia M.; Williams, Tim

    2017-03-01

    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient ‘Silk Roads’ across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use ‘flow accumulation’ modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.

  20. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.

    2017-02-03

    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges.

  1. Human geography in the French Institute: new discipline or missed opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staum, M S

    1987-10-01

    The geography section of the Class of Moral and Political Sciences of the French National Institute, which was in existence from December 1795 to January 1803, responded inadequately to the theoretical challenges of Montesquieu, the hygienists, Volney, and Degérando to study thoroughly native peoples to determine the effects of physical geographic conditions on the body and mind. Most geographers had no interest in human geography, and even statistical geography received only superficial discussion. Despite the emergence of the scientific journal, only a few authors partly transcended the stereotypes of the noble-ignoble savage. The only expedition partly planned by the Institute in this period had an ambitious exploration program that precluded a linguistically sophisticated study of native peoples. Bonaparte's dissolution of the Class hindered further opportunities for studying human geography during the Empire.

  2. The Geology of Haiti: An Annotated Bibliography of Haiti’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    sciences, ecology, geomechanics , human geography, and oceanography. The database provides current coverage of almost 2,000 international journals...Geological Abstracts, Ecological Abstracts, International Development Abstracts and Oceanographic Literature Review, Geomechanics Abstracts. See

  3. Using Web-Based GIS in Introductory Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songer, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Advocates for using a geographic information system (GIS) in education assert that GIS improves student learning. However, studies to clarify the relationship between learning and using GIS are still needed. This study examines the effects of using Web-based GIS maps in place of paper maps on students' geography content knowledge and motivation…

  4. Scientific values and research innovations of Human-economic Geography in construction of ecological civilization%人文—经济地理学在生态文明建设中的学科价值与学术创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊杰; 周侃; 孙威; 陈东

    2013-01-01

    The achievements in the forward-looking human-economic geographic studies on the interactions between natural sphere and human sphere as well as the distribution and evolution mechanism of human living and production activities on the earth' s surface have been playing a prominent role in guiding the scientific decision-making and promoting the orderly territorial development. The Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China has put the optimization of spatial development pattern as the primary task of ecological civilization; this provides an unprecedented opportunity of development and huge demand for human-economic geography. Based on the analyses of the microscopic differentiation and humanizing tendency caused by the emphasis on mechanism and process studies, and the requirements of multidisciplinary supporting system for the construction of ecological civilization, this paper discusses the comprehensive values of human-economic geography as a research field, and re-recognizes the basic categories of the subject from the aspects of factors and mechanisms, interface and process, functions and structure, scale and its conversion. Specifically, this paper discusses the topics such as: (1) the Equilibrium Model for the balance between comprehensive benefits of economy, ecology and society and the stereo system of production, distribution and consumption; (2) carrying capacity evaluation method, oriented toward the interaction between human system and natural system; (3) the theory for the emergence of territorial functions and the identification method; (4) the research innovation by which the planar space of territorial functions is incorporated into the theoretical framework of spatial structures. Finally, in response to the challenges from the replacements among different subjects, four aspects of disciplinary development path are put forward for the future, including: paying equal attention to academic and ideological contents, making

  5. GeoHumanities, GIScience and Smart City Lifeworld approaches to geography and the new human condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Charles

    2017-09-01

    The New Human Condition (NHC) is perhaps the largest cognitive challenge in history to human intelligence and agency and concerns our species' ability to cope with the consequences and responsibilities of being the major driver of planetary change in the twenty-first century (Pálsson et al., 2013; Holm et al., 2015). But despite long held assumptions about intra-disciplinary engagements between its "human" and "physical" branches, geography's weakness as a discipline is that it has yet to gather sufficient momentum to collectively shape and implement practical and sustainable climate change policies and actions (Castree, 2014a). However, by considering together the heuristic values of the concepts of the Anthropocene and Planetary Boundaries, the Anglo-American sphere of geography recognizes in either ironic, or unconscious manners that a new strand of environmental determinism (discredited by geographical thought and practice in the early twentieth century) has re-emerged to elide the role of human agency and broadly dominate the discussion of climate change. Mike Hulme (2011, 247) states that "climate determinism" is "a form of analysis and prediction in which climate is first extracted from the matrix of interdependencies that shape human life within the physical world". Within this discourse it is often the biophysical sphere that is employed to explain the course of human behavior; consequently, this dominating perspective threatens to skew our predictions and understandings of future societies, cultures, climates and destinies. Climate change will certainly constrain human agency, but it also creates the potential for geography to play to its intra and inter disciplinary strengths and begin discussing and addressing human-environmental dilemmas in practical and realistic ways; and secondly, seize the climate change crisis as an opportunity to study where, why and for whom global environmental change matters. Firstly, this paper considers a theoretical

  6. LANDSCAPE, PLACE AND REGION: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES FOR ONE HUMAN GEOGRAPHY OF LIVED SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Serpa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It intends to discuss the different theoretical and methodological perspectives for human Geography starting from the work with landscape, place and region concepts pointing to the constitution/consolidation of one human Geography of lived spaces. There will be presented, so preliminary, the different approaches for the concepts of landscape, place and region in human Geography with the priority of the discussion about the possibility of the work with these concepts on also dialectic and phenomenological bases. Landscape, place and region will be presented as epistemological and methodological ways for a geographical approach focused on spatial practices, on spaces of representation and on the representations of space (LEFEBVRE, 2000, what points for the importance of space representations as intrinsic element of space production processes in contemporarily times. It will also search to present the bases of a human Geography of lived spaces presenting it as a cognitive Geography of social and spatial representations that contemplates the complex structures of society representation connecting this discussion with the work with the presented concepts (landscape, place and region.

  7. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  8. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogang; CHEN; Dehu; ZHOU; Hui; LIN

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior,company and government policy,it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  9. Advanced Placement Human Geography and the Annual Meetings of the National Council for Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublett, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the National Council for Geographic Education have been instrumental in the creation, launch, and early success of Advanced Placement Human Geography. Annual meetings of the Council have served as a forum for spreading the word about the course and its follow-up national examination and in helping teachers develop content confidence and…

  10. Reframing Photographic Research Methods in Human Geography: A Long-Term Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a long-term reflection on the introduction of a photographic research project into a third-year undergraduate Human Geography module. The findings indicate that, whilst the students valued the project, it did impact on their overall performance, their evaluation of the module and the ways in which they spoke about it. The paper…

  11. Advanced Placement Human Geography and the Annual Meetings of the National Council for Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublett, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the National Council for Geographic Education have been instrumental in the creation, launch, and early success of Advanced Placement Human Geography. Annual meetings of the Council have served as a forum for spreading the word about the course and its follow-up national examination and in helping teachers develop content confidence and…

  12. Reframing Photographic Research Methods in Human Geography: A Long-Term Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a long-term reflection on the introduction of a photographic research project into a third-year undergraduate Human Geography module. The findings indicate that, whilst the students valued the project, it did impact on their overall performance, their evaluation of the module and the ways in which they spoke about it. The paper…

  13. Teaching across the Divide: Physical and Human Geographies of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Kurt; Neave, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This article critically reflects on our effort to "teach across the divide", by integrating physical and human geography in a new first-year course. We achieved this integration by structuring our course around a series of key events, in order to draw out the interaction of "natural" and "social" forces. After setting…

  14. From The Human-Environment Theme Towards Sustainability – Danish Geography and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2013-01-01

    Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions. In this ar......Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions...... and climate change and how geographers articulate their role and function as knowledge on human-environment interactions changes. The analysis of the geographical education reveal that geographers’ find their discipline contribute considerably to ESD, and thus the human environment theme seems...

  15. Remapping Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Norwine, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Little that occurs in contemporary academic geography will surprise members of the National Association of Scholars, for a large part of the field has joined the other humanities and social sciences in the bawdy saloon of progressive politics, cultural nihilism, and subjective epistemology. That geographers are in there roistering with the…

  16. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  17. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  18. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS AND HUMAN ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MANEA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A complex statistical overview of the economy in a circumstantial manner remains that of the perennial hexagon of major balances, and it is presented in the introduction of thiss paper. As can be seen, the environment (ecosphere or the global equilibrium indicators are a very important signal for the cyclical imbalances and economic developments, and can be significated as indicators of survival (environmental indicators represent a extended category of statistical indicators, from the statistical indicators on protected areas, water resources provided under the degree of development, the water sources and watersheds, surface water quality in watersheds and quality classes, the defoliation the main tree species and all ages, classes of defoliation, to the expenditures for environmental protection. In the first section of the paper some of the major European environmental statistical indicators are detailed, and in the second part the correspondent national statistical indicators are presented through comparision and exposed to a confrontation with the E.U. level, and a final remark underlines the growing importance of environmental statistics and human ecology.

  20. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, we characterized bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy child...

  1. Nothofagus, key genus of plant geography, in time and space, living and fossil, ecology and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    Data are given on the taxonomy and ecology of the genus. Some New Caledonian species grow in or descend to the lowland. Details are provided on the distribution within New Guinea. For dominance of Nothofagus, and Fagaceae in general, it is suggested that possibly symbionts may contribute to this. So

  2. Cultural Geography and Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, James; Gallacher, Lesley Anne

    2011-01-01

    While videogames have been a popular form of entertainment practice for a number of decades, it is only recently that they have been paid much attention by academics. Although there is a burgeoning body of scholarship that deals with videogames in new media and games studies, human geography is only just beginning to offer its own take on the medium and the practices associated with it. This essay outlines ways in which scholars (both within geography and beyond) have traced out the geographi...

  3. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-03-09

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences.

  4. 中国人文地理学研究进展与展望%Updated Progress and Perspectives of the Discipline of Human Geography in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方创琳; 周尚意; 柴彦威; 陆玉麒; 朱竑; 冯健; 刘云刚

    2011-01-01

    response in the evolution process of man-land system, and reinforce the research on human-oriented environ- mental ethics and ecological morality of man-land system. With the rapid development of the national cultural industry and the strategic requirement of cultural construction of a powerful country, we should strengthen the inter-disiciplinary research between cultural geography study and cultural industry promotion, and construct the subject system of cultural geography based on absorbing overseas advanced results. Meanwhile, the theoretical scope and depth of research on behavioral geography should be expanded, and the experimental study should be strengthened. Last but not the least, human geographers should pay attention to the research of New Geopolitics, urban political geography and local political geography, and promote the development of social geography based on the Sixth National Population Census Data. We did this research to promote a faster but sound and sus- tainable development of human geography in China.%本文重点总结了近年来人地关系论、文化地理学、行为地理学、社会地理学和政治地理学等人文地理学的特色分支学科和新兴分支学科的发展现状、研究进展及未来发展展望。通过对国内大量的文献分析和与国外相关研究进展的比较分析后认为,中国人文地理学在理论创新、研究方法、手段革新和实践应用等方面均取得了丰硕的研究成果。表现为:人地关系论作为地理学研究核心的地位得到进一步提升;文化地理研究视野更为开阔,并在转向新文化地理学;行为地理学进入了重要的研究转向与繁荣发展新阶段;政治地理学顺应地缘政治战略需求开始由低迷走向回暖;社会地理学伴随和谐社会建设蓬勃发展。未来中国人文地理学研究的总体趋势是,面向国家战略需求,树立人地和谐的科学发展观,紧跟中国经济社会发展的

  5. Geographies of Production II: Political Economic Geographies: A pluralist direction?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A

    2016-01-01

    Within economic geography, it has been argued that political economy approaches have diminished in both prevalence and influence to the detriment of both the sub-discipline and to human geography as a whole. This report challenges such a perspective, arguing that political economic geographies remains very much vibrant and engaging in contemporary economic geography and in the way in which economic geographers engages with the nature of the contemporary global economy. It argues that the perc...

  6. Teaching Feminist Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda; Bowlby, Sophia

    1983-01-01

    Adopting a feminist perspective on geography should lead to changes in the content and organization of undergraduate courses and teaching methods, particularly in assessing the role of gender relations in human geography and in challenging the male-dominated world of academic research and teaching where women have remained largely invisible.…

  7. Diversity in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    As befitting an evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior, the papers in this special issue of Human Nature cover a diversity of topics in modern and traditional societies. They include the goals of hunting in foraging societies, social bias, cooperative breeding, the impact of war on women, leadership, and social mobility. In combination these contributions demonstrate the utility of selectionist's thinking on a wide variety of topics. While many of the contributions employ standard evolutionary biological approaches such as kin selection, cooperative breeding and the Trivers-Willard model, others examine important human issues such as the problems of trust, the cost of war to women, the characteristics of leaders, and what might be called honest or rule-bound fights. One striking feature of many of the contributions is a novel reexamination of traditional research questions from an evolutionary perspective.

  8. A Lesson Plan for Advanced Placement Human Geography®: A Site Location Exercise for New Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleski, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The lesson described in this article meets several needs for Advanced Placement Human Geography (APHG®) teachers. In the interest of preserving time in the classroom, this lesson is intended to be a capstone assignment, allowing students to synthesize several concepts of the APHG® curriculum, such as demography, economic development, and cultural…

  9. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  10. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  11. Physical geography and the study of human vulnerability due to natural and other hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical geography in Slovenia has achieved a significant level of knowledge on natural and other hazards, after studying these phenomena since 1950s. These extremely complex features are clearly showing the interconnections between the nature and man and the increasing vulnerability of modern societies. The article is based on geographical approach to hazards, which does not consider them as casual events, but as constituent parts of the environment, including very different ways of human adaptation. The rapid development of science and technology have even increased our vulnerability and direct exposure to hazards, what is considered as new challenge to physical geographers in looking for new approaches to increase the possibilities of sustainable 'co-existence' with natural and other hazards.

  12. Interdisciplinarity at the Human-Environment Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Arler, Finn

    2010-01-01

    discussed, including Geography, Human Ecology, Environmental Studies, Environmental Management, Ecological Economics, Sustainability Science and Earth System Science. Key problems of carrying out interdisciplinary research are identified, including differences of both ontological, epistemological...

  13. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota-the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome-nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment. Some of

  14. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT. The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics

  15. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K.; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment

  16. Effects of an Introductory Geography Course on Student Perceptions of Geography at the University of Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlick, Forrest J.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study surveyed students in geography courses at the University of Idaho, investigating perceptions of geography's role in their daily lives, relevance to careers or academics, and parts of their geographic skill. Primarily, white, younger than 20, gender-balanced students in Introduction to Physical Geography and Human Geography courses…

  17. Genetics: A New Landscape for Medical Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens.

  18. Lived spaces in history: a study in human geography in the context of Sangam texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K N

    2010-01-01

    There has been considerable research work on early South India, particularly early Tamilakam, using archaeological, epigraphical and literary sources. Earlier, studies on early Tamilakam was almost exclusively based on the early Tamil texts, called as heroic or bardic poetry. However, a wealth of material has been generated by archaeological exploration, that have unearthed a mass of material from paleolithic, mesolithic, neolithic and the iron age megalithic, bordering on the early historic ages. A number of Tamil Brahmi label inscriptions have also been discovered. However, the largest number of archaeological finds have been megalithic burial sites and habitation sites are only in the process of being discovered. There are also difficulties in corroborating archaeological and epigraphic material with the enormous corpus of early Tamil texts. As a result, there is a tendency to dismiss the early Tamil texts as not conducive to historical analysis. The present article argues that we will still be able to use the material of the early Tamil texts using the tools provided by human geography, and suggests a methodology for making use of the literary material for further explorations in the early history of Tamilakam.

  19. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  20. The Cultural Geography of Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesler, Wilbert M.

    1987-01-01

    This article shows how health care delivery is related to cultural or human geography. This is accomplished by describing health care delivery in terms of 12 popular themes of cultural geography. (JDH)

  1. Geography in High School in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohe; Bradbury, Ian K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that geography occupies a prominent position in the Chinese secondary curriculum. Describes the current course content, which includes both physical and human geography. Concludes by discussing barriers to further development, including lack of qualified staff and poor textbooks. (CFR)

  2. Geography in Higher Education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Fen; Tang, Jianzhong

    1982-01-01

    Chinese geography expanded rapidly after liberation in 1949. Since 1976 there has been a vigorous effort to improve geographical teaching and research. The major problems being tackled include the separation of physical and human geography, the neglect of human geography, a lack of breadth in geographical training, and the low status of geography…

  3. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  4. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  5. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  6. The Ecology of Human Development in Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    In attempting to define the "ecology" of human development, the term's history and connotations are discussed. The ecological approach requires that the person, the environment, and the relations between them be conceptualized in terms of systems, and subsystems within systems. The experimental situation is not limited to being…

  7. Effects of an Introductory Geography Course on Student Perceptions of Geography at the University of Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlick, Forrest J.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study surveyed students in geography courses at the University of Idaho, investigating perceptions of geography's role in their daily lives, relevance to careers or academics, and parts of their geographic skill. Primarily, white, younger than 20, gender-balanced students in Introduction to Physical Geography and Human Geography…

  8. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H; De Leo, Giulio A; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management.

  9. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perez-Saez

    Full Text Available We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management.

  10. The biosphere at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg - a description based on literature concerning climate, physical geography, ecology, land use and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [NaturRaadet, (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    The current safety analysis, SR 97, compares three sites in Sweden. This report compares the biosphere for the three areas, Aespoe, Finnsjoen and Gideaa, which have been studied to describe the conditions at three hypothetical sites, Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. Data from these sites will be used in analysis and to make realistic models of the biosphere development. The report is based on a literature study considering climate, physical geography, vegetation, ecology, land use, environment and population. Data from each site is presented separately and is compared for present conditions and from a future perspective. The locations of the sites along the south-north gradient influences the climate, temperature, vegetation period and precipitation. Aberg has a more humid climate with a longer vegetation period, a higher mean temperature, a higher diversity and a faster turn-over time than Beberg and Ceberg. There is also a difference in land use, where Beberg has the greatest potential for agriculture, because of the soil types and topography. Abergs location in the archipelago makes it very exposed to shore level displacement, compared to Beberg and Ceberg with a higher elevation. The highest population density is found in Aberg, but Beberg has the highest potential for increase. Simplified models made from present and future biosphere conditions, show that the sites have different prerequisite concerning biosphere factors. The parameters that may affect the ecosystem and the biosphere over time are more likely to change in Aberg due to position above sea level, climate, sea level displacement and land use. Biosphere changes are however in a long time perspective hard to predict. The models used in this report are a suggestion on how to evaluate biological data in a more thorough study. 99 refs, 14 figs, 31 tabs

  11. On our best behavior: optimality models in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses problems associated with the use of optimality models in human behavioral ecology. Optimality models are used in both human and non-human animal behavioral ecology to test hypotheses about the conditions generating and maintaining behavioral strategies in populations via natural selection. The way optimality models are currently used in behavioral ecology faces significant problems, which are exacerbated by employing the so-called 'phenotypic gambit': that is, the bet that the psychological and inheritance mechanisms responsible for behavioral strategies will be straightforward. I argue that each of several different possible ways we might interpret how optimality models are being used for humans face similar and additional problems. I suggest some ways in which human behavioral ecologists might adjust how they employ optimality models; in particular, I urge the abandonment of the phenotypic gambit in the human case.

  12. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 ("HPAI-H5N1" has spread broadly in the past decade, and is now the focus of considerable concern. We tested the hypothesis that spatial distributions of HPAI-H5N1 cases are related consistently and predictably to coarse-scale environmental features in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. We used ecological niche models to relate virus occurrences to 8 km resolution digital data layers summarizing parameters of monthly surface reflectance and landform. Predictive challenges included a variety of spatial stratification schemes in which models were challenged to predict case distributions in broadly unsampled areas. Results In almost all tests, HPAI-H5N1 cases were indeed occurring under predictable sets of environmental conditions, generally predicted absent from areas with low NDVI values and minimal seasonal variation, and present in areas with a broad range of and appreciable seasonal variation in NDVI values. Although we documented significant predictive ability of our models, even between our study region and West Africa, case occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula appear to follow a distinct environmental regime. Conclusion Overall, we documented a variable environmental "fingerprint" for areas suitable for HPAI-H5N1 transmission.

  13. Toward measuring the impact of ecological disintegrity on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieswerda, L E; Soskolne, C L; Newman, S C; Schopflocher, D; Smoyer, K E

    2001-01-01

    Ecological integrity refers to the ability of environmental life-support systems to sustain themselves in the face of human-induced impacts. We used a correlational, aggregate-data study design to explore whether life expectancy, as a general measure of population health, is linked to large-scale declines in ecological integrity. Most of the data were obtained from World Resources Institute publications. Selected surrogate measures of ecological integrity and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (as a socioeconomic confounder) were modeled, for the first time, using linear regression techniques with life expectancy as the health outcome. We found a modest relation between ecological integrity and life expectancy, but the direction of the association was inconsistent. When GDP per capita was controlled, the relation between ecological integrity and life expectancy was lost. GDP per capita was the overwhelming predictor of health. Any relation between ecological integrity and health may be mediated by socioeconomic factors. The effect of declines in ecological integrity may be cushioned by the exploitation of ecological capital, preventing a direct association between measures of exposure and outcome. In addition, life expectancy may be too insensitive a measure of health impacts related to ecological decline, and more sensitive measures may need to be developed.

  14. The geography of introgression in a patchy environment and the thorn in the side of ecological speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas BIERNE; Pierre-Alexandre GAGNAIRE; Patrice DAVID

    2013-01-01

    When incompletely isolated taxa coexist in a patchy environment (e.g.mosaic hybrid zones,host-race complexes),patterns of variation may differ between selected traits/genes and neutral markers.While the genetic structure of selected traits/loci tends to coincide with habitat variables (producing Genetic-Environment Association or GEA),genetic differentiation at neutral loci unlinked to any selected locus rather depends on geographic connectivity at a large scale (e.g.IsolationBy-Distance or IBD),although these loci often display GEA at a small scale.This discrepancy has been repeatedly taken as evidence for parallel primary divergence driven by local adaptation.We argue that this interpretation needs to be addressed more thoroughly by considering the altemative hypothesis that speciation was initiated in allopatry and secondary introgression has subsequently erased the signal of past differentiation at neutral loci.We present a model of neutral introgression after secondary contact in a mosaic hybrid zone,which describes how GEAs dissipate with time and how neutral variation self-organizes according to the environmental and geographic structures.We show that although neutral loci can be affected by environmental selection,they are often more affected by history and connectivity:the neutral structure retains the initial geographic separation more than it correlates with the environment during the colonization and introgression phases,and then converges to a migration-drift balance,the most frequent outcome of which is GEA at a local scale but IBD at a large scale.This is the exact pattern usually attributed to parallel ecological speciation.Introgression is heterogeneous in space and depends on the landscape structure (e.g.it is faster in small patches,which are more impacted by immigration).Furthermore,there is no directionality in the association and it is possible to observe reversed GEAs between distant regions.We argue that the history of differentiation should

  15. Are there gender differences in the geography of alcohol-related mortality in Scotland? An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Carol; Mitchell, Richard

    2009-02-16

    There is growing concern about alcohol-related harm, particularly within Scotland which has some of the highest rates of alcohol-related death in western Europe. There are large gender differences in alcohol-related mortality rates in Scotland and in other countries, but the reasons for these differences are not clearly understood. In this paper, we aimed to address calls in the literature for further research on gender differences in the causes, contexts and consequences of alcohol-related harm. Our primary research question was whether the kind of social environment which tends to produce higher or lower rates of alcohol-related mortality is the same for both men and women across Scotland. Cross-sectional, ecological design. A comparison was made between spatial variation in men's and women's age-standardised alcohol-related mortality rates in Scotland using maps, Moran's Index, linear regression and spatial analyses of residuals. Directly standardised mortality rates were derived from individual level records of death registration, 2000-2005 (n = 8685). As expected, men's alcohol-related mortality rate substantially exceeded women's and there was substantial spatial variation in these rates for both men and women within Scotland. However, there was little spatial variation in the relationship between men's and women's alcohol-mortality rates (r2 = 0.73); areas with relatively high rates of alcohol-related mortality for men tended also to have relatively high rates for women. In a small number of areas (8 out of 144) the relationship between men's and women's alcohol-related mortality rates was significantly different. In as far as geographic location captures exposure to social and economic environment, our results suggest that the relationship between social and economic environment and alcohol-related harm is very similar for men and women. The existence of a small number of areas in which men's and women's alcohol-related mortality had an different

  16. Application of Psychology in the History of Human Geography Teaching%心理学在历史人文地理教学中的应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚红

    2012-01-01

    历史人文地理学主要研究历史时期人文地理现象分布、演变及其发展规律,具有较强的学科交叉性,其成熟发展必须注重吸收和借鉴相关学科的研究方法和研究手段。本文通过心理学在历史人文地理教学中的民族地理、社会地理两大领域的应用,尝试探析心理学研究方法在研究和教授历史人文地理学中是一种有效手段。%The historical anthropogeography mainly studies on historical period of human geography phenomenon distribution,evolution and the law of development has a strong interdisciplinary the mature development must pay attention to absorb and learn from related disciplines of research methods and research tools.In this paper,the application of psychology in the history of human geography teaching in the two major areas of the national geography,social geography,try the exploration psychology research method is an effective tool in the study and professor of history anthropogeography.

  17. 地图制图学在人文地理学中的应用及不足%Cartography inHuman Geography and Deficiencies in the Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜斌; 张谦舵; 郭映泽

    2014-01-01

    National Natural Science Foundation and the National Social Science Fund project , thematic maps , I get some experiences , combined with the analysis of the development of human geography in recent years , combined with the development of modern cartog-raphy, as well as modern cartography in the humanities geography in the application , said:cartography in geography application defi-ciencies.Cartography and Geography for the better development of science provide a theoretical basis .%参与国家自然科学基金项目和国家社会科学基金项目,在绘制专题图时,得到了些心得体会,结合分析近些年人文地理学的发展,并结合现代制图学的发展,以及现代制图学在人文地理学中的应用,指出地图制图学在人文地理应用中的不足。为地图制图学和人文地理学更好的发展提供理论依据。

  18. Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Caroline E R; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are changing rapidly the world over through a coalescence of high rates of land-use change, global change and altered disturbance regimes that maintain the ecosystem structure and function of these biomes. Our theme issue brings together the latest research examining the characterization, complex ecology, drivers of change, and human use and ecosystem services of TGBs. Recent advances in ecology and evolution have facilitated a new perspective on these biomes. However, there continues to be controversies over their classification and state dynamics that demonstrate critical data and knowledge gaps in our quantitative understanding of these geographically dispersed regions. We highlight an urgent need to improve ecological understanding in order to effectively predict the sensitivity and resilience of TGBs under future scenarios of global change. With human reliance on TGBs increasing and their propensity for change, ecological and evolutionary understanding of these biomes is central to the dual goals of sustaining their ecological integrity and the diverse services these landscapes provide to millions of people.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are changing rapidly the world over through a coalescence of high rates of land-use change, global change and altered disturbance regimes that maintain the ecosystem structure and function of these biomes. Our theme issue brings together the latest research examining the characterization, complex ecology, drivers of change, and human use and ecosystem services of TGBs. Recent advances in ecology and evolution have facilitated a new perspective on these biomes. However, there continues to be controversies over their classification and state dynamics that demonstrate critical data and knowledge gaps in our quantitative understanding of these geographically dispersed regions. We highlight an urgent need to improve ecological understanding in order to effectively predict the sensitivity and resilience of TGBs under future scenarios of global change. With human reliance on TGBs increasing and their propensity for change, ecological and evolutionary understanding of these biomes is central to the dual goals of sustaining their ecological integrity and the diverse services these landscapes provide to millions of people. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502385

  20. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  1. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Levine

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970-2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.

  2. Considerations in representing human individuals in social ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J.; Teel, Tara L.; Gavin, Michael C.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on how to integrate the human individual into social-ecological systems analysis, and how to improve research on individual thought and action regarding the environment by locating it within the broader social-ecological context. We discuss three key questions as considerations for future research: (1) is human thought conceptualized as a dynamic and adaptive process, (2) is the individual placed in a multi-level context (including within-person levels, person-group interactions, and institutional and structural factors), and (3) is human thought seen as mutually constructed with the social and natural environment. Increased emphasis on the individual will be essential if we are to understand agency, innovation, and adaptation in social-ecological systems.

  3. The diversification of research approaches in human geography in Chinese Mainland%我国人文地理学研究方法多样化问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤茂林

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with the problems facing the Chinese geographical academia from a re-view paper on the issues of the progress and retrospect in geography in Chinese mainland,the paper reviews the related research results, and guides the readers to the methodologi-cal issues of human geography research. Through the retrospect of the development of hu-man geography approaches and philosophies in the Anglophone world, the author comes to a conclusion that the research paradigm and methodology has been diversified since the 1970s. Through the period from the 1970s to the present, geography was in a state of tur-moil. Although Chinese human geographers need not dance to the pipe of the Anglophone counterparts, the diversification of approaches in the Anglophone world can be used as a reference point. Just because of the realization of the limitations of positivist paradigm and reaction,structurism (including Marxism), humanism, feminism, and post-modernism (including poststructurism) appeared and exerted much effect on the research methodologies and par-adigms of human geography in Anglophone world. During this course of methodological diversification, geography lost its traditional core but now has a strong periphery.China, as a giant transitional developing country, has a complex geographical pattern of human activities. This complexity is attributed not only to its long history and giant in-ternal inequality, physically and economically, but also to the market-based social and eco-nomic reforms. The result is that the postmodern issue parallels the modern problem.This situation gives Chinese human geographers an unprecedented opportunity. The relat-ed researches by Chinese human geographers are dominated by empiricism, particularly positivism, and the attention that the researchers paid to the human aspects is not enough.So it is badly needed to diversify the research methodology and approach in order to deepen the researches. The paper discusses the necessity, and gives

  4. A brief introduction to Physical Geography of Arid Land in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A book, Physical Geography of Arid Land in China, mainly edited by Prof. Xi CHEN from Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences has been published by Science Press in July of 2010.

  5. Philosophy and science in geography, XVI-XXI centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Capel

    2016-03-01

    Without losing the critical contributions that the discipline had in the last half century, and the ones that they have been made in various branches of human geography, from the historical to cultural geography.

  6. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  7. Human Dimensions of Coral Reef Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet but are declining because of human activities. Despite general recognition of the human role in the plight of coral reefs, the vast majority of research focuses on the ecological rather than the human dimensions of reef ecosystems, limiting our understanding of social relationships with these environments as well as potential solutions for reef recovery. General frameworks for social-ecological systems (SESs have been advanced, but system-specific approaches are needed to develop a more nuanced view of human-environmental interactions for specific contexts and resource systems, and at specific scales. We synthesize existing concepts related to SESs and present a human dimensions framework that explores the linkages between social system structural traits, human activities, ecosystem services, and human well-being in coral reef SESs. Key features of the framework include social-ecological reciprocity, proximate and underlying dimensions, and the directionality of key relationships and feedback loops. Such frameworks are needed if human dimensions research is to be more fully integrated into studies of ecosystem change and the sustainability of linked SESs.

  8. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  9. Human Ecology and Television in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Klaus

    A human ecological approach to the study of children's television viewing raises questions that researchers have largely neglected. Does television influence the interaction patterns of socializing agents with children and with one another? Are there long-term, psychological consequences of unintegrated and competing influences from television and…

  10. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  11. Cultural Analysis in Geography: A Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, W.

    1981-01-01

    The article offers a description of a one semester college-level course in cultural geography. The outline is based on six themes--cultural analysis in geography, cultural universals, perception of the cultural environment, cultural diffusion, folk culture and popular culture, and humans and the land. (DB)

  12. Multi-level human evolution: ecological patterns in hominin phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Andrea; Pievani, Telmo

    2016-06-20

    Evolution is a process that occurs at many different levels, from genes to ecosystems. Genetic variations and ecological pressures are hence two sides of the same coin; but due both to fragmentary evidence and to the influence of a gene-centered and gradualistic approach to evolutionary phenomena, the field of paleoanthropology has been slow to take the role of macro-evolutionary patterns (i.e. ecological and biogeographical at large scale) seriously. However, several very recent findings in paleoanthropology stress both climate instability and ecological disturbance as key factors affecting the highly branching hominin phylogeny, from the earliest hominins to the appearance of cognitively modern humans. Allopatric speciation due to geographic displacement, turnover-pulses of species, adaptive radiation, mosaic evolution of traits in several coeval species, bursts of behavioral innovation, serial dispersals out of Africa, are just some of the macro-evolutionary patterns emerging from the field. The multilevel approach to evolution proposed by paleontologist Niles Eldredge is adopted here as interpretative tool, and has yielded a larger picture of human evolution that integrates different levels of evolutionary change, from local adaptations in limited ecological niches to dispersal phenotypes able to colonize an unprecedented range of ecosystems. Changes in global climate and Earth's surface most greatly affected human evolution. Precisely because it is cognitively hard for us to appreciate the long-term common destiny we share with the whole biosphere, it is particularly valuable to highlight the accumulating evidence that human evolution has been deeply affected by global ecological changes that transformed our African continent of origin.

  13. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-12-27

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.

  14. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Мirko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation. Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as methodological paradigm, and the concept of cultural landscape as the essence of classical geography of culture and civilization. After this part are researched specific characteristics of certain academic schools and methodological perspectives in cultural geography. Postmodern paradigm and essence of "new" cultural geography are in the main focus. Postmodernism is changing the meaning of the basic concepts in cultural geography, which are analyzed in the introduction, such as space, culture, cultural region, cultural landscape and others. "New" cultural geography reassessed social and moral issues associated with the characteristics of the postmodern era. In this regard, methodological paradigm must be changed. This ascertainment is based on the interpretation of humanistic geography, where the emphasis is on the interpretation of cultural symbols, causal link and the "spirit of place" (Spiritus Loci. In accordance with modern conceptions of human in psychological notion, there are at least three theoretical directions, which find resonance in the appropriate cultural geography: behaviorism, psychoanalytic concept and cognitive concept - gestaltism and geography of perception. In conclusion is emphasized the need of finding a dialectical unity in "classical" and "new" cultural geography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  15. Replacing positivism in medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David

    2005-06-01

    Revisiting debates about philosophical approaches in medical geography suggests that logical positivism may have been prematurely discarded. An analysis of authoritative texts in medical geography and their sources in human geography shows that logical positivism has been conflated with Comtean positivism, science, empiricism, quantification, science politics, scientism and so on, to produce the "standard version" of the all-purpose pejorative "positivism", which it is easy to dismiss as an evil. It is argued that the standard version fails to do justice to logical positivism, being constructed on sources which are at some distance from the logical positivist movement itself. An alternative approach is then developed, an historically and geographically situated interpretation of logical positivism as a deliberately and knowingly constructed oppositional epistemology within an oppressive and anti-scientific culture predicated on idealist intuitionism. Contrasting the standard version with this alternative reading of logical positivism suggests that much may have been lost in human, and thus, medical geography, by throwing out the logical positivist baby with the "positivism" bath water. It is concluded that continuing to unpack the standard version of logical positivism may identify benefits from a more nuanced appreciation of logical positivism, but it is premature to take these to the level of detailed impacts on the kinds of medical geographies that could be done or the ways of doing them.

  16. The Geography of Need: Identifying Human Service Needs in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Miller, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Given the recent economic crisis and the accompanying funding cuts across social service programs, it is helpful to observe the geographic distribution of demographic characteristics and economic conditions that together create a human service needs profile. The authors provide a conceptual framework for a systematic analysis of county…

  17. The Geography of Need: Identifying Human Service Needs in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Miller, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Given the recent economic crisis and the accompanying funding cuts across social service programs, it is helpful to observe the geographic distribution of demographic characteristics and economic conditions that together create a human service needs profile. The authors provide a conceptual framework for a systematic analysis of county…

  18. Conceptualizing Human Microbiota: From Multicelled Organ to Ecological Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Foxman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of a typical, healthy human contains 10 times as many cells as the human body and incorporates bacteria, viruses, archea, protozoans, and fungi. This diverse microbiome (the collective genomes of the microbial symbionts that inhabit a human host is essential for human functioning. We discuss the unstated assumptions and implications of current conceptualizations of human microbiota: (1 a single unit that interacts with the host and the external environment; a multicelled organ; (2 an assemblage of multiple taxa, but considered as a single unit in its interactions with the host; (3 an assemblage of multiple taxa, which each interacts with the host and the environment independently; and (4 a dynamic ecological community consisting of multiple taxa each potentially interacting with each other, the host, and the environment. Each conceptualization leads to different predictions, methodologies, and research strategies.

  19. The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PW Bateman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to human sexual behaviour from a biological standpoint and to indicate where the ambiguous areas are. We outline the evolutionary selective pressures that are likely to have influenced human behaviour and mate choice in the past and in the present; ecological features that influence such things as degree of parental care and polygamy; and the associated physiology of human sexuality. Then they end with a discussion of �abnormal� sexuality.

  20. I Persevered with my Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this personal reflection, I trace some of the interconnections between Stuart Hall’s work and the ‘new’ cultural geography. In the context of my own intellectual biography, and indebted to Hall and those geographers whose work has been influenced by him, I am interested in ‘routes’ rather than ‘roots’, and in the traffic between cultural studies and ‘critical’ human geography. Drawing on a selection of Hall’s work and a number of published interviews, I reflect on several moments of traffi...

  1. Differences between physical and human process simulation in geography:Empirical analysis of two cases%自然过程与人文过程模拟之差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhipeng; ZHANG Jin; LIU Weidong; WU Hong

    2012-01-01

    @@%Physical geography and human geography are the principal branches of the geographical sciences.Physical process simulation and human process simulation in geography are both quantitative methods used to recover past events and even to forecast events based on precisely determined parameters.There are four differences between physical process simulation and human process simulation in geography,which we summarize with two specific cases,one of which is about a typhoon's development and its precipitation,and the other of which is regarding the evolution of three industrial structures in China.The differences focus on four aspects:the main factors of the research framework; the knowledge background of the systematic analysis framework; the simulation data sources and quantitative method; and the core of the study object and the method of forecast application.As the human-land relationship is the key ideology of the man-land system,the relationship between the physical and human factors is becoming increasingly close at present.Physical process simulation and human process simulation in geography will exhibit crossing and blending in the future to reflect the various geographical phenomena better.

  2. The Ecology of Seamounts: Structure, Function, and Human Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I.; Rogers, Alex D.; O'Hara, Timothy D.; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and function of benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.

  3. Toward a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David

    2014-09-01

    Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection.

  4. Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook

    2011-11-01

    Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur.

  5. Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2017-01-01

    Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of ‘contexts’, including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences. The goal of this special issue, and this introductory paper, is to promote and expand this nascent integration. We first develop predictions as to which human contexts might cause the strongest and most consistent directional selection, the greatest changes in evolutionary potential, the greatest genetic (as opposed to plastic) changes and the greatest effects on evolutionary diversification. We then develop predictions as to the contexts where human-induced evolutionary changes might have the strongest effects on the population dynamics of the focal evolving species, the structure of their communities, the functions of their ecosystems and the benefits and costs for human societies. These qualitative predictions are intended as a rallying point for broader and more detailed future discussions of how human influences shape evolution, and how that evolution then influences species traits, biodiversity, ecosystems and humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences’. PMID:27920373

  6. Analysis of Human Geography Articles Published on the Three Chinese Authoritative Geography Journals in Recent 30 Years%30年来中国地理学综合学术期刊中人文地理学论文载文分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓斌; 曹雪; 周寅康; 黄贤金; 高怡

    2012-01-01

    20世纪80年代以来,中国人文地理学实现了全面复兴。采用文献计量学分析方法,对1980~2010年《地理学报》、《地理科学》和《地理研究》3个中国地理学综合学术期刊所刊载的文献进行统计,以人文地理学论文为对象,分别从载文的时空特点、研究领域、研究方法、研究机构等方面进行综合分析,梳理了中国人文地理学的发展脉络和研究热点,并对后期人文地理学的发展趋势进行了展望。%As is well-known,ever since the 1980s,Human Geography in China has achieved comprehensive rehabilitation and it maintains an extraordinary growth speed.Bibliometrics methods is used in this paper to collect statistics of literature which have been published on the three Chinese authoritative geographical journals "Acta Geographica Sinica","Scientia Geographica Sinica " and"Geographical Research"from 1980 to 2010.With the object of the articles in Human geography,features of the articles and authors which include the space-time characteristics,research field,methods,and institutes are all analyzed comprehensively.This paper combines the development process and the research hotspot of Human Geography in China and prospects the trend of human geography development in the later period.Results show that Chinese Human Geography emphasizes on the practical applicability and has intensive exchanges as well as intersects with other subjects.What’s more,a mature system of Human Geography authors of the three journals is taking shape.However,there are several shortcomings during the fast improvement,such as the disequilibrium in the development of sub-subjects and distribution of researchers,and lack of guidance theories and innovative methods and models.Only by solving these problems can China’s Human Geography keep a rapid and sound development.

  7. [Human ecology. Which is the main challenge to Russia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    The main direction in the study of human ecology in Russia today is to provide evidence for how to maintain environmental balance in the biosphere of the Earth, though the above factor also exerts a constantly growing negative impact on the health and life quality of the population. During the years of the reforms in the country, all the principal medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes. To overcome the medicodemographic crisis should be now a priority problem to be solved in human ecology in Russia. The crisis was mainly caused by the "shock" strategy of the reforms. To eliminate the negative medicodemographic consequences, a strong working motivation should be firstly created for the population, that is to create such conditions that allow people to earn well-deserved living by honest work. All this requires the development of small business, democratization of private property forms of private property, and changes in the Government's policy concerning work payment. Medical scientists should clarify how biological mechanisms, that is negative social, economic and psychological factors, cause a drastic increase in mortality, particularly in the able-bodied population. This process is likely to involve three regulation levels; the central nervous system (dynamic stereotype break, as called by I. P. Pavlov), the neuroendocrine system (great stress, as described by G. Selye), molecular-cellular free radical processes (phenoptosis, as outlined by V. P. Skulachev). Five factors that most negatively affect human health and demographic processes were identified.

  8. Acoustic environments matter: Synergistic benefits to humans and ecological communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Clinton D; Newman, Peter; Taff, B Derrick; White, Crow; Monz, Christopher A; Levenhagen, Mitchell; Petrelli, Alissa R; Abbott, Lauren C; Newton, Jennifer; Burson, Shan; Cooper, Caren B; Fristrup, Kurt M; McClure, Christopher J W; Mennitt, Daniel; Giamellaro, Michael; Barber, Jesse R

    2017-12-01

    Protected areas are critical locations worldwide for biodiversity preservation and offer important opportunities for increasingly urbanized humans to experience nature. However, biodiversity preservation and visitor access are often at odds and creative solutions are needed to safeguard protected area natural resources in the face of high visitor use. Managing human impacts to natural soundscapes could serve as a powerful tool for resolving these conflicting objectives. Here, we review emerging research that demonstrates that the acoustic environment is critical to wildlife and that sounds shape the quality of nature-based experiences for humans. Human-made noise is known to affect animal behavior, distributions and reproductive success, and the organization of ecological communities. Additionally, new research suggests that interactions with nature, including natural sounds, confer benefits to human welfare termed psychological ecosystem services. In areas influenced by noise, elevated human-made noise not only limits the variety and abundance of organisms accessible to outdoor recreationists, but also impairs their capacity to perceive the wildlife that remains. Thus soundscape changes can degrade, and potentially limit the benefits derived from experiences with nature via indirect and direct mechanisms. We discuss the effects of noise on wildlife and visitors through the concept of listening area and demonstrate how the perceptual worlds of both birds and humans are reduced by noise. Finally, we discuss how management of soundscapes in protected areas may be an innovative solution to safeguarding both and recommend several key questions and research directions to stimulate new research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Geography of Uruguay for Elementary Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper is part of a larger study, conducted as part of a Christa McAuliffe Fellowship research project, "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions." The study compared the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. The project was…

  10. Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, S

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.

  11. Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, William R; Brown, James H; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J; Moses, Melanie; Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2012-02-01

    Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach-using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach.

  12. 人文地理国情综合统计分析指标体系初探%Human Geography Conditions Comprehensive Statistical Analysis of Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国; 张晶

    2015-01-01

    The geographical situation of statistical analysis is an important part of geographic condition monitoring, at present only in the basic statistical analysis stage, comprehensive statistical analysis and the corresponding index system and there is no corresponding standard.Therefore, this paper related human geography conditions comprehensive statistical analysis index system for construction, the establishment of index system of evaluation of comprehensive statistical analysis of the classification of human geography condition factor has the practicability and applicability, to lay a solid foundation for later statistical analysis.%地理国情统计分析是地理国情监测的重要组成部分,目前的研究仅限于基本统计分析阶段,综合统计分析及其相应的指标体系尚无相应的标准。因此,本文对相关人文地理国情综合统计分析指标体系进行构建,建立具有实用性与适用性的人文地理国情要素综合统计分析评价的分类指标体系,为后期的统计分析奠定基础。

  13. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  14. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber-Hnatiw, Susannah; Rukundo, Belise; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Akoubi, Hayfa; Al-Bizri, Hend; Aliu, Adelekan F.; Ambeaghen, Tanyi U.; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bahar, Irmak; Baird, Alexandra; Begum, Fatema; Ben Soussan, Hélène; Blondeau-Éthier, Virginie; Bordaries, Roxane; Bramwell, Helene; Briggs, Alicia; Bui, Richard; Carnevale, Matthew; Chancharoen, Marisa; Chevassus, Talia; Choi, Jin H.; Coulombe, Karyne; Couvrette, Florence; D'Abreau, Samantha; Davies, Meghan; Desbiens, Marie-Pier; Di Maulo, Tamara; Di Paolo, Sean-Anthony; Do Ponte, Sabrina; dos Santos Ribeiro, Priscyla; Dubuc-Kanary, Laure-Anne; Duncan, Paola K.; Dupuis, Frédérique; El-Nounou, Sara; Eyangos, Christina N.; Ferguson, Natasha K.; Flores-Chinchilla, Nancy R.; Fotakis, Tanya; Gado Oumarou H D, Mariam; Georgiev, Metodi; Ghiassy, Seyedehnazanin; Glibetic, Natalija; Grégoire Bouchard, Julien; Hassan, Tazkia; Huseen, Iman; Ibuna Quilatan, Marlon-Francis; Iozzo, Tania; Islam, Safina; Jaunky, Dilan B.; Jeyasegaram, Aniththa; Johnston, Marc-André; Kahler, Matthew R.; Kaler, Kiranpreet; Kamani, Cedric; Karimian Rad, Hessam; Konidis, Elisavet; Konieczny, Filip; Kurianowicz, Sandra; Lamothe, Philippe; Legros, Karina; Leroux, Sebastien; Li, Jun; Lozano Rodriguez, Monica E.; Luponio-Yoffe, Sean; Maalouf, Yara; Mantha, Jessica; McCormick, Melissa; Mondragon, Pamela; Narayana, Thivaedee; Neretin, Elizaveta; Nguyen, Thi T. T.; Niu, Ian; Nkemazem, Romeo B.; O'Donovan, Martin; Oueis, Matthew; Paquette, Stevens; Patel, Nehal; Pecsi, Emily; Peters, Jackie; Pettorelli, Annie; Poirier, Cassandra; Pompa, Victoria R.; Rajen, Harshvardhan; Ralph, Reginald-Olivier; Rosales-Vasquez, Josué; Rubinshtein, Daria; Sakr, Surya; Sebai, Mohammad S.; Serravalle, Lisa; Sidibe, Fily; Sinnathurai, Ahnjana; Soho, Dominique; Sundarakrishnan, Adithi; Svistkova, Veronika; Ugbeye, Tsolaye E.; Vasconcelos, Megan S.; Vincelli, Michael; Voitovich, Olga; Vrabel, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Wasfi, Maryse; Zha, Cong Y.; Gamberi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics. PMID:28769880

  15. Analysis of Integration Mode of Human Resources Development and Cultural Ecology in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peihong; Zhang Shiqi

    2012-01-01

    People and culture coexist and human resources development and regional cultural ecology integrate, The present thesis for the first time puts forward the integration mode of human resources development and cultural ecology, argues that personnel innovation should be attracted by motive injection, open culture, resources integration, culture dilution, thinking blending and people-orientation and discusses the transmission mechanism for functions of integration mode of human resources development and cultural ecology from the aspects of cultural values, living styles and cultural industry.

  16. Association between living environment and human oral viral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Ly, Melissa; Boehm, Tobias; Naidu, Mayuri; Salzman, Julia; Pride, David T

    2013-09-01

    The human oral cavity has an indigenous microbiota known to include a robust community of viruses. Very little is known about how oral viruses are spread throughout the environment or to which viruses individuals are exposed. We sought to determine whether shared living environment is associated with the composition of human oral viral communities by examining the saliva of 21 human subjects; 11 subjects from different households and 10 unrelated subjects comprising 4 separate households. Although there were many viral homologues shared among all subjects studied, there were significant patterns of shared homologues in three of the four households that suggest shared living environment affects viral community composition. We also examined CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) loci, which are involved in acquired bacterial and archaeal resistance against invading viruses by acquiring short viral sequences. We analyzed 2 065 246 CRISPR spacers from 5 separate repeat motifs found in oral bacterial species of Gemella, Veillonella, Leptotrichia and Streptococcus to determine whether individuals from shared living environments may have been exposed to similar viruses. A significant proportion of CRISPR spacers were shared within subjects from the same households, suggesting either shared ancestry of their oral microbiota or similar viral exposures. Many CRISPR spacers matched virome sequences from different subjects, but no pattern specific to any household was found. Our data on viromes and CRISPR content indicate that shared living environment may have a significant role in determining the ecology of human oral viruses.

  17. Are the classical historical geography of the Byzantine world and Gis technology a contradiction? On the usage of contemporary technologies in the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović St. Mihailo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the latest developments in the field of Digital Humanities. It indicates in which ways these technologies are already used in the historical and geographical science throughout the world and how they could be integrated systematically into Byzantine Studies. In the first part of the article international projects, which are based on GIS (Geographic Information Systems, and their links in the World Wide Web are presented. In the second part the author shows on the basis of his scholarly results on the historical geography of Byzantine Macedonia, how medieval written sources can be transferred into digital format in order to achieve a higher level of spatial data analysis. The neglect of this important and recent scholarly approach in the 21st century could lead to the marginalisation of Byzantine Studies in general, and of the historical geography of the Byzantine Empire in particular. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177015: Hrišćanska kultura na Balkanu u srednjem veku: Vizantijsko carstvo, Srbi i Bugari od 9. do 15. veka

  18. 洛杉矶学派及其对人文地理学的影响%Los Angeles School and Its Impacts on Disciplines of Human Geography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌栋; 魏旭红; 王婷

    2015-01-01

    Emerging at the end of 1980s, urban theorists, cultural critics and social commentators have devoted a tremendous amount of attention to the study of Los Angeles. This attention derives from the complex theoreti-cal and practical urban issues in Los Angeles, and also from the continuous competition among the power of globalization, which obviously influenced the general economic order all over the world. Los Angeles School (LA School) is constructed by a group of geography scholars, such as Edward W. Soja, Allen J. Scott, Michael J. Dear, Mike Davis et al., to generalize their systematic academic points of view. This article aims to make a de-tailed and systematic introduction to the LA school, and tries to sort out its impacts on many disciplines in the field of human geography. According to the summarization, this article supports that the LA school is based on Soja’s social-spatial dialectics theory. This theory strongly suggests that spatiality also plays a big role in the formation of social relations when the basic production mode in the era and keeps unchanged. Under this theo-retical framework, we can see that crisis and reconstruction are just the dialectic’s projection in reality, which means that crisis tends to cause urban reconstruction, and the reconstruction may lead to some new urban crisis at the same time. Los Angeles metropolitan area has provided a vivid interpretation and reasonably exemplified LA school’s basic academic points of view, as well gives us an accurate demonstration of the circulation be-tween urban crisis and reconstruction. Many views of LA School have already made an important influence on the branches of human geography, such as economic geography, urban geography and social geography, provid-ing a lot of important academic hypothesis and ideas for follow-up researches. The main contribution that the LA school has made includes the significant enrichment on the core and traditional idea of the relationship be

  19. The Geology of Burma (Myanmar): An Annotated Bibliography of Burma’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ecology, geomechanics , human geography, and oceanography. The database provides current coverage of almost 2,000 international journals, including...Oceanographic Literature Review, Geomechanics Abstracts. See: www.elsevier.com GeoRef: see: American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA, listed above...International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts. 2. Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages A27-A27. ISSN: 0020-7624. OCLC

  20. Neglecting human ecology: The common element of global health failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to control malaria, AIDS, and maternal mortality in Africa have been woefully inadequate. This has involved adopting an almost exclusively technical preventive approach in the context of AIDS even though emphasizing human behavior holds the most promise. But on the other hand, it has also involved abandoning highly effective technical measures, as in the case of malaria. This suggests that the failure, at root, is anthropological in nature. The common element, it is argued here, is the failure to place the human ecology resolutely above destructive ideologies. Sound public-health approaches have been spurned in favor of predetermined preventive approaches in the service of ideological aims rather than of man and the common good. This article examines the ideological forces that have ultimately driven global health policy, and proposes that a more humane anthropology would be beneficial. Lay Summary: The scourges of malaria, AIDS, and maternal mortality have persisted in Africa, even though sensible and available means of addressing these epidemics, when stressed, have met with success. The reluctance to consistently emphasize the soundest public-health approaches—whether technical or behavioral in nature—indicate that global health policy has to a large extent been improperly concerned with advancing ideological agendas. The challenge we face today is not primarily technical but philosophical; the healing professions would perform a service by cultivating a higher view of man and an appreciation for objective moral truths that protect him. PMID:27833184

  1. Changing Horizons in Geography Education

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Changing Horizons in Geography Education considers and develops aspects of the Bologna Process through the three pillars of operation. These were Europeanisation, Professional Development and Exciting Geography.

  2. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions.

  3. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  4. Creation of of the National GIS system «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia: Spatial Analysis, Assessment and Modeling»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg; Gilyazov, Albert; Ivanov, Maksim; Kharchenko, Sergei; Maltsev, Kirill; Mozzherin, Vadim; Muharamova, Svetlana; Shynbergenov, Erlan

    2016-04-01

    Problem-oriented geographic information system and geoportal «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia» is proposed to form the base for investigations concerned to assessment and prognosis of geo-ecological state of river basins belonging to the European Russia (approx. 4 million of sq. km. in total). This large part of Russia concentrates the predominant part of country's population, industrial and agricultural potential. Actuality of assessment and prognosis of the environmental state for the chosen territory is caused by the increasing anthropogenic influence onto the basin geosystems of Russia and triggering negative riverbed-erosion processes, shifts of river runoff regimes, and lack of drinking water resources. These problems are demanding for examination of the response of the basin geosystems from various landscape zones to the anthropogenic impact, and the climate change, for understanding, predicting and managing streamflow. Assessment of river basins and changes occurring in them is based on a complex spatial-temporal analysis of long-term monitoring data, the use of remote sensing and maps of state surveys. All available geo-information will be integrated into the multi-function, problem-oriented GIS. Proposed approaches of investigation: cartographic and geoinformational methods, automated procedures of territory zoning, automated procedures of interpretation of remote sensing images, modern statistical methods of analysis (geostatistics, statistical and mathematical models). Study area: the European Part of Russia (except for mountainous areas). Scale studies (level of spatial detail): Regional (corresponding to a scale 1: 1 000 000). The object of study: Geosystems river basins. Subject of study: - The development of GIS; - Analysis of the spatial and temporal relationships of river runoff; - Quantitative assessment of the current geo-ecological state of European Russia river basins. Scientific novelty of

  5. Geography Makes a Comeback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPike, Elizabeth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents two lesson plans exemplifying analytical geography. The first lesson shows how medical geography can be used to track the silent route of cholera. The second lesson about the Bermuda Triangle is an exercise in fundamental mapping skills and teaches children a valuable lesson in double-checking facts. (RLC)

  6. The Practices of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    Sarah Bednarz begins by thanking Rebecca Theobald for the invitation to contrubute to this issue of "The Geography Teacher"("TGT"). As a member of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) Publications Committee and coeditor of the "Journal of Geography," Bednarz confesses that she was not favorably…

  7. Let's Sell Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, R. E.; Gritzner, C. F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This 1963 article, reprinted from the "Journal of Geography" lamented the lack of geographic education. Urged geographers to promote the subject and ensure its place in the curriculum. Claimed school administrators failed to understand geography's vital role. Discussed current status of the field and mentioned poor student test scores. (NL)

  8. Lafayette Geography Institute, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    This document contains 7 geography lesson plans: (1) "Can You Give Me Directions to the Game?" by Tim Robison (uses Geographic Information Systems to establish directions to a place; grades 6-8); (2) "Crossing China by Sampan" by Marcie Ritchie (examines the role of geography in communication throughout China; grade 6); (3) "Indiana Tornado…

  9. Development of population geography from antropogeography to spatial-analitical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spasovski Milena; Šantić Danica

    2013-01-01

    Population geography is a subdiscipline of Human geography and studies the distribution, concentration and density of population over the terestrial surface, as well as differences in population size, changes and characteristics, like structures, migrations, activity etc, among some places present compared to others. Population geography has had a perscientific stage as long as human history. First modern scientific treatis of population in geography was th...

  10. Geography: Key to World Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Delineates the nature of applied geography, asserting that geography links the natural and social sciences. Underscores geography's role in data analysis and problem solving on a global scale. Traces the discipline's history. Maps geography's status in higher education institutions. Discusses new technologies used by geographers. Summarizes career…

  11. Responsible geographies and geographies of response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    This dissertation engages with Danish University geographers at work and their explication of the role of geography in shaping socio-environmental debates in an era of the anthropocene. Situating sustainability concepts in a historygeographical context the dissertation examines responses and resp......This dissertation engages with Danish University geographers at work and their explication of the role of geography in shaping socio-environmental debates in an era of the anthropocene. Situating sustainability concepts in a historygeographical context the dissertation examines responses...... in higher education literature. The methodological framework is based on the social nature approach that tangles these quite distinct epistemological communities by consulting the socio-natures produced. It is concluded that though geographers find sustainability themes important to geography......, sustainability is more often implicit than it is explicit. This produces a number of dilemmas and contradictions since geographers both seek to distance themselves from produced politics while at the same time elucidating them. Geographies of response and responsibilities address the battleground over...

  12. Demography and ecology drive variation in cooperation across human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti; Mace, Ruth

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies argue that cross-cultural variation in human cooperation supports cultural group selection models of the evolution of large-scale cooperation. However, these studies confound cultural and environmental differences between populations by predominantly sampling one population per society. Here, we test the hypothesis that behavioral variation between populations is driven by environmental differences in demography and ecology. We use a public goods game played with money and a naturalistic measure of behavior involving the distribution of salt, an essential and locally valued resource, to demonstrate significant variation in levels of cooperation across 16 discrete populations of the same small-scale society, the Pahari Korwa of central India. Variation between these populations of the same cultural group is comparable to that found between different cultural groups in previous studies. Demographic factors partly explain this variation; age and a measure of social network size are associated with contributions in the public goods game, while population size and the number of adult sisters residing in the population are associated with decisions regarding salt. That behavioral variation is at least partly contingent on environmental differences between populations questions the existence of stable norms of cooperation. Hence, our findings call for reinterpretation of cross-cultural data on cooperation. Although cultural group selection could theoretically explain the evolution of large-scale cooperation, our results make clear that existing cross-cultural data cannot be taken as empirical support for this hypothesis.

  13. MODERN MILITARY GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Bezuidenhout

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Military Geography is a new text that explores the relationship between geography and military conflict. As such, it covers many different scenarios and operational theatres and brings perspective to the link between local topography, hydrographical settings, climate, coastal conditions and military operations. The text goes further by examining the influence of secondary factors, which include, biological, health and environmental issues on military operations. The unique interaction between physical conditions and the geopolitical realities of different geographical settings are well illustrated. This book is therefore an excellent addition to the fields of military geography and military history, as well as other related military disciplines.

  14. Geography and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Corna Pellegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests that Tourism and Geography are closely intertwined, because tourists are in search of experience and geographer has as its main purpose the pursuit of knowledge. Models and hypotheses need always to be verified in theterritorial context of daily fieldwork, geographical interpretation and travel experience, were Geography and Tourism entwined in reciprocal relationship of personal attitude, nature, and field research. Environmental responsibility is another and common field were Geography can change and develop Tourism in the same mutual support in a continuous and mutual way. The case studies support it fully.

  15. Several Theoretical Issues on Innovation Geography%创新地理学研究的几个理论问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕拉昌; 黄茹; 廖倩

    2016-01-01

    In the 1920s, Schumpeter proposed the theory of Innovation, but this theory did not arouse the atten-tion by mainstream economists until 1950s-1960s. Though the space research of innovation had also aroused the concern of the geographers during that period, it failed to be the main areas of geography study. Since the 1980s, with "spatial turn" of human geography and emerging of knowledge economy, innovation geography has emerged as an important research area of geography, however, the research on the basic theory of innova-tion geography is still very limited, and that whether innovation geography as an independent subject is still un-der debating, therefore, those important issues concerned the discipline of innovation geography, such as the re-search object, discipline nature and tasks need to be examined further. This article argues that:Innovation Ge-ography is an independent subject studying relationship between human's innovation activities and geographi-cal environment. The innovation activities of human beings as the most important aspect of human activities have great significances to establishing the intelligent human-earth relationship system. As a branch subject of human geography, innovation geography has cross-discipline nature, because it has close relationship with the branch subject of human geography and other subjects such as political science, management science, econom-ics, policy science, urban planning and so on. We conclude the main tasks of innovation geography as follows:1) The basic theory of innovation geography;2) the regional distribution and combination of innovation ele-ments such as talents, capital, technology, etc.;3) the examination and evaluation of Innovation Milieu and in-novation ecology and evaluation;4) the survey of innovation geography and the study of the space pattern and regional effect of innovation;5) the study of innovation links, innovation networks and innovation cluster;6) the study of multi-scale innovation

  16. Multiple Cultures of Doing Geography Facilitate Global Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to explain why geography is a prime discipline for analysing globalisation and a multicultural view of Global Studies. The generic approach of human geography to first select an appropriate methodology is taken as a key approach. Design/methodology/approach: Concepts from aggregate disciplines such as history, economics,…

  17. "Publish or Perish" as citation metrics used to analyze scientific output in the humanities: International case studies in economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the most commonly used source of bibliometric data is the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge, in particular the (Social) Science Citation Index and the Journal Citation Reports, which provide the yearly Journal Impact Factors. This database used for the evaluation of researchers is not advantageous in the humanities, mainly because books, conference papers, and non-English journals, which are an important part of scientific activity, are not (well) covered. This paper presents the use of an alternative source of data, Google Scholar, and its benefits in calculating citation metrics in the humanities. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of Google Scholar generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the humanities. This presentation compares and analyzes some international case studies with ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. The fields of economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history are focused on to illustrate the differences of results between these two databases. To search for relevant publications in the Google Scholar database, the use of "Publish or Perish" and of CleanPoP, which the author developed to clean the results, are compared.

  18. Incorporating the gut microbiota into models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research.

  19. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  20. "Lesbian Migrants in the Gentrified Valley" and "Other" Geographies of Rural Gentrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren P.; Holt, Louise

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the migration and cultural consumption practices of lesbian households within processes of rural change. Taking forward Phillips' (2004. Progress in Human Geography 28, 5-30) discussion of neglected geographies of rural gentrification, and building upon Halfacree's (2001. International Journal of Population Geography 7,…

  1. Confluence of arts, humanities, and science at sites of long-term ecological inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, ecology, the arts, and humanities diverged, but are now converging again, especially at sites of long-term, place-based ecological inquiry. This convergence has been inspired in part by the works of creative, boundary-spanning individuals and the long-standing examples of artshumanities programs in intriguing landscapes, such as artist and writer...

  2. Ecological impact of MCB3837 on the normal human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Dalhoff, Axel; Bäckström, Tobias; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2014-08-01

    MCB3837 is a novel, water-soluble, injectable prodrug that is rapidly converted to the active substance MCB3681 in vivo following intravenous (i.v.) administration. Both MCB3837 and MCB3681 are oxazolidinone-quinolone hybrid molecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of MCB3681 on the human skin, nose, oropharyngeal and intestinal microbiota following administration of MCB3837. Twelve healthy male subjects received i.v. MCB3837 (6 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. Skin, nose, saliva and faecal samples were collected on Day -1 (pre dose), during administration on Days 2 and 5, and post dose on Days 8, 12 and 19. Micro-organisms were identified to genus level. No measurable concentrations of MCB3681 were found in any saliva samples or in the faecal samples on Day -1. On Day 2, 10 volunteers had faecal MCB3681 concentrations between 16.5 mg/kg faeces and 275.1mg/kg faeces; no MCB3681 in faeces could be detected in two of the volunteers. On Day 5, all volunteers had faecal concentrations of MCB3681 ranging from 98.9 to 226.3 mg/kg. MCB3681 caused no ecological changes in the skin, nasal and oropharyngeal microbiota. The numbers of enterococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and clostridia decreased in the intestinal microbiota during administration of the drug. Numbers of Escherichia coli, other enterobacteria and Candida were not affected during the study. There was no impact on the number of Bacteroides. The faecal microbiota was normalised on Day 19. No new colonising aerobic or anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria with MCB3681 minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥4 mg/L were found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Human activities and microbial geographies. An anthropological approach to the risk of infections in West African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessandro, Eugénie

    2015-07-01

    In hospital care, management of the risk of infection represents a crucial issue. Nevertheless, this question remains a neglected area in anthropological research, especially in African countries. To shed new light on this question, we conducted an anthropological investigation in the infectious disease department of a hospital in Niger. Daily observation of the work of the hospital staff for a total period of 6 months was spread out over 2008 and 2009. During our prolonged stay, we also collected 64 in-depth interviews of health care workers and attendants in the department. This study method made it possible to describe many of the practices and discourses related to the issues of medical and personal care and hospital hygiene and to compare the practices observed to standard principles for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Our ethnographic attention to the behavior of the actors showed the absence of formal spatial segmentations between different activities. The care provided by the untrained relatives serving as personal attendants introduced territorial enclaves governed by home hygiene standards into the interior of technical spaces. At the same time, privatizing equipment and space for their diverse activities, the medical staff disrupted technical chains and generated the recurrent crossing of microbial geographies. These results allow us to offer two principal guidelines for improving the quality of care and the management of risks of infection in hospitals in West Africa: (1) the essential role of the attendants in the care provided to hospital inpatients must be officially taken into account, especially by including them in the organization of medical hygiene procedures; (2) the different overlapping technical activities and social activities in the work space must be limited by their geographic and architectural segmentation.

  4. Can evolution get us off the hook? Evaluating the ecological defence of human rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, Maarten; Vlerick, Michael; McKay, Ryan

    2015-05-01

    This paper discusses the ecological case for epistemic innocence: does biased cognition have evolutionary benefits, and if so, does that exculpate human reasoners from irrationality? Proponents of 'ecological rationality' have challenged the bleak view of human reasoning emerging from research on biases and fallacies. If we approach the human mind as an adaptive toolbox, tailored to the structure of the environment, many alleged biases and fallacies turn out to be artefacts of narrow norms and artificial set-ups. However, we argue that putative demonstrations of ecological rationality involve subtle locus shifts in attributions of rationality, conflating the adaptive rationale of heuristics with our own epistemic credentials. By contrast, other cases also involve an ecological reframing of human reason, but do not involve such problematic locus shifts. We discuss the difference between these cases, bringing clarity to the rationality debate.

  5. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth; Hansen, Andrew; Turner, B L; Reid, Robin; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

  6. The application of ecological theory toward an understanding of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth K; Stagaman, Keaton; Dethlefsen, Les; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Relman, David A

    2012-06-08

    The human-microbial ecosystem plays a variety of important roles in human health and disease. Each person can be viewed as an island-like "patch" of habitat occupied by microbial assemblages formed by the fundamental processes of community ecology: dispersal, local diversification, environmental selection, and ecological drift. Community assembly theory, and metacommunity theory in particular, provides a framework for understanding the ecological dynamics of the human microbiome, such as compositional variability within and between hosts. We explore three core scenarios of human microbiome assembly: development in infants, representing assembly in previously unoccupied habitats; recovery from antibiotics, representing assembly after disturbance; and invasion by pathogens, representing assembly in the context of invasive species. Judicious application of ecological theory may lead to improved strategies for restoring and maintaining the microbiota and the crucial health-associated ecosystem services that it provides.

  7. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term.

  8. Radical Transformation in the Human - Nature Perception: Deep Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous endeavors to date the green thought. As the environmental problems have begun to be apparent in the aftermath of the second world war, the year of 1952, a traumatic incident is noted where more than four thousand people have died d ue to air pollution in London, while in 1970, Rome Club have initiated within the Project of Predicament of Mankind in collaboration with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, in which zero growth thesis put forward in its famed report. Both the for mer and the latter ignited environmental awareness and regarded as the point of origins for the green thought. Regardless of where it begins from, ecological movements have mainly followed the paths of two movements of thought and tried to develop their p aradigms on the basis of these two main thoughts. The environmentalists that named as socialist or Marxist asserts that only through a radical transformation where capitalist way of production is abandoned, the prevention of environmental degradation cou ld be achieved. Whereas the environmentalists who follow the capitalist paradigm believed the protection of environment could be achieved by means of the sustainability in terms of natural resource pool and waste - disposal practices. If we look closely, both of these two movements of thought are anthropocentric. An alternative ecological movement of thought has proposed in 1973 by Norwegian philosopher, Arne Naess, in his work named, “The Shallow and the Deep, Long - Range Ecology Moveme nt: A Summary”. This Deep Ecology approach moves through the commitment to the inner value of the nature aside from mankind and by this way, differs from anthropocentric approaches. Within forty two years, Deep Ecology has led various discussions. The the mes as “ecosophy” which has proposed to define itself and the “bio - regions” conception which put forward to actualize its philosophy could be counted among the reference points of the

  9. 78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments... environment, or a human dietary risk from residues that result from the use of a pesticide in or on food. III... these pesticides can still be used without unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the...

  10. Resources, stress, and immunity: an ecological perspective on human psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2010-08-01

    Ecological immunology provides a broad theoretical perspective on phenotypic plasticity in immunity, that is, changes related to the value of immunity across different situations, including stressful situations. Costs of a maximally efficient immune response may at times outweigh benefits, and some aspects of immunity may be adaptively suppressed. This review provides a basic overview of the tenets of ecological immunology and the energetic costs of immunity and relates them to the literature on stress and immunity. Sickness behavior preserves energy for use by the immune system, acute stress mobilizes "first-line" immune defenders while suppressing more costly responses, and chronic stress may suppress costly responses in order to conserve energy to counteract the resource loss associated with stress. Unexpected relationships between stress "buffers" and immune functions demonstrate phenotypic plasticity related to resource pursuit or preservation. In conclusion, ecological models may aid in understanding the relationship between stress and immunity.

  11. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were…

  12. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were sought in…

  13. Volunteered Geographic Information and Computational Geography: New Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), one of the most important types of user-generated web content, has been emerging as a new phenomenon. VGI is contributed by numerous volunteers and supported by web 2.0 technologies. This chapter discusses how VGI provides new perspectives for computational geography, a transformed geography based on the use of data-intensive computing and simulations to uncover the underlying mechanisms behind geographic forms and processes. We provide several exemplars of computational geography using OpenStreetMap data and GPS traces to investigate the scaling of geographic space and its implications for human mobility patterns. We illustrate that the field of geography is experiencing a dramatic change and that geoinformatics and computational geography deserve to be clearly distinguished, with the former being a study of engineering and the latter being a science. Keywords geoinformatics, openstreetmap, scaling of geographic space, spatial heterogeneity

  14. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  15. Danish geography teachers' perceptions of their own teaching professionalism according to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2015-01-01

    and natural science are more familiar to teach the sub-subject of weather formation in connection to climatic change, than Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Human Geography and social science. The teachers orientated against Human Geography put emphasis on the more problem......This paper reports from research examining eight Geography teachers’ own perceptions of their teaching professionalism, understood as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), in relation to the topic of climate change. Apparently, Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Physical Geography......-oriented/discursive aspects of teaching climate change, some of them neglecting parts of the curriculum focused on weather formation. Most of the interviewed Geography teachers emphasize the collegial cooperation with science colleagues e.g. during professional development activities, when reflecting on their own teaching...

  16. Geography teachers PCK according to climate change - match between beliefs and reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2015-01-01

    with a strong academic profile in Physical Geography and natural science are more familiar to teach about weather formation in connection to teaching climate change, than Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Human Geography and social science. The teachers orientated against Human Geography put......The aim of this study is to uncover differences or similarities between Geography teachers’ own perception of their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in relation to teaching weather formation and climate change and how they actually perform “in-action” in the lower secondary school. The concept...... of Pedagogical Content Knowledge is understood as an amalgam of Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) and Knowledge of Context (KofC). There will be presented results from interviews and observations from eight lower secondary Geography teachers and from a questionnaire send to Geography...

  17. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  18. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  19. Geography and Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    Orienteering is a rapidly growing sport, developed in Sweden, which has great possibilities for education in geography. It can be conceived as an organizing device for outdoor work and as a basis for developing map skills and for map construction. (Author)

  20. The Revenge of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia. Belokrenitsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This author discussed the prominent book of American journalist and expert Robert D. Kaplan in the light of the recent publication of its Russian translation: [Kaplan R. Mest’ geografi i (The revenge of geography / Transl. by M. Kotov. Moscow: Ko-Libri, 2015. P.277].

  1. Geographies of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    This fourth annual special issue of the Annals of the Association of American Geographers focuses on the geographies of health, disease, and well-being. The call for abstracts was issued in early 2010, and review of full papers and revised submissions lasted from December 2010 to March 2012.

  2. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  3. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  4. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  5. Transformation of Geography as an Interdisciplinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afrakhteh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geography as a science of the spatial analysis of phenomena is based on three main objectives: studying spatial structures, examining the locational-spatial order of socio-economic activities, and searching spatial relationships and functions through hierarchical leveling of rural and urban settlements. The applied form of geography or “spatial planning” addresses the modification of spatial structures, the locational-spatial order of activities, and the organization of spatial relationships and functions. There are mutual interactions between structure and function in this spatial order. Science has developed a complex structure through the electronic revolution, which is called “third wave science”; also specialized studies have developed. Specialized studies result in a very deep understanding of subjects, but this deep understanding always remains just in a “spot” and its applications could be traumatic, which is because it is not regulated in combination with other dimensions of human life. This kind of science cannot be beneficial in human life or solve some important problems. The main aim of this article, which is based on qualitative content analysis, is to analyze geography as an interdisciplinary science. The findings of the study show that geographical research has interdisciplinary characteristics; otherwise it cannot explain today’s complex problems. Geography can both use the findings of other sciences, including statistics, mathematics, economics, sociology, history and psychology, and provide them with services and help.

  6. The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology

    OpenAIRE

    PW Bateman; NC Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to human sexual behaviour from a biological standpoint and to indicate where the ambiguous areas are. We outline the evolutionary selective pressures that...

  7. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackernagel, Mathis; Schulz, Niels B.; Deumling, Diana; Linares, Alejandro Callejas; Jenkins, Martin; Kapos, Valerie; Monfreda, Chad; Loh, Jonathan; Myers, Norman; Norgaard, Richard; Randers, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Sustainability requires living within the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption of wastes. Our accounts indicate that human demand may well have exceeded the biosphere's regenerative capacity since the 1980s. According to this preliminary and exploratory assessment, humanity's load corresponded to 70% of the capacity of the global biosphere in 1961, and grew to 120% in 1999. PMID:12089326

  8. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social-ecological system: implications for human wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C; Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Paddock, Jessica; Baker, Susan; McKenzie, Len J; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass ecosystems are diminishing worldwide and repeated studies confirm a lack of appreciation for the value of these systems. In order to highlight their value we provide the first discussion of seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system on a global scale. We consider the impact of a declining resource on people, including those for whom seagrass meadows are utilised for income generation and a source of food security through fisheries support. Case studies from across the globe are used to demonstrate the intricate relationship between seagrass meadows and people that highlight the multi-functional role of seagrasses in human wellbeing. While each case underscores unique issues, these examples simultaneously reveal social-ecological coupling that transcends cultural and geographical boundaries. We conclude that understanding seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system is crucial in carving pathways for social and ecological resilience in light of current patterns of local to global environmental change.

  9. Practice and Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A; Murphy, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Economic geography has over the last decade become increasingly interested in the role of practice, conceptualised as the regularised or stabilised social actions through which economic agents organize or coordinate production, marketing, service provision, exchange and/or innovation activities. Interest in practice is most clearly manifest in a growing body of research concerned to conceptualise how the regularized social relations and interactions linking economic actors (e.g. entrepreneurs...

  10. Geography Markup Language

    OpenAIRE

    Burggraf, David S

    2006-01-01

    Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML application that provides a standard way to represent geographic information. GML is developed and maintained by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), which is an international consortium consisting of more than 250 members from industry, government, and university departments. Many of the conceptual models described in the ISO 19100 series of geomatics standards have been implemented in GML, and it is itself en route to becoming an ISO Standard (TC/2...

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: ecology and evolution of a human bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Sanou, Adama; Anh, Nguyen Thi Van; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-11-01

    Some species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes human tuberculosis (TB), are the first cause of death linked to a single pathogen worldwide. In the last decades, evolutionary studies have much improved our knowledge on MTBC history and have highlighted its long co-evolution with humans. Its ability to remain latent in humans, the extraordinary proportion of asymptomatic carriers (one-third of the entire human population), the deadly epidemics and the observed increasing level of resistance to antibiotics are proof of its evolutionary success. Many MTBC molecular signatures show not only that these bacteria are a model of adaptation to humans but also that they have influenced human evolution. Owing to the unbalance between the number of asymptomatic carriers and the number of patients with active TB, some authors suggest that infection by MTBC could have a protective role against active TB disease and also against other pathologies. However, it would be inappropriate to consider these infectious pathogens as commensals or symbionts, given the level of morbidity and mortality caused by TB.

  12. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  13. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  14. Equivalent T cell epitope promiscuity in ecologically diverse human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kirsten E; Swaminathan, Harish; Copin, Richard; Lun, Desmond S; Ernst, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    The HLA (human leukocyte antigen) molecules that present pathogen-derived epitopes to T cells are highly diverse. Correspondingly, many pathogens such as HIV evolve epitope variants in order to evade immune recognition. In contrast, another persistent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has highly conserved epitope sequences. This raises the question whether there is also a difference in the ability of these pathogens' epitopes to bind diverse HLA alleles, referred to as an epitope's binding promiscuity. To address this question, we compared the in silico HLA binding promiscuity of T cell epitopes from pathogens with distinct infection strategies and outcomes of human exposure. We used computer algorithms to predict the binding affinity of experimentally-verified microbial epitope peptides to diverse HLA-DR, HLA-A and HLA-B alleles. We then analyzed binding promiscuity of epitopes derived from HIV and M. tuberculosis. We also analyzed promiscuity of epitopes from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is known to exhibit epitope diversity, and epitopes of Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium tetani toxins, as these bacteria do not depend on human hosts for their survival or replication, and their toxin antigens are highly immunogenic human vaccines. We found that B. anthracis and C. tetani epitopes were the most promiscuous of the group that we analyzed. However, there was no consistent difference or trend in promiscuity in epitopes contained in HIV, M. tuberculosis, and S. pyogenes. Our results show that human pathogens with distinct immune evasion strategies and epitope diversities exhibit equivalent levels of T cell epitope promiscuity. These results indicate that differences in epitope promiscuity do not account for the observed differences in epitope variation and conservation.

  15. Equivalent T cell epitope promiscuity in ecologically diverse human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Wiens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HLA (human leukocyte antigen molecules that present pathogen-derived epitopes to T cells are highly diverse. Correspondingly, many pathogens such as HIV evolve epitope variants in order to evade immune recognition. In contrast, another persistent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has highly conserved epitope sequences. This raises the question whether there is also a difference in the ability of these pathogens' epitopes to bind diverse HLA alleles, referred to as an epitope's binding promiscuity. To address this question, we compared the in silico HLA binding promiscuity of T cell epitopes from pathogens with distinct infection strategies and outcomes of human exposure. METHODS: We used computer algorithms to predict the binding affinity of experimentally-verified microbial epitope peptides to diverse HLA-DR, HLA-A and HLA-B alleles. We then analyzed binding promiscuity of epitopes derived from HIV and M. tuberculosis. We also analyzed promiscuity of epitopes from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is known to exhibit epitope diversity, and epitopes of Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium tetani toxins, as these bacteria do not depend on human hosts for their survival or replication, and their toxin antigens are highly immunogenic human vaccines. RESULTS: We found that B. anthracis and C. tetani epitopes were the most promiscuous of the group that we analyzed. However, there was no consistent difference or trend in promiscuity in epitopes contained in HIV, M. tuberculosis, and S. pyogenes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that human pathogens with distinct immune evasion strategies and epitope diversities exhibit equivalent levels of T cell epitope promiscuity. These results indicate that differences in epitope promiscuity do not account for the observed differences in epitope variation and conservation.

  16. Ecological Interactions of Bacteria in the Human Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falony, Gwen; de Vuyst, Luc

    The colon or large intestine is one of the most important organs of the human body (Macfarlane and Cummings, 1991). Moreover, its inhabitants, the colon microbiota, are the key elements of the human digestive ecosystem. The vast complexity of the human large-intestinal microbiota has inspired researchers to consider it as an organ itself, located inside the colon and acquired postnatally (Bäckhed et al., 2005; Zocco et al., 2007). From a physiologist's point of view, this image of the colon microbiota is relevant: like an organ, it is composed of different cell lineages that communicate with both one another and the host; it consumes, stores, and redistributes energy; it mediates physiologically important chemical transformations; and it is able to maintain and repair itself through self-replication (Bäckhed et al., 2005). As a microbial organ, the human colon community does not only broaden the digestive abilities of the host (Gill et al., 2006), but also influences body processes far beyond digestion (Roberfroid, 2005b; Turnbaugh et al., 2007).

  17. [Dynamic changes of soil ecological factors in Ziwuling secondary forest area under human disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengchao; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2005-09-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon, disturbance is considered as a discrete event occurred in natural ecosystems at various spatial and temporal scales. The occurrence of disturbance directly affects the structure, function and dynamics of ecosystems. Forest logging and forestland assart, the common human disturbances in forest area, have caused the dynamic changes of forest soil ecological factors in a relatively consistent environment. A study on the dynamics of soil bulk density, soil organic matter, soil microbes and other soil ecological factors under different human disturbance (logging and assart, logging but without assart, control) were conducted in the Ziwuling secondary forest area. The results indicated that human disturbance had a deep impact on the soil ecological factors, with soil physical and chemical properties become bad, soil organic matter decreased from 2.2% to 0.8%, and soil stable aggregates dropped more than 30%. The quantity of soil microbes decreased sharply with enhanced human disturbance. Soil organic matter and soil microbes decreased more than 50% and 90%, respectively, and soil bulk density increased from 0.9 to 1.21 g x cm(-3) with increasing soil depth. Ditch edge level also affected the dynamics of soil factors under the same disturbance, with a better soil ecological condition at low-than at high ditch edge level.

  18. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  19. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  20. Examining Lives in Context: Perspectives on the Ecology of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    Extending the work of behavioral scientist Urie Bronfenbrenner on the social and contextual factors influencing human development, this collection of essays, from scholars in a range of disciplines, shows how Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and research have transformed the way many social and behavioral scientists approach, think about, and…

  1. A Feminist Posthumanist Political Ecology of Education for Theorizing Human-Animal Relations/Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a nascent conversation in environmental education (EE) research by using ethnographic data and extant theory to develop a feminist posthumanist political ecology of education for theorizing human-animal relations/relationships. Specifically, I (1) engage feminist methodologies and theories; (2) give epistemological and…

  2. A Feminist Posthumanist Political Ecology of Education for Theorizing Human-Animal Relations/Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a nascent conversation in environmental education (EE) research by using ethnographic data and extant theory to develop a feminist posthumanist political ecology of education for theorizing human-animal relations/relationships. Specifically, I (1) engage feminist methodologies and theories; (2) give epistemological and…

  3. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction : Making the case for ecological validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those ar

  4. Inter-connections between human health and ecological integrity: An organizational framework for research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pellston workshop entitled, Interconnections between Human Health and Ecological Integrity, was held in 2000. Jointly sponsored by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the Society of Toxicology (SOT), the workshop was motivated by the concern of hum...

  5. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Ruth E; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Klein, Samuel; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2006-12-21

    Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.

  6. An ecological approach to assessing the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J; Reeve, Richard; Denwood, Matthew J; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; Browning, Lynda M; Haydon, Daniel T; Reid, Stuart W J

    2012-04-22

    We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we assessed the more probable source of resistance of these two populations. The ecological diversity of AMR phenotypes was significantly greater in human isolates than in animal isolates, at the resolution of both sample and population. Of 5200 isolates, there were 65 resistance phenotypes, 13 unique to animals, 30 unique to humans and 22 were common to both. Of these 22, 11 were identified first in the human isolates, whereas only five were identified first in the animal isolates. We conclude that, while ecologically connected, animals and humans have distinguishable DT104 communities, differing in prevalence, linkage and diversity. Furthermore, we infer that the sympatric animal population is unlikely to be the major source of resistance diversity for humans. This suggests that current policy emphasis on restricting antimicrobial use in domestic animals may be overly simplistic. While these conclusions pertain to DT104 in Scotland, this approach could be applied to AMR in other bacteria-host ecosystems.

  7. REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS IN А FIELD OF HUMAN MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION OF PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Starovoitova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern huge and world-wide known projects concerning studying of human microbial ecology and construction of probiotics, particularly: Society for Microbial Ecology and Disease, Probiotics & Health Targeted Initiative of International Science and Technology Center (TI PROBIO ISTC, Human Microbiome Project of National Institutes of Health, MetaHIT Project (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract of European Commission, Human Metabolome Project of Canadian University of Alberta and some more else were characterized in the article. Brief historical information and reference to official sites of every discussed project were given. Main goals and tasks of every project were described. Short characteristic of discussed projects and also modern accessible results of researches were given. Importance of every examined project for widening scientific knowledge in the field of human microbial ecology and also for improvement and/or for construction of modern effective probiotics on basis of human normal intestinal microflora were paid attention. Close interaction of scientific data received by realization of every discussed project was shown.

  8. A review on the application of actor network theory to human geography%行动者网络理论在人文地理领域应用研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宣; 王小依

    2013-01-01

    行动者网络理论以一种结构化的方式来构建行为主体之间的关系,并将要素流动和网络化互动形态纳入分析范畴,为各学科研究提供了全新的视角,在人文地理领域的应用也日渐增多.本文在总结行动者网络理论主要内容的基础上,分类归纳评述了行动者网络理论在不同分支研究领域的应用主题和方式,并就研究的深度、广度、影响力进行国内外对比.研究表明,行动者网络理论对人与非人行动者的一致看待及其通过转译过程解析网络关系的研究模式,除强化了经济地理等领域的理论建构之外,也为乡村地理、城市地理、经济地理、旅游地理等领域的地方发展、政策实践研究提供了一种有效的分析方法.引入该理论的人文地理研究引用频次高,有较大的学术影响.目前国内研究多停留在行动者网络理论分析框架的直接套用,极少涉及分析框架改进和理论思考,在广度和深度上与国际研究仍有差距.%Recently,the actor-network theory (ANT) was widely applied to the field of human geography.ANT approach provides a new perspective by allowing researchers to take into consideration the flow of factors and network interaction.After a brief introduction of ANT,this paper summarizes the progress of ANT applications to human geography by summing up the application topics and methods in different branches,and compares the gap between international and domestic researches.This paper reveals that ANT promotes the progress of human geography in both theory and application.Most theoretic explorations happened in the field of economic geography:the relational economic geography based on ANT provides new angle for the reconstruction of "postmodernism" economic geography theory system.In application,analytical framework of ANT applied to the field of human geography emphasizes actors,translation process,and the result,with special attention to the spatial

  9. The Matter of Geography in Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2015-01-01

    of investigating human environment interactions. In this paper we aim to contribute to this particular field of knowledge by providing an empirical analysis of ESD in Danish University Geography. In this paper it is examined how programs in Geography in higher education have taken different approaches......Geographical imaginations are absolutely vital to make sense of sustainability challenges. Yet, a number of studies reveal that geography education has been slow in integrating issues of sustainability into curricula. Geography is particularly interesting in the context of ESD, due to its tradition...... approaches to be able to understand the dynamics, complexity and interactions in various scales. Third, geographers find their discipline provides an integrative knowledge platform between the natural and social sciences....

  10. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals.

  11. Human development and ecology of the urban landscape in the context of evolutionary values of modern culture in the framework of cultural-environmental module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of cultural-ecological approach, which is an important methodological basis of modernization of Russian education, held in a worsening of environmental problems and understanding the leading role of culture in their resolution. This confirms the importance of the use of this approach for the development of modern geographic education. The particular value it has in the initial course of physical geography, where we have developed a cultural-ecological module “I am Nizhny Novgorod native”, comprehensively revealing different aspects of the urban landscape.

  12. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  13. Geography Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Burggraf

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Geography Markup Language (GML is an XML application that provides a standard way to represent geographic information. GML is developed and maintained by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, which is an international consortium consisting of more than 250 members from industry, government, and university departments. Many of the conceptual models described in the ISO 19100 series of geomatics standards have been implemented in GML, and it is itself en route to becoming an ISO Standard (TC/211 CD 19136. An overview of GML together with its implications for the geospatial web is given in this paper.

  14. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  15. Integrating Geography into American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Geography faces stiff curricular competition from the continuing emphasis of policy makers on the three R's and science. In many places, this competition seems to have squeezed out any systematic attention to geography or the other social studies, particularly in elementary school. What's more, it doesn't look like things are going to turn around…

  16. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught geography…

  17. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  18. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  19. Geography Resources for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, David M., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights geography resources available from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Provides a brief description of five resources. Articles deal with teaching geography through the use of unique images of China, the integration of tactile and visual learning, the Gall-Peters map projection, a map game, and geographic literacy. (KO)

  20. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  1. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  2. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations...... of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil......×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing...

  3. Geography Standards for China: New Dimensions for Geography Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-nam, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Briefly explains the 10 standard objective statements that characterize geography curriculum reform in China. The standards reflect a rigorous and scientific orientation incorporating mathematics, physics, geology, and demographics. No social education component is present. (MJP)

  4. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  5. Geography From Another Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The GEODESY software program is intended to promote geographical awareness among students with its remote sensing capabilities to observe the Earth's surface from distant vantage points. Students and teachers using GEODESY learn to interpret and analyze geographical data pertaining to the physical attributes of their community. For example, the program provides a digital environment of physical features, such as mountains and bodies of water, as well as man-made features, such as roads and parks, using aerial photography, satellite imagery, and geographic information systems data in accordance with National Geography Standards. The main goal is to have the students and teachers gain a better understanding of the unique forces that drive their coexistence. GEODESY was developed with technical assistance and financial support from Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, now known as the Earth Science Applications Directorate.

  6. A Bayesian Approach to Integrated Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment for the South River, Virginia Mercury-Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Meagan J; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a regional-scale integrated ecological and human health risk assessment by applying the relative risk model with Bayesian networks (BN-RRM) to a case study of the South River, Virginia mercury-contaminated site. Risk to four ecological services of the South River (human health, water quality, recreation, and the recreational fishery) was evaluated using a multiple stressor-multiple endpoint approach. These four ecological services were selected as endpoints based on stakeholder feedback and prioritized management goals for the river. The BN-RRM approach allowed for the calculation of relative risk to 14 biotic, human health, recreation, and water quality endpoints from chemical and ecological stressors in five risk regions of the South River. Results indicated that water quality and the recreational fishery were the ecological services at highest risk in the South River. Human health risk for users of the South River was low relative to the risk to other endpoints. Risk to recreation in the South River was moderate with little spatial variability among the five risk regions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis identified stressors and other parameters that influence risk for each endpoint in each risk region. This research demonstrates a probabilistic approach to integrated ecological and human health risk assessment that considers the effects of chemical and ecological stressors across the landscape. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The crown joules: energetics, ecology, and evolution in humans and other primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Biological diversity is metabolic diversity: Differences in anatomy, physiology, life history, and activity reflect differences in energy allocation and expenditure among traits and tasks. Traditional frameworks in primatology, human ecology, public health, and paleoanthropology view daily energy expenditure as being more variable within than between species, changing with activity level but essentially fixed for a given body size. Growing evidence turns this view on its head. Total energy expenditure (kcal/d), varies relatively little within species, despite variation in physical activity; it varies considerably among species even after controlling for the effect of body size. Embracing this emerging paradigm requires rethinking potential trade-offs in energy allocation within and between species, assessing evidence of metabolic acceleration within lineages, and abandoning activity-based estimates of total energy expenditure. Difficult and exciting work lies ahead in the effort to untangle the ecological and evolutionary pressures shaping primate metabolic diversity.

  8. Making sense of human ecology mapping: an overview of approaches to integrating socio-spatial data into environmental planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca McLain; Melissa R. Poe; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee K. Cerveny; Diane Besser; Dale J. Blahna

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem-based planning and management have stimulated the need to gather sociocultural values and human uses of land in formats accessible to diverse planners and researchers. Human Ecology Mapping (HEM) approaches offer promising spatial data gathering and analytical tools, while also addressing important questions about human-landscape connections. This article...

  9. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  10. [Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc.), overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.). However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro for the adoption of a sustainable economic development model and a society free of poverty and hunger.

  11. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  12. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  13. Ecological Niche Modeling of Risk Factors for H7N9 Human Infection in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9 virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and ecological niche modeling (ENM, this research quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the H7N9 occurrence and the main environmental factors, including meteorological variables, human population density, bird migratory routes, wetland distribution, and live poultry farms, markets, and processing factories. Based on these relationships the probability of the presence of H7N9 was predicted. Results indicated that the distribution of live poultry processing factories, farms, and human population density were the top three most important determinants of the H7N9 human infection. The relative contributions to the model of live poultry processing factories, farms and human population density were 39.9%, 17.7% and 17.7%, respectively, while the maximum temperature of the warmest month and mean relative humidity had nearly no contribution to the model. The paper has developed an ecological niche model (ENM that predicts the spatial distribution of H7N9 cases in China using environmental variables. The area under the curve (AUC values of the model were greater than 0.9 (0.992 for the training samples and 0.961 for the test data. The findings indicated that most of the high risk areas were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta. These findings have important significance for the Chinese government to enhance the environmental surveillance at multiple human poultry interfaces in the high risk area.

  14. Inference of Human Affective States from Psychophysiological Measurements Extracted under Ecologically Valid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eBetella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM, that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions.

  15. Gregory Bateson’s Ecology of Mind and the Understanding of Human Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Magdalena Wasik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from the biological notion of ecology that pertains to mutual relationships between organisms and their environments, this paper discusses theoretical foundations of research on the nature of human mind in relation to knowledge, cognition and communication conducted in a broader context of social sciences. It exposes the view, explicitly formulated by Gregory Bateson, that the mind is the way in which ideas are created, or just the systemic device for transmitting information in the world of all living species. In consequence, some crucial points of Bateson’s reasoning are accentuated, such as the recognition of the biological unity of organism and environment, the conviction of the necessity to study the ecology in terms of the economics of energy and material and/or the economy of information, the belief that consciousness distorts information coming to the organism from the inside and outside, which is the cause of its functional disadaptation, and the like. The conception of the ecology of an overall mind, as the sets of ideas, notions or thoughts in the whole world, is presented against the background of theoretical and empirical achievements of botany and zoology, anthropology, ethology and psychiatry, sociology and communication studies in connection with the development of cybernetics, systems theory and information theory.

  16. KAJIAN FILOSOFIS TERHADAP PEMIKIRAN HUMAN- EKOLOGI DALAM PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM (Philosophical Studies of Human Ecology Thinking on Natual Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaidy Armawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian inibertujuan untuk memberikan alternatif solusi terhadap upaya mengurangi dampak kerusakan lingkungan akibat ekploitasi sumberdaya alam yang dilakukan manusia melalui proses pembangunan dengan pendekatan filosofi apakah hakikat dan esensi dari manusiadan bagaimana kedudukannya di alam semesta ini? Apa yang harus dilakukan manusia untuk menjaga dan mengembangkan kehidupan diri dan lingkungannya?Penelitian merupakan penelitian kepustakaan yang bersifat kualitatif. Metoda yang digunakan adalah  verstehen,interpretasi,  hermeneutika dan heuristik. Hasil  penelitian menunjukkan bahwaproses pembangunan dan upaya manusia dalam melakukan eksploitasi sumberdaya alam yang tidak rasional dan hanya mementingkan “syahwat” keserakahan dan kenikmatan (hedonisme telah memberi andil yang cukup penting dalam membentuk selera konsumtifisme. Eksploitasi sumberdaya alam berdasarkan pandangan yang individualistik-materialistik, telah menyebabkan timbulnya konflik-konflik yang berakibat pada korban manusia dan kerusakan lingkungan serta menciptakan jurang pemisah antara kesejahteraan dan kemiskinan. Oleh karena itu, dalam pembangunan diperlukan kerangka pemikiran yang bersifat antro-ekologis-filsafati (human ecology. Karena dengan kerangka pemikiran atau paradigma tersebut berbagai dimensi dapat terangkum di dalameksistensi manusia dan eksistensi lain menurut ukuran kemanusiandi dalam dirinya. Dengan demikian,apa yang dikatakan pembangunan yang berwajah insani dan lestari lingkungannya dalam pertimbangan dimensi waktu, manusia, alam serta dimensi religius dapat terbawa. Analisa dampak lingkungan dalam perencanaan pembangunan tidak cukup hanya dengan mempertimbangkan aspek teknis seperti analisa kerusakan, pencemaran dan kelestarian lingkungan, akan tetapi aspek non-teknis, yakni nilai etis yang didasarkan pada kearifan manusia dan kearifan lokal juga penting diperhatikan,agar tidak terjadi penolakan-penolakan dan konflik antarunsur ekologi

  17. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2012-01-18

    The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use.

  18. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use. PMID:22257499

  19. Adding geography to the new economic geography : bridging the gap between theory and empirics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Brakman, S.; Garretsen, J.H.; Schramm, M.

    2010-01-01

    For reasons of analytical tractability, new economic geography (NEG) models treat geography in a very simple way, focusing on stylized 'unidimensional' geography structures (e.g. an equidistant or line economy). All the well-known NEG results are based on these simple geography structures. When doin

  20. Geography and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs.

  1. Assessing Sustainability Teaching and Learning in Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Jeffrey M.; Gliedt, Travis; Tziganuk, Ashlee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to understand if geographers, who teach in a new sustainability program, are conveying new knowledge, understanding, skills and competence about the integrated and holistic concept of "sustainability", rather than individual human-environmental issues to the students. In other words, are geography professors…

  2. Nazi biopolitics and the dark geographies of the selva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the spatialities of Nazi genocidial practices. It does so by engaging with the concepts of selva and città, as inspired by Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben and drawing upon a broader tradition in human geography. Although the historical events that we recall have been extens

  3. The Romance of China: The Geography of Fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Christopher L.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how geography instructors can capitalize on student interest in China and its unique images in teaching basic geographic themes. Demonstrates how China can illustrate these five themes (which are absolute and relative location; physical and cultural place; human-environment interaction; movement; and region) in a way that will capture…

  4. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3.5x102), Co (2.8x102) and Ni (1.1x102). Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103) and Co (1.4x103), whereas Mn (0.6) presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ), Chronic Hazard Index (CHI) and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10−4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7), Cr (14.8), Ni (2.2), Zn (2.64) and Mn (1.67). Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10−2 and 4×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already

  5. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  6. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Siddharth

    Full Text Available The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets correlating with formula (vs breast feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  7. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Jay; Holway, Nicholas; Parkinson, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets) correlating with formula (vs breast) feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  8. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gizzi, Alessio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE). We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD), starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition) and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful) when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components) so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers) on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  9. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Valera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE. We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD, starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  10. Coping with human errors through system design: Implications for ecological interface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Vicente, Kim J.

    1989-01-01

    Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects...... of the adaptive mechanisms involved in learning. In terms of design implications, these findings suggest that reliable human-system interaction will be achieved by designing interfaces which tend to minimize the potential for control interference and support recovery from errors. In other words, the focus should...... be on control of the effects of errors rather than on the elimination of errors per se. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for interface design that attempts to satisfy these objectives. The goal of our framework, called ecological interface design, is to develop a meaningful representation...

  11. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  12. Fieldwork Lesson based on" the International Geography Olympiad" (iGeo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Japanese social studies consist of three fields. That's geography, history and civics. About geographical studies in Japan, it has a lot of contents of human geography and has little contents of natural geography. I think that Japanese social studies teachers should teach more natural geography contents for ESD.   There is a fieldwork lesson in geographical studies in Japan. This is the educational activity by which body and head were used. But in fact, fieldwork lessons are not performed in many Japanese junior high schools. I was a leader of iGeo2012 (in Germany). iGeo is held by three tests; Multimedia tests, Writing tests and Fieldwork tests. The test is included of a lot of contents of natural geography. And there are two skills that students acquire through the fieldwork test in iGeo. One is a map making skill, the other is decision making skill. Japanese students need more knowledge of natural geography. And those are not enough skills for Japanese students. So I did a fieldwork lesson based on iGeo's fieldwork test. The fieldwork lesson was performed around the school. It was also performed under the point of natural geography. After the lessons, students could improve map making skill. Because a lot of maps made by students in this lesson got prize of map contest in Japan. Some maps were included the view of natural geography.

  13. Human rabies focusing on dog ecology-A challenge to public health in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, Vindya; Awerbuch-Friedlander, Tamara

    2009-10-01

    Sri Lanka is among the top ten countries in the world that report the highest rate of human rabies deaths (2.8 per 1,000,000 in 2007) and animal bites requiring anti-rabies post-exposure treatment (PET) (755 per 100,000 in 2003). Dogs are the main reservoir and transmitters of rabies in Sri Lanka. Present study evaluates the effectiveness of dog rabies control strategies on reducing incidence of human rabies deaths. Analysis is based on data from last three decades and showed strong correlations between the interventions and human rabies incidence. GIS maps provided a method for illustrating the district distribution of human rabies deaths and dog population density and for recognizing districts at risk. Interrupting the natural transmission cycle of rabies in dogs would be a logical approach in eliminating dog rabies in Sri Lanka. However, interventions implemented so far, such as dog vaccination, elimination of stray dogs (abandoned in 2005), and animal birth control have been inadequate to do so. Better understanding of the ecology of stray and owned dogs (e.g. population density, population structure, confinement status) in the context of the human environment and culture, are needed to strategize the control activities, requiring coordination among regional Public Health and Veterinary services.

  14. Building Geography's New Frontier: Implementing the Australian Curriculum Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Geography as a compulsory learning area from Foundation year, such as Kindergarten, to Year 8 in Australia provides new opportunities for learning and teaching. Opportunities, in part, will be driven by challenges associated with the introduction of this learning area. Key challenges are about variability: in take-up of the…

  15. Everyday Geography: 365 Reflections on Why Geography Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Last year, beginning on New Year's Day, as president of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), the author wrote one tweet every day beginning with "What is Geography? 1 of 365" and posted them to his Twitter page. His goals in the series were several. He sought to point out as organization president how the NCGE serves the geography…

  16. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  17. The Ecology of Human Fear: Survival Optimization and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eMobbs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Survival Optimization System (SOS to account for the strategies that humans and other animals use to defend against recurring and novel threats. The SOS attempts to merge ecological models that define a repertoire of contextually relevant threat induced survival behaviors with contemporary approaches to human affective science. We first propose that the goal of the nervous system is to reduce surprise and optimize actions by (i predicting the sensory landscape, through simulation of possible encounters with threat, selecting appropriate action by pre-encounter avoidance and (ii prevention strategies in which the organism manufactures safe environments. When a potential threat is encountered the (iii threat orienting system is engaged to determine whether the organism ignores the stimulus or switches into a process of (iv assessment, where the organism monitors the stimulus, weighs the threat value, predicts the actions of the threat, searches for safety, and guides behavioral actions crucial to directed escape. When under imminent attack, (v defensive systems evoke fast reflexive indirect escape behaviors (i.e. fight or flight. This cascade of responses to threat of increasing magnitude are underwritten by an interconnected neural architecture that extends from cortical and hippocampal circuits, to attention, action and threat systems including the amygdala, striatum, and hard-wired defensive systems in the midbrain. The SOS also includes a modulatory feature consisting of cognitive appraisal systems that flexibly guide perception, risk and action. Moreover, personal and vicarious threat encounters fine-tune avoidance behaviors via model-based learning, with higher organisms bridging data to reduce face-to-face encounters with predators. Our theory unifies the divergent field of human affective science, proposing the highly integrated, interconnected nervous systems are optimized to avoid ecological dangers.

  18. Global Ecological Human Imprint, Sustainable Development and Environment: Assessment and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwat H. Shakir Hanna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Human Imprint (EHI, sustainability, and environment form three points of thetriangle of technology development. These three points when integrated are the key tounderstanding how to improve global sustainability. The present research focuses onassessment and impacts of global issues of sustainability of human activities. This researchuses modeling of these points and predicts the impacts of human activities on our globalEarth and its natural resources and in consequence, the economic and social impacts.Further, the model uses assessments to develop suggestions about how to conserve ourglobal environment and natural resources for future generations. The model is constructedon data collected and analyzed using published data from USA Agencies: United NationAgencies and other public published data from different countries in the world. Stella™software is used in the development of the model to make the prediction for the next 100years.The results of research applying the model are presented in three scenarios. Thesescenarios are formed applying (1 relaxed, (2 moderate, and (3 very conservativeassumptions. In addition to these scenarios, predictions are developed according to thereal-time data availability. According to the model, it is very important to maintain thetrend of more efficient use of natural resources. Additionally, the more widespreadeducation is very important to combat high demands for on natural resources and toconserve existing resources for continuation of global ecosystems and to supply life onEarth with the goods and services needed. Further, it is important to maintain the globalthe regenerative biological capacities (i.e. renewable resources of Earth, while conserving(and developing new sources of non-renewable resources. Finally, the model shows thatthe nations should close the gaps between population growth and the economicdevelopment.Key Words: Ecology, natural resources, world population, sustainable

  19. Japan: Geography, Cuisine, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Karen

    These materials are designed as four modules: geography, foods, the kitchen, and culture and are to be used singly or jointly as a unit on Japanese food and culture. Common ingredients of Japanese food, nutritional information, methods of preparation, and illustrations of utensils and eating implements are given in conjunction with cultural…

  20. Towards a Geography of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of the discipline of geography to the field of education is complex since they have both been dependent upon the contributions of other social science disciplines, particularly those in the mainstream of social sciences (economics, sociology and political science). Indeed, the number of researchers who would consider themselves as…

  1. Teaching Energy Geographies via Videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    In our digital age of information acquisition, multimedia information streams are constant, constantly changing and often contain multiple messages about topics important to everyday life, such as energy geographies. Recognizing that college students are prime consumers of digital information, it seems that crafting of academic engagement for and…

  2. Geography in the International Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Stuart; Dawson, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) is doing much to promote the teaching of geography in schools. Since its establishment in 1968 to provide a common curriculum and university entrance credential for children of a geographically mobile international community, it has evolved and now includes schools in national systems all over the…

  3. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  4. Arena Symposium: Dearing and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, Brian; Quigley, George; Toyne, Peter; Johnston, Ron; Butlin, Robin A.; Beer, Andrew; Cutler, Cecile

    1998-01-01

    Presents eight papers delivered at a symposium on the impact of the Dearing Report on geography instruction in the United Kingdom. The Dearing Report reviews higher education and charts the course of curriculum and instruction for the next 20 years. The papers address standards, regional applications, and criticisms. (MJP)

  5. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  6. Teaching Energy Geography? It's Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The premise of this essay is that energy geographies are complicated, and this in itself presents some pedagogical difficulties. As someone who wants students to critically examine and confront the complexity of energy systems, it can be frustrating when students react to demonstrate frustration, apathy, or even confusion. In what follows, I will…

  7. Deconstruction Geography: A STEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhar, Adam M.; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article will define the engineering design process used to create an integrated curriculum at STEM Center Middle School, and it features the planning, implementation, and revision of the Deconstruction Geography unit. The Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Center opened in the fall of 2009 as a way to relieve overcrowding at the…

  8. Geospatial Technology in Geography Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz Solari, Osvaldo; Demirci, A.; van der Schee, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The book is presented as an important starting point for new research in Geography Education (GE) related to the use and application of geospatial technologies (GSTs). For this purpose, the selection of topics was based on central ideas to GE in its relationship with GSTs. The process of geospatial

  9. Geospatial Technology in Geography Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz Solari, Osvaldo; Demirci, A.; van der Schee, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The book is presented as an important starting point for new research in Geography Education (GE) related to the use and application of geospatial technologies (GSTs). For this purpose, the selection of topics was based on central ideas to GE in its relationship with GSTs. The process of geospatial

  10. Socio-Ecological Changes and Human Mobility in Landslide Zones of Chamoli District of Uttarakhand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Desh Deepak

    2017-04-01

    Disaster displacement represents one of the biggest humanitarian challenges of the 21st century. Between 2008 and 2014, 184.6 million people were forced from their homes due to different natural disasters, with 19.3 million newly displaced in 2014, according to the latest available data from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). In Uttarakhand state in India, hill slopes are known for their instability as they are ecologically fragile, tectonically and seismically active, and geologically sensitive that makes it prone to landslide hazards. Coupled to this, the rapid expansion of human societies often forces people to occupy highly dynamic and unstable environments. Repeated instances of landslide in highly populated areas have now forced many people to out migrate from vulnerable and high risk areas of Uttarakhand. The present study overlays the maps of geology, vegetation, route network, and settlement of Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to find out through overlay analysis, the landslide risk zonation map of Chamoli. Further, through primary survey in the high risk zones, the migration pattern and migration intensity has been analysed and a model for determining long term trend of migration in ecologically changing location has been developed. Keywords: Landslides, Uttarakhand, Migration, Risk Zonation Mapping

  11. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  12. Contents on the environmental protection in the geography textbooks for primary and secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysis the contents of Geography textbooks which refer to the problems of the protection of the environment. The last publications of Geography textbooks for primary and secondary schools of the Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva (Belgrade were used as a sample. With this study we wanted to check at what extent the contents of the environmental protection are present in the contemporary Geography textbooks and how much they contribute to the formation of the system of ecologic knowledge and ecologic conscience of students with their structure. The analysis has showed that the problems of the environmental protection in the analyzed textbooks are not present enough, that they are mostly covered in integrative way, sporadically and declaratively. Undefined ecologic concepts are twice as much presented as defined. The explanations of notions are more often supported by examples than by factographic data, although the number of examples is insufficient. Especially, the examples from close surroundings are missing. With their structure, the present contents do not provide knowledge on numerous problems on the protection of the environment and they do not influence the development of ecologic attitudes, emotions and habits in students. Practical implications of the study are shown in the way that the results and conclusions can stimulate the authors of textbooks to change the approach in planning the contents of the future Geography textbooks... .

  13. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  14. [THE MICRO-ECOLOGY OF DIGESTIVE TRACT AS AN INDICATOR OF HUMAN HEALTH CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoukina, A M; Mikhailova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Mironov A Yu; Alekseeva, Yu A

    2015-06-01

    The study was carried out to analyze qualitative and quantitative parameters of oral fluid and feces in 74 healthy individuals of different age groups. In most of the cases, alterations of micro-ecology are established characterizing by decreasing of amount of indigenous micro-flora and increasing of number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms of genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Candida. The degree of evidence of these alterations reliably increases with age. It is established that microbiota, initial and terminal biotopes of digestive tract are closely interrelated and have number of common characteristics depending on age, hormonal and immune status and reflect conditions of micro-biocenosis of digestive tract in general. The character and degree of evidence of alterations of micro-biocenosis can be an effective diagnostic criterion for complex evaluation of human health conditions with following formation of risk groups in need of particular volume of correction activities.

  15. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  16. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  17. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Kimberly M; Angermeier, Paul L

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystem-wide risk, which can

  18. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  19. Ecology and Evolution of the Human Microbiota: Fire, Farming and Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Gillings

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activities significantly affect all ecosystems on the planet, including the assemblages that comprise our own microbiota. Over the last five million years, various evolutionary and ecological drivers have altered the composition of the human microbiota, including the use of fire, the invention of agriculture, and the increasing availability of processed foods after the Industrial Revolution. However, no factor has had a faster or more direct effect than antimicrobial agents. Biocides, disinfectants and antibiotics select for individual cells that carry resistance genes, immediately reducing both overall microbial diversity and within-species genetic diversity. Treated individuals may never recover their original diversity, and repeated treatments lead to a series of genetic bottlenecks. The sequential introduction of diverse antimicrobial agents has selected for increasingly complex DNA elements that carry multiple resistance genes, and has fostered their spread through the human microbiota. Practices that interfere with microbial colonization, such as sanitation, Caesarian births and bottle-feeding, exacerbate the effects of antimicrobials, generating species-poor and less resilient microbial assemblages in the developed world. More and more evidence is accumulating that these perturbations to our internal ecosystems lie at the heart of many diseases whose frequency has shown a dramatic increase over the last half century.

  20. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.

    2007-05-01

    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  1. Demographic and ecological risk factors for human influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Agustian, Dwi; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Uyeki, Timothy M; Simões, Eric A F

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011. Passive influenza surveillance with RT-PCR confirmation of influenza A viral RNA in respiratory specimens was utilized for case ascertainment. A population census and mapping were utilized for population data collection. The presence of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in a household was modeled using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each additional child aged influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesian households with young children and poultry. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Improving Student Writing Abilities in Geography: Examining the Benefits of Criterion-Based Assessment and Detailed Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Joseph; Wilson, Kathi; Boyd, Cleo

    2014-01-01

    Poor quality writing skills among undergraduate geography students is a significant concern among university instructors. This article reports on a multipronged strategy aimed at improving student writing in a large, first-year human geography course. The strategy emphasized ways to provide effective feedback through teaching assistant training,…

  3. Population structure and cultural geography of a folktale in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2013-04-07

    Despite a burgeoning science of cultural evolution, relatively little work has focused on the population structure of human cultural variation. By contrast, studies in human population genetics use a suite of tools to quantify and analyse spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. Human genetic diversity can be explained largely as a result of migration and drift giving rise to gradual genetic clines, together with some discontinuities arising from geographical and cultural barriers to gene flow. Here, we adapt theory and methods from population genetics to quantify the influence of geography and ethnolinguistic boundaries on the distribution of 700 variants of a folktale in 31 European ethnolinguistic populations. We find that geographical distance and ethnolinguistic affiliation exert significant independent effects on folktale diversity and that variation between populations supports a clustering concordant with European geography. This pattern of geographical clines and clusters parallels the pattern of human genetic diversity in Europe, although the effects of geographical distance and ethnolinguistic boundaries are stronger for folktales than genes. Our findings highlight the importance of geography and population boundaries in models of human cultural variation and point to key similarities and differences between evolutionary processes operating on human genes and culture.

  4. Hydro-ecological degradation due to human impacts in the Twin Streams Watershed, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    As a collaborative project between the Faculties of Engineering of the University of Sinaloa, Mexico and the University of Auckland, an inter-disciplinary team researched historical information, monitoring results and modelling completed over the last ten years to establish the cause-effect relationship of development and human impacts in the watershed and recommend strategies to offset them .The research program analyzed the performance of the Twin Streams watershed over time with modelling of floods, hydrological disturbance indicators, analysis of water quality and ecological information, cost / benefit, harbor modelling and contaminant loads. The watershed is located in the west of Auckland and comprises 10,356 hectare: 8.19% ecologically protected area, 29.70% buffer zone, 6.67% peri-urban, 30.98% urban, 16.04% parks, and 8.42% other; average impermeability is 19.1%. Current population is 129,475 (2011) forecast to grow to 212,798 by 2051. The watershed includes 317.5 km of streams that drain to the Waitemata Harbor. The human impact can be traced back to the 1850s when the colonial settlers logged the native forests, dammed streams and altered the channel hydro-ecology resulting in significant erosion, sediment and changes to flows. In the early 1900s native vegetation started to regenerate in the headwaters, while agriculture and horticulture become established in rest of the watershed leading to the use of quite often very harmful pesticides and insecticides, such as DDT which is still detected in current environmental monitoring programs, and more erosion and channel alterations. As land become unproductive in the 1950s it stared to be urbanized, followed by more intensive urban development in the 1990s. Curiously there was no regulatory regime to control land use in the early stages and consequently over 400 houses were built in the floodplains, as well there were no legislation to control environmental impacts until 1991. Consequently today there is a

  5. A US Human Wellbeing Index (HWBI) for evaluating the influence of economic, social and ecological service flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overarching goal of USEPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio-economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster sustainability in the built and nat...

  6. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  7. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

  8. [Effect of human disturbance on ecological stoichiometry characteristics of soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Minjiang River estuarine wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qi; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhong, Chun-Qi; Tong, Chuan

    2010-10-01

    To clarify responses of soil ecological stoichiometry in wetland to human disturbance, the ecological stoichiometry characteristics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus elements of soil in Phragmites australis marsh, grassland, flat breed aquatics, cropland, pond aquaculture after human disturbance and abandoned cropland after human disturbance restoration in Minjiang River estuary were analyzed. The results showed: averaged values of C/N, C/P, N/P ratios were declined as the human disturbance increment, which appeared that Phragmites australis marsh, grassland (lower human disturbance, 25.53, 156.06, 6.11 and 27.58, 158.99, 5.78) were bigger than flat breed aquatics (medium human disturbance, 25.02, 96.90, 3.87), and flat breed aquatics (medium human disturbance) were bigger than cropland, pond aquaculture (higher human disturbance, 17.55, 46.19, 2.65 and 22.30, 57.51, 2.62). Compared with cropland, C/N, C/P, N/P ratios in abandoned cropland (human disturbance restoration) were (19.95, 63.81, 3.18) higher. The influencing factors were changed with the human disturbance intensity. Soil C/N ratios showed relatively small variation between different human disturbance and soil depth, while C/P and N/P ratios showed a high heterogeneity. The ratio of carbon to nutrition had preferable indication for carbon storage.

  9. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  10. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  11. Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in sub-saharan african communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Caroli, Anna Maria; Tikubet, Getachew; Herren, Hans R; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-ecological systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya), and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia). The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia). The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i) technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii) transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a) improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b) rationalizing decision support; iii) the different views of

  12. Using structural equation modeling to link human activities to wetland ecological integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, E. William; Grace, James B.; Cooper, David; Bobowski, Ben; Britten, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of wetlands is of global concern. A common approach to evaluating ecological integrity involves bioassessment procedures that quantify the degree to which communities deviate from historical norms. While helpful, bioassessment provides little information about how altered conditions connect to community response. More detailed information is needed for conservation and restoration. We have illustrated an approach to addressing this challenge using structural equation modeling (SEM) and long-term monitoring data from Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Wetlands in RMNP are threatened by a complex history of anthropogenic disturbance including direct alteration of hydrologic regimes; elimination of elk, wolves, and grizzly bears; reintroduction of elk (absent their primary predators); and the extirpation of beaver. More recently, nonnative moose were introduced to the region and have expanded into the park. Bioassessment suggests that up to half of the park's wetlands are not in reference condition. We developed and evaluated a general hypothesis about how human alterations influence wetland integrity and then develop a specific model using RMNP wetlands. Bioassessment revealed three bioindicators that appear to be highly sensitive to human disturbance (HD): (1) conservatism, (2) degree of invasion, and (3) cover of native forbs. SEM analyses suggest several ways human activities have impacted wetland integrity and the landscape of RMNP. First, degradation is highest where the combined effects of all types of direct HD have been the greatest (i.e., there is a general, overall effect). Second, specific HDs appear to create a “mixed-bag” of complex indirect effects, including reduced invasion and increased conservatism, but also reduced native forb cover. Some of these effects are associated with alterations to hydrologic regimes, while others are associated with altered shrub production. Third, landscape features created by historical beaver

  13. Helping Your Child Learn Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1996-01-01

    By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our Nation's modern economy.

  14. Human Arsenic exposure via dust across the different ecological zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ali, Saeed Waqar; Sohail, Mohammad; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Subhani, Marghoob; Ghaffar, Bushra; Ullah, Rizwan; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the arsenic (As) levels into dust samples and its implications for human health, of four ecological zones of Pakistan, which included northern frozen mountains (FMZ), lower Himalyian wet mountains (WMZ), alluvial riverine plains (ARZ), and low lying agricultural areas (LLZ). Human nail samples (N=180) of general population were also collected from the similar areas and all the samples were analysed by using ICP-MS. In general the higher levels (pPakistan. Risk estimation reflected higher hazard index (HI) values of non-carcinogenic risk (HI>1) for children populations in all areas (except FMZ), and for adults in LLZ (0.74) and ARZ (0.55), suggesting that caution should be paid about the dust exposure. Similarly, carcinogenic risk assessment also highlighted potential threats to the residents of LLZ and ARZ, as in few cases (5-10%) the values exceeded the range of US-EPA threshold limits (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  15. Nothingness and the human umwelt: a cultural-ecological approach to meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jytte

    2009-12-01

    In the paper I argue that the great impact of empiricism on psychology and the enclosed dualist agenda traps psychological phenomena into subjectivism. By discussing the phenomena of nothingness in biological and cultural life it is argued that meaning must be considered as a phenomenon that represents both a fit and a misfit of the individual with the environment. By stressing the overall presence of nothingness phenomena it is argued how the reduced ontology of empiricism--and its blindness to relations and transformations out of which meaning grows--should be overcome. In human cultural life, transformations are constitutive and ongoing changes are being produced to make sure that continuity as well as discontinuity will happen. The analysis of especially one case--the removal of an Amish school after a shooting episode--serves to prove how meaning grows out of cultural processes as people produce their own conditions of life. From a cultural-ecological point of view, analyzing meaning at the level of individual phenomenology, hence, means analyzing the 'total psychological situation' (legacy of Kurt Lewin). This may for instance include analyzing how people live, what they consider important and worth preserving, what must be changed, what are their core values and how do institutional arrangements contribute to keeping up that which is valued or to changing that which is not, etc. Meaning may be viewed the lived-out experience-the domain of self-generativity in human life.

  16. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, M.; H Mousakhani; Abbaszadeh, S; S Heydari Latibari; Saied Bokaie; L Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Kh...

  17. Geography Education: Applying Spatial Aspects to Everyday Life: American Association of Geographers Geography Education Specialty Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessell, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his career teaching geography, Johnathan Wessell has always stressed to his students that they already knew a lot about geography before they entered his classroom. He writes in this article that once he convinces his students of this, they begin to realize that geography is all around them, and that they, in turn, begin to shift their…

  18. Does the High School Geography Experience Influence Enrollment in University Geography Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Joseph; McLaughlin, Christina; Wilson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that owing to profound difficulties with high school geography curricula, teachers play a vital role in stimulating student interest and in providing a platform for continuation in the study of geography at university. Yet, with little empirical evidence offered in support, it is unclear why students select geography at…

  19. Reconciling Discourse about Geography and Teaching Geography: The Case of Singapore Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This study draws upon a Foucauldian notion of discourse to explore how four pre-service geography teachers in Singapore made decisions about what geography is and how to enact their understandings of geography in their classrooms. This analysis of discursive power is particularly relevant to Singapore because of the high level of state control…

  20. How Are Non-Geography Majors Motivated in a Large Introductory World Geography Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Won; Huynh, Niem Tu

    2015-01-01

    University students who do not declare geography as their major are at risk of poor motivation to learn in an introductory geography class. However, research exploring the role of non-majors' motivation is lacking. This study examines motivational factors impacting non-geography students' engagement and performance. The findings suggest that…

  1. Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and early modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

    2014-04-01

    One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than early modern humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of early modern humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and early modern humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored.

  2. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the human health and ecological consequences of exposure to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. The purpose of this effort is to provide a baseline of information to guide future efforts in risk assessment for CO2 sequestration. Scenarios for hazardous CO2 exposure include surface facility leaks, leaks from abandoned or aging wells, and leakage from geologic CO2 storage structures. Amounts of carbon in various reservoirs, systems, and applications were summarized, and the levels of CO2 encountered in nature and everyday life were compared along with physiologically relevant concentrations. Literature pertaining to CO2 occupational exposure limits, regulations, monitoring, and ecological consequences was reviewed. The OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH occupational exposure standards are 0.5% CO2 averaged over a 40 hour week, 3% average for a short-term (15 minute) exposure, and 4% as the maximum instantaneous limit considered immediately dangerous to life and health. All three conditions must be satisfied at all times. Any detrimental effects of low-level CO2 exposure are reversible, including the long-term metabolic compensation required by chronic exposure to 3% CO2. Breathing rate doubles at 3% CO2 and is four times the normal rate at 5% CO2. According to occupational exposure and controlled atmosphere research into CO2 toxicology, CO2 is hazardous via direct toxicity at levels above 5%, concentrations not encountered in nature outside of volcanic settings and water-logged soils. Small leaks do not present any danger to people unless the CO2 does not disperse quickly enough through atmospheric mixing but accumulates instead in depressions and confined spaces. These dangers are the result of CO2 being more dense than air. Carbon dioxide is regulated for diverse purposes but never as a toxic substance. Catastrophic incidents involving large amounts and/or rapid release of CO2 such as Lake

  3. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    the landscape. Unique or common landscape forms: Depending on the given planet, one feature can have special value (or can be of different scientific importance): on Io, a impact crater would be more important, than on the Moon, etc. Current processes: Naturally, "living" landscapes (with active volcanoes, geysers, dust devils or active weather processes) are more valuable than "dead" ones. Cultural landscape values. Human presence on a extraterrestrial body is of high impor- tance. Human landing sites with footprints or landing sites with spacecraft "debris" or scientific devices makes any - otherwise unimportant - landscape valuable for us. Even the proper names of surface features will change their physical value: for a Hungarian, for example, a crater named after a Hungarian scientist will have a special value and will attract more interest than other craters. These factors are comparable with our tourist value categories. Economical landscape values. As on Earth, it makes an area more valuable if it has economically usable and profitable raw materials: minerals, rocks (impactites and other materials formed in special conditions or a long time ago). Aesthetic landscape values. We, humans, consider this as an other important factor since the German painter A. Altdorfer in the 16th century has first chosen certain land- 2 scapes that he considered to be of artistic value even without human figures present in the landscape. Parts of aesthetic landscape values are not part of the surface or local environment but of the planet or planetary system: the color of lack of the atmosphere, clouds, the characteristics of the visible moons. The abiogenic surface elements of this category are for example sand dunes, relief forms with order in their shape or distri- bution, or extreme landforms: extensive smooth plains or deep canyons. "Human presence (or life) - friendliness" values. Conditions for longer human pres- ence will be one of the most important factors when we start

  4. Spatial Distribution of Elephants versus Human and Ecological Variables in Western Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Danquah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An elephant survey was conducted in the Bia-Goaso Forest Block in western Ghana during the wet season month of November 2012 to determine the distribution of elephants and assess the human and ecological variables that affect them. One hundred and thirty 1-kilometre transects were systematically distributed in three strata (high, medium, and low density based on elephant dung pile density recorded in an initial reconnaissance. Elephant activity was concentrated in southern and mid-Bia Conservation Area, the southern tip of Bia North Forest Reserve, and eastern Mpameso Forest Reserve towards the adjoining Bia Shelter belt, indicating a clumped distribution. Secondary forest, water availability, poaching activity, and proximity to roads and settlements explained a high proportion of variance in elephant distribution. Given that the Bia-Goaso Forest Block forms an important biogeographic corridor between Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire, more effort should be directed at mitigating the problems such as poaching activity, vehicular traffic, and impacts of settlements that hinder seasonal movements of forest elephants between western Ghana and eastern Cote d’Ivoire.

  5. Taxonomic status and ecologic function of methanogenic bacteria isolated from the oral cavity of humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The detection of methane gas in samples of dental plaque and media inoculated with dental plaque was attributed to the presence of methane-producing bacteria in the plaque microbiota. The results of a taxonomic analysis of the 12 methanogenic isolates obtained from human dental plaque, (ABK1-ABK12), placed the organisms in the genus Methanobrevibacter. A DNA-DNA hybridization survey established three distinct genetic groups of oral methanogens based on percent homology values. The groups exhibited less than 32% homology between themselves and less than 17% homology with the three known members of the genus methanobrevibacter. The ecological role of the oral methanogens was established using mixed cultures of selected methanogenic isolates (ABK1, ABK4, ABK6, or ABK7) with oral heterotrophic bacteria. Binary cultures of either Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Veillonella rodentium, Lactobacillus casei, or Peptostreptococcus anaerobius together with either methanogenic isolates ABK6 or ABK7 were grown to determine the effect of the methanogens on the distribution of carbon end products produced by the heterotrophs. Binary cultures of S. mutans and ABK7 exhibited a 27% decrease in lactic acid formation when compared to pure culture of S. mutans. The decrease in lactic acid production was attributed to the removal of formate by the methanogen, (ABK7), which caused an alteration in the distribution of carbon end products by S. mutans.

  6. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity).

  7. Biodiversity, Extinction, and Humanity’s Future: The Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Human Population and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Hindmarsh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have altered global environments and reduced biodiversity by causing extinctions and reducing the population sizes of surviving species. Increasing human population size and per capita resource use will continue to have direct and indirect ecological and evolutionary consequences. As a result, future generations will inhabit a planet with significantly less wildlife, reduced evolutionary potential, diminished ecosystem services, and an increased likelihood of contracting infectious disease. The magnitude of these effects will depend on the rate at which global human population and/or per capita resource use decline to sustainable levels and the degree to which population reductions result from increased death rates rather than decreased birth rates.

  8. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  9. Symbioses: a key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepzig, K D; Adams, A S; Handelsman, J; Raffa, K F

    2009-02-01

    Symbiosis is receiving increased attention among all aspects of biology because of the unifying themes it helps construct across ecological, evolutionary, developmental, semiochemical, and pest management theory. Insects show a vast array of symbiotic relationships with a wide diversity of microorganisms. These relationships may confer a variety of benefits to the host (macrosymbiont), such as direct or indirect nutrition, ability to counter the defenses of plant or animal hosts, protection from natural enemies, improved development and reproduction, and communication. Benefits to the microsymbiont (including a broad range of fungi, bacteria, mites, nematodes, etc.) often include transport, protection from antagonists, and protection from environmental extremes. Symbiotic relationships may be mutualistic, commensal, competitive, or parasitic. In many cases, individual relationships may include both beneficial and detrimental effects to each partner during various phases of their life histories or as environmental conditions change. The outcomes of insect-microbial interactions are often strongly mediated by other symbionts and by features of the external and internal environment. These outcomes can also have important effects on human well being and environmental quality, by affecting agriculture, human health, natural resources, and the impacts of invasive species. We argue that, for many systems, our understanding of symbiotic relationships will advance most rapidly where context dependency and multipartite membership are integrated into existing conceptual frameworks. Furthermore, the contribution of entomological studies to overall symbiosis theory will be greatest where preoccupation with strict definitions and artificial boundaries is minimized, and integration of emerging molecular and quantitative techniques is maximized. We highlight symbiotic relations involving bark beetles to illustrate examples of the above trends.

  10. Human appropriation of natural capital: a comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  11. Human appropriation of natural capital: A comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cub

  12. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cub

  13. Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in Sub-Saharan African communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Gilioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-eco- logical systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya, and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia. The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia. The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b rationalizing decision support; iii the

  14. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health. PMID:25666646

  15. Enhancing the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Chong, E.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore has a long tradition of geography education at the secondary and Junior College levels (ages 12-18). Although most geography teachers teach both human and physical geography, many of them have received more extensive university training in human geography. The Earth Obervatory of Singapore (EOS), a newly established research institute at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), is building an education and outreach program to integrate its research across formal and informal education. We are collaborating with the Singapore Ministry of Education to enhance the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore classrooms. EOS is providing input to national curriculum, textbook materials, and teaching resources, as well as providing inquiry-based field seminars and workshops for inservice teachers. An upcoming 5-year "Our Dynamic Earth" exhibit at the Science Centre Singapore will be a centerpoint of outreach to younger students, their teachers and parents, and to the community at large. On a longer time scale, the upcoming undergraduate program in earth science at NTU, the first of its kind in Singapore, will provide a stream of earth scientists into the geography teaching workforce. Developing ties between EOS and the National Institute of Education will further enhance teacher training. With a highly centralized curriculum, small land area, high-performing student population, and key stakeholders eager to collaborate with EOS, Singapore presents an unusual opportunity to impact classrooms on a national scale.

  16. THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Montes Galbán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine the current theoretical concepts handled by third stage basic education geography teachers. A non experimental descriptive study was made. Data was collected through a semi structured questionnaire. The population was conformed by the teachers who work at the National schools placed in the parishes Raul Leoni and Cacique Mara of Maracaibo city, Zulia State. There is not clarity in regard to the correct handling of the different geographic currents, and the slight notion teachers have leans towards a traditional, descriptive, retrospective memory based conception.

  17. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  18. Economic development and the geography of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This article shows that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate or being landlocked, but also relativ

  19. Teaching Development Geography: Observations from the Periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellings, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Approaches to teaching the dynamics of development at South Africa's National University of Lesotho are criticized. Teaching development geography, which focuses on articulation and class formation and which rejects the spatial approach, is detrimental to the geography department. The objective should be to provide technical skills unavailable…

  20. Teaching geography yesterday, today and tommorow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Kunaver

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the professional education in teaching geography in Slovene language has an age of about one hundred ycars, without intermission. The author expresses the opinion that the nowadays theoretical and praetical didactics of geography should be better linked with the research vvork and should also faster follow the results from abroad.

  1. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught…

  2. Geography and Technology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, George A.

    1994-01-01

    Multimedia instruction, which combines visual images, video clips, music, voice, and text, is a compelling way to engage students' interest in geography. The computer, telecommunications, and multimedia are tools that today's students will use in their adult working lives. The National Geographic Society can enhance geography instruction with two…

  3. Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christopherson, Robert, W.; Birkeland, Ginger

    Among the most highly regarded in physical geography, Robert Christopherson’s best-selling texts are known for their meticulous attention to detail, currency, accuracy, and rich integration of climate change science. Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography,Ninth Edition is uniquely orga...

  4. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  5. Beyond Science and Math: Integrating Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Michael E.; Grubbs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the status of World Geography Education and the importance of these concepts in developing 21st century students. Moreover, the authors also showcase how World Geography concepts can be intentionally taught through a technological/engineering, design-based learning challenge that requires students to solve a global housing…

  6. Teaching Geography through an Animated Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Waters, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Geography is a fun and exciting discipline involving the interrogation of place and space. Film is a powerful and meaningful tool, which also transmits perceptions of place and space. Therefore, this article builds a rationale for utilizing film in the teaching of geography, particularly animated film. Next, it discusses two classroom-tested…

  7. Geography at QUT: Evolution of a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Hastings, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the constraints encountered in developing and introducing a geography discipline programme, with a distinctive regional focus, within a university of technology. Through a case study approach, the analysis relates the development of geography at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) to changes in geographical education in…

  8. Experiencing the New Geography in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Uli; Burpee, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Considers the difficulties experienced by the East German School system adjusting to a more progressive educational philosophy. Specifically, contrasts the traditional East German geography instruction (focused solely on physical geography) with the West German emphasis on social issues and problem solving. Many East German instructors distrust…

  9. Archaeology meets marine ecology: the antiquity of maritime cultures and human impacts on marine fisheries and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies--the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists-provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  10. Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Rick, Torben C.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies—the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists—provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  11. Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ya-ping; WANG Ru-song; REN Jing-ming; HU Dan; YUAN Shao-jun; WANG Min

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound.

  12. Public Participation Tools and Human Ecological Sustainability: Experiences of Grassroots Efforts in Small Communities of Cavite, Philippines and Concepcion, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Public Participation advocates for people’s involvement in decisions concerning public issues. It contrasts to the view that deciding over public issues should be left to authorities and experts. Increasingly, public participation is applied in decision-making regarding environmental and natural resource concerns. With the advent of the increasing pressure in human ecological sustainability, and the growing importance of people’s involvement in environmental decision-making and governance, wh...

  13. A Unified Multiscale Field/Network/Agent Based Modeling Framework for Human and Ecological Health Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for multiscale field/network/agent-based modeling to support human and ecological health risk assessments. This framework is based on the representation of environmental dynamics in terms of interacting networks, agents that move across different networks, fields representing spatiotemporal distributions of physical properties, rules governing constraints and interactions, and actors that make decisions affecting the state of the system. Different determini...

  14. Impact of Geography and Climate on the Genetic Differentiation of the Subtropical Pine Pinus yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baosheng Wang

    Full Text Available Southwest China is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by complex topography, heterogeneous regional climates and rich flora. The processes and driving factors underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested across taxa to gain a general understanding of the evolution of biodiversity and speciation in the region. In this study, we examined the role played by historically neutral processes, geography and environment in producing the current genetic diversity of the subtropical pine Pinus yunnanensis. We used genetic and ecological methods to investigate the patterns of genetic differentiation and ecological niche divergence across the distribution range of this species. We found both continuous genetic differentiation over the majority of its range, and discrete isolated local clusters. The discrete differentiation between two genetic groups in the west and east peripheries is consistent with niche divergence and geographical isolation of these groups. In the central area of the species' range, population structure was shaped mainly by neutral processes and geography rather than by ecological selection. These results show that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, and illustrate the importance of ecological factors in forming or maintaining genetic divergence across a complex landscape. Our findings differ from other phylogenetic studies that identified the historical drainage system in the region as the primary factor shaping population structure, and highlight the heterogeneous contributions that geography and environment have made to genetic diversity among taxa in southwest China.

  15. Biodiversity, the Human Microbiome and Mental Health: Moving toward a New Clinical Ecology for the 21st Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in research concerning the brain-related influences of the microbiome have been paradigm shifting, although at an early stage, clinical research involving beneficial microbes lends credence to the notion that the microbiome may be an important target in supporting mental health (defined here along the continuum between quality of life and the criteria for specific disorders. Through metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology, a new emphasis to personalized medicine is on the horizon. Humans can now be viewed as multispecies organisms operating within an ecological theatre; it is important that clinicians increasingly see their patients in this context. Historically marginalized ecological aspects of health are destined to become an important consideration in the new frontiers of practicing medicine with the microbiome in mind. Emerging evidence indicates that macrobiodiversity in the external environment can influence mental well-being. Local biodiversity may also drive differences in human-associated microbiota; microbial diversity as a product of external biodiversity may have far-reaching effects on immune function and mood. With a focus on the microbiome as it pertains to mental health, we define environmental “grey space” and emphasize a new frontier involving bio-eco-psychological medicine. Within this concept the ecological terrain can link dysbiotic lifestyles and biodiversity on the grand scale to the local human-associated microbial ecosystems that might otherwise seem far removed from one another.

  16. Identifying early modern human ecological niche expansions and associated cultural dynamics in the South African Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Banks, William E; Warren, Dan L; Sgubin, Giovanni; van Niekerk, Karen; Henshilwood, Christopher; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Sánchez Goñi, María Fernanda

    2017-07-24

    The archaeological record shows that typically human cultural traits emerged at different times, in different parts of the world, and among different hominin taxa. This pattern suggests that their emergence is the outcome of complex and nonlinear evolutionary trajectories, influenced by environmental, demographic, and social factors, that need to be understood and traced at regional scales. The application of predictive algorithms using archaeological and paleoenvironmental data allows one to estimate the ecological niches occupied by past human populations and identify niche changes through time, thus providing the possibility of investigating relationships between cultural innovations and possible niche shifts. By using such methods to examine two key southern Africa archaeological cultures, the Still Bay [76-71 thousand years before present (ka)] and the Howiesons Poort (HP; 66-59 ka), we identify a niche shift characterized by a significant expansion in the breadth of the HP ecological niche. This expansion is coincident with aridification occurring across Marine Isotope Stage 4 (ca. 72-60 ka) and especially pronounced at 60 ka. We argue that this niche shift was made possible by the development of a flexible technological system, reliant on composite tools and cultural transmission strategies based more on "product copying" rather than "process copying." These results counter the one niche/one human taxon equation. They indicate that what makes our cultures, and probably the cultures of other members of our lineage, unique is their flexibility and ability to produce innovations that allow a population to shift its ecological niche.

  17. Strengthening the ties between university and school - Bilingual geography is the future for our multifarious subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnikel, F.

    2003-04-01

    An incessantly growing interaction between numerous fields of human activity asks for an open-minded approach and interdisciplinarity. No subject matches geography when it comes to bridging the gaps between different aspects of human life. Geography does not only describe, analyse and explain the "natural" state of the world we live in, it does also connect the disciplines within the physical branch of the subject with disciplines in the human or anthropogenic part, which describes the state of the world "as is". Geography is, therefore, in itself multi-disciplinary. Considering the immense importance of geography as the subject dealing with our environment and facing the fact that it is this environment which is already endangered by the multiple forms of human interference, geography and its multi-disciplinary character deserve even increased attention. The growth of the world's population, future climatic change and shortages of natural resources add to the importance of geography as the one subject in school dealing with these problems. In our societies, which are constantly growing together in political and economic issues, the structures of communication additionally mainly rely on an easily accessible and widely spread language like English to serve the needs of modern international contact. In Bavaria, the signs of the times have been recognized quite early. Nearly 8000 pupils at more than 80 high-level secondary schools ("Gymnasien") attend bilingual teaching, a large part of which is performed in geography. The Adolf-Weber-Gymnasium serves as an example, since it has the largest group of pupils instructed in bilingual geography in Munich. Next term, more than 150 boys and girls from five grades will be taught geography in English. Our goal is, in contrast to concepts of bilingual teaching in some other German states, not only to improve the language capability of our pupils. It is more an investment in scientific propaedeutics. It strenghtens the ties

  18. Human judgment vs. quantitative models for the management of ecological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew H; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Despite major advances in quantitative approaches to natural resource management, there has been resistance to using these tools in the actual practice of managing ecological populations. Given a managed system and a set of assumptions, translated into a model, optimization methods can be used to solve for the most cost-effective management actions. However, when the underlying assumptions are not met, such methods can potentially lead to decisions that harm the environment and economy. Managers who develop decisions based on past experience and judgment, without the aid of mathematical models, can potentially learn about the system and develop flexible management strategies. However, these strategies are often based on subjective criteria and equally invalid and often unstated assumptions. Given the drawbacks of both methods, it is unclear whether simple quantitative models improve environmental decision making over expert opinion. In this study, we explore how well students, using their experience and judgment, manage simulated fishery populations in an online computer game and compare their management outcomes to the performance of model-based decisions. We consider harvest decisions generated using four different quantitative models: (1) the model used to produce the simulated population dynamics observed in the game, with the values of all parameters known (as a control), (2) the same model, but with unknown parameter values that must be estimated during the game from observed data, (3) models that are structurally different from those used to simulate the population dynamics, and (4) a model that ignores age structure. Humans on average performed much worse than the models in cases 1-3, but in a small minority of scenarios, models produced worse outcomes than those resulting from students making decisions based on experience and judgment. When the models ignored age structure, they generated poorly performing management decisions, but still outperformed

  19. Ecological effect of ceftazidime/avibactam on the normal human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Rosenborg, Staffan; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Löfdal, Karin Söderberg; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2015-07-01

    Ceftazidime/avibactam is a new combination of the antibiotic ceftazidime with the novel, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ceftazidime/avibactam on the human intestinal microbiota following intravenous (i.v.) administration. Twelve healthy volunteers received ceftazidime/avibactam by i.v. infusion (2000mg ceftazidime and 500mg avibactam) given over 2h every 8h on Days 1-6 (inclusive) and a single dose on Day 7. Faecal samples were collected on Day-1 (pre-dose), during administration on Days 2, 5 and 7 and post-dose on Days 9, 14 and 21. Samples were cultured on non-selective and selective media. The number of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria decreased significantly during administration of ceftazidime/avibactam, whereas the number of enterococci increased. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, clostridia and Bacteroides decreased significantly during ceftazidime/avibactam administration. The effects on lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and Bacteroides were similar in the 12 volunteers, whilst clostridia showed different ecological patterns among the volunteers. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains were detected in five volunteers during the study. In four of the volunteers, loose stools were reported as adverse events. Plasma samples were collected on Days -1, 2, 5 and 7. Ceftazidime and avibactam concentrations in plasma (ceftazidime 0-224.2mg/L of plasma and avibactam 0-70.5mg/L of plasma) and faeces (ceftazidime 0-468.2mg/kg of faeces and avibactam 0-146.0mg/kg of faeces) were found by bioassay. New colonising resistant clostridia were found in five volunteers and lactobacilli were found in three volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. South Africa and the Human Right to Water: Equity, Ecology and the Public Trust Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Takacs

    2016-01-01

    ...: "Everyone has the right to have access to sufficient food and water." In this paper, I analyze South Africa's revolutionary legal vision for marrying social equity to ecology in fulfilling the right to water...

  1. Coupled Human-Ecological Dynamics and Land Degradation in Global Drylands-A modelling approach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldén, U.

    2009-12-01

    Drylands comprise one-third of the Earth’s land area. They pose research, management, and policy challenges impacting the livelihoods of 2.5 billion people. Desertification is said to affect some 10-20% of the drylands and is assumed to expand with climate change and population growth. Recent paradigms stress the importance of understanding linkages between human-ecological (H-E) systems in order to achieve sustainable management policies. Understanding coupled H-E systems is difficult at local levels. It represents an even greater challenge at regional scales to guide priorities and policy decisions at national and international levels. System dynamic modelling may help facilitating the probblem. Desertification and land degradation are often modelled and mathematically defined in terms of soil erosion. The soil erosion process is usually described as a function of vegetation ground cover, rainfall characteristics, topography, soil characteristics and land management. On-going research based on system dynamic modelling, focussing on elucidating the inherent complexity of H-E systems across multiple scales, enables an assessment of the relative roles that climate, policy, management, land condition, vulnerability and human adaptation may play in desertification and dryland development. An early approach (1995) to study desertification through an H-E coupled model considered desertification to be stress beyond resilience, i.e. irreversible, using a predator-prey system approach. As most predator-prey models, it was based on two linked differential equations describing the evolution of both a human population (predator) and natural resources (prey) in terms of gains, losses and interaction. A recent effort used a model approach to assess desertification risk through system stability condition analysis. It is based on the assumption that soil erosion and the soil sub-system play an overriding final role in the desertification processes. It is stressing the role and

  2. Effects of human activities on the ecological processes of river biofilms in a highly urbanized river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances and their effects of aquatic ecosystem are difficult to quantify in urbanized rivers. In past, specific taxa analysis of community structure was a common approach in river health monitoring studies. However, it is still difficult to understand stream ecosystem integrity without considering ecosystem processes. The complex species composition and metabolism of a river biofilm have the capacity to interact and/or modulate their surrounding environment. Because of their short life cycles, species richness, and worldwide distribution, structure and function of river biofilm communities are sensitive to change in environmental conditions. Therefore, biofilms are widely used as early warning systems of water pollution for water quality monitoring studies. In this study, we used river biofilms as a bioindicator by examining their extracellular enzyme activities and photosynthesis efficiency to understand human activities on the ecological processes of river ecosystem in a highly urbanized river. We sampled four sites along the Keelung River, Taiwan, based on different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances including water pollution index, population densities, land use types and types of stream habitats. Two study sites are heavily influenced by human activities and the others are not. The activities of extracellular enzymes within the biofilm play an important function for organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. We measured seven extracellular enzyme activities (β-d-glucosidase, phosphatase, leucine-aminopeptidase, sulfatase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase) to examine specific enzyme activity changes at four study sites monthly. In addition, relative proportion of each extracellular enzyme activity on total enzyme activities was calculated in order to examine the relationship between functional biofilm profiles and different urban intensities. Among four study sites, leucine-aminopeptidase and esterase

  3. Comparative (metagenomic analysis and ecological profiling of human gut-specific bacteriophage φB124-14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A Ogilvie

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage associated with the human gut microbiome are likely to have an important impact on community structure and function, and provide a wealth of biotechnological opportunities. Despite this, knowledge of the ecology and composition of bacteriophage in the gut bacterial community remains poor, with few well characterized gut-associated phage genomes currently available. Here we describe the identification and in-depth (metagenomic, proteomic, and ecological analysis of a human gut-specific bacteriophage (designated φB124-14. In doing so we illuminate a fraction of the biological dark matter extant in this ecosystem and its surrounding eco-genomic landscape, identifying a novel and uncharted bacteriophage gene-space in this community. φB124-14 infects only a subset of closely related gut-associated Bacteroides fragilis strains, and the circular genome encodes functions previously found to be rare in viral genomes and human gut viral metagenome sequences, including those which potentially confer advantages upon phage and/or host bacteria. Comparative genomic analyses revealed φB124-14 is most closely related to φB40-8, the only other publically available Bacteroides sp. phage genome, whilst comparative metagenomic analysis of both phage failed to identify any homologous sequences in 136 non-human gut metagenomic datasets searched, supporting the human gut-specific nature of this phage. Moreover, a potential geographic variation in the carriage of these and related phage was revealed by analysis of their distribution and prevalence within 151 human gut microbiomes and viromes from Europe, America and Japan. Finally, ecological profiling of φB124-14 and φB40-8, using both gene-centric alignment-driven phylogenetic analyses, as well as alignment-free gene-independent approaches was undertaken. This not only verified the human gut-specific nature of both phage, but also indicated that these phage populate a distinct and unexplored

  4. Comparative (Meta)genomic Analysis and Ecological Profiling of Human Gut-Specific Bacteriophage φB124-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Lesley A.; Caplin, Jonathan; Dedi, Cinzia; Diston, David; Cheek, Elizabeth; Bowler, Lucas; Taylor, Huw; Ebdon, James; Jones, Brian V.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage associated with the human gut microbiome are likely to have an important impact on community structure and function, and provide a wealth of biotechnological opportunities. Despite this, knowledge of the ecology and composition of bacteriophage in the gut bacterial community remains poor, with few well characterized gut-associated phage genomes currently available. Here we describe the identification and in-depth (meta)genomic, proteomic, and ecological analysis of a human gut-specific bacteriophage (designated φB124-14). In doing so we illuminate a fraction of the biological dark matter extant in this ecosystem and its surrounding eco-genomic landscape, identifying a novel and uncharted bacteriophage gene-space in this community. φB124-14 infects only a subset of closely related gut-associated Bacteroides fragilis strains, and the circular genome encodes functions previously found to be rare in viral genomes and human gut viral metagenome sequences, including those which potentially confer advantages upon phage and/or host bacteria. Comparative genomic analyses revealed φB124-14 is most closely related to φB40-8, the only other publically available Bacteroides sp. phage genome, whilst comparative metagenomic analysis of both phage failed to identify any homologous sequences in 136 non-human gut metagenomic datasets searched, supporting the human gut-specific nature of this phage. Moreover, a potential geographic variation in the carriage of these and related phage was revealed by analysis of their distribution and prevalence within 151 human gut microbiomes and viromes from Europe, America and Japan. Finally, ecological profiling of φB124-14 and φB40-8, using both gene-centric alignment-driven phylogenetic analyses, as well as alignment-free gene-independent approaches was undertaken. This not only verified the human gut-specific nature of both phage, but also indicated that these phage populate a distinct and unexplored ecological landscape

  5. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  6. Looking for an international strategy for geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, Joop

    2014-01-01

    Geography education is under pressure in many countries in the world. Many publications in the field of geography education and a lot of papers presented at geography conferences focus on the problematic position of geography in primary and secondary education. However, describing the problem is eas

  7. Looking for an international strategy for geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, Joop

    Geography education is under pressure in many countries in the world. Many publications in the field of geography education and a lot of papers presented at geography conferences focus on the problematic position of geography in primary and secondary education. However, describing the problem is

  8. Geography Teachers' Stories of Sustainability: An Introduction to Narrative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Geography teacher recruitment and retention is an important issue for the future of geography education. This Special Issue of "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" ("IRGEE") tackles this issue head on by focusing on geography teachers' narratives about their experiences of teaching geography, and…

  9. Information Geography: A Bridge between Engineering and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…

  10. Barriers to Teaching Introductory Physical Geography Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. RITTER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning geography online is becoming an option for more students but not without controversy. Issues of faculty resources, logistics, professional recognition, and pedagogical concerns are cited as barriers to teaching online. Offering introductory physical geography online presents special challenges. As a general education course, an introductory physical geography course has a diverse population of students with disparate educational needs and goals that impacts its ability to be delivered online. Online learning is further complicated when lab courses require specialized laboratory equipment and fieldwork. A survey of geography departments in the United States was conducted to determine barriers to the deployment of introductory physical geography lab courses. Lack of faculty interest, faculty resources, and pedagogical concerns were found to be the most important barriers to deploying online physical geography lab courses. Knowing the challenges faced by geography departments offering online courses provides insight into where valuable support services and resources can best be used to address them. Recent advances in blogging, podcasting, lecture capture, web conferencing, and augmented reality are offered as solutions to the concerns expressed by survey respondents.

  11. Ecological Criticism, Ecological City, and Ecological Civilization: Reflections upon Current Human Ecological Construction%生态批评·生态城市·生态文明——对当下人文生态建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田会轻; 邵华

    2012-01-01

    在生态危机日益严重的现代社会,生态批评通过文本分析挖掘作家对人与自然之间关系的种种处理和想象,为人类准确认识自然生态与人文生态的关系提供了良好的批评范式。在生态批评的导引下,我们应该反躬自省,以一种科学的态度积极建设人文生态,逐步确立起健康的生活方式、正确的生态理念以及和谐包容的生态意识.最终建立人类诗意栖居的自然和精神家园。而生态城市建设就是要使社会、经济、自然协调发展,物质、能量、信息高效利用,在城市区域内实现自然生态与人文生态的和谐统一。实现由良性人文生态向生态文明的转变.这应该是社会主义和谐社会建设的题中之义,也是人类复归美好精神家园的必由之途。%In the modern society characterized by more and more serious ecological crisis, ecological criticism, by analyzing the writers' various dispositions and imaginations of the relationship between human being and nature in the literary texts, attempts to supply a valid critical paradigm which really helps us gain a sound knowledge of the relation of the natural ecology to human ecology. Under the guidance of ecological criticism, we should make deep reflections upon what we have done, actively and positively construct our human ecology, gradually set up our healthy life-style, correct ecological ideas and harmonious ecological consciousness,and finally establish our natural and spiritual homeland for poetical human dwelling. Meanwhile, the construction of ecological city is meant to harmonize the social, economical, and natural development, with high-efficiency use of the material, energy, and information. In the urban area,we are supposed to achieve the harmony and unity between natural and human ecology ,accelerate the transition of human ecology to ecological civilization. This is what is meant by our construction of the socialist

  12. Does human perception of wetland aesthetics and healthiness relate to ecological functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Marylise; Piégay, Hervé; Bornette, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Wetland management usually aims at preserving or restoring desirable ecological characteristics or functions. It is now well-recognized that some social criteria should also be included. Involving lay-people in wetland preservation or restoration projects may mean broadening project objectives to fit various and potentially competing requirements that relate to ecology, aesthetics, recreation, etc. In addition, perceived value depends both upon expertise and objectives, both of which vary from one stakeholder population to another. Perceived value and ecological functioning have to be reconciled in order to make a project successful. Understanding the perceptions of lay-people as well as their opinions about ecological value is a critical part of the development of sustainable management plans. Characterizing the environment in a way that adequately describes ecological function while also being consistent with lay perception may help reach such objectives. This goal has been addressed in a case study relating to wetlands of the Ain River (France). A photo-questionnaire presenting a sample of photographs of riverine wetlands distributed along the Ain River was submitted to 403 lay-people and self-identified experts. Two objectives were defined: (1) to identify the different parameters, whether visual or ecological, influencing the perception regarding the value of these ecosystems; (2) to compare the perceptions of self-identified experts and lay-people. Four criteria appear to strongly influence peoples' perceptions of ecological and aesthetical values: water transparency and colour, the presence and appearance of aquatic vegetation, the presence of sediments, and finally, trophic status. In our study, we observed only a few differences in perception. The differences primarily related to the value assigned to oligotrophic wetlands but even here, the differences between lay and expert populations were minimal. These results support the idea that it is possible to

  13. Scale Mismatches in Social-Ecological Systems: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a concept that transcends disciplinary boundaries. In ecology and geography, scale is usually defined in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions. Sociological scale also incorporates space and time, but adds ideas about representation and organization. Although spatial and temporal location determine the context for social and ecological dynamics, social-ecological interactions can create dynamic feedback loops in which humans both influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1 What is a "scale mismatch?" (2 How are scale mismatches generated? (3 What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4 How can scale mismatches be resolved? Scale mismatches occur when the scale of environmental variation and the scale of social organization in which the responsibility for management resides are aligned in such a way that one or more functions of the social-ecological system are disrupted, inefficiencies occur, and/or important components of the system are lost. They are generated by a wide range of social, ecological, and linked social-ecological processes. Mismatches between the scales of ecological processes and the institutions that are responsible for managing them can contribute to a decrease in social-ecological resilience, including the mismanagement of natural resources and a decrease in human well-being. Solutions to scale mismatches usually require institutional changes at more than one hierarchical level. Long-term solutions to scale mismatch problems will depend on social learning and the development of flexible institutions that can adjust and reorganize in response to changes in ecosystems. Further research is

  14. Potential ecological and human health risks of heavy metals in surface soils associated with iron ore mining in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diami, Siti Merryan; Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Madzin, Zafira

    2016-10-01

    The composition of heavy metals (and metalloid) in surface soils of iron ore mine-impacted areas has been evaluated of their potential ecological and human health risks. The mining areas included seven selected locations in the vicinity of active and abandoned iron ore-mining sites in Pahang, Malaysia. Heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd and metalloid As were present in the mining soils of the studied area, while Cu was found exceeding the soil guideline value at all sampling locations. However, the assessment of the potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated low ecological risk (RI between 44 and 128) with respect to Cd, Pb, Cu, As, Zn, Co, and Ni in the surface soils. Contributions of potential ecological risk [Formula: see text]by metal elements to the total potential ecological RI were evident for Cd, As, Pb, and Cu. Contribution of Cu appears to be consistently greater in the abandoned mining area compared to active iron ore-mining site. For non-carcinogenic risk, no significant potential health risk was found to both children and adults as the hazard indices (HIs) were all below than 1. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) indicated that As has greater potential carcinogenic risk compared to other metals that may induce carcinogenic effects such as Pb, Cr, and Cd, while the LCR of As for children fell within tolerable range for regulatory purposes. Irrespective of carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, greater potential health risk was found among children (by an order of magnitude higher for most metals) compared to adults. The hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk indicated that the pathways for the risk to occur were found to be in the order of ingestion > dermal > inhalation. Overall, findings showed that some metals and metalloid were still present at comparable concentrations even long after cessation of the iron ore-mining activities.

  15. Big Data in Transport Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    The emergence of new tracking technologies and Big Data has caused a transformation of the transport geography field in recent years. One new datatype, which is starting to play a significant role in public transport, is smart card data. Despite the growing focus on smart card data, there is a need...... for studies that explicitly compare the quality of this new type of data to traditional data sources. With the current focus on Big Data in the transport field, public transport planners are increasingly looking towards smart card data to analyze and optimize flows of passengers. However, in many cases...... it is not all public transport passengers in a city, region or country with a smart card system that uses the system, and in such cases, it is important to know what biases smart card data has in relation to giving a complete view upon passenger flows. This paper therefore analyses the quality and biases...

  16. Imagined Transcultural Histories and Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Winter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, an assumption prevails that the nation has somehow lost its power to regulate our lives, being undermined by other forces, either top-down through the impact of global capitalism or bottom-up through migrations, transnational religious, ethnic or social movement communities or other transversal politics. A related idea is that ‘culture’ is now irrevocably hybridised and border-zoned, that we no longer live in a world of discrete, located, identifiable and historically grounded cultures but in some unstable and for-the-moment insterstitiality, a sort of cultural interlanguage that sits outside well-mapped structures of power. Yet, just as the nation and the boundaries it sets around culture are being conceptually chased from our maps of the world, they come galloping back to reassert themselves. They do so politically, economically, legally, symbolically. Amidst all the noise of our transnationalisms, hybridities and interstitialities, the idea of what it is to be ‘Australian’ or ‘French’ or ‘Filipino’ or ‘Asian’ reaffirms itself, in mental geographies and constructed histories, as our ‘imagined community’ (to use Benedict Anderson’s famous term [Anderson 1983], or indeed, ‘imagined Other’, even if it is an imagined ‘Other’ that we would somehow wish to incorporate into our newly hybridised Self. Using the notion of transcultural mappings, the articles in this special issue investigate this apparent paradox. They look at how the Self and Other have been mapped through imagined links between geography, history and cultural location. They interrogate the tension between the persistence of mappings of the world based on discrete national or cultural identities on one hand, and, on the other hand, the push to move beyond these carefully guarded borders and problematise precise notions of identity and belonging.

  17. Assessing Tsunami Vulnerabilities of Geographies with Shallow Water Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    Tsunami preparedness is crucial for saving human lives in case of disasters that involve massive water movement. In this work, we develop a framework for visual assessment of tsunami preparedness of geographies. Shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant equations) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that are derived by depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations and provide a great abstraction of water masses that have lower depths compared to their free surface area. Our specific contribution in this study is to use Microsoft's XNA Game Studio to import underwater and shore line geographies, create different tsunami scenarios, and visualize the propagation of the waves and their impact on the shore line geography. Most importantly, we utilized the computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs) as HLSL based shader files and delegated all of the heavy computations to the GPU. Finally, we also conducted a validation study, in which we have tested our model against a controlled shallow water experiment. We believe that such a framework with an easy to use interface that is based on readily available software libraries, which are widely available and easily distributable, would encourage not only researchers, but also educators to showcase ideas.

  18. The Evolving Ecological Universe: a Study in the Science and Human Implications of a New World Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerner, Sally Jo.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a broad cultural shift and a parallel scientific shift. Scientifically and culturally, Western civilization is moving toward a vision of a living, evolving, ecological universe and away from the Newtonian clockwork-machine universe. In Stephen Pepper's (1946) terms, the shift represents a change in dominant world hypothesis--that is, the dominant metaphor of how the world works. The bulk of the dissertation is a detailed exploration of the scientific shift because science's understanding of how the world works profoundly shapes beliefs in general. The exploration shows how a number of minirevolutions in physics and biology are related and how each supports an evolving ecological vision. The work in these different fields combines to produce a particularly important change in understanding--a vision of evolution as a single overall physical process from molecules to humankind. Ecological science (physics to biology) and the new view of evolution become possible because of a major conceptual shift in physics, the nonlinear revolution. The nonlinear revolution includes three major elements: chaos (modern nonlinear dynamics); self-organization theory (far -from-equilibrium thermodynamics); and the thermodynamics of evolution. Together these elements produce a physical understanding of an evolving, order-producing, universe --that is, a universe that evolves toward higher and higher levels of ordered complexity through interactive ecological dynamics. This very different physical picture of how the world works has important implications for human beliefs in general. A final section of the study explores the ecological shift's implications for humankind. It looks at ecological changes occurring outside the physical sciences (for example, in economics) and at how the radically changed physical sense of how the world works might affect other beliefs. For instance, the new physical view shows a remarkable ability to support and connect many

  19. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals’ current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Objective Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. Methods The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study’s infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. Results The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system’s functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants’ response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of

  20. Spatial dependence of genetic data related to human health and livestock disease resistance: a role for geography to support the One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Joost

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of located health and/or genetic data can be used to detect clusters likely to reveal disease prevalence or signatures of adaptation possibly associated with characteristics of the local environment (high temperatures, air or water pollution, be it in humans or animals (Murtaugh et al. 2017. Most often, geographic maps are produced to represent health data. Medical information is transmitted through thematic choropleth maps. For instance administrative units are colored according to the variable of interest. But it is key to analyse health and/or genetic data by explicitly including geographic characteristics (distances, co-location and also the potential and power of spatial statistics to detect specific patterns in the geographic distribution of disease occurrences (“make visible the invisible”. A classic example using clusters is the map produced by John Snow (Snow 1855 showing the number of deaths caused by a cholera outbreak in London. Looking at a detail of Snow's original map, it is possible to realize how he graphically represented the number of deaths, with short bold lines representing death occurrences (frequencies forming a kind of histogram placed on the street at the addresses where it happened - what we currently name georeferencing. A cluster of death people is an effect observed on the territory, and the existence of such a cluster depends on an infected water pump located at the same place (the cause. How can this spatial dependence be detected and measured? It is possible to identify spatial patterns in the geographic space by means of spatial statistics. We need to determine whether the variable of interest is randomly distributed or spatially dependent, and to check if the patterns observed are robust to random permutations. We also need to explore the data, to find out what is the range of influence of this spatial dependence. Here we focus on the functioning of one among several measures of

  1. Development of population geography from antropogeography to spatial-analitical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasovski Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Population geography is a subdiscipline of Human geography and studies the distribution, concentration and density of population over the terestrial surface, as well as differences in population size, changes and characteristics, like structures, migrations, activity etc, among some places present compared to others. Population geography has had a perscientific stage as long as human history. First modern scientific treatis of population in geography was the F. Ratzels book Antropogeography in 1882. During the first half of the XX century, French geographer Vidal de la Blanche gave a capital importance of population studies in his work Principes de Geographie Humaine. In interwar years, various aspects of population were studied. After The Second World War started the renovating movement of geography and new tendencies appear in human geography and, consequently in population geography. Attempts were made to define population geography as a separate sub-discipline. The world wide trend of treating population geography as separate discipline was expressed by publishing monographs, bibliographies and textbooks. The most significant authors who worked on defining population geography were French geographers P. George (1951, 1959, Beaujen-Garnier (1965, 1966; North-american geographers: G. Trewarta (1953, 1969, W. Bunge (1962, J. Clance (1965, 1971, W. Zelinski (1966; in Great Britain: J.I. Clarke (1965; in USSR: Ju.G. Sauškin i D.N. Anučin (1950, V.V. Pokšiševskij (1966, D.I. Valentej (1973; in Poland V. Ormotski (1931, L. Kosinski (1967 A. Jagelski (1980. Those authors and their works had the significant influence on the development of population science in the world and also in Serbia. Although the development of population geography was different in different countries and scientific research centers, we can clearly defined four stages. First stage lasted untill 1960s and was characterised by works of G.Trewarta, H. Doerres Ju.G. Sauškin, D

  2. Targeting the ecology within: The role of the gut-brain axis and human microbiota in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosnik, Patrick D; Cortes-Briones, Jose A

    2016-08-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of the brain using traditional neuroscience, reliable and efficacious treatments for drug addiction have remained elusive. Hence, the time has come to utilize novel approaches, particularly those drawing upon contemporary advances in fields outside of established neuroscience and psychiatry. Put another way, the time has come for a paradigm shift in the addiction sciences. Apropos, a revolution in the area of human health is underway, which is occurring at the nexus between enteric microbiology and neuroscience. It has become increasingly clear that the human microbiota (the vast ecology of bacteria residing within the human organism), plays an important role in health and disease. This is not surprising, as it has been estimated that bacteria living in the human body (approximately 1kg of mass, roughly equivalent to that of the human brain) outnumber human cells 10 to 1. While advances in the understanding of the role of microbiota in other areas of human health have yielded intriguing results (e.g., Clostridium difficile, irritable bowel syndrome, autism, etc.), to date, no systematic programs of research have examined the role of microbiota in drug addiction. The current hypothesis, therefore, is that gut dysbiosis plays a key role in addictive disorders. In the context of this hypothesis, this paper provides a rationale for future research to target the "gut-brain axis" in addiction. A brief background of the gut-brain axis is provided, along with a series of hypothesis-driven ideas outlining potential treatments for addiction via manipulations of the "ecology within." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Department of Geography and Environmental Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-09-02

    Sep 2, 2016 ... Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos, Nigeria. Abstract. This study assessed ... climates (global, regional, and local) have never been static. ..... Synthesis of its Nature, causes,. Effects and Management ...

  4. Geography and glocal scale - generational conversion/Geografia i skala glokalna - przemiana generacyjna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirveli, Marika; Lewczuk, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    The proposed text presents a conceptual change in the scope of some of the key concepts in the light of the two dictionaries (Britannica and Human Geography Dictionary) and Anglo-Saxon publications about the future of geography. Then, it combines the concept of references to the ongoing interdisciplinary studies included in the structure of the University of the Second and Third Generation. Applications built this way are of two types: (1) referring to a fundamental change in the process within the human perception of the environment for generations X and Y, and (2) referring to the process of glocalization, glocal scale and premises of the University of the Third Generation (3GU)

  5. The creation and circulation of public geographies

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Linehan, Denis; O'Callaghan, Cian; Lawton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In response to the commentaries, we discuss further how social media disrupts and remakes the creation and circulation of geographical knowledges and potentially reconfigures the moral economy of the social sciences. In particular, we examine questions of what is meant by public geography, the publics which such geographies serve, alternative and complementary approaches to social media, the politics of authorship within collective blogs, the politics and mechanisms of knowledge c...

  6. Symbioses: a key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Klepzig; A.S. Adams; J. Handelsman; K.F. Raffa

    2009-01-01

    Symbiosis is receiving increased attention among all aspects of biology because of the unifying themes it helps construct across ecological,evolutionary, developmental, semiochemical, and pest management theory. Insects show a vast array of symbiotic relationships with a wide diversity of microorganisms. These relationships may confer a variety of benefits to the host...

  7. Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

  8. Symbioses: A key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; A.S. Adams; J Handelsman; K.F. Raffa

    2009-01-01

    Symbiosis is receiving increased attention among all aspects of biology because of the unifying themes it helps construct across ecological, evolutionary, developmental, semiochemical, and pest management theory. Insects show a vast array of symbiotic relationships with a wide diversity of microorganisms. These relationships may confer a variety of benefits to the host...

  9. The impacts of Walter Isard on geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randall W.

    In the course of preparing this paper, which initially focused solely on identifying the impacts of input-output analysis on geography, a much broader perspective on the impacts of Walter Isard on geography ultimately emerged. In the tradition of input-output analysis, these impacts are grouped into direct, indirect, and induced effects, and summarized under the heading of influence. Walter Isard touched the lives of many through personal relationships, books and articles, and an energetic devotion to and enthusiasm for the creation of a regional science association. The Regional Science Association and its publications supported something of a greenhouse environment in which the seedlings of GIS and scientific geography could take root, until they were well enough established to enter mainstream geography. While clearly not limited to geography, the fruits of Walter Isard's labors continue to populate the discipline through his contemporaries, their students, students' students, and so on. The formative years of both regional science and scientific geography left an indelible mark on the nature of geographic inquiry.

  10. Identifying early modern human ecological niche expansions and associated cultural dynamics in the South African Middle Stone Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E.; Warren, Dan L.; Sgubin, Giovanni; van Niekerk, Karen; Henshilwood, Christopher; Daniau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    The archaeological record shows that typically human cultural traits emerged at different times, in different parts of the world, and among different hominin taxa. This pattern suggests that their emergence is the outcome of complex and nonlinear evolutionary trajectories, influenced by environmental, demographic, and social factors, that need to be understood and traced at regional scales. The application of predictive algorithms using archaeological and paleoenvironmental data allows one to estimate the ecological niches occupied by past human populations and identify niche changes through time, thus providing the possibility of investigating relationships between cultural innovations and possible niche shifts. By using such methods to examine two key southern Africa archaeological cultures, the Still Bay [76–71 thousand years before present (ka)] and the Howiesons Poort (HP; 66–59 ka), we identify a niche shift characterized by a significant expansion in the breadth of the HP ecological niche. This expansion is coincident with aridification occurring across Marine Isotope Stage 4 (ca. 72–60 ka) and especially pronounced at 60 ka. We argue that this niche shift was made possible by the development of a flexible technological system, reliant on composite tools and cultural transmission strategies based more on “product copying” rather than “process copying.” These results counter the one niche/one human taxon equation. They indicate that what makes our cultures, and probably the cultures of other members of our lineage, unique is their flexibility and ability to produce innovations that allow a population to shift its ecological niche. PMID:28739910

  11. Ecological and human health risks from metal(loid)s in peri-urban soil in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the ecological and human health risks of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, and As) in peri-urban soils, 43 surface soil samples were collected from the peri-urban area around Nanjing, a megacity in China. The average contents were 1.19, 67.8, 37.6, 105, 167, 44.6, 722, and 50.8 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and As, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As (p urban soil samples. Potential ecological risk indices show that the metal(loid)s in the soil could result in higher ecological risks. Cd is the main contributor to the risk, followed by As. The levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As in stomach and intestinal phases show a positive linear correlation with their total contents. Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in stomach phase showed higher bioaccessibility, while in intestinal phase, Cu, Cr, and As had the higher bioaccessibility. The carcinogenic risk in children and adults posed by As, Pb, and Cr via ingestion was deemed acceptable. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by these metal(loid)s via ingestion to children are higher than to adults and mainly result from As.

  12. Human health and ecological assessment programs for Hebei Spirit oil spill accident of 2007: Status, lessons, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Kim, Jung-Ah; Park, Myung-Sook; Yim, Un Hyuk; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-01

    Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) of December 2007 is one of the worst oil spill accidents that occurred in Yellow Sea. The affected coastline along the west coast of Korean Peninsula hosts one of the largest tidal flats worldwide, and is home to tens of thousands of human residents. Based on nation-wide concerns on ecosystem damages and adverse human health effects, two separate surveillance programs on ecosystem and human health were initiated: a 10-year follow-up program by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries to assess ecological impacts of the oil spill, and an exposure and health effect assessment program by Ministry of Environment for the residents of Taean and its vicinity. For the past eight years, extensive monitoring and surveillance data on ecosystem and humans have been accumulated through these programs. But these studies have been conducted mostly independently, and collaborations were seldom made between two programs. The lack of communication resulted in gaps and overlaps between the programs which led to loss of critical information and efficiency. As oil spill can affect both humans and ecosystem through various pathways, collaboration and communication between human and ecosystem health surveillance programs are necessary, and will synergize the success of both programs. Such concerted efforts will provide better platform for understanding the status of impact, and for developing approaches to address human and ecosystem health challenges that may be faced following environmental disasters like HSOS.

  13. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fieldwork in Geography Education: Defining or Declining? The State of Fieldwork in Canadian Undergraduate Geography Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather; Leydon, Joseph; Wincentak, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the prevalence of fieldwork in undergraduate Geography programs in Canada. It examines the presence of fieldwork, provided through both field courses and courses that include fieldwork components, by reviewing program requirements and course offerings in undergraduate geography programs. The research explores the extent to…

  15. Progress in Human Geography in a century:A bibliometric review of 73 SSCI journals%百年SSCI看国际人文地理学的发展特点与规律--基于73种人文地理类期刊的文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赛香; 袁甜; 苏香燕; 胡鹏; 薛熙明

    2015-01-01

    从文献总量、文献类型、成长趋势、关键词、作者、国家与机构等方面,对1900-2012年SSCI收录的73种人文地理期刊的144719条文献记录,进行了较为全面的文献计量分析,包括:构建作者评价指标体系以分析作者对人文地理研究的学术贡献,利用网络图分析各阶段作者、国家与机构之间合作的网络关系等。研究表明:①百年来,人文地理发文量总体呈快速上升趋势,但占SSCI发文总量的比重却呈下降趋势;②英美一直引领全球人文地理研究及其发展;③人文地理学有明显研究热点主题,包括地方性、迁移、性别、旅游、规划等,研究注重地理与政治的结合,以及对GIS和RS为代表的地理信息技术的采借;研究热点区域集中在英、美两国,尤以其特大城市为重点,中国的部分城市近十年来也受到较多关注;④人文地理学作者分布有明显阶段性特征,并形成了以Johnston R J、Thrift N、Sayer A、Jackson P、Harvey D等为中心的学术高产核心作者群。本研究对揭示人文地理学发展的特征和趋势有较好的参考借鉴。%On the basis of 144719 document records from 73 Human Geography journals from SSCI database during 1900-2012, the paper conducted an integrated bibliometric analysis in respect to characteristics of document types, document outputs, keywords, authors, countries and institutions. Meanwhile, an indicator system was established to examine the features and trends of Human Geography development through comprehensive assessment towards authors worldwide. Our analysis focused on the scientific outputs, subject categories, international collaboration and geographic distribution. A multi- criteria assessment system was built to measure the contributions of 387 authors in four periods within 1900-2012. Then network phase analysis supported by Matlab and Netdraw was used to reveal the network relationships

  16. Humans and Seagrasses in East Africa : A social-ecological systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela

    2006-01-01

    The present study is one of the first attempts to analyze the societal importance of seagrasses (marine flowering plants) from a Natural Resource Management perspective, using a social-ecological systems (SES) approach. The interdisciplinary study takes place in East Africa (Western Indian Ocean, WIO) and includes in-depth studies in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Natural and social sciences methods were used. The results are presented in six articles, showing that seagrass ecosystems are ri...

  17. [Genetic ecological monitoring in human populations: heterozygosity, mtDNA haplotype variation, and genetic load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovskiĭ, O P; Koshel', S M; Zaporozhchenko, V V; Pshenichnov, A S; Frolova, S A; Kuznetsova, M A; Baranova, E E; Teuchezh, I E; Kuznetsova, A A; Romashkina, M V; Utevskaia, O M; Churnosov, M I; Villems, R; Balanovskaia, E V

    2011-11-01

    Yu. P. Altukhov suggested that heterozygosity is an indicator of the state of the gene pool. The idea and a linked concept of genetic ecological monitoring were applied to a new dataset on mtDNA variation in East European ethnic groups. Haplotype diversity (an analog of the average heterozygosity) was shown to gradually decrease northwards. Since a similar trend is known for population density, interlinked changes were assumed for a set of parameters, which were ordered to form a causative chain: latitude increases, land productivity decreases, population density decreases, effective population size decreases, isolation of subpopulations increases, genetic drift increases, and mtDNA haplotype diversity decreases. An increase in genetic drift increases the random inbreeding rate and, consequently, the genetic load. This was confirmed by a significant correlation observed between the incidence of autosomal recessive hereditary diseases and mtDNA haplotype diversity. Based on the findings, mtDNA was assumed to provide an informative genetic system for genetic ecological monitoring; e.g., analyzing the ecology-driven changes in the gene pool.

  18. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentration in soil from San Luis Potosi, Mexico: levels and ecological and human health risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Orta-García, Sandra T; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge Armando; González-Palomo, Ana K; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils from the city of San Luis Potosi in Mexico and perform an ecological and human health risk characterization. In order to confirm the presence of PBDEs, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and the concentrations of PBDEs in urban, industrial, agricultural, and brick kiln industry areas were determined. The mean total PBDEs levels obtained in the study sites were 25.0 ± 39.5 μg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation) in the brick kiln industry zone; 34.5 ± 36.0 μg/kg in the urban zone; 8.00 ± 7.10 μg/kg in the industrial zone and 16.6 ± 15.3 μg/kg in the agricultural zone. The ecological and human health risk characterization showed relatively low-hazard quotient values. However, the moderately high PBDEs levels found in soils highlight the necessity to establish a systematic monitoring process for PBDEs in environmental and biological samples.

  20. Sexual Risk Behaviors Constructed in Iranian Women's Life with Substance Use Disorders: A New Implication of Human Ecological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidimanesh, Mansoureh; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2016-07-01

    Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory. In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users. Data was collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data using Graneheim and Lundman procedure. Risky sexual behavior in drug use disorders in women was found in four themes with thirteen emerged; sexual untaught at micro-system with two subthemes "unsafe home" and "drop out of school", Perception of differences at meso-system with three subthemes "lack of link between family and school", "doing manly behavior" and "low awareness of health puberty than peers", inappropriate marriages at exo-system with three subthemes "stigma", "fear of losing love relationship" and "self-devotion", marginalization at macro-system with four subthemes "barrier access to rights", "selling sex as a tool of security", "lack of belief as a sex worker" and "mistrust and doubt partner" using implication of human ecological theory. Findings suggest that strategies supporting the discovery of risky sexual behaviors in drug use disorders in women are important in order to provide counseling and education to form their decisions toward safety sex.

  1. Extracellular fibrils of pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii are important for ecological niche, murine virulence and human neutrophil interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Springer

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen of humans and animals, is found on a variety of trees in tropical and temperate regions. The ecological niche and virulence of this yeast remain poorly defined. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants and plant-derived substrates to model C. gattii in its natural habitat. Yeast cells readily colonized scratch-wounded plant leaves and formed distinctive extracellular fibrils (40-100 nm diameter x500-3000 nm length. Extracellular fibrils were observed on live plants and plant-derived substrates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and by high voltage- EM (HVEM. Only encapsulated yeast cells formed extracellular fibrils as a capsule-deficient C. gattii mutant completely lacked fibrils. Cells deficient in environmental sensing only formed disorganized extracellular fibrils as apparent from experiments with a C. gattii STE12alpha mutant. C. gattii cells with extracellular fibrils were more virulent in murine model of pulmonary and systemic cryptococcosis than cells lacking fibrils. C. gattii cells with extracellular fibrils were also significantly more resistant to killing by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN in vitro even though these PMN produced elaborate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These observations suggest that extracellular fibril formation could be a structural adaptation of C. gattii for cell-to-cell, cell-to-substrate and/or cell-to- phagocyte communications. Such ecological adaptation of C. gattii could play roles in enhanced virulence in mammalian hosts at least initially via inhibition of host PMN- mediated killing.

  2. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  3. A lion population under threat : understanding lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) ecology and human-lion interactions related to livestock predation in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumenta, Pricelia Nyaekon

    2012-01-01

    Lions in Waza National Park Cameroon were studied with focus on lion ecology and the human-lion conflicts due to livestock predation. The number of adult lions has declined from 40-60 in 2002 to 14-21 in 2008, which represents a reduction of about 65% in 6 years. The human-livestock pressure on the

  4. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  5. Integrating ecology and social science using two examples of wandering wildlife and human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many researchers have studied impacts of human activity on wildlife or human attitudes toward wildlife, but not both simultaneously. Understanding these interactions is critical to better understand the intricacies of real world conservation issues. The goal of my presentation ...

  6. The use of ‘ecological risk‘ for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nunneri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the move from the uncertainty surrounding ecosystem thresholds and addresses the issue of ecosystem-state assessment by means of ecological integrity indicators and ‘ecological risk‘. The concept of ‘ecological risk‘ gives a measure of the likelihood of ecosystem failure to provide the level of natural ecological goods and services expected/desired by human societies. As a consequence of human pressures (use of resources and discharge into the environment, ecosystem thresholds can be breached thus resulting in major threats to human health, safety and well-being. In this study we apply the concept of ‘ecological risk‘ to two case-studies in the German exclusive economic zone: eutrophication and construction of offshore wind farms. The effects of different future scenarios for single-uses upon ecosystem integrity are analysed as well as the effects of one combined scenario. We conclude that in the short term construction of offshore wind farms can influence some processes to a much larger degree than eutrophication, however, combined impacts deriving from eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction need a more detailed analysis. Due to non-linear ecosystem processes, effects of combined or multiple uses of marine resources in terms of ‘ecological risk‘, cannot be extrapolated from single-use scenarios.

  7. The analysis of statistics, geography and dynamics of xenophobic agression in Russia [2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М М Yusupov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobia is one of significant challenges to social and national security of Russia. In some regions of the country the crimes pertaining to xenophobia show a persistent upward trend. However, the lack of official information on statistics, geography and dynamics of xenophobic crimes blocks the elaboration of regional measures designed to cope with the challenge of xenophobia. The results of the investigations of the survey papers of the Moscow Office for Human Rights over the period of 2005-2007 conducted to analyze the statistics, geography and dynamics of xenophobic aggression in federal districts of Russia are presented in the article.

  8. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rabbani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Khoy district in North West of Iran. We ascertained all new cases of human and animal brucellosis in the 2001-2004 period. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r and square of correlation coefficient (r2. Seasonal incidence was calculated for each species."nResults: The cumulative incidence rate of human brucellosis was detected to be 175/100,000, cattle brucellosis was 391/100,000, and sheep and goat brucellosis was 105/100,000. We detected direct and incomplete correlation between human and cattle (r=0.096, r2=0.009, p value 0.742, human and sheep (r=0.267, r2=0.071, p value=0.355, and cattle and sheep (r=0.797, r2=0.635, p value=0.001."nConclusion: The most effective routes to control the disease include pasteurization or boiling of milk for human consumption, cooking all food stuff derived from animal sources, vaccination of cattle against brucellosis, isolation and slaughtering of seropositive reactors for brucellosis and providing protective clothing for humans dealing with infected cattle.

  9. Between East and West: Geography in Higher Education in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frank

    1980-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the geography curriculum in higher education in Yugoslavia. From the 19th century geography instruction has survived the trauma of foreign domination, a royalist kingdom, and the advent of a socialist state. (Author/KC)

  10. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  11. Teaching Young Children Basic Concepts of Geography: A Literature-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Vasiliev, Ren; Lin, Qiuyun

    2002-01-01

    This article advocates a literature-based instructional approach as a way of promoting geographic awareness in early childhood classrooms. Instruction focuses on basic geography concepts of location, place, human- environment interaction, movement, and region. Examples of children's picture books are included to show what early childhood teachers…

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of a Cognitive Architecture for the Cultural Geography Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (1991). TPB postulates three key factors that determine an individual’s intention, leading to a...BLANK 123 LIST OF REFERENCES Ajzen , I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior . Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211...GEOGRAPHY MODEL ........................................................13 1. Theory of Planned Behavior

  13. Teaching the Six Essential Elements of Geography with Quality Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author describes how she teaches third and sixth grade classes about the six essential elements of geography at the beginning of each school year. The six elements organize the eighteen national standards and include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and…

  14. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen

    2015-08-01

    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  15. Discontinuity of human presence at Atapuerca during the early Middle Pleistocene: a matter of ecological competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rodríguez-Gómez

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that the European human settlement is older than 1.2 Ma. However, there is a fierce debate about the continuity or discontinuity of the early human settlement of Europe. In particular, evidence of human presence in the interval 0.7-0.5 Ma is scarce in comparison with evidence for the previous and later periods. Here, we present a case study in which the environmental conditions at Sierra de Atapuerca in the early Middle Pleistocene, a period without evidence of human presence, are compared with the conditions in the previous period, for which a relatively intense human occupation is documented. With this objective in mind, the available resources for a human population and the intensity of competition between secondary consumers during the two periods are compared using a mathematical model. The Gran Dolina site TD8 level, dated to 0.7-0.6 Ma, is taken as representative of the period during which Atapuerca was apparently not occupied by humans. Conditions at TD8 are compared with those of the previous period, represented by the TD6-2 level, which has yielded abundant evidence of intense human occupation. The results show that survival opportunities for a hypothetical human population were lower at TD8 than they were at TD6-2. Increased resource competition between secondary consumers arises as a possible explanation for the absence of human occupation at Atapuerca in the early Middle Pleistocene.

  16. BRICS: an explanation in critical geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Meena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BRICS, an abbreviation for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, a group of five influential and emerging economies successfully completed its fifth annual summit in Durban during March 26-27, 2013. A significantly unique feature of the group is its geographical spread as evident from the location of these five constituent states which are situated in four continents. The paper seeks to explain the phenomenon of the disparate group BRICS through literature in Critical Geography as it is understood that the recent phase of globalization has created spatial patterns which were hitherto not experienced and therefore not clearly recognized in the literature on International Relations and traditional geography. Such spatially variegated groupings like the BRICS could be analyzed and interpreted in Critical Geography and Critical Geopolitics literature through three important concepts: a Space b Geographical and Geopolitical Imaginations and c Region. The paper seeks to explain BRICS through these conceptual tools.

  17. 人类生态学研究现状与发展趋势%Research and Development Trends of Human Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘术一

    2012-01-01

    The author of this paper collects related information about Human Ecology by means of literature and internet,and does related processing to obtain the third intelligence products of this research.The author explains both domestic and foreign research status of Human Ecology and its future trends,in order to provide some references for Human Ecology research.%通过文献、网络等多种手段采集了人类生态学相关信息,并进行整理加工处理,形成了三次情报产品,阐述了人类生态学国内研究现状、国外研究现状以及未来发展趋势,为人类生态学研究提供参考。

  18. Teachers envisioning future geography education at their schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beneker, Tine; Palings, Hans; Krause, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of a geography teacher education program is preparing teachers for their leading roles in keeping geography education relevant for the young people of today. It is important to allow teachers to think about geography education and the future and to foster their curriculum-makin

  19. Teachers envisioning future geography education at their schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beneker, Tine; Palings, Hans; Krause, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of a geography teacher education program is preparing teachers for their leading roles in keeping geography education relevant for the young people of today. It is important to allow teachers to think about geography education and the future and to foster their

  20. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  1. Rethinking Postgraduate Geography Education in the USA: Issues and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth; Bednarz, Sarah; Monk, Janice; Solem, Michael; Stoltman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate geography education in the USA is growing and changing. In recent years, the number of postgraduate programs has increased at both the doctoral and master's levels. Interest in improving and reforming doctoral education has increased dramatically both inside and outside geography, and geography has been involved in these reforms.…

  2. Teachers Envisioning Future Geography Education at Their Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béneker, Tine; Palings, Hans; Krause, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of a geography teacher education program is preparing teachers for their leading roles in keeping geography education relevant for the young people of today. It is important to allow teachers to think about geography education and the future and to foster their curriculum-making competences. In a master course at Fontys…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Geography Education: International Samples and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incekara, Suleyman

    2010-01-01

    In today's world, the developments being experienced in geography education are focusing on issues like the following: integrating technology into geography courses, placing a comprehensive and integrative perspective regarding geography into the curriculum, stressing independent learning and team-learning simultaneously, educating students to…

  4. Development of Geography in Higher Education in China since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Kong, Yunfeng; Peng, Baoyu

    2007-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in terms of geography student enrolment in higher education. This study draws on an extensive collection of data as well as the authors' own surveys of 20 geography schools/departments, to elaborate on the development features of China's geography in higher education (GHE) against its unique background since…

  5. The China National Geography Competition for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wang; Dongying, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Four Chinese middle school students represented China during the third International Geography Olympiad (IGEO) held in 2000 in Korea and that was the first time for China to participate in the IGEO. In 2005 the China Society of Geography and the Beijing Normal University decided to co-organise the China National Geography Competition (CNGC) for…

  6. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography.

  7. Ecological engineering. Bridging between ecology and civil engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bohemen, H. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    On the potential role of ecological technology as a bridge towards a sustainable development of infrastructure. The book reviews the input of (landscape) ecology to solve environmental problems due to human activity. Theories about ecological engineering as well as case studies show the magnificent opportunities to integrate human activities in the biosphere.

  8. Hydrology, Ecology and Pastoralism in the Sahel: Abrupt Changes in Surface Water Dynamics in a Coupled Natural-Human System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Sahelian region of Africa is situated to the south of the Sahara desert, stretching from Senegal in the West to Sudan in the East. It is an area with semi-arid climate (300-600 mm mean annual precipitation) and long, severe, dry seasons (8-9 months without rain). Sahelian vegetation consists of extensive annual grasslands, with low tree and shrub density (generally change and how it may have arisen through interactions between hydrology, ecology, climate, humans, their livestock, and land use patterns in the lake catchment. It is likely that biological and physical thresholds were exceeded during the drought to trigger a temporary state change in the lake from ephemeral to perennial, which then triggered a socio-economic reorganization. We hypothesize that the resulting change in land use may now maintain the lake in its 'perennial' state. For how long remains uncertain. We will, furthermore, explore reports from elsewhere in the Sahel suggesting that this phenomenon may not be unique in space or time. If our hypotheses are correct, the interactions and feedbacks operating in our catchment may have broad implications for the ecology and management of the wider Sahel region.

  9. Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; Cuív, Páraic O; Wang, Tingting; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki; Gordon, Iain; McSweeney, Chris; Leggett, Barbara; Morrison, Mark

    2011-05-01

    We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtraction of the subject effect from the data and revealed, for the first time, evidence of a longitudinal gradient for specific microbes along the colorectum. In particular, probes targeting Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. produced strongest signals with caecal and transverse colon samples, with a gradual decline through to the rectum. Conversely, the analyses suggest that several members of the Enterobacteriaceae increase in relative abundance towards the rectum. These collective differences were substantiated by the multivariate analysis of quantitative PCR data. We were also able to identify differences in the microarray profiles, especially for the streptococci and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, on the basis of gender. The results derived by these multivariate analyses are biologically intuitive and suggest that the biogeography of the colonic mucosa can be monitored for changes through cross-sectional and/or inception cohort studies.

  10. Effects of environmental change on zoonotic disease risk: an ecological primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ostfeld, Richard S; Peterson, A Townsend; Poulin, Robert; de la Fuente, José

    2014-04-01

    Impacts of environmental changes on zoonotic disease risk are the subject of speculation, but lack a coherent framework for understanding environmental drivers of pathogen transmission from animal hosts to humans. We review how environmental factors affect the distributions of zoonotic agents and their transmission to humans, exploring the roles they play in zoonotic systems. We demonstrate the importance of capturing the distributional ecology of any species involved in pathogen transmission, defining the environmental conditions required, and the projection of that niche onto geography. We further review how environmental changes may alter the dispersal behaviour of populations of any component of zoonotic disease systems. Such changes can modify relative importance of different host species for pathogens, modifying contact rates with humans.

  11. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  12. Thinking on the Countermeasures about the Interpersonal Ecology on Adult Learning in the View of the Ecology of Human Development%人类发展生态学视野下成人学习人际生态对策思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白昊

    2012-01-01

    The individual is developing in a complex relationship system from the perspective of the Ecology of Human Development.The interpersonal relationship is the main elements of the microsystem.The interpersonal ecological performance among the adult learning activities have been reviewed from the perspective of the interpersonal relationship in the Ecology of Human Development,and then to probe into the interpersonal ecological countermeasures.It is conducive to promoting the motivation in adult learning.%人类发展生态学认为,个体是在一个复杂的关系系统中发展着的,其中人际关系是构成小系统的主要元素。从人类发展生态学人际关系视角审视成人学习活动中的人际关系生态表现,探讨改善成人学习人际生态对策,有利于增强成人学习动力。

  13. BIOTOXIN-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: AN EMERGING RISK FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing incidence of human illness associated with exposure to biotoxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic environments, and fungi and bacteria on land, may indicate an emerging human-health risk. HABs are reported to be increasing worldwide in frequency, duratio...

  14. Special issue Oceans and Humans Health: the ecology of marine opportunists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A; Kim, Catherine J S; Lyles, Jillian M; Harvell, C Drew

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part of all ecosystems; however, in some cases, a shift in the balance between the host, pathogen, and the environment may lead to epizootics in natural or cultured populations. In marine systems, host-microbe interactions are less understood than their terrestrial counterparts. The biological and physical changes to the world's oceans, coupled with other anthropogenic influences, will likely lead to more opportunistic diseases in the marine environment.

  15. Urban Regions:The Expanded Geographies of Daily Life%都市领域:扩展的日常生活地理环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦咏诗; 邓信惠

    2011-01-01

    Landscapes of infrastructure and resources connect the city to its geography.Urban regions are the result of urbanization that exists as a continuum traversing various conditions of density, human occupation,and the built environment.This project seeks to understand the resources,systems, and ecologies that support the growth of cities such as Chengdu and Hong Kong through the lens of two everyday products-bottled water and soybean milk. The production of these items reveal an intricate web of political,economic and ecological impacts that expand the geography of cities to a global scale, necessitating negotiations for territory,power,and natural resources.The project narrates the complex networks that sustain the cities of Chengdu and Hong Kong through drawings and an interactive installation where visitors negotiate for the resources of daily life.%基础设施和景观资源将城市与周围地理环境联系在一起。都市领域是都市化的结果,其中交织着不同状态下的城市密度、人类生存和建成的环境。文章尝试通过两种日常生活中的产品(瓶装水和豆奶)来了解资源、基础设施系统与生态如何促进成都及香港两大城市的发展。这些商品的生产揭示了一个受政治、经济与生态影响的复杂网络,而这一网络将都市的地理环境扩展至全球化的规模,并使地域、权力与自然资源相互协调配合。

  16. Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and Language, Value-Creative Composition Instruction, and the Geography of Identity in Community Studies: A Response to Politicized Imagining and Ineffective Critical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's philosophy and practice of human geography ("jinsei chirigaku"), community studies ("kyodoka"), and composition instruction based on "value-creating pedagogy" ("soka kyoikugaku") for thinking through and responding to two competing trends…

  17. Geography Teachers' Concepts of Working with Thinking through Geography Strategies--Results of an Empirical Reconstructive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The educational standards in geography in the German-speaking world separately refer to the areas of competence of judgment and evaluation and thus attach outstanding importance to reflective value orientation in geography classes. The tasks and challenges that arise from that for geography teachers will be investigated in a…

  18. e-Human Grid Ecology - understanding and approaching the inverse tragedy of the commons in the e-Grid society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Tobias A; Baumgärtner, Volkmar; de Zeeuw, Luc V; Grosveld, Frank G; Egger, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    With ever-new technologies emerging also the amount of information to be stored and processed is growing exponentially and is believed to be always at the limit. In contrast, however, huge resources are available in the IT sector alike e.g. the renewable energy sector, which are often even not at all used. This under-usage bares any rational especially in the IT sector where e.g. virtualisation and grid approaches could be fast implemented due to the great technical and fast turnover opportunities. Here, we describe this obvious paradox for the first time as the Inverse Tragedy of the Commons, in contrast to the Classical Tragedy of the Commons where resources are overexploited. From this perspective the grid IT sector attempting to share resources for better efficiency, reveals two challenges leading to the heart of the paradox: i) From a macro perspective all grid infrastructures involve not only mere technical solutions but also dominantly all of the autopoietic social sub-systems ranging from religion to policy. ii) On the micro level the individual players and their psychology and risk behaviour are of major importance for acting within the macro autopoietic framework. Thus, the challenges of grid implementation are similar to those of e.g. climate protection. This is well described by the classic Human Ecology triangle and our extension to a rectangle: invironment-individual-society-environment. Extension of this classical interdisciplinary field of basic and applied research to an e-Human Grid Ecology rational, allows the Inverse Tragedy of the Commons of the grid sector to be understood and approached better and implies obvious guidelines in the day-to-day management for grid and other (networked) resources, which is of importance for many fields with similar paradoxes as in (e-)society.

  19. 人文都市里的社会生态学%Social-Ecological Science in the Humane Metropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯图亚特·T·A·彼克特[美; 杰弗里·L·巴克利; 苏杰·S·考沙尔; 依耶芙·威廉姆斯

    2012-01-01

    The Humane metropolis is a rubric to summarize and promote environmental and social quality in contemporary urban mosaics. Because cities, suburbs, and exurbs, as spatially extensive and connected socio-ecological systems, exhibit many negative features, the humane metropolis identifies a strategy to combat the ills and instill more positive and sustainable features and processes in urban systems. Because the humane metropolis as a program has arisen primarily from social motivations, there is the opportunity to articulate more explicitly the role that science can play in addressing the humane metropolis program and evaluating its success. A humane metropolis can be summarized as one that 1) protects and restores ecological services in cities and suburbs, 2) promotes physical and mental health and safety of residents, 3) enhances efficiency by conserving energy, matter, water, and time, 4) facilitates equity by being inclusive, as well as socially and environmentally just, and 5) maintains a sense of community and a sense of place. We clarify the nature of science as a contributor to the social program, pointing out the social values motivating science, and the role that scientific knowledge and metaphor play in linking science with the social program of the humane metropolis. We further identify roles that socio-ecological research can play in meeting the goals of the humane metropolis. We use examples of environmental history, watershed function and restoration, and environmental justice research and action from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, Long-Term Ecological Research program. The humane metropolis as a social program benefits from scientific contributions that 1) expose hidden ecological processes in urban systems, 2) generate knowledge connecting people and institutions to the biophysical environment, 3) contribute to the civic dialog, and 4) bring scientific values to the prioritization and balancing of the goals of the humane metropolis.%人文都市是

  20. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P L; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L; Meave, Jorge A; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A; Leal, Inara R; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i

  1. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'.

  2. Middle Eastern Geographies of World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    retain.131 Soon after the fall of Basra, Sir Percy Cox, Chief Political Officer to the campaign, and Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India, both made...34Why Geography Matters ... But So Little is Learned." Orbis 47, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 217- 233. McFate, Montgomery, and Andrea Jackson . "An

  3. Internationalizing Geography Education: A Focus on India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Michael; Balachandran, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Geographers (AAG), through its Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) project, recently published a collection of online educational resources examining important geographic issues affecting people, places, and environments in India. The resources were created by a delegation of high school teachers and academic…

  4. Capstone Portfolios and Geography Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, Joann

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing demands regarding student learning outcomes and accreditation, a capstone portfolio was added to assess critical thinking and communication skills of geography majors at a large public university in the USA. The portfolio guidelines were designed to be adaptable to a flexible curriculum where about half of the requirements within…

  5. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  6. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  7. Applying Disciplinary Literacy in Elementary Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Judy; Ming, Kavin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a social studies teacher and a literacy teacher describe a vision for social studies that highlights reading practices that foster disciplinary literacy in elementary geography. Their purpose is to share a practical approach for enriching elementary social studies lessons and activities with a geographic lens. During the…

  8. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  9. Financial Geographies and Emerging Markets in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the contemporary financial geographies in Central and Eastern Europe and argues how these may affect the established European finacial centre network in the future. As the development of the financial sector in Europe’s emerging markets is largely dependent on foreign

  10. Toward Securing a Future for Geography Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Geography graduates face an uncertain future. To help students think and practice as a geographer, we must teach disciplinary knowledge--particularly threshold concepts--as well as skills and attributes. We must role model and articulate our geographical reasoning using signature pedagogies and promote high-impact and signature learning…

  11. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  12. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  13. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  14. A futures perspective in Dutch geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, Iris; Béneker, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Geography education offers many possibilities for futures education. In The Netherlands, a future perspective is obvious in the vision behind the curriculum for secondary education, but this perspective becomes thinner and less open when elaborated in the syllabus, textbooks and examinations. From

  15. Lightning Talk: Biopython (bio) Geography Module

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas J. Matzke

    2010-01-01

    For Google Summer of Code 2009/NESCENT Phyloinformatics Summer of Code 2009, I built a Geography module for Biopython. The purpose of the module is to search, download, and process biogeographical data from GBIF, much as Biopython currently accesses Genbank. Application of the tool to a historical biogeography study on bivalves will be illustrated.

  16. Marine Geography of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-01-01

    Reconnaissance Geography of Japan," University of Wisconsin Studies in the Social Sciences and History, No. 22, 283 pp., 1934. , "Japan, A Physical...Vol. 2. pp 2 Inlleiol dMoine Obsetvotory0 Kobe, (&r, Japone ’). RESTRICTED 3 Ref erences: Korea, Fishery Experimental Station, "Report on the Drift

  17. Community Engagement for Student Learning in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Chalkley, Brian; Fletcher, Stephen; Hay, Iain; Le Heron, Erena; Mohan, Audrey; Trafford, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the role and purpose of community engagement as a learning and teaching strategy within higher education geography. It explores different interpretations of the concept of community engagement and illustrates different examples of this kind of learning through six case studies drawn from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, and…

  18. Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Kolson; White, George; Leib, Jonathan; Dalby, Simon; Algeo, Katie; Jansson, David; Zimmerman, Jackson

    2011-01-01

    This set of essays is based on a panel session convened at the 2009 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, which sought to explore the many challenges and pitfalls involved with teaching nationalism as a topic in geography classrooms. The authors offer different but complementary insights into the practical difficulties and potential…

  19. A futures perspective in Dutch geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, Iris; Béneker, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Geography education offers many possibilities for futures education. In The Netherlands, a future perspective is obvious in the vision behind the curriculum for secondary education, but this perspective becomes thinner and less open when elaborated in the syllabus, textbooks and examinations. From a

  20. Teaching Historical Geographies of American Film Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The geographies of Hollywood are multiple, contradictory, ephemeral and tangible. Our preconceived conceptions of space and place play a dynamic role in what elements we tend to focus on when discussing the cultural industry of American cinema. This essay uses Hollywood as a metaphor for the American film production industry and a historical…

  1. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  2. Economic development, growth, institutions and geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhupatiraju, S.; Verspagen, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we test the Rodrik et al (2004) framework to explain differences in development levels across countries by using a broader set of definitions for institutions, geography and economic variables. We use a multi-faceted database to measure institutions in an attempt to go beyond the sing

  3. Environmental Concerns in the Geography Curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for implementing EE and ESD through the geography curriculum in the South ... three concepts; environmental education, sustainable development and ... education has changed with time depending on how people conceived of the ... Di Chiro makes it clear that conceptually we view the environment as interactions taking.

  4. Implementation Challenges of the New Geography Diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation Challenges of the New Geography Diploma Syllabus in Tanzania: A Case Study of Korogwe and ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... The study used Korogwe and Dakawa Teachers' Training Colleges as a case.

  5. Possibilities for an International Assessment in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rod; Bourke, Terri

    2017-01-01

    A recent editorial in International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education (IRGEE) highlighted an opportunity for the inclusion of geography as a subject in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) tests. At present, TIMSS tests only encompass mathematics and physical sciences. The IRGEE editors encouraged…

  6. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  7. Commission on College Geography. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John F.

    This 1974 report describes the history of the Commission on College Geography, which was supported by the National Science Foundation. There are four major parts to the paper. Part I deals with the objectives of the commission. It was established in 1963 as an outgrowth of the work of the Liberal Education Committee appointed by the Council of the…

  8. Food's cultural geographies: texture, creativity, and publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Cook; P. Jackson; A. Hayes-Conroy; S. Abrahamsson; R. Sandover; M. Sheller; H. Henderson; L. Hallett; S. Imai; D. Maye; A. Hill

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about emerging cultural geographies of food. It is the result of a collaborative blog-to-paper process that led to an experimental, fragmented, dialogic text. Food is often researched precisely because it can help to vividly animate tensions between the small and intimate realms of e

  9. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  10. Teaching Cultural Geography with "The Amazing Race"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    The reality show "The Amazing Race" serves as a useful text for the cultural geography classroom. As competitors travel the world, they complete challenging tasks designed to be both educational and entertaining. Audiences see actual images from destinations around the world and learn about the unique cultures of these places. They also…

  11. Population Education in Geography: Some Sample Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in geography courses. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  12. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  13. [Biological age as an index of human health level, aging and ecological well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krut'ko, V N; Dontsov, V I; Zakhar'iashcheva, O V; Kuznetsov, I A; Mamikonova, O A; Pyrvu, V V; Smirnova, T M; Sokolova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Methodology of estimating the integral health and aging level is based on the system index of biological age (BA). The paper introduces the reader to the BA principles and structure, search for meaningful aging biomarkers, useful tests, and applications in present-day biomedicine. The concept of BA is directly linked with the theory of organism vitality. BA biomarkers must provide a detailed picture of the process of aging. Number of biomarkers cannot be large, while their changes with aging must be uniform in every population member and fairly distinct though with moderate interindividual variations. Prognosis of the vital trajectory requires estimation of risk factors, i.e. hereditary and acquired factors that affect lifespan, and also longevity factors, i.e. genetic and environmental factors crucial for clinical medicine and gerontological prophylaxis properly. At present, BA gains wide recognition in clinical and preventive medicine, physiology and biology as a method to evaluate the general state of health, ecological well-being, adaptation to extreme factors, as well as the rate and degree of organism aging.

  14. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Reynolds, John D.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960–2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km2 killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6–32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1st), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  15. The geography teacher's set of appliances - `GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' - Self improved school equipment used in teaching geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The multimedia application and the use of Internet are becoming more and more common at schools and at homes due to the widespread of computers. The multimedia programs offer a great help for geography teachers because with their use all the visual aids are not needed in the classroom. They mix the advantages of blacboards, slides, displays, overhead projectors and VCR-s. At the same time offering other opportunities which could not be provided by the aids mentioned above because of their limits. Using a projector connected to a computer students can see the visual aids prepared by the teacher projected. Their use is justified because student's books cannot contain all the increasing amount of knowledge. Success is guaranteed because students are sensitive to new approaches. Digitalizing the material and finding it on the internet that way preparing a colourful, varied geography lesson is a time-consuming process. Being the methodologist and didactic information technologist at the Geography Department of Eszterházy Károly College I have been working for years on facilitating the work of my students, colleagues and my own activity using varied visual aids and types of equipment as preparation for the geography lesson. I have created an electronic set of appliances using the Dreamweaver MX program (‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT', from the 1st September 2006 on the Internet), it can be a real help for the teacher in each teaching situation. The ‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' is a multimedia, Internet service which can be loaded free, the teacher gets into a virtual office clicking to the different pieces (drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, Tv set etc.) the teacher can continue with the necessary school equipment. Such equipment like: lesson plans for the lessons using digital technology, photos, video clips, animation, illustrations, pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database, diagrams, charts, bibliography, student's books, geography lexicons, magazines

  16. Aspect of human food ecology; Development of carbon and nitrogen isotope method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic dietary analysis was applied for some prehistoric human populations from East Asia, Latin America, and Oceania region. Most samples were from archeological sites from 1000 to 6000 year's bp. Some modern ethnological groups including Tibet, Kurud, Shelpa and Tlingit were also studied for evaluating prehistoric human food habit. Carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of gelatin fractions have been analyzed for prehistoric bone samples. Analytical procedure for isotopes and data analyses for reconstructing dietary composition was developed and tested by a modern human food system. A stochastic method based on the Monte Carlo model was applied to estimate dependency of major food resources having unique isotope compositions in carbon and nitrogen, and has showed consistent results to the statistic food consumption record in Japan. Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of human tissues showed distinct difference among human groups in both prehistoric and modern samples. These data were evaluated by difference of dietary patterns: contributions of marine food, terrestrial food, meat, C3 and C4 plant, which are characterized by the difference of [sup 13]C and [sup 15]N content. On the basis of the stochastic feeding simulation, dietary consumption patterns were estimated for Jomon fisher-hunter-gatherers, historic Ainu, prehistoric east Siberian, prehistoric Latin American farmers in Mexico and Peru, and prehistoric fisheres in Cook island. Results showed a remarkable relationship between animal protein dependence and marine food usage. This result will be discussed from following two possibilities; the human adaptation on marine resources would be one of the important direction to upgrade animal protein uptake, or marine food could be used as alternative protein source for terrestrial game animals. (author).

  17. Geography - Changing Faces of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanacek-Schubert, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Geography - Changing Faces of the Earth In Austria there are currently some major reforms concerning high school education underway. At our school, the Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium Draschestrasse, a school belonging to the Vienna Bilingual Schooling branch, we have developed a course system in which pupils can select courses and determine individually which areas of study they want to focus on. Specially devised courses have been developed which fit within the framework of natural and applied sciences but go beyond the basic curriculum in geography. At the same time the structure of the basic courses, compulsory for all pupils, was altered in order to allow for topics that are currently in the news to be dealt with sufficiently. In the basic courses of geography exogenic and endogenic forces are dealt with extensively. The main idea is to make children aware of the powers that make landscapes look the way the do now - and what their appearance may have been thousands or millions of years ago. A piece of rubble, a depression in the landscape or the way a tree may bend may serve as the key to what lies underneath earth's surface. These tell-tale signs are worth investigating, they can open up our eyes and change our perception of the world. A great focus, in particular in the 7th grade, is placed on glaciers and karst, most notably in the Alps and the Mediterranean region, whereas the 6th grade emphasizes weathering, erosion and endogenic forces in the geography curriculum. The newly installed whiteboards at our school allow for excellent visualization of subject-related aspects concerning the aforementioned topics and issues. In addition to the geography basic-course we have devised a special course entitled „Dante's Peak" which deals specifically with the endogenic forces that help shape the appearance of the earth, in particular plate tectonics, vulcanism, earthquakes.

  18. Current perspectives on the use of alternative species in human health and ecological hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional animal toxicity tests can be time and resource intensive thereby limiting the number of chemicals that can be comprehensively tested for potential hazards to humans and/or to the environment. Using several examples and analyses, we demonstrate that pathway-based analy...

  19. The Ecology of Arts and Humanities Education: Bridging the Worlds of Universities and Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Porzio, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have been talking seriously about civic learning, but other stakeholders, particularly public arts, culture, and humanities institutions, must be part of the conversation in order to create a context for learning that develops the skills of graduates in robust ways that reflect the full promise of liberal…

  20. Application of Sequence-based Methods in Human MicrobialEcology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-08-29

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for many years, and the development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail. Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because DNA based-techniques for defining uncultured microbes allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, investigators are beginning to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has aptly been called the second Human Genome Project. In this review we discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis of known infectious diseases, and to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  1. The Ecology of Arts and Humanities Education: Bridging the Worlds of Universities and Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Porzio, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have been talking seriously about civic learning, but other stakeholders, particularly public arts, culture, and humanities institutions, must be part of the conversation in order to create a context for learning that develops the skills of graduates in robust ways that reflect the full promise of liberal…

  2. Ecological Change and the Future of the Human Species: Can Physicians Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblatt, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    Global environmental change is occurring so rapidly that it is affecting the health and threatening the future of many of Earth’s inhabitants, including human beings. Global warming; contamination of the air, water, and soil; and rampant deforestation have led to a collapse in biodiversity that threatens the integrity of the biophysical systems upon which all organisms depend.

  3. Appropriate architecture for sustainable development: The creation of ecological footprint and human development index capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available and human systems. The danger with a focus on carbon emissions is that limited resources and timeframes may be exhausted trying to achieve reductions and valuable opportunities to build long term sustainable solutions will be being lost. This paper argues...

  4. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of agric

  5. Side biases in humans ( Homo sapiens): three ecological studies on hemispheric asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Tommasi, Luca

    2009-09-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries and side biases have been studied in humans mostly in laboratory settings, and evidence obtained in naturalistic settings is scarce. We here report the results of three studies on human ear preference observed during social interactions in noisy environments, i.e., discotheques. In the first study, a spontaneous right-ear preference was observed during linguistic exchange between interacting individuals. This lateral bias was confirmed in a quasi-experimental study in which a confederate experimenter evoked an ear-orienting response in bystanders, under the pretext of approaching them with a whispered request. In the last study, subjects showed a greater proneness to meet an experimenter’s request when it was directly addressed to the right rather than the left ear. Our findings are in agreement both with laboratory studies on hemispheric lateralization for language and approach/avoidance behavior in humans and with animal research. The present work is one of the few studies demonstrating the natural expression of hemispheric asymmetries, showing their effect in everyday human behavior.

  6. Pervasion of what? : techno–human ecologies and their ubiquitous spirits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Are the robots coming? Is the singularity near? Will we be dominated by technology? The usual response to ethical issues raised by pervasive and ubiquitous technologies assumes a philosophical anthropology centered on existential autonomy and agency, a dualistic ontology separating humans from

  7. Pervasion of what? : techno–human ecologies and their ubiquitous spirits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, M.J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Are the robots coming? Is the singularity near? Will we be dominated by technology? The usual response to ethical issues raised by pervasive and ubiquitous technologies assumes a philosophical anthropology centered on existential autonomy and agency, a dualistic ontology separating humans from techn

  8. 人力资源管理的生态环境评价体系研究%Evaluation System of Ecological Environment for Human Resources Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮敏

    2011-01-01

    知识经济时代下,人力资源管理的变革与人力资源生态环境的建设密切相关.人才吸引力的竞争,从本质上讲是人才生态环境的竞争.文章通过对人力资源管理的生态环境评价体系的构建,并根据评价体系的层次性,认为完善薪酬分配机制、人才政策和良好的自然环境和文化氛围等生态环境要素对人力资源管理的健康发展具有重要意义.%In the era of economy knowledge, the human resources management reform is closely related to the construction of ecological environment of human resources. The attraction competition of talented person is the ecological environment competition of talented person essentially. This article through to the construction of ecological environment of human resources management and according to the appraisal system's hierarchical, thought that it has the important meaning for the steady development of human resources management under the evaluation of ecological environment, which including the essential factors, such as assignment mechanism of salary, the policy of talented person, good natural environment and cultural atmosphere and so on.

  9. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  10. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  11. Sequence-based Methods in Human Microbial Ecology: A The 2nd HumanGenome Comes of Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-06-01

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for more than a decade (Whitman et al. 1998). The development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail (Handelsman 2004; Harris et al. 2004; Hugenholtz et al. 1998; Moreira and Lopez-Garcia 2002; Rappe and Giovannoni 2003). Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because these techniques now allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, it is time for clinical microbiologists to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has been aptly called ''the second Human Genome Project'' (Relman and Falkow 2001). In this review we will discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis and treatment of known infectious diseases, and finally to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  12. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-02-28

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  13. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  14. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-01-01

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management. PMID:24590049

  15. Forecasting range expansion into ecological traps: climate-mediated shifts in sea turtle nesting beaches and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A

    2013-10-01

    Some species are adapting to changing environments by expanding their geographic ranges. Understanding whether range shifts will be accompanied by increased exposure to other threats is crucial to predicting when and where new populations could successfully establish. If species overlap to a greater extent with human development under climate change, this could form ecological traps which are attractive to dispersing individuals, but the use of which substantially reduces fitness. Until recently, the core nesting range for the Critically Endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) was ca. 1000 km of sparsely populated coastline in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Over the past twenty-five years, this species has expanded its range into populated areas of coastal Florida (>1500 km outside the historical range), where nesting now occurs annually. Suitable Kemp's ridley nesting habitat has persisted for at least 140 000 years in the western Gulf of Mexico, and climate change models predict further nesting range expansion into the eastern Gulf of Mexico and northern Atlantic Ocean. Range expansion is 6-12% more likely to occur along uninhabited stretches of coastline than are current nesting beaches, suggesting that novel nesting areas will not be associated with high levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Although the high breeding-site fidelity of some migratory species could limit adaptation to climate change, rapid population recovery following effective conservation measures may enhance opportunities for range expansion. Anticipating the interactive effects of past or contemporary conservation measures, climate change, and future human activities will help focus long-term conservation strategies.

  16. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  17. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Michał M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  18. The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) kir Force Materiel Command*** HEPB kir Force Research Laboratory iuman Effectiveness... cancer slope factor) as are used for individual chemicals, so the calculations are relatively simple and familiar (U.S. EPA, 2000). Of course, the same...skin painting assays served as the short term assay; human lung cancer epidemiological data were available for roofing tar and coke oven emissions

  19. RADIOECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  20. Carvacrol importance in veterinary and human medicine as ecologic insecticide and acaricide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is an active ingredient of essential oils from different plants, mainly from oregano and thyme species. It poseses biocidal activity agains many artropodes of the importance for veterinary and human medicine. Carvacrol acts as repelent, larvicide, insecticide and acaricide. It acts against pest artropodes such as those that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for many causal agents of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases for animals and humans. Therefore, it may be used not only in pest arthropodes control but in vector borne diseases control, too. In the paper carvacrol bioactivity against mosquitoes, house flies, cockroaches, ticks and mites are described. Potencial modes of carvacrol action on artropodes are given, too. Carvacrol reachs its biotoxicity against arthropodes alone or in combination with other active ingredients from the same plant of its origin, such as tymol, cymen or others. The paper explains reasons for frequently investigations on essential oils and other natural products of plant origin to their biotoxicity against food stored pest or pest of medicinal importance, as well as, needs for their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine.

  1. Toward Economies that Sustain Nature and Human Dignity An Ecological Economic Reformulation

    CERN Document Server

    Norgaard, R B

    1998-01-01

    Modern economies have successfully rallied human and community potentials to the production and consumption of material goods but are having increasing difficulty creating meaningful lives, assuring social justice, and protecting the environment for future generations. To redress these imbalances, we invoke economic language and reasoning ever more insistently and incessantly, and move away from solutions rather than toward them. This is because economics evolved with the larger assumptions of modernity that brought us to where we are. Reformulating economics, along with the on-going reformulation of our environmental and social consciousness, will be necessary to build a durable and endurable future.

  2. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems.

  3. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  4. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bienfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense, BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment.

  5. Disease ecology at a crossroads: man-made environments, human rights and perpetual development utopias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, D

    1996-09-01

    There is a growing body of critical literature on health, development and environmental sustainability in a world of finite resources and overburdened ecosystems. The ethics of progress and perpetual development in pursuit of unlimited economic growth and ever-expanding markets are no longer viable, given the constraints imposed on the life-support systems of the biosphere and a finite resource base, which poses the most serious threat to life on Earth. Despite increasing evidence of the linkages between economic growth and environmental deterioration and a rhetoric expressed in a growing body of laws, regulations, accords and global "agendas" at the national and international level, there are all too few success stories in reversing or even slowing down the current trends of ecosystem degradation and decreasing cultural and biological diversity. On the contrary, there is evidence that environmental stress and deterioration are increasing, and the impact on the mental, physical and social health and well-being of populations is more significant now than in any previous time in history. The fragmentation of countries, the rise of nationalism and ethnic conflict, the decimation of indigenous nations and human rights abuses are often closely interrelated with environmental degradation and development initiatives. This paper reviews some of the concepts and underlying values of the main "models" developed by health and social scientists for interpreting this reality, with the aim of stimulating debate that could lead to the adoption of a larger and more comprehensive framework for analysing the interactions between human health, development and environmental change.

  6. GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT to study geography: the homepage and reflections from the users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT is to convey structured information to teachers and pupils, as well as, professors and students of geography. This learning aid is a homepage, first published in Hungarian still in 2006 (http://netszkozkeszlet.ektf.hu), to help in orientation among the rapidly growing information on the Internet, to provide extra digitalized professional materials that are not yet available digitally and to share experiences of the teachers and professors working in the same area of interest and language environment. At present, its English version is already prepared and partly available at the same address. The GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT can be used free after registration, at present the homepage counts 2807 registered users. The interested user first enters a virtual office where the entries of the Menu can be opened by clicking at the drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, TV-set, etc. These entries are professional lesson plans using digital technology, photos, video clips, animations on physical and social geography. The homepage also mirrors pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database links, diagrams, bibliography, lecture notes, dictionaries, scientific and popular journals, geography games, web pages, etc. The whole set of appliances is based on Dreamweaver MX program. During the past 2.5 years some experience has been gained about the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT in use, mainly from teachers of geography, who downloaded and responded to the questionnaire. Another source of information is the group of students in the College, where future teachers of geography are trained in a one-semester course on application of the Info-Communication Technology. From the first group, i.e. 59 active teachers of geography, 54 % use the Internet "always" or "frequently" in the classroom, whereas 75 % of them rely on it for preparation to the lessons. Before trying the homepage, these numbers were 25 % and 54 %, only. From among the listed

  7. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Cultural Geography on the III Millennium: epistemic-methodological and educational perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Correia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The article puts in evidence the Cultural and Humanistic Geography and its new shapes of working with the knowledge. For such thing, it reflects about the geographic knowledge on the third millennium and the new humanistic perspectives of this lore. So that it points out the feeling and the emotion starting from the subjectivism and from the relation people have with their own living and realized space. These reflections are treated as a general and a geographical knowledge, but more particularly in a geographical sight, pointing out in this last, the categories which envolve the daily life of the local citizens, the more evident and substantials to the grasp in the positioned geographical science, as well, for the teaching of this subject. Reflects also about the position of the contemporary knowledge, as well as pointing out the possible contribution Geography may bring to the efectiveness of those. For that reason, it points some metodologic and pedagogical questions of the actual geography, reaching fenomenological grounds of the social representations, for the elaboration of one more human lore, particularly inside the geographical science, which could contribute to the project of the society at all. For this, the fenomenological vision of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty it is put in evidence, like the Moscovici’s theory of social plays. These theories go towards one humanistic geography to be built and reflected in an academic, educational and pedagogical environment.

  9. The spaces of urban economic geographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsø Hansen, Høgni; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...

  10. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance; interactions between human, animal and environmental ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent ePOIREL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is being increasingly reported among human but also veterinary isolates during the last two to three decades, very likely as a consequence of the large clinical usage of those antibiotics. Even if the principle mechanisms of resistance to quinolones are chromosome-encoded, due to modifications of molecular targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, decreased outer-membrane permeability (porin defect and overexpression of naturally-occurring efflux, the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR has been reported since 1998. Although these PMQR determinants confer low-level resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, they are a favorable background for selection of additional chromosome-encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms. Different transferable mechanisms have been identified, corresponding to the production of Qnr proteins, of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6’-Ib-cr, or of the QepA-type or OqxAB-type efflux pumps. Qnr proteins protect target enzymes (DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase from quinolone inhibition (mostly nalidixic acid. The AAC(6’-Ib-cr determinant acetylates several fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Finally, the QepA and OqxAB efflux pumps extrude fluoroquinolones from the bacterial cell. A series of studies have identified the environment to be a reservoir of PMQR genes, with farm animals and aquatic habitats being significantly involved. In addition, the origin of the qnr genes has been identified, corresponding to the waterborne species Shewanella sp. Altogether, the recent observations suggest that the aquatic environment might constitute the original source of PMQR genes, that would secondly spread among animal or human isolates.

  11. The Geography of Film Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    While many cognitive scientists assume that the fundamental nature of human cognitive faculties is universal, recent research suggests that cognitive differences exist between Westerners and East Asians. The goal of the proposed paper is to assess the potential implications of this research for t...

  12. The emerging geographies of climate justice

    OpenAIRE

    Susannah Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Climate justice is a well-used concept within the international climate debate yet it has often remained little more than a static ideal. This paper brings together literatures on environmental justice, development processes, and the politics of scale to argue that we need to be more attentive to the emerging geographies of climate justice, particularly in the global South where climate change provokes questions of uneven development processes as well as environmental concerns. Through an ana...

  13. Geography, institutions, and compared development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luis Vaz

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant improvement in the economic performance of some African countries. The resulting increased dispersion in income levels across Africa, combined with the pertinence of detecting regional role models renders an intra-African analysis more attractive. In this paper I estimate the respective contribution of institutions, geography, and policies in determining income levels in sub-Saharan Africa. I find that income per capita in this region can be explained to a...

  14. Algorithms for reengineering 1991 census geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, S; Rao, L

    1995-03-01

    "The availability of GIS [geographic information systems] technology and digital boundaries of census output areas now makes it possible for users to design their own census geography. Three algorithms are described that can be used for this purpose. An Arc/Info implementation is briefly outlined and case studies presented to demonstrate some of the results of explicitly designing zoning systems for use with 1991 [U.K.] census data."

  15. For a social geography of emerging countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Antoine; Houssay-Holzschuch, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    New economic world order, new geographies of development, new powers… A whole range of expressions has appeared in the past three decades to coin the major and multi-dimensional changes that have affected global political economics. More specifically, those expressions refer to a transition towards a multi-polar world: the domination of the West and later the Triade is now counterbalanced by the economic and perhaps political power of countries that were once called under-developed - China be...

  16. To what extent does Tobler's law of geography apply to macroecology? A case study using American palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe; Svenning, J.-C.; Skov, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    palms (Arecaceae) as an example, we assess the extent to which Tobler's first law applies to species richness and species composition, two fundamental aspects of ecological community structure. To shed light on the mechanisms driving distance decays in community structure, we also quantify the relative......Tobler's first law of geography, 'Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things' also applies to biological systems as illustrated by a general and strong occurrence of geographic distance decay in ecological community similarity. Using American...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE MOVEMENTS AND GANDHI’S ECOLOGICAL VISION: A STUDY ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION BY DEVELOPMENTAL PROJECTS IN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braja Kishore Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state continues to be the key institution around which struggles for environmental justice in India are articulated. Its dominant role in the economy and its hierarchical, authoritarian and legitimate role as arbiter of rights and resources, the violation of its own environmental laws or acts in ways inimical to environmental justice has been protected by indigenous people. In my paper, I draw on the theme of the protest movements against developmental projects which are rooted in the livelihood and survival of the common people and the violation of human rights. The threats of displacement, loss of livelihood, alienation from their own surroundings are catalysts for this strand of the movement. The indigenous peoples facing threats to their rights, lands and cultures are the major force behind the mobilization against the corporate, government, policies and other forces which threaten them to fragment, displace, assimilate or drive towards cultural disintegration. I describe the main aim of these movements are based around the re-scaling of development projects to the local level, the defense of common property resources and the restoration of participatory, community based forms of environmental management. Based on this perspective, I discuss how the peoples of Odisha protest against developmental projects particularly Neo-Gandhian activists incorporating the political thinking and practice practiced by Gandhiji.This research shows that protest movements against developmental projects in Odisha were by and large successful by incorporating procedural, corrective and social aspects of justice inherent in Gandhian ecological ideas.

  18. Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

  19. The political ecology of human-wildlife conflict: Producing wilderness, insecurity, and displacement in the Limpopo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Massé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Like conservation-induced displacement, human-wildlife conflict (HWC has potentially negative implications for communities in and around protected areas. While the ways in which displacement emerges from the creation of 'wilderness' conservation landscapes are well documented, how the production of 'wilderness' articulates with intensifications in HWC remains under examined both empirically and conceptually. Using a political-ecological approach, I analyse increases of HWC in Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and the subsequent losses of fields and livestock, as well as forms of physical displacement suffered by resident communities. While intensifications of encounters between wildlife on the one hand and people and livestock on the other result in part from increases in wildlife populations, I argue that HWC and the ways in which it constitutes and contributes to various forms of displacement results more centrally from changing relations between wildlife and people and the power and authority to manage conflict between them. Both of these contributing factors, moreover, are the consequence of practices that aim to transform the LNP into a wilderness landscape of conservation and tourism. HWC and its negative impacts are thus not natural phenomena, but are the result of political decisions to create a particular type of conservation landscape.

  20. REVIEW OF GEOGRAPHY DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS THE THEMATIC COURSES IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Yazıcı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Department of Geography Distance Learning students’ approaches towards the thematic courses in Physical Geography field in academic year 2014-2015 Spring semester. 4 Open-ended questions were asked to the students to designate the difficulties and the problems encountered when implementing the online courses. The study which was participated in 66 distance learning students was performed through qualitative analysis technique. The data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis method. At the end of the research, deficiency of map skill development and field work practices were directly related to the Physical Geography field among the problems that the students’ come face to face. Alongside of overcoming these issues, students stated that they demanded to improve communication with each other and especially the lecturers.