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Sample records for human genital tract

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  2. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system...... in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system......Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good...

  3. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  4. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

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    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  5. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

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    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract.

  6. Human Herpes Virus Type 2 (HSV2), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Male Genital Tract and Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtot Anne Marie; Pallier Coralie; Testart Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of infection of the human male genital tract by human herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is well established and their sexual transmission has been the object of many studies. Moreover, medically assisted procreation, which helps in numerous fertility problems, raises the question of new viral risks linked to the application of these new technologies. In this review, we shall consider current knowledge in terms of the presence of HSV2 and HCMV in the different parts of the genital tract of immunocompetent or immunodepressed men. We shall also consider the possibility of viral transmission by the sexual act or by the various techniques used in medically assisted procreation. We shall describe studies in human beings and in animals.

  7. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

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    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

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    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  9. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

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    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation by endometrial CD4(+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+ CD4(+ and CD3(+ CD4(- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

  10. Biochemical and serological characterization of mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans in Nigeria.

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    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Adewole, I F

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-five (55) Mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans were biochemically characterized using various biochemical tests and also serologically identified by growth inhibition technique using 5 mycoplasma antisera namely M. hominis PG2 1: M. genitalium G37: M. penetrans GTU54 and 2 strains of M. fermentans PG18 (HRC 6-62-S-170 and MB713-501-069). Biochemically, 43 (78.2%) strains were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, 8 (14.5%) strains as M. fermentans and 4 (7.3%) as M. penetrans. The M. hominis strains hydrolyzed only arginine while the M. fermentans and M. penetrans strains in addition to arginine hydrolysis also broke down glucose fermentatively and oxidatively. The M. fermentans strains showed varying reactions to phosphatase activity and to the reduction of tetrazolium chloride. Serologically, 4 (7.3%) mycoplasma strains were confirmed as M. penetrans GTU54 and of the 8 M. fermentans strains, 4 (7.3%) were identified as M. fermentans PG18 serotype HRC 6-62-S-170 and the other 4 (7.3%) as M. fermentans PG18 serotype MB 713-501-069. Only 13 (30.2%) of the 43 M. hominis strains were identified as M. hominis serotype PG2 1. None was identified as M. genitalium. The heterogeneity of the mycoplasma strains especially M. hominis was observed in this study and the need for the use of multiple antisera in growth inhibition test is hereby supported.

  11. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  12. [Natural Outcome of Genital Tract High-risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Factors among 760 Women].

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    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Di; Ma, Qian; Li, Na; Cui, Xu-qin; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the natural outcome of genital tract high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and associated factors among women in Xi'an region. Totally 760 women with primary genital tract HR-HPV infection were enrolled and followed up by HPV-DNA genotyping technology. The cervical cytological techniques and/or colposcopy were used when necessary. Among these subjects,the natural clearance rate of HR-HPV infection was 71.58%,with the median time of 8.10 months. The rate of HPV persistent infection was 22.63%, with the median time of 17.23 months. The rate of progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/cervical cancer (CC) was 5.79%, with the median time of 29.34 months. The natural clearance rate (P=0.000), persistent infection rate (P=0.000) and progression rate (P=0.040) in women older than 50 years were statistically difference from other age groups. The persistent infection rate in multiple infections group was significantly lower than that in single infection group (P=0.010), with the median time statistically longer than that in single infection group (P=0.018). The most easily progressive genotypes were HPV-16,HPV-33, HPV-58,HPV-18,HPV-52, and HPV-68, among which HPV-16 was the most common genotype in CIN 3/CC cases, accounting for 85.00%. Most of HR-HPV infections are naturally cleared within 2 years, and only a few cases progresses to CIN/CC. Women older than 50 years have a lower natural clearance rate and higher persistent and progressive rates. Multiple infections can affect the persistent infection. HPV-16 is the most common carcinogenic genotype in Xi'an region.

  13. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the genital tract determined by hybrid capture assay

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    Fernanda N. Carestiato

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted virus worldwide. It is known to be the etiological agent of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Recently developed, the second generation of the hybrid capture test (HCA II is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, hybridization assay, designed to detect 18 HPV types divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 7,314 patients (5,833 women and 1,481 men for HPV infection by HCA II. Among them, 3,008 (41.1% presented HPV infection: 430 (14.2% had HPV DNA of low risk for cancer, 1,631 (54.2% had high risk HPV types and 947 (31.5% had both types. The prevalence in females was 44.9%. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the group for which cytological results were available was slightly higher: 55.3% (1007/1824. Significant differences were detected in the frequency of HPV infection of the cervix between normal cases and those with high-grade squamous-intraepithelial lesions (HSIL(P<0.0001. Among males, the prevalence was 26.2%, composed of 9.1% in Group A, 9.7% in Group B and 7.4% with multiple infections. We observed that male prevalence was lower and that low-risk types were more frequent than in females. HPV viral load was significantly greater in SILs than in normal or inflammatory cases (P<0.0001, suggesting an association between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of high costs, the HCA II test cannot be recommended for routine mass screening for cervical infection in poor countries. Nevertheless, it was found to be a useful tool, when combined with cytology, discovering high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues and revealing silent infections that may be responsible for the maintenance of HPV in the general population. These findings point to the need for close and careful management of patients, thereby reducing overtreatment

  15. Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

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    Pongsakdi Chaisilwattana

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the ability of septicemic and nonsepticemic isolates of group B streptococci (GBS to inhibit in vitro the principal bacterial groups found in the normal bacterial flora of the female genital tract.

  16. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ault, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfec...

  17. OBSTETRICAL MORBIDITIES IN GENITAL TRACT INFECTION S

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    Sapna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION- Sub clinical ascending infections through the lower female genital tract are predominant worldwide. Important morbidit ies related to poor perinatal outcome both for the mother and for the fetus and new born compr ise preterm birth, prelabor rupture of membranes, post partum sepsis and maternal anaemia. In the fetus, sepsis and intrauterine growth retardation are suspected to be the consequences of ascending maternal infection. Both the direct effect of the infection and the maternal immune r esponse contribute to these eventualities. This study was done to identify antenatal women with va rious genital infections and to know the outcome of pregnancy in presence of these infection s. OBJECTIVES- Diagnosis treatment and preventive measures in genital infections in Antena tal period to improve the pregnancy out come . MATERIAL AND METHODS- One thousand women were studied for lower genital tract infection by ELISA KITS for chlamydia trachomatis, hanging dr op preparation of vaginal discharge for trichomoniasis and mycelia of candida albicans can be seen by wet mount of vaginal dischage in 10% KOH. Gardnerella vaginal infection was diagnose d by Amsel's criteria . RESULT- out of thousand women 53% were positive for single or mult iple infections (gp-1, 47% women had no infection (gp-11 . Labour outcome was studied in 4 15 antenatal women of gp -1 &395 antenatal women of gp -11 . In gp-1 51.80% had no effect ,7.7 1% had abortions and 40.48% had pre term labour and/or PROM .Which was significantly higher than in non infected group . IN INFECTED GROUP- 41.92% neonates had no effect others had some effec t in terms of LBW, birth asphyxia, neonatal death & IUD. Which was significantly highe r than in non infected group. P=0.00 CONCLUSION- The study showed significantly higher incidence of obstetrical morbidities in women with lower genital tract infection,since geni tal infections are the root cause of these obstetrical

  18. Anal study in immunocompetent women with human papillomavirus related lower genital tract pathology.

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    Donaire, Concepción; Reillo, Marcos; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan C; López-Fernández, José A

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of anal dysplasia in immunocompetent women with cervical intraepithelial dysplasia. We did a prospective cohort study, in which we enrolled 166 women with gynecological pathology related to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. All patients underwent an anal cytology and HPV detection. Statistical analysis with a 95% confidence interval was used for prevalence calculations. A Χ2 test and Fisher's exact one were used to determine differences between groups of qualitative variables. Differences between normally distributed and non-normally distributed groups in quantitative variables were accounted for using Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U test, respectively. Out of the 166 patients studied, high risk HPV in the anal canal was detected in 107 (64.46%) cases. The most prevalent genotype observed was non 16/18 high risk HPV, present in 54 (50.47%) patients. There was no a significant association with smoking, use of condom, anal intercourse, or anal benign pathology. However, a significant correlation between the presence of high risk HPV in the anal canal and the antecedent of condylomas was observed (p=0.047) (CI95%: 1.00%-12.58%). Women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 had a significantly increased presence of high risk HPV in the anal canal (p=0.044). Out of the 166 women, 6 (3.61%) had abnormal anal cytology results, and were referred to high-resolution anoscopy. Anal biopsy was performed in these six cases. In 2 patients the biopsy reported low-grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: 1.20% (0.15%-4.28%). Women with cervical intraepithelial dysplasia have 1.20% prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, so that it does not seem necessary to screen this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

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    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  20. [Carcinosarcomas in female genital tracts: general review].

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    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Casteillo, François; Forest, Fabien; Pacaut, Cécile; Moncharmont, Coralie; Espenel, Sophie; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand Escure, Julien; Collard, Olivier; Peoc'h, Michel; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma, also known as mixed mesodermal tumor or malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) is a pathological entity combining a sarcomatous and a carcinomatous component. Found in thoracic, digestive, genitourinary, liver or skin locations, the most common location is the female genital tract. In gynecological tumors, carcinosarcoma accounts for about 2-5% of endometrial cancers, and 1% of ovarian cancers. To date, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy. It relies mostly on maximum cytoreductive surgery. Adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and few prospective studies investigating its interest. Retrospective studies show the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum in most cases. Radiation therapy has a place in the adjuvant situations of endometrial and cervical carcinosarcoma. A more detailed pathological knowledge, and the use of targeted therapies may be promising in this histological subtype whose prognosis remains very poor. The objective of this study is to present the main principles of carcinosarcoma management in female genital tracts, describing pathological and prognostic features at the same time.

  1. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

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    ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

  2. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

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    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

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    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

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    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  6. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-01-04

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.

  7. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiotis, C A; Merino, M J; Duray, P H

    1991-03-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the female genital tract is rare. Four new cases are reported, and there is a review of the 38 cases in the literature. This disease may involve the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, and ovary. Four distinct patient groups, segregated on the basis of initial presentation and subsequent anatomic extent of disease, were categorized as follows: (1) "pure" genital LCH, (2) genital LCH with subsequent multi-organ involvement, (3) oral or cutaneous LCH with subsequent genital and multi-organ involvement, and (4) diabetes insipidus with subsequent genital and multi-organ disease. Although involvement of the genital tract can occur at any age, it is most common in young adulthood. Clinically, LCH may mimic either primary neoplasia or various inflammatory lesions; the major pathologic differential diagnosis is venereal and other inflammatory diseases. The pure genital form may have a distinct nosologic position in the spectrum of LCH similar to the "pure," self-limited cutaneous histiocytosis seen in infants. There is no correlation between histologic findings and the outcome of the genital lesions. There is also no correlation between clinical presentation and/or the extent of involvement and outcome of genital lesions; complete regression, partial improvement, persistent lesions, and recurrences were seen in all four groups of patients. The treatment of genital LCH is not well defined and is highly individualized. Therapy has included surgery, radiation, topical corticosteroids, topical nitrogen mustard, systemic chemotherapy, and combination therapy; mixed results were obtained with all treatment modalities. Although no modality has been shown to yield a superior outcome, complete surgical excision is advocated as initial therapy.

  8. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  9. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  10. Elevated tumor markers in coccidiomyocosis of the female genital tract

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    Wu Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The female genital tract is rarely involved by coccidioidomycosis. We describe a woman with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the female pelvic organs associated with elevated tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9. She had no fevers and the initial clinical suspicion was a malignancy because of the elevated tumor markers. At exploratory laparotomy a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of the suspicion of a malignancy. Subsequent pathology demonstrated coccidioidomycosis involving the female genital tract and no malignancy. The abnormal CA 125 and CA 19-9 returned to normal after surgical resection and treatment of the coccidioidomycosis.

  11. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  12. Current approach to metastasis of extra-genital system malignancies to the female genital tract

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    Kemal Güngördük

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the female genital tract from extra-genital malignancies are very uncommon and have a poor prognosis. The most common extra-genital primary sites are breast and gastrointestinal system. The ovaries are frequent targets of metastasis for malignant tumors. Distinction between primary and metastatic tumors is important because misinterpretation of a metastatic tumor as primary tumor may lead to inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment outcome. The routes of tumor spread to the genital system are variable such as lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis or direct extension. Multidisciplinary approach is required to management and follow-up for these patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 406-413

  13. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

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    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  14. Detoxified Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin and induction of toxin specific antibodies in the genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Annika; Fernandez-Rodrigues, Julia; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2010-08-16

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes genital ulceration (chancroid), a sexually transmitted infection and still an important factor which contributes to the spread of HIV in developing countries. The bacterium produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis of human cells and contributes to the aggravation of ulcers. The aim of the study was to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodies in the genital tract of mice. Repeated subcutaneous (sc) immunisations with 5-10microg active HdCDT induced low levels of serum anti-HdCDT IgG without neutralizing capacity. High levels of specific IgG1 antibodies in serum and genital tract were generated after sc immunisations with 10microg formaldehyde detoxified HdCDT toxoid alone and the addition of aluminium salts or RIBI (based on the lipid A moiety) as adjuvant further increased the level of serum antibodies. A high correlation was found between elevated levels of anti-HdCDT IgG in sera, the level of neutralizing activity and the antibody level in genital tract (r=0.8). Thus, induction of high antibody levels specific to HdCDT in the genital tissue can be achieved by parenteral immunisation with the toxoid. The HdCDT toxoid can be considered as a candidate component in vaccine against chancroid.

  15. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  16. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  17. Surfactant protein D in the female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Floridon, C; Nielsen, O;

    2004-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a role in innate immunity against various pathogens and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SP-D also has anti-inflammatory properties. SP-D was originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP......-D indicating a systemic role for the protein. This study describes the presence of SP-D in the female genital tract, the placenta and in amniotic fluid using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SP-D was observed in cells lining surface epithelium and secretory glands in the vagina...

  18. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

  19. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

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    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  20. Proteomic profiling of epididymis and vas deferens: identification of proteins regulated during rat genital tract development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Umar (Arzu); M.P. Ooms (Marja); T.M. Luider (Theo); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpididymis and vas deferens form part of the male internal genital tract and are dependent on androgens for their growth and development. To better understand the molecular action of androgens during male genital tract development, protein expression profiles were gener

  1. Triple independent primaries of female genital tract: A rare event

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    Suprio Ray Chaudhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronous presence of endometrioid carcinoma of ovary and uterus in a single patient is an uncommon occurrence; but, finding a patient having a third simultaneous primary in cervix along with carcinoma ovary and endometrium is an extremely rare entity. In this article we describe a 40-year-old female who presented with gradual distension of abdomen, and underwent extended radical hysterectomy operation following diagnosis of an ovarian tumor on ultrasonography. On examination of the specimen, it was found to harbor endometrioid carcinoma of uterus and endometrioid carcinoma of ovary along with a small focus of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. The presence of three coexistent primary tumors in female genital tract is an extremely rare event. Further molecular and genetic studies may throw light on the probable etiology of such rare cases.

  2. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    2000-09-16

    Concern about upper-genital-tract infection related to intrauterine devices (IUDs) limits their wider use. In this systematic review I summarise the evidence concerning IUD-associated infection and infertility. Choice of an inappropriate comparison group, overdiagnosis of salpingitis in IUD users, and inability to control for the confounding effects of sexual behaviour have exaggerated the apparent risk. Women with symptomless gonorrhoea or chlamydial infection having an IUD inserted have a higher risk of salpingitis than do uninfected women having an IUD inserted; however, the risk appears similar to that of infected women not having an IUD inserted. A cohort study of HIV-positive women using a copper IUD suggests that there is no significant increase in the risk of complications or viral shedding. Similarly, fair evidence indicates no important effect of IUD use on tubal infertility. Contemporary IUDs rival tubal sterilisation in efficacy and are much safer than previously thought.

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J

    1995-01-01

    that PACAP was located in delicate varicose nerve fibers that were most abundant in the internal cervical os, where they mainly seemed to innervate blood vessels and smooth muscle cells. PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the spontaneous activity......The distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were studied in the human female genital tract. The concentrations of PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were measured by radioimmunoassays, and both peptides were found throughout the genital...... of the nonvascular smooth muscle strips from fallopian tube and myometrium in vitro. Likewise, both peptides (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused relaxation of nonrepinephrine (10(-6) M)-precontracted intramyometrial arteries. No effect of the PACAP sequences, PACAP-(6-27), PACAP-(16-38), and PACAP-(18-27), on fallopian tube...

  4. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  5. Use of cervicovaginal fluid for the identification of biomarkers for pathologies of the female genital tract

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    Tjalma Wiebren AA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervicovaginal fluid has an important function in the homeostasis and immunity of the lower female genital tract. Analysis of the cervicovaginal fluid proteome may therefore yield important information about the pathogenesis of numerous gynecological pathologies. Additionally, cervicovaginal fluid has great potential as a source of biomarkers for these conditions. This review provides a detailed discussion about the human cervicovaginal proteome and the proteomics studies performed to characterize this biological fluid. Furthermore, infection-correlated pathological conditions of the female genital tract are discussed for which cervicovaginal fluid has been used in order to identify potential biomarkers. Recent years, numerous studies have analyzed cervicovaginal fluid samples utilizing antibody-based technologies, such as ELISA or Western blotting, to identify biomarkers for preterm birth, premature preterm rupture of membranes, bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer. The present article will discuss the importance of proteomic technologies as alternative techniques to gain additional meaningful information about these conditions. In addition, the review focuses on recent proteomic studies on cervicovaginal fluid samples for the identification of potential biomarkers. We conclude that the use of proteomic technology for analysis of human cervicovaginal fluid samples is promising and may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers which can improve disease prevention and therapy development.

  6. Efficacy of an Immune Modulator in Experimental Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if vaginal application of the immune response modifier imiquimod (Aldara cream, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minn would alter the course and/or outcome of female genital tract infection with a human isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in a murine model. Methods. Groups of CF-1 mice were treated with Aldara on three different schedules: (1 ongoing beginning 5 days prior to and continuing through day 5 of infection; (2 a single prophylactic dose 2 hours prior to infection; and (3 therapeutic from day 4 to day 14 of infection. Mice were infected vaginally with a serovar D strain of C trachomatis, and monitored by culture to determine the level of shedding and duration of infection. Results. We observed a significant reduction in both duration of infection and the level of shedding during the acute phase in mice treated on an ongoing basis commencing 5 days prior to infection. There was no effect with respect to the other regimens. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that ongoing Aldara treatment has efficacy and may enhance local innate immunity which reduces the duration of subsequent infection with human isolates of C trachomatis in a murine model of female genital tract infection.

  7. Unraveling molecular signatures of immunostimulatory adjuvants in the female genital tract through systems biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene Lindqvist

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs.

  8. Family planning services in developing countries: an opportunity to treat asymptomatic and unrecognised genital tract infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Ndovela, N; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1997-12-01

    This is a study of 189 women attending a family planning clinic in rural South Africa to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and unrecognized genital tract infections. Genital samples were taken from these women to diagnose infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV, and to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. Among the 189 women, 41 (22%) reported having had an STD treated in the preceding 12 months. By direct questioning, 74 women stated the following symptoms: genital itch -- 38 (20%); vaginal discharge -- 56 (30%); dysuria -- 33 (18%); dyspareunia -- 22 (12%); and genital ulcers -- 4 (2%). 45 (24%) women had more than one symptom. 119 (63%) women had at least one genital infection, and 49 (26%) had multiple infections. Most of the infections were asymptomatic; while those that were symptomatic, were unrecognized or not reported. Results showed a high prevalence of genital tract infection among the participating women, with most of their infections remaining asymptomatic or unrecognized. Thus, strategies to detect and treat genital tract infections in rural South Africa need to be developed.

  9. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

  10. Clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract (not everything is as clear as it seems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offman, Saul L; Longacre, Teri A

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell carcinoma has a storied history in the female genital tract. From the initial designation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma as "mesonephroma" to the linkage between vaginal clear cell carcinoma and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero, gynecologic tract clear cell tumors have puzzled investigators, posed therapeutic dilemmas for oncologists, and otherwise presented major differential diagnostic challenges for pathologists. One of the most common errors in gynecologic pathology is misdiagnosis of clear cell carcinoma, on both frozen section and permanent section. Given the poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease and increased risk of thromboembolism, accurate diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma is important in the female genital tract. This review (1) presents the clinical and pathologic features of female genital tract clear cell carcinomas; (2) highlights recent molecular developments; (3) identifies areas of potential diagnostic confusion; and (4) presents solutions for these diagnostic problems where they exist.

  11. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  12. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  13. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan McClure

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM. A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of

  14. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

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    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  15. PAX8 and PAX2 immunostaining facilitates the diagnosis of primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guo-Xia; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Zhou, Ming; Lagana, Stephen M; Harik, Lara; Oliver-Krasinski, Jennifer M; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Falcone, Lorenzo; Hibshoosh, Hanina; O'Toole, Kathleen

    2011-10-01

    PAX8 and PAX2 are cell-lineage-specific transcription factors that are essential for the development of Wolffian and Müllerian ducts and have recently emerged as specific diagnostic markers for tumors of renal or Müllerian origin. Little is known about their expression in the Wolffian duct-derived human male genital tract. We report our findings of PAX8 and PAX2 expression in the epithelium of the normal male genital tract and in epithelial tumors derived therefrom using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We found that PAX8 and PAX2 were expressed in the epithelium of the male genital tract from the rete testis to the ejaculatory duct. Rare glands in the prostatic central zone, a tissue of purported Wolffian duct origin, were focally positive for PAX2, but no PAX8 was detected in this area, a finding that may warrant further study. We found diffuse expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in 1 case each of serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, carcinoma of the rete testis, Wolffian adnexal tumor of the seminal vesicle, and endometrioid carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Neither PAX8 nor PAX2 was detected in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the normal testis, nor in Leydig cell tumors (n=6), Sertoli cell tumors (n=2), or 48 of 49 germ cell tumors. One pediatric yolk sac tumor showed focal and weak staining for PAX8. Tumors of mesothelial origin, that is, adenomatoid tumors (n=3) and peritoneal malignant mesotheliomas (n=37) in men, were negative for PAX2 and PAX8. Neither PAX2 nor PAX8 was present in other areas of the prostate. Expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in these primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract is due to their histogenetic relationship with Wolffian or Müllerian ducts. PAX8 and PAX2 IHC may facilitate the diagnosis of these tumors and should be included in the differential diagnostic IHC panel.

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the male genital tract. Report of eleven cases and a review of Brazilian literature

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    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cases of involvement of the genital tract in paracoccidioidomycosis were collected in a retrospective study of the clinical records of 683 patients seen in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. These cases are herein summarily reported. Eighteen similar cases were gathered in review of the Brazilian literature. Obtained data are discussed.

  17. Genital-tract infection and disease in nude and immunologically competent mice after inoculation of a human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was introduced into the uterus of progesterone-treated CBA mice and congenic CBA nude mice through the uterine wall or via the cervical canal. The numbers of inclusions produced by samples taken from the vagina of the nude mice were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those produced by samples from immunologically competent normal mice. However, the infection was self-limited, lasting about 60 days, and there was no statistical differenc...

  18. Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes.

  19. Actinomyces israelii in the genital tract of women with and without intra-uterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, E; Holmberg, K; Dahlgren, S; Nilsson, L

    1983-01-01

    Actinomycosis involving the female genital tract is more common among IUD users than others. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. It has been suggested that the finding of Actinomyces-like organisms or A. israelii in cervical smears indicates a risk of developing actinomycosis. A. israelii has not been regarded as a part of the indigenous genital flora. A group of IUD users without symptoms of genital tract infections were compared with a control group without IUDs. No Actinomyces-like organisms were found on cytological examination of cervical smears. Immunofluorescent staining and cultures identified A. israelii in 4% of the IUD users and in 3% of the non-users. Serologic precipitin tests for actinomycosis were negative in all women. None developed actinomycosis on follow-up of positive cases. The study indicates that A. israelii is a commensal of the female genital tract. The identification of A. israelii alone does not indicate that the patient risks developing actinomycosis. Other methods such as a serology test should be useful in defining the clinical significance of the findings.

  20. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN.

  1. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  2. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  3. Rapidly evolving marmoset MSMB genes are differently expressed in the male genital tract

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    Ceder Yvonne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-microseminoprotein, an abundant component in prostatic fluid, is encoded by the potential tumor suppressor gene MSMB. Some New World monkeys carry several copies of this gene, in contrast to most mammals, including humans, which have one only. Here we have investigated the background for the species difference by analyzing the chromosomal organization and expression of MSMB in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. Methods Genes were identified in the Callithrix jacchus genome database using bioinformatics and transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantified by real time PCR in the presence of SYBR green. Results The common marmoset has five MSMB: one processed pseudogene and four functional genes. The latter encompass homologous genomic regions of 32-35 kb, containing the genes of 12-14 kb and conserved upstream and downstream regions of 14-19 kb and 3-4 kb. One gene, MSMB1, occupies the same position on the chromosome as the single human gene. On the same chromosome, but several Mb away, is another MSMB locus situated with MSMB2, MSMB3 and MSMB4 arranged in tandem. Measurements of transcripts demonstrated that all functional genes are expressed in the male genital tract, generating very high transcript levels in the prostate. The transcript levels in seminal vesicles and testis are two and four orders of magnitude lower. A single gene, MSMB3, accounts for more than 90% of MSMB transcripts in both the prostate and the seminal vesicles, whereas in the testis around half of the transcripts originate from MSMB2. These genes display rapid evolution with a skewed distribution of mutated nucleotides; in MSMB2 they affect nucleotides encoding the N-terminal Greek key domain, whereas in MSMB3 it is the C-terminal MSMB-unique domain that is affected. Conclusion Callitrichide monkeys have four functional MSMB that are all expressed in the male genital tract, but the product from one gene, MSMB3, will predominate in seminal

  4. Do Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in the genital tract affect semen quality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Cui-Ling Liang; Jun-Qing Wu; Chen Xu; Shi-Xiao Qin; Er-Sheng Gao

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection and semen quality. Methods:From 2001 to 2003, 346 eligible patients aged 20-45 years were invited from two hospitals in Shanghai, China, to participate in an investigation which included questionnaires about general and reproductive health, an external genital tract examination, UU culture and semen analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine whether UU had a significant effect on semen quality after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Findings suggested that UU infection was associated with higher semen viscosity and lower semen pH value. Sperm concentration was lower in UU positive subjects than that in UU negative subjects (54.04 × 106/mL vs.70.58 × 106/mL). However, Uudid not significantly affect other semen quality indexes. Conclusion: UU infection of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality.

  5. The Molecular Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Genital Tract Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2011-01-01

    Genital tract pathogens resistant to antibiotics are now commonly encountered in many parts of the world. The emergence of such strains may clearly be accounted for, at least in part, by the selection of mutant strains which would have a selective advantage in the face of widespread antibiotic usage. Molecular and genetic analysis of antibioticresistant organisms, however, indicates that such an explanation is an over simplification. In many instances genes coding for antibiotic resistance ap...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with...

  7. Cancer of the genital tract among the Ibo women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megafu, U

    1979-11-01

    An analysis of female genital tract cancer among the Ibos of Nigeria has proven to be preponderantly cervical cancer. It is therefore obvious that the practice of ritual circumcision among the Ibo men does not protect the women from cervical cancer. The most important etiological factors contributing to cervical cancer among the Ibo women are early marriage, early age of coitus, and grand multiparity. Corpus cancer is relatively rare among the Ibo women.

  8. Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Lotti F; Maggi M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility affects ∼7% of all men. Despite much progress, mainly in genetics, its etiology remains obscure in ∼50% of cases. To fill this gap, imaging of the male genital tract (MGT) has progressively expanded, providing useful information in the assessment of MGT abnormalities. METHODS: A critical, systematic review of the available literature was performed using Medline, with no restrictions regarding date of publication (i.e. from inception date until March 2014), a...

  9. Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2013-06-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

  10. Changes in HIV-1 Subtypes B and C Genital Tract RNA in Women and Men After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D.; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Klingman, Karin L.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Smeaton, Laura M.; De Gruttola, Victor; Martinez, Ana I.; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Eron, Joseph; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Rooney, James F.; Sanchez, Jorge; Sanne, Ian; Schooley, Robert T.; Snowden, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; Uy, Jonathan; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Ntshele, Smanga; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Santos, Breno; La Rosa, Alberto; Infante, Rosa; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Jan Geiseler, P.; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S.; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. Methods. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. Results. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4+ cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P < .001). The proportion of participants with a GTVL below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at week 48 (90%) and week 96 (90%) was increased compared to baseline (16%; P < .001 at both times). Women were significantly less likely to have GTVL below the LLQ compared to men (84% vs 94% at week 48, P = .006; 84% vs 97% at week 96, P = .002), despite a more sensitive assay for seminal plasma than for cervical wicks. No difference in GTVL response across the 3 cART regimens was detected. Conclusions. The female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23532477

  11. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

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    Xiang-sheng Zhang, Hong-yan Dong, Lei-lei Zhang, Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki, Chengquan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported.Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1 one case affecting the endometrium, 2 one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3 one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains.Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging.

  12. [Morphogenesis and differentiation of the female genital tract. Genetic determinism and epithelium-stromal interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amălinei, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    The epithelium-stromal interaction is important in the process of morphogenesis, differentiation, and hormone response, in female genital tract. This review is organized in four sections: i) female genital tract morphogenesis, based on genetic determinism; ii) hormonal control of endometrial proliferation; iii) TGF-beta key-role in epithelium-stromal communication; iv) endometrial apoptosis. Female genital tract derives from the Müllerian ducts, a number of genes being involved in its regulation, like Lim1, Lhx9, Emx, Pax-2, Hox-A9, Hox-A10, Hox-A11, Hox-A13, Wnt-4, Wnt-7, WT1, SF-1, and GATA-4. TGF-beta, whose expression is modulated by ovarian steroids, regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory and immune responses, extracellular matrix deposition, adhesion molecules, proteases, and protease inhibitor expression. In the endometrium, TGF-beta regulates its own expression, and that of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules and proteases implicated in trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis during embryo implantation, endometriosis, irregular bleeding, and endometrial cancer. Cellular response elicited by TGF-beta, mediated through a serine/threonine kinase receptor, induces the recruitment of multiple intracellular signals, specifically Smads, whose activation and subsequent translocation into the nucleus results in gene expression. Ubiquitin is involved in the degradation of short lived, regulatory or misfolded proteins, by tagging them to be taken to the proteasome. In the endometrium, ubiquitin may allow cells of stromal origin to grow, survive and evade T-cell mediated disposal, showing a functional duality. A complete understanding of the complex regulatory endometrial epithelium-stromal mechanism, concertating genes, hormones, and cytokines, may provide new therapeutic targets in female reproductive tract pathology.

  13. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  14. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology

  15. An atypical CD8 T-cell response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections includes T cells that produce interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S; Slaven, James E

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars D-K are intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in human reproductive tract epithelium. In the C. muridarum mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections CD4 T helper type 1 cell responses mediate protective immunity while CD8 T-cell responses have been associated with scarring and infertility. Scarring mediated by CD8 T cells requires production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); however, TNF-α is associated with protective immunity mediated by CD4 T cells. The latter result suggests that TNF-α in-and-of itself may not be the sole determining factor in immunopathology. CD8 T cells mediating immunopathology presumably do something in addition to producing TNF-α that is detrimental during resolution of genital tract infections. To investigate the mechanism underlying CD8 immunopathology we attempted to isolate Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones from mice that self-cleared genital tract infections. They could not be derived with antigen-pulsed irradiated naive splenocytes; instead derivation required use of irradiated immune splenocyte antigen-presenting cells. The Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones had relatively low cell surface CD8 levels and the majority were not restricted by MHC class Ia molecules. They did not express Plac8, and had varying abilities to terminate Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. Two of the five CD8 clones produced interleukin-13 (IL-13) in addition to IL-2, TNF-α, IL-10 and interferon-γ. IL-13-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8 T cells may contribute to immunopathology during C. muridarum genital tract infections based on known roles of TNF-α and IL-13 in scar formation.

  16. Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment of carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhu; Hao Wen; Xiaohua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Carcinosarcomas of the female genital tract are highly aggressive and rare tumors, differing from other malignant gynecological tumors in that they contain both malignant carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Because carcinosarcomas are rapidly progressive, less sensitive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and have a high probability of recurrence, patients with advanced uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas have poorer survival than those with endometrial or high-grade serous carcinomas. Although the treatment strategies are controversial, a comprehensive management approach is recommended, which involves complete debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Molecular-targeted therapies are promising for the management and improvement in the overall survival of patients with car-cinosarcomas.

  17. Advance in diagnosis of female genital tract tumor with laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Tseng, Quen; Lian, Shao-Hui

    1998-11-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant tumors with laser fluorescence, in 1996, our group successfully created the computerized laser fluorescence spectrograph type II with more reliable images shown overshadowing the naked eye method before 74 cases of female genital tract diseases had been examined by the LFS II resulting in 10 positive cases which were also proven pathologically as malignant tumors, without nay false negative, 3 cases presented suspicious positive but all were proven pathologically as non-tumors lesions, the false positive rate was 4 percent. Our work showed that the method of LFS II can provide a more rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinical malignant tumors.

  18. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility . The continued increase in incidence rates of genital chlamydial infection over...bacterial numbers from vaginal swab material to assess the kinetics of infection. Given the differences in tissue anatomy, hormonal regulation, and immune...provide in-depth insight into the kinetics of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection in defined regions of the murine female reproductive tract. vi

  19. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination.

  20. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  1. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  2. Innate immunity to infection in the lower female genital tract 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the contact with the external environment, the lower female genital tract is non-sterile. The innate immune system has evolved many mechanisms to protect vaginal tissues from pathogens at the same time allowing for survival of the comensal flora. Innate immunity in the lower female genital tract undergoes hormonal regulation. Estrogen and progesterone levels also influence the vaginal mucosal epithelium remodeling with the neutrophlis playing a crucial role, as the most numerous leukocytes in the vaginal tissue. Being exposed to the environment, the vaginal epithelium consists a physical barrier for pathogens, but it also shows the presence of MHC class I and pattern recognition receptors. By production of cytokines and chemokines, the vaginal epithelium attracts innate immune cells such as neutrophiles, macrophages, dendritic cells or NK cells. Vaginal comensal flora is another important mechanism of innate immunity by production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, inhibiting pathogen’s growth. Disturbances of vaginal microflora can result in pathogenic infections such as bacterial vaginosis or candidosis. Together with herpes genitalis, HPV infection, chlamydiosis, trichomatosis and gonorrhoea, vaginal infections increase the risk of acquiring another sexually transmitted disease, includig HIV due to the impaired mucosal integrity, facilitating for tissue penetration by pathogens and development of local inflammation.

  3. Adenomatoid tumor of the female genital tract: Report of three cases

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    Filiz BOLAT

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are benign proliferations that are most often encountered in the female and male genital tracts. The mesothelial phenotype of these unusual tumors has been established by a variety of ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies, although their histogenesis is by no means certain. In this paper we report three cases that were diagnosed as genital tract adenomatoid tumors and discussed the clinical signs, origin and immunohistochemical characteristics of the this type of tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin, HBME-1, vimentin, pancytokeratin, EMA, and CD31 were analyzed in three ATs, using formaline-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues. The age of the patients were ranging from 40 to 46 years with a median of 43.3. Tumors were located in uterus (one, and fallopian tube (two. Tumor sizes were ranging between 0.6-5 cm. Immunohistochemically all tumors exhibited strong and diffuse positivity for pancytokeratin, calretinin, HBME-1 and vimentin, but negativity for EMA, and CD31. The immunohistochemical results support histogenetic theories of the adenomatoid tumor that claim it as a type of benign mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical phenotypes can play an important role in the differential diagnosis.

  4. Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules in the lower female genital tract: relationship to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavan, B S; Ruffier, J; Shinn, B

    1982-10-01

    Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, the in vivo formation of eosinophilic radiate structures around microorganisms and biologically inert substances, may simulate actinomycotic sulfur granules and has been recognized in extragenital sites. In the lower female genital tract, the authors have noted these pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) in both the presence and the absence of intrauterine contraceptive devices. To elucidate the nature and morphogenesis of PAMRAGs, the light microscopic morphologic features of PAMRAGs were studied by means of a battery of special stains. The absence of central branching filaments or diptheroid forms in PAMRAGs serves to distinguish them from true actinomycotic sulfur granules. Using the immunoperoxidase technique, the authors examined PAMRAGs for the presence of immunoglobulin, complement, and fibrin. Their studies showed that PAMRAGs contain neutral glycoproteins, lipid, and calcium with no demonstrable microorganisms, immunoglobulin, complement, or fibrin. The authors do not support the assertions of others that Splendore-Hoeppli radiate bodies are immune complexes derived from host serum proteins. They speculate that PAMRAGs of the genital tract are derived from host leukocytes that aggregate in response to the commonly present bacteria, parasites, or inert foreign bodies that initiate the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and the morphogenesis of PAMRAGs.

  5. WT1 immunoprofiling and comparison of malignant Mullerian mixed tumors of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Angela; Magliocco, Anthony M; Duan, Quili; Duggan, Máire A

    2010-09-01

    A malignant Mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic homologous or heterologous malignancy of the female genital tract. WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) is both a tumor suppressor gene and oncogene overexpressed in the nuclei of some gynecologic carcinomas. Expression in MMMT is incompletely described. Whole sections from 16 MMMTs were stained with WT1 (N terminus) using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. There were 7 heterologous and 9 homologous tumors and 10 were endometrial, 5 were ovarian, and 1 was of peritoneal origin. The tissue and cell staining pattern and score (intensity by amount) were evaluated and correlated with the tumor subtype and anatomic location. Among the 16 tumors, 81.3% showed mostly stromal and cytoplasmic staining and a score of 3 or 6. Staining was positive in 80% of the endometrial and ovarian tumors and the 1 peritoneal tumor and in all heterologous and 66.7% of the homologous tumors. The immunoprofile correlated with tumor subtype but not with anatomic location. Stromal and epithelial staining was more frequent (83.3%) in homologous tumors and differed significantly (P=0.009) from the heterologous types where stromal staining prevailed (85.7%). MMMT is another genital tract malignancy which can over express WT1 and the immunoprofile may assist in tumor subtyping.

  6. Lower Female Genital Tract Tumors With Adenoid Cystic Differentiation: P16 Expression and High-risk HPV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Deyin; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Ren, Zhiyong; Isacson, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-04-01

    Lower female genital tract tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation are rare, and data on their relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited. Here we report the clinicopathologic features from a case series. Tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation, either pure or as part of a carcinoma with mixed differentiation, arising in the lower female genital tract were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical analysis for p16 expression and in situ hybridization using 1 or more probes for high-risk HPV (a high-risk probe covering multiple types, a wide-spectrum probe, and separate type-specific probes for HPV16 and HPV18) and when possible by polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV. Six cervical carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation admixed with various combinations of at least 1 other pattern of differentiation, including adenoid basal tumor (epithelioma and/or carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid or keratinizing), and small cell carcinoma were identified in patients ranging in age from 50 to 86 years (mean, 73 y; median, 76 y). All of these tumors were characterized by diffuse p16 expression. High-risk HPV was detected in 5 of 6 tested cases: 4 cases by in situ hybridization (all positive for HPV-wide-spectrum and HPV16) and 1 by polymerase chain reaction (HPV45). Seven pure adenoid cystic carcinomas (6 vulvar and 1 cervical) were identified in patients ranging in age from 27 to 74 years (mean, 48 y; median, 48 y). All of these tumors were characterized by variable p16 expression ranging from very limited to more extensive but never diffuse. No high-risk HPV was detected in any of these pure tumors. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation appear to comprise 2 pathogenetically distinct groups. Cervical carcinomas with mixed differentiation, including adenoid cystic, adenoid basal, squamous, and small cell components, are etiologically related to high-risk HPV and can be identified by diffuse

  7. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

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    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  8. Microecological barrier of female genital tract%女性生殖道微生态屏障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌宗欣; 刘霞; 项春生

    2011-01-01

    With the development of infectious mieroecology especially host-microbe interplay, researchers found that the microecological barrier of female genital tract played a vital role in maintaining human health. The microecological barrier of female genital tract constituted with microbial barrier, physical barrier, immune barrier and chemical barrier. While physical barrier is the basis, microbial barrier is the key component. Immune barrier is the core of microecological barrier, and chemical barrier is the integral part. The role of microecological barrier is to maintain the eubiosis of the host microhabitat, to prevent the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and infection occur.%随着感染微生态学的发展,尤其是宿主-微生物相互作用的研究深入,越来越多的研究发现,新的微生态屏障在维持宿主健康方面发挥着重要作用.微生态屏障包括微生物屏障,机械屏障,免疫屏障和化学屏障四个部分.其中机械屏障是微生态屏障的基础,微生物屏障是微生态屏障的关键,免疫屏障是微生态屏障的核心,化学屏障是微生态屏障的有机组成部分.微生态屏障可维持宿主生境的微生态平衡,防止病原微生物的入侵和感染的发生.

  9. Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Schwartz, Erich J; Rouse, Robert V; Longacre, Teri A

    2009-09-01

    Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts are well characterized as mesothelial in origin, but a detailed histological and immunohistochemical analysis comparing both traditional and newer mesothelial markers across gender and site has not been formally conducted. A variety of morphologic features previously described as characteristic of adenomatoid tumors were evaluated in 44 adenomatoid tumors from the male and female genital tracts. Immunohistochemical analysis with pankeratin (AE1/CAM5.2), WT-1, calretinin, CK5/6, D2-40, and caldesmon was also performed. The extent and intensity of staining were scored semiquantitatively on one representative section per case and mean value for each parameter was calculated. All (n=44) the adenomatoid tumors from both the female and male genital tracts demonstrated a distinctive thread-like bridging strand pattern. Lymphoid aggregates were seen in all 12 adenomatoid tumors of male patients, but in only 4 of 32 (13%) tumors in female patients (Pgenital tract adenomatoid tumors. Adenomatoid tumors expressed WT-1 in 11/12 (92%) male patients and in 31/32 (97%) female patients. In male patients, reactivity for CK5/6 and caldesmon was found in 1/12 (8%) and 0/12 (0%) adenomatoid tumors (respectively), whereas reactivity in female patients was found in 5/32 (16%) and 1/32 (3%); respectively. Female tumors differ from their male counterparts by the frequent absence of lymphoid aggregates and the presence of a circumscribed margin when occurring in the fallopian tube. Of the putative mesothelial markers evaluated, calretinin, D2-40, and WT-1 show a similar immunoprofile and have a higher sensitivity than CK5/6 and caldesmon in genital tract adenomatoid tumors. However, the presence of additional, often strong expression of WT-1 in normal tissues of the female genital tract limits the utility of WT-1 in this setting.

  10. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  11. Trenbolone acetate induced changes in the genital tract of male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bote, C; Sancho, G; Martínez, M; Ventanas, J; Gázquez, A; Roncero, V

    1994-03-01

    Eleven entire and twelve castrated male pigs were implanted with trenbolone acetate and the effects of the treatment on genital tract macro- and microscopical modifications were evaluated and compared to non-implanted animals. In entire male pigs a reduction of testicular weight and size was observed as a consequence of the treatment (< 0.001), but no important modifications were found in bulbourethral gland and seminal vesicles macroscopically. Castrated non-implanted males had bulbourethral gland atrophy (P < 0.01), while castrated implanted ones showed similar development to entire males. As for vesicular glands there were no significant differences among the four groups under study. Histological study of prostate has demonstrated structural modifications. As a consequence of the treatment glandular lumen was increased (P < 0.05), and most parenchyma was occupied by polymorphous cysts.

  12. [Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract: triple malignant and one benign tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre

    2012-03-01

    Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.

  13. Amebae resembling Entamoeba gingivalis in the genital tracts of IUD users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMoraes-Ruehsen, M; McNeill, R E; Frost, J K; Gupta, P K; Diamond, L S; Honigberg, B M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 2,252 vaginopancervical (Fast) smears were studied as a continuation of an ongoing program to further investigate the occurrence of amebae in the genital tracts of women using intrauterine devices (IUDs). Of the 947 IUD users, 1% harbored trophic amebae. No amebae, however, were found in any of the 1,164 smears from non-IUD wearers. In all instances the amebae were associated with Actinomyces. Both organisms disappeared promptly after removal of the IUD. In preparations stained according to the Papanicolaou, iron-hematoxylin and Gomori-Wheatley trichrome methods, the amebae could be diagnosed as belonging to the genus Entamoeba. These trophozoites failed to stain with fluorescein-labeled anti-Entamoeba-histolytica serum. Although on the basis of the presently available evidence these trophozoites cannot be assigned with certainty to any known species, they appear to share many morphologic characteristics with Entamoeba gingivalis.

  14. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Asquith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are intracellular bacteria that commonly cause infections of the respiratory and genital tracts, which are major clinical problems. Infections are also linked to the aetiology of diseases such as asthma, emphysema and heart disease. The clinical management of infection is problematic and antibiotic resistance is emerging. Increased understanding of immune processes that are involved in both clearance and immunopathology of chlamydial infection is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Here, we show that IL-13 was produced in the lungs of mice rapidly after Chlamydia muridarum (Cmu infection and promoted susceptibility to infection. Wild-type (WT mice had increased disease severity, bacterial load and associated inflammation compared to IL-13 deficient (-/- mice as early as 3 days post infection (p.i.. Intratracheal instillation of IL-13 enhanced bacterial load in IL-13-/- mice. There were no differences in early IFN-g and IL-10 expression between WT and IL-13-/- mice and depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect infection in IL-13-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a lack of CD4+ T cell involvement and a novel role for IL-13 in innate responses to infection. We also showed that IL-13 deficiency increased macrophage uptake of Cmu in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of IL-13 during infection of lung epithelial cells in vitro decreased the percentage of infected cells and reduced bacterial growth. Our results suggest that enhanced IL-13 responses in the airways, such as that found in asthmatics, may promote susceptibility to chlamydial lung infection. Importantly the role of IL-13 in regulating infection was not limited to the lung as we showed that IL-13 also promoted susceptibility to Cmu genital tract infection. Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial

  15. Frequency of Haemophilus spp. in urinary and and genital tract samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Marijan,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae isolated from the urinary and genital tracts. Methods Identification of strains bacteria Haemophilus spp. was carried out by using API NH identifi-cation system, and antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results A total number of 50 (0,03% H. influenzae and 14 (0,01% H. parainfluenzae (out of 180, 415 samples were isolated from genitourinary tract. From urine samples of the girls under 15 years of age these bacteria were isolated in 13 (0,88% and two (0,13% cases, respectively, and only in one case(0,11% of the UTI in boys (H. influenzae. In persons of fertile age, it was only H. influenzae bacteria that was found in urine samples of the five women (0,04% and in three men (0,22%. As a cause of vulvovaginitis, H. influenzae was isolated in four (5,63%, and H. parainfluenzae in two (2,82% girls. In persons of fertile age, H. influenzae was isolated from 10 (0,49% smears of the cervix, and in nine (1,74% male samples. H. parainfluenzae was isolated from seven (1,36% male samples. (p<0.01. Susceptibility testing of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae revealed that both pathogens were signifi- cantly resistant to cotrimoxasol only (26.0% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion In the etiology of genitourinary infections of girls during childhood, genital infections of women in fertile age (especially in pregnant women, and men with cases of epididimytis and/or orchitis,it is important to think about this rare and demanding bacteria in terms of cultivation.

  16. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa

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    Habu A. Kalshingi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50% were identified as M. arginini with 99% – 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% – 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species.

  17. The expression and diagnostic utility of p63 in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Oisin; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2009-09-01

    p63 plays a key role in epithelial development in various organs, being expressed in myoepithelial cells and in basal cells of stratified epithelia. In the female genital tract, p63 is expressed in the basal and parabasal cells of mature cervical, vaginal and vulval squamous epithelium, and also in cervical reserve cells at the transformation zone and in immature metaplastic and atrophic cervical squamous epithelium. In this review, the diagnostic utility of p63 immunohistochemical staining in various pathologic scenarios within the female genital tract is discussed. Cervical microglandular hyperplasia is p63 positive with a characteristic subcolumnar location due to expression in reserve cells. There is increased expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, in accordance with the degree of dysplasia. One of the most useful applications of p63 is in the evaluation of problematic cervical carcinomas; most squamous carcinomas exhibit diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity whereas most adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas are negative or focally positive. In conjunction with neuroendocrine markers, p63 is useful in distinguishing between a squamous carcinoma and a small cell or large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the normal endometrium, a population of p63-positive cells is present which may act as a stem cell population and which is increased in various forms of metaplasia. Placental site nodule and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast) are usually p63 positive whereas placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from implantation site intermediate trophoblast) are usually negative; thus, p63 may be useful in the diagnostic algorithm of trophoblastic lesions. p63 positivity in ovarian epithelial tumors is uncommon and largely restricted to squamous and transitional neoplasms, including benign and borderline Brenner tumor. p63 is also positive in cervical

  18. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

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    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  19. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

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    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans.

  20. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  1. The problem of vaginismus with congenital malformation of the genital tract

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    Grażyna Jarząbek-Bielecka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent or recurrent difficulties of the woman to allow vaginal entry of a penis, a finger, and/or any object, despite the woman’s expressed wish to do so” is vaginismus. Early traumatic sexual experiences (e.g. sexual abuse, religious orthodoxy, low self-esteem and body image, negative attitudes about sexuality, lack of knowledge about sex and fear responses are some of the traditional etiological correlates of vaginismus. Vaginismus is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. An interview is crucial in differentiating the causes of this disease and it should involve the following key questions: -whether the contraction of the vaginal muscles was recorded from the first sexual contact and still remains a need for sexual satisfaction is achieved without relations vaginal or -symptom occurs for some time and what circumstances it bound or -contraction of the muscles is independent of the will, reflex and is at the very idea of sexual intercourse, and -that the contraction of the vaginal muscles occurs when you try to enter the member into the vagina which is very painful. The physical, gynecological and sexuological examinations exclude local causes of the disease. The mainstay of treatment in the majority of cases is psychosexual support. The cause of organic vaginismus is congenital malformation of the genital tract. It results from abnormal development of genital paramesonephric (Müllerian ducts and the urogenital sinus, which are structures involved in the process of oviduct, uterus, and vagina organogenesis. This has strong implications in the practices of gynecology and sexuology in general, not only in adolescent gynecology and sexuology. Vaginismus with congenital malformation is animportant problem in these fields.

  2. Manifestations of Immune Privilege in the Human Reproductive Tract

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    Gary F Clark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.

  3. A mechanism for the induction of type 2 immune responses by a protease allergen in the genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Eun; Oh, Dong Sun; Jung, Hi Eun

    2017-01-01

    The genital mucosa is a barrier that is constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens, allergens, and external stimuli. Although both allergen exposure and parasite infections frequently occur in the genital area, the mechanism by which immune responses—particularly type 2 immunity—are induced has rarely been studied in the genital mucosa. Here, we demonstrate the induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity in the genital mucosa in response to a model allergen, the protease papain. Intravaginal papain immunization induced type 2 immunity in a manner that was dependent on protease activity and the estrous phase of the mice. In addition, IL-33 was released from the vaginal epithelia after intravaginal papain immunization, leading to the activation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Moreover, the IL-33–MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) signaling pathway was critical for the induction of type 2 immunity. We also found that Th2 differentiation in response to intravaginal papain treatment requires a specific dendritic cell (DC) subset that is controlled by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). These findings suggest that type 2 immunity is induced by a unique mechanism in the genital tract, which is an important, but often overlooked, barrier surface. PMID:28137851

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  5. Sensitivites in vitro to antimicrobial drugs of bovine mycoplasmas isolated from respiratory and genital tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K; Minato, H

    1978-01-01

    A total of 155 Mycoplasma strains were examined for sensitivity to nine antibiotics and four nitrofurans by the agar dilution method. They consisted of 69 strains of Mycoplasma bovirhinis, 33 strains of M. bovigenitalium, 49 strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii and four strains of A. modicum isolated from the nasal secretions, tracheas and lungs of calves manifesting respiratory symptoms and from bovine genital tracts collected at a slaughterhouse. As a result, furamizole and mitomycin C showed the strongest growth-inhibiting effect on all the strains. They were followed in this effect by kitasamycin tartrate, spiramycin adipate, tylosin tartrate, tetracycline-HCl and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, these five drugs were followed in the effect by furazolidone, nitrofurantoin and sodium nifurstyrenate. Fradiomycin sulfate and kanamycin sulfate showed only little effect on all the strains. Erythromycin lactobionate showed a strong growth-inhibiting effect on the Acholeplasma strains, but not on the Mycoplasma strains. There were some cross resistant strains of the Acholeplasma species to the effects of the macrolides.

  6. Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract.

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    Alexander S Zevin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism(s by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity.

  7. Lower genital tract infections in women: comparison of clinical and epidemiologic findings with microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Averous, S; Bauriaud, R; Blanc, C; Bertrand, M A; Lareng, M B

    1988-01-01

    We screened 392 women attending the Laboratory of Microbiology of Toulouse Purpan Hospital for symptoms of lower genital tract infection for six microorganisms. Rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were 1%, 7.7%, 29.8%, 23.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by direct examination in specimens from 3.1% of patients. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms in relation to clinical and epidemiologic findings. C. trachomatis was isolated significantly more often from patients under 25 year old (P less than 0.001), from those who use oral contraceptives (P less than 0.01), from those who have a male sexual partner with symptoms of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.001), and from those who present signs of cervicitis (P less than 0.05). Isolation of C. albicans was significantly associated with vulvar pruritus (P less than 0.01), vulvitis (P less than 0.01), and vaginitis (P less than 0.001). G. vaginalis and M. hominis are significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). This syndrome was diagnosed clinically in 27.2% of our study population and was highly correlated with use of an intrauterine device (P less than 0.05).

  8. Current situation: lower genital tract pathology and colposcopy training in spanish gynecology and obstetrics residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mias, Núria-Laia; Cortés, Javier; Xercavins, Jordi; Lailla, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention in lower genital tract pathology (LGTP) on the knowledge and skills acquired by the Spanish specialist residents. This didactic change was carried out under the auspices of the Asociación Española de Patología Cervical y Colposcopia and the Sociedad Española Ginecología y Obstetricia and its Resident Section. This is an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. The survey was composed of 15 questions voluntarily answered by Spanish gynecology and obstetrics trainees. Compared with a previous survey, a substantial increase in the proportion of Spanish teaching hospitals with an LGTP unit (9/42 vs 47/59) has been detected while doubling the percentage of residents who acknowledge medium to high knowledge on this pathology. The same cannot be said about the handling capacity of vulvodynia registering a great improvement. Spanish scientific societies, concerned in the quality of LGTP training gained by their residents, have focused on the necessity of LGTP units. Our study confirms the usefulness of this performance in the new continued LGTP education.

  9. Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kelly; Romas, Laura; Westmacott, Garrett; McCorrister, Stuart; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Cohen, Craig R.; Mackelprang, Romel; Lingappa, Jairam; Lauffenburger, Doug A.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Burgener, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT) health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity. PMID:27656899

  10. p53 is not related to Ki-67 immunostaining in the epithelial and mesenchymal components of female genital tract carcinosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Beata; Kaznowska, Ewa; Ignatov, Atanas; Steć, Anna; Semczuk-Sikora, Anna; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Jóźwik, Maciej; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Cybulski, Marek; Szumiło, Justyna; Semczuk, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas (CSs) are composed of two separate histological components and are rare neoplasms of the female genital tract. Therefore, CS pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the role of p53 and Ki-67 overexpression in female genital tract CSs. The study group was comprised of 36 patients with CSs originating from the uterus (n=31), cervix (n=3) and ovary (n=2), as well as 3 metastatic tissues. p53 was overexpressed in the epithelial component of 23 out of 36 (64%) tumors, and in the mesenchymal component of 20 out of 36 (56%) tumors. In both CS components, there was a significant correlation between p53 overexpression and patient age and ovarian metastases. Ki-67 overexpression was detected in the epithelial component in 15 out of 36 (42%) cases, and in the mesenchymal component in 13 out of 36 (36%) neoplasms. There was a significant correlation of p53 overexpression between the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components (R=0.884, Ptumor components. In conclusion, based on immunohistochemical results, p53 was overexpressed in more than half of the female genital tract CSs included in the present study, either at the epithelial or mesenchymal component. The correlation between p53 or Ki-67 overexpression in both tumor components supports the combination theory of histogenesis in the majority of these tumors.

  11. [Systemic lymphoma cells with T precursor condition of extreme female genital tract. A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrón Valdez, Karla; Ramírez Galves, Miguel; Germes Piña, Fernando; Ramos Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora Perea, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Primary female genital tract non Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare presentation for a common disease in the childhood, and its classification as primary extranodal lymphoma is still controversial. There are a few cases reported as a primary precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the female genital tract, but there is not any case reported as primary precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ovary in childhood. Herein we describe a 16 years old young woman with bilateral ovarian tumors, paraaortic lymphoadenophaty and disseminate disease to the female genital tract including extension of the tumor to neighboring organs like the omentum and the appendix. Exploratory laparatomy were performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, pelvic washings and with biopsy of vaginal vault. The chemotherapy regimen comprised of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, Prednisone/Prednisolone) and methotrexate, 3 months later presents left facial hemiparesia follow by right facial hemiparesia, 7 months later presents more Central Nervous System (CNS) complications and apparently was complicated with acute lymphocitic leukemia and after 16 months from the diagnosis, following by a torpid evolution, the pacient finally died.

  12. 人乳头瘤病毒自然史与空间分布特征对宫颈癌筛查技术的影响%The impact of natural history and genital tract distribution of human papillomavirus on technology for cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽妮; 陈汶

    2016-01-01

    人乳头瘤病毒( HPV)感染是宫颈癌的明确病因,病毒生活周期中DNA含量变化情况和各种mRNA和蛋白质的表达与宫颈病变各个阶段的发生发展联系密切。文章主要阐述高危型HPV的自然生活史、空间分布特征与宫颈病变的关系,根据不同应用环境设计和应用不同检测技术,对筛查和临床应用有重要的指导意义。%Human papillomavirus ( HPV) infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. There is a close relationship between the amount of DNA, mRNA and protein expression in the natural history of virus and the cervical lesion. This article is aimed to elaborate the natural history and genital tract distribution of high risk HPV, and also evaluate the HPV based cervical cancer screening technology from the perspective of the natural history of HPV, which is meaningful for screening and clinical practice in devising and utilizing different detection technology.

  13. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  14. GATA3 Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker of Benign and Malignant Mesonephric Lesions in the Lower Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Emori, Megan M; Drapkin, Ronny; Gaspar, Cynthia; Barletta, Justine A; Nucci, Marisa R; McCluggage, W Glenn; Oliva, Esther; Hirsch, Michelle S

    2015-10-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor critical for embryogenesis, development, and cell differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that GATA3 is a sensitive and relatively specific biomarker for urothelial and breast carcinomas, with most Müllerian carcinomas being negative. We investigated GATA3 expression in mesonephric/Wolffian remnants and tumors in the female genital tract. A western blot was performed to assess specificity for the GATA3 antibody. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on 59 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mesonephric samples, including 17 mesonephric remnants (MR; 11 cervical and 6 fallopian tube), 15 mesonephric hyperplasias, 21 mesonephric carcinomas, and 6 female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin. Thirty conventional endocervical adenocarcinomas (ENDO-CA), 9 gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas, and 165 endometrial adenocarcinomas (EM-CA) were also evaluated. GATA3 nuclear intensity and extent of staining was evaluated. The western blot revealed GATA3 expression in seminal vesicle and cell lines derived from breast and urothelial carcinomas, but not in other cell lines including ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers. All cervical MRs and mesonephric hyperplasias, 5/6 (83%) fallopian tube MRs, and 20/21 (95%) mesonephric carcinomas were GATA3 positive, although with great variability in both intensity (weak to strong) and extent (1+ to 3+) of staining. Only 1/6 (17%) female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin showed weak multifocal staining. One of 30 (3%) usual-type ENDO-CAs and 3/165 EM-CAs exhibited weak-moderate GATA3 immunoreactivity; all gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas were negative. GATA3 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for mesonephric lesions in the lower genital tract; however, its utility in the upper genital tract may be more limited. In addition, GATA3 can aid in distinguishing lower genital mesonephric lesions from usual-type and gastric-type ENDO-CAs and uterine EM-CAs.

  15. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pseudomembranous disease (ligneous inflammation) of the female genital tract, peritoneum, gingiva, and paranasal sinuses associated with plasminogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Angela C; Prichard, Elizabeth; Richardson, Mary S; Rasenberger, Kenneth P; Weathers, Dwight R; Neville, Brad W

    2009-04-01

    Pseudomembranous disease (or ligneous inflammation) is a rare condition characterized by accumulations of fibrin-rich eosinophilic material. Recent investigations have linked the etiology of this condition to plasminogen deficiency (hypoplasminogenemia). Although much of the literature concerning this disease has focused upon the often clinically striking ocular manifestations, it is important to note that pathologic changes may develop in a variety of anatomic locations, including the oral cavity, upper and lower respiratory tract, female genital tract, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman who initially presented with gingival inflammation. In subsequent years, she developed additional signs and symptoms related to sinonasal and genital tract involvement. Despite numerous clinical evaluations, biopsies, and laboratory tests, the patient's diagnosis remained elusive for 7 years. Ultimately, it was the distinctive appearance of the gingiva that led to a diagnosis of plasminogen deficiency. Unfortunately, the complicated clinical course and elapsed time between initial presentation and diagnosis illustrated by the present case are not uncommon among patients with this condition. Greater familiarity with the clinical and histopathologic features of this condition among pathologists and treating clinicians is essential for timely diagnosis and management.

  17. Phosphoethanolamine decoration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipid A plays a dual immunostimulatory and protective role during experimental genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packiam, Mathanraj; Yedery, Roshan D; Begum, Afrin A; Carlson, Russell W; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sempowski, Gregory D; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Shafer, William M; Jerse, Ann E

    2014-06-01

    The induction of an intense inflammatory response by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the persistence of this pathogen in the presence of innate effectors is a fascinating aspect of gonorrhea. Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) decoration of lipid A increases gonococcal resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and recently we reported that wild-type N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 has a survival advantage relative to a PEA transferase A (lptA) mutant in the human urethral-challenge and murine lower genital tract infection models. Here we tested the immunostimulatory role of this lipid A modification. Purified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) containing lipid A devoid of the PEA modification and an lptA mutant of strain FA19 induced significantly lower levels of NF-κB in human embryonic kidney Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts than wild-type LOS of the parent strain. Moreover, vaginal proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were not elevated in female mice infected with the isogenic lptA mutant, in contrast to mice infected with the wild-type and complemented lptA mutant bacteria. We also demonstrated that lptA mutant bacteria were more susceptible to human and murine cathelicidins due to increased binding by these peptides and that the differential induction of NF-κB by wild-type and unmodified lipid A was more pronounced in the presence of CAMPs. This work demonstrates that PEA decoration of lipid A plays both protective and immunostimulatory roles and that host-derived CAMPs may further reduce the capacity of PEA-deficient lipid A to interact with TLR4 during infection.

  18. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  19. Recurrence and risk of progression to lower genital tract malignancy in women with high grade VAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodeib, Melissa; Cohen, Joshua G; Mehta, Sukrant; Rimel, B J; Walsh, Christine S; Li, Andrew J; Karlan, Beth Y; Cass, Ilana

    2016-06-01

    High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) II-III has a variable clinical course. Due to the rarity of VAIN, existing data on the efficacy of treatment, risk of recurrence and progression to carcinoma is limited. Our objective was to evaluate predictors of recurrent disease and describe the risk of progression to carcinoma. Under an IRB-approved protocol 42 patients with biopsy-proven VAIN II-III from 1995 to 2015 were retrospectively identified. Demographics, treatment, and clinical course were abstracted from medical records. Patients were followed with semi-annual colposcopy and biopsies at physician discretion. Standard statistical analyses were applied. Median patient age was 58years old (range 20-81). Median follow-up time was 45months (range 9-195). Management included excision (31%), laser ablation (33%), topical agents (19%), and observation (10%), with the following rates of recurrence: 38%, 43%, 75%, and 50% (p=0.26). 20 patients (48%) had recurrent or persistent disease during treatment follow-up. No specific primary treatment was significantly more effective in preventing recurrence. Recurrence of VAIN II-III occurred at a median of 17.4months (7-78months) from time of initial diagnosis. Five (12%) patients developed invasive cancer of the lower genital tract. Median time to cancer diagnosis was 64months (30 to 101months). Patients with VAIN II-III are at high risk of recurrence and progression, suggesting the need for ongoing evaluation with cytology and comprehensive colposcopy by a skilled specialist. There were no clear risk factors or histopathologic criteria which predicted recurrence or progression to cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. HPV及生殖道其他病原体感染与宫颈癌临床关系的研究进展%Research Progress of the Correlation between HPV and Other Genital Tract Infections and Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彩荷

    2012-01-01

    宫颈癌是妇女中常见的恶性肿瘤,生殖道的病原体感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展密切相关.高危型人乳头状瘤病毒的持续感染成为宫颈癌发生的最危险因素,合并感染的病原体在宫颈癌发病过程中起协同作用.因生殖道感染不断增多,宫颈癌及癌前病变的发生率也在不断升高.需加强对生殖道常见病原菌的检测及生殖道感染的预防,从而减少宫颈癌的发生.%Cervical cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in women. The development of cervical cancer is closely related to genital infections. High-risk human papillomavirus infection is the most dangerous factor for cervical cancer, and the other co-infections play a synergistic role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Due to the continuousy increasing genital tract infections,incidence rates of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesion have increased too. The detection of common genital tract pathogens and precaution of genital tract infections are needed to be enhanced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

  1. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie B; Olesen, Tina B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were...... influencing prevalence in general and high-risk male populations in Europe. RESULTS: We included 31 articles that gave the prevalence of genital HPV DNA among men in northern, southern and western Europe; no studies from eastern Europe were identified. The pooled HPV prevalence among 1,863 men representing...

  2. Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie Benning

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. METHODS: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected with similar proportions of low (0-3 Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%, Prevotella (56%, Gardnerella (55%, Atopobium (42%, Sneathia (37%, Megasphaera (30%, and Parvimonas (26%, observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06. Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06 and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02, and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01 and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01, compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05 in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%, compared to HIV-infected US women (6%, HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9% and US (10% women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11, followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82, L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80, L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37 and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10. DISCUSSION: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed

  3. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Shujian; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-03

    Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT(+) group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=-.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=-.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=-.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT(+) group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, PT cells and IL-17 (r=-.1557, P=.5122) in CIGT-NKT(+) group. The proliferative response of iNK T cells could accompany an inflammatory response to spermatozoa and consequently influence sperm quality through secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-17 under chronic inflammatory condition.

  5. The uterine peristaltic pump. Normal and impeded sperm transport within the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, G; Beil, D; Deiniger, H; Einspanier, A; Mall, G; Leyendecker, G

    1997-01-01

    double the frequency of contractions during the early and mid- as well as midluteal phase in comparison to the fertile and healthy controls. During midcycle these women display a considerable uterine dysperistalsis in that the normally long and regular cervico-fundal contractions during this phase of the cycle have become more or less undirected and convulsive in character. Hyperperistalsis results in the transport of inert particles from the cervix into the tubes within minutes already during the early follicular phase, and may therefore constitute the mechanical cause for the development of endometriosis in that it transports detached endometrial cells and tissue fragments via the tubes into the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, dysperistalsis may contribute to the infertility in these patients since it results in a break down of sperm transport within the female genital tract.

  6. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  7. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  8. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part I. Fallopian Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis (TB remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography is still the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and "leopard skin tube". Part II describes adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings such as "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes, "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudounicornuate" uterus and "Collar-stud abscess", which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.

  9. /sup 131/I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-04-01

    The method of /sup 131/I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma.

  10. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  11. Ultrastructure of the Z-organ and Parts of the Female Genital Tract in Xiphinema coxi coxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Robbins, R T; Kim, K S

    2000-09-01

    Ultrastructure of the Z-organ and associated apophyses in Xiphinema coxi coxi was studied by transmission electron microscopy to determine their structural origin and relationship with other parts of the genital tract. The Z-organ of X. coxi coxi is oval-shaped, ca. 30 microm long and 16 microm wide. It is clearly distinguished from the other parts of the female genital tract by its thick muscular outer wall, epithelium-lined lumen, and 4-5 centrally located apophyses. Each apophysis is continuous with the epithelial lining of the Z-organ, suggesting that it originated from epithelium. The apophyses appear as thickened and densely folded masses forming numerous interlaced pores and (or) chambers containing mucous-like materials and electron-dense crystals. These apophyses are characteristic of a typical Z-organ; no globular structures characteristics of the pseudo-Z-organ were observed. The thickness of the muscular layer of the oviduct and uterus varied with position. The overall Z-organ ultrastructure of this study, including body wall and internal apophyses, was comparable to the typical Z-organ of X. ifacolum. This suggests that X. coxi coxi should be classified as a Xiphinema species that contains the typical Z-organ.

  12. Ultrastructural morphology of the male and female genital tracts of Psoroptes spp. (Acari: Astigmata: Psoroptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekimme, Mireille; Leclercq-Smekens, Michèle; Devignon, Chantal; Leclipteux, Thierry; Poumay, Yves; Losson, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    The structure of the male and female genital systems of the astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis (Hering) is described. The male genital system is composed of a paired testis, fused at its proximal part, two vasa deferentia, an ejaculatory duct, into which a single accessory gland opens, and a copulatory organ. The testis is characterized by a peripheric syncytial cell surrounding spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa which are distributed regularly in the gonad according to the sequence of spermatogenesis. The female genital system consists of a copulatory pore (the bursa copulatrix), a seminal receptacle, paired ovaries and oviducts, a glandular uterus and an ovipositor which leads to the oviporus. Ovaries are composed of somatic cells, germ cells and a central cell, with a multilobular nucleus, connected to oocytes by a stalk. Similarities with other astigmatic mites belonging to Psoroptidia and Acaridia are also discussed.

  13. Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Kimble, Thomas; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Fichorova, Raina N; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Chandra, Neelima; Rabe, Lorna; Cunningham, Tina D; Anderson, Sharon; Schwartz, Jill; Doncel, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0-3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5(+) immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0-3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition.

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Thomas; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dawood, Hassan Y.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Chandra, Neelima; Rabe, Lorna; Cunningham, Tina D.; Anderson, Sharon; Schwartz, Jill; Doncel, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0–3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5+ immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0–3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:26204200

  15. Raltegravir concentrations in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women treated with a raltegravir-containing regimen (DIVA 01 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Cyril; Peytavin, Gilles; Tubiana, Roland; Soulié, Cathia; Crenn-Hebert, Catherine; Heard, Isabelle; Bissuel, François; Ichou, Houria; Ferreira, Claudia; Katlama, Christine; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    We studied the penetration of raltegravir and HIV shedding in the genital tract among 14 HIV-1-infected women receiving a raltegravir-containing regimen who had <40 copies/ml blood plasma (BP) HIV RNA. None of the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) samples showed detectable HIV RNA. Median raltegravir concentrations were 235 ng/ml in BP and 93 ng/ml in CVF, with a CVF/BP ratio of approximately 2.3. This good penetration of raltegravir may contribute to the control of viral replication in the female genital tract.

  16. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M.I. de; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; Dorsten, L. van; Azzawi, R.; Zuilekom, H.I. van; Peters, P.P.; Opzeeland, F.J. van; Dijk, L. van; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verweij, P.J.; Duijnhoven, W.G. van; Bosch, J.F. van den; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  17. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the kidneys and genital tracts of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, D; Nuvoloni, R; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Mani, P; Andreani, E; Farina, R

    1996-04-01

    A bacteriological study was carried out to identify possible renal and/or genital carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. L. hardjo was found at slaughter in the kidneys of three seropositive ewes, but not in uterus or salpinges of these animals.

  18. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  19. Eubacterium nodatum mimics Actinomyces in intrauterine device-associated infections and other settings within the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G B

    1992-04-01

    Eubacterium nodatum is an obligately anaerobic, gram-positive, branching rod that markedly resembles Actinomyces, particularly Actinomyces israelii, in its cellular and colonial characteristics. Its isolation from the female genital tract was examined for a study period in which use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) was common, and additional characteristics of the organism were investigated. Fifteen genital isolates of E nodatum were all associated with the presence of a foreign body, usually an IUD (12 patients). Six of these 12 patients had presented with clinically severe pelvic inflammatory disease. The remaining six had signs and symptoms related to IUD use and/or had a report of probable Actinomyces (five patients) by a Papanicolaou smear, demonstrating that E nodatum can be mistaken for Actinomyces in a Papanicolaou-stained smear. The three other patients had different types of foreign bodies. The frequency of isolation from cultures associated with IUD use during the study period was five (6.4%) of 78 for Actinomyces versus the 12 (15.4%) of 78 for E nodatum. In vitro-prepared E nodatum was not demonstrated to cross-react with A israelii or A naeslundii antisera. Both E nodatum and A israelii were shown to adhere in vitro to an inanimate object, indicating their propensities to colonize a foreign body. The present data, with the previous reports of isolation of E nodatum from cases of lumpy jaw and severe periodontitis, suggest that it is an opportunistic pathogen very much like A israelii.

  20. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  1. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...... genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance...... between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common...

  2. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  3. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski; Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna; Beata Pucher; Beata Buraczyńska-Andrzejewska; Magdalena Prauzińska; Jagoda Kolasińska-Lipńska; Hanna Krauss; Jacek Piątek; Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-01-01

    [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connect...

  4. Incidence rate of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomavirus infection in Czech population

    OpenAIRE

    Petráš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomaviruses in the Czech population Marek Petráš Abstract Genital warts (condyloma acuminate) caused up to 90% cases by two human papillomaviruses of type 6 and 11 are not life-threatening diseases but can cause not only clinical symptoms (burning, itching, bleeding, and pain) but also psychosocial stress, embarrassment, and anxiety making for impaired quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the p...

  5. [Place of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the lower genital tract infections and associated risk factors among women in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Adisso, S; Djamal, J; Sanni, R; Amangbegnon, R; Biokou-Bankole, B; Kinde Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the place of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) in the lower genital infections and seek risk factors among women in Benin. The study was conducted in the laboratory of mycology of Hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (Homel) from 1st March to 31st July, 2013. It involved all the women who were asked a vaginal swab and gave their consent in written form. After administration of a questionnaire, the vaginal samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs for a test with potassium hydroxide, an estimation of vaginal pH, direct microscopic examination, fresh, and after a Gram stain and culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol, ordinary agar and fresh blood agar. One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases. This study showed that vulvovaginal candidiasis is the leading cause of lower genital tract infections in women in Benin with involvement of several risk factors which research is needed to develop appropriate preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution and viability of spermatozoa in the canine female genital tract during post-ovulatory oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karre Inga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other domestic mammals, in which metaphase-II oocytes are ovulated, canine ovulation is characterized by the release of primary oocytes, which may take 12 to up to 36 hours. Further 60 hours are needed for maturation to secondary oocytes which then remain fertile for about 48 hours. Oestrus takes 7 to 10 days on average and may start as early as a week before ovulation. This together with the prolonged process of post-ovulatory oocyte maturation requires an according longevity of spermatozoa in the female genital tract in order to provide a population of fertile sperm when oocytes have matured to fertilizability. Therefore the distribution and viability of spermatozoa in the bitch genital tract was examined during post-ovulatory oocyte maturation. Methods Thirteen beagle bitches were inseminated on the day of sonographically verified ovulation with pooled semen of two beagle dogs containing one billion progressively motile spermatozoa. Ovariohysterectomy was performed two days later (group 1, n = 6 and four days later (group 2, n = 7. The oviduct and uterine horn of one side were flushed separately and the flushing’s were checked for the presence of gametes. The oviducts including the utero-tubal junction and the uterine horns, both the flushed and unflushed, were histologically examined for sperm distribution. Results The total number of spermatozoa recovered by flushing was low and evaluation of viability was limited. Prophase-I oocytes were collected from oviduct flushing in group 1, whereas unfertilized metaphase-II oocytes were detected in group 2. From day 2 to day 4 after ovulation a significant decrease in the percentage of glands containing sperm (P Conclusions Oocyte maturation to metaphase-II stage is accompanied by a continuous sperm detachment and elimination in the uterine horns. Entrance of spermatozoa into the caudal oviduct seems to be steadily controlled by the utero-tubal junction thus

  7. High level of soluble HLA-G in the female genital tract of Beninese commercial sex workers is associated with HIV-1 infection.

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    Valérie Thibodeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs, as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P = 0.009 and non-CSW groups (P = 0.0006. The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.008, and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P = 0.002 were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P = 0.038. When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P = 0.02 and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  8. Diminished CD103 (αEβ7) Expression on Resident T Cells from the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Positive Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, David C.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Saag, Michael S.; Richter, Holly E.; Mestecky, Jiri; Sabbaj, Steffanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). Methods Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L−CCR7−CD103+CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. Results We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women. The expression of the mucosal retention receptor, CD103, from HIV-positive women was reduced compared to healthy women and was lowest in women with CD4 counts < 500 cells/mm3. Furthermore, CD103 expression on mucosa-derived CD8+ T cells correlated with antigen-specific IFN-γ production by mucosal CD4+ T cells and was inversely correlated with T-bet from CD8+CD103+ mucosa-derived T cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CD4+ T cells, known to be impaired during HIV-1 infection and necessary for the expression of CD103 in murine models, may play a role in the expression of CD103 on resident T cells from the human FGT. PMID:28164171

  9. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  11. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...... bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  12. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the female genital tract in a 27-year-old female: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL of the female genital tract is a rare tumor mainly affecting the elderly age group. A preoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach due to varied clinical presentation and lack of diagnostic features on radiological investigations. We present an unusual case of primary NHL affecting uterus, cervix, and bilateral ovaries in a 27-year-old female.

  13. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    Figure 6) (62, 152, 169). In 1990, David Taylor-Robinson described long-term gonococcal colonization following treatment of germ-free mice with 17β...oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection. J Immunol 171:6187-97. 68. David , L. M., A. A. Wade, D. Natin, and K. W. Radcliffe. 1997...Dis 178:742-51. 123. Heine, H., S. Muller-Loennies, L. Brade , B. Lindner, and H. Brade . 2003. Endotoxic activity and chemical structure of

  14. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Bernard J.; Chappell, Catherine A.; Debo, Brian M.; Meyn, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use) and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = IUDs (P = 0.02). The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04), but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of α-glucosidase activity that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (Pmicroorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract. PMID:27437931

  15. Genital tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, HIV, and reproductive health issues among Lima-based clandestine female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, M E; Ghee, Annette E; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42-0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  16. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Perla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%. Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%, but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%. In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR=0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96. Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.. Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57% and induced abortion was common (68%. High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

  18. Normal morphology and hormone receptor expression in the male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Histomorphology and estrogen alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and PRs were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In some tissues, ER alpha expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone-mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER alpha and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract.

  19. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  20. Genital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Infertile Men and Its Effect on Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golshani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Male urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomatic bacteriospermia has been paid attention as a major cause of male infertility. The aim of this study was to microbiological investigation of semen sample of infertile men attending to infertility clinic and evaluation of the effects of bacteriospermia on semen quality. Eighty eight infertile men were evaluated by standard bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among total cases, 35.22% (31 cases showed at least one pathogen: 10.22% E.coli, 9.09% Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (Saprophyticcus, 6.81% Group B Streptococci, 5.88% Entrococci, 5.68% Candida sp., 2.27% Gonococci, 2.27% Staphylococcus aureus, 1.13% Klebsiella sp. and 1.13% Providencia sp. There was a significant relation between the bacteriospermia and the rate of no motile and morphologically abnormal sperms (P0.05. It seems that leukocytospermia is a poor marker to predict bacteriospermia.

  1. Diagnosis and staging of female genital tract melanocytic lesions using pump-probe microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.

  2. Serum and seminal markers in the diagnosis of disorders of the genital tract of the dog: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobello, Cristina; Castex, Gervasio; Corrada, Yanina

    2002-03-01

    Serum and seminal biologic substances that are produced either by normal or abnormal tissues of the organism and that can be used to diagnose pathological conditions are usually referred as markers. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most relevant clinical features of the main genital markers in the male dog: alkaline phosphatase (AP), carnitine and canine prostate-specific arginine esterase (CPSE). Carnitine and AP are markers for the presence of epididymal fluid in the ejaculate and their measurement in azoospermic dogs has been used as an indicator of tubular patency of the ductal network. Although AP is not present in high concentrations in the testis, this does not preclude the possibility that testicular cells might secrete some AP. If this were true, AP could also reflect, at least in some degree, germ cell function in this species. Prostate-specific arginine esterase, the major secretory product of the canine prostate, is a known marker of gland secretion in the dog. Tumor markers frequently used in human medicine, such as prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen, are is still controversial in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma of the dog. Although further research is necessary to define the exact role of CPSE, it seems to be a promising diagnostic tool in nonneoplasic canine prostatic disorders. Future studies should also address the quantitative relationship among serum and prostatic androgen levels, prostatic androgen-dependent problems and how these are affected by anti-androgen treatment. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most relevant clinical features of three main genital markers of the male dog.

  3. Local synthesis of IgG antibodies to HIV within the female and male genital tracts during asymptomatic and pre-AIDS stages of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélec, L; Tévi-Bénissan, C; Lu, X S; Prazuck, T; Pillot, J

    1995-06-01

    Paired sera and cervicovaginal secretions or seminal fluids, obtained from HIV-1-infected, clinically asymptomatic women (n = 41) and men (n = 12), were investigated in order to test the hypothesis of a local synthesis of IgG to HIV in the female and male reproductive tracts. Anti-gp41 + p24 IgG was evaluated by an IgG immunocapture assay, and anti-gp160 IgG by an indirect ELISA. Estimation of anti-HIV IgG-specific activities was carried out after ponderal determination of total IgG and evaluation of anti-HIV IgG activity. IgG to gp41 + p24, as well as IgG to gp160, were specifically detected in all sera, cervicovaginal secretions, and seminal fluid samples from all tested HIV-1-infected subjects. The mean specific activities of IgG to gp41 + p24 in cervicovaginal secretions and in seminal fluids were about 33-fold (in women) and 16-fold (in men) that of the corresponding sera; similarly, the mean specific activities of IgG to gp160 in genital secretions were about 17-fold (in women) and 10-fold (in men) that of the corresponding sera. IgGs to HIV are constantly detected in genital secretions from HIV-1-infected subjects, and appear to be largely synthesized in situ within the genital tract of both genders.

  4. B cells enhance antigen-specific CD4 T cell priming and prevent bacteria dissemination following Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    B cells can contribute to acquired immunity against intracellular bacteria, but do not usually participate in primary clearance. Here, we examined the endogenous CD4 T cell response to genital infection with Chlamydia muridarum using MHC class-II tetramers. Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expanded rapidly and persisted as a stable memory pool for several months after infection. While most lymph node Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expressed T-bet, a small percentage co-expressed Foxp3, and RORγt-expressing T cells were enriched within the reproductive tract. Local Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell priming was markedly reduced in mice lacking B cells, and bacteria were able to disseminate to the peritoneal cavity, initiating a cellular infiltrate and ascites. However, bacterial dissemination also coincided with elevated systemic Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell responses and resolution of primary infection. Together, these data reveal heterogeneity in pathogen-specific CD4 T cell responses within the genital tract and an unexpected requirement for B cells in regulating local T cell activation and bacterial dissemination during genital infection.

  5. Lactobacillus crispatus dominant vaginal microbiome is associated with inhibitory activity of female genital tract secretions against Escherichia coli.

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    Jeny P Ghartey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Female genital tract secretions inhibit E. coli ex vivo and the activity may prevent colonization and provide a biomarker of a healthy microbiome. We hypothesized that high E. coli inhibitory activity would be associated with a Lactobacillus crispatus and/or jensenii dominant microbiome and differ from that of women with low inhibitory activity. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal swab cell pellets from 20 samples previously obtained in a cross-sectional study of near-term pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women were selected based on having high (>90% inhibition or low (<20% inhibition anti-E. coli activity. The V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Filtered culture supernatants from Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Gardnerella vaginalis were also assayed for E. coli inhibitory activity. RESULTS: Sixteen samples (10 with high and 6 with low activity yielded evaluable microbiome data. There was no difference in the predominant microbiome species in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women (n = 8 each. However, there were significant differences between women with high compared to low E. coli inhibitory activity. High activity was associated with a predominance of L. crispatus (p<0.007 and culture supernatants from L. crispatus exhibited greater E. coli inhibitory activity compared to supernatants obtained from L. iners or G. vaginalis. Notably, the E. coli inhibitory activity varied among different strains of L. crispatus. CONCLUSION: Microbiome communities with abundant L. crispatus likely contribute to the E. coli inhibitory activity of vaginal secretions and efforts to promote this environment may prevent E. coli colonization and related sequelae including preterm birth.

  6. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  7. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with the use of injectable hormonal contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-08-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing the risk of STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive growth factors and hematopoietic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV-negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; Nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and the chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared with those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was broadly associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that the effects of injectable HCs were similar in STI-positive and STI-negative participants.

  8. Dose-Related Differences in Effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Against Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Maria; Dehlendorff, Christian; Sand, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing the number of doses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination regimen from 3 to 2 could increase coverage rates. In this cohort study, we assessed the risk of genital warts (GWs) according to timing and number of doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine. METHODS: From population...

  9. [HPV-associated carcinomas of the female genital tract. Molecular mechanisms of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, M; Vinokurova, S; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    2011-11-01

    Infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a common occurrence in both men and women. In contrast HPV-associated neoplasias are relatively rare and occur only in certain areas of the body. The virus has obviously developed efficient mechanisms for its persistence without inducing too much damage to the host. The formation of neoplasia seems to be more an exception. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. Investigations have indicated that exactly the transition from the permissive infection stage to a transformation stage, where neoplastic alterations can occur due to expression of the viral oncogenes, is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. The transforming stage is seen as the actual carcinogenic event and can be immunohistochemically detected by the biomarker p16(INK4a).

  10. HPV detection and p53 alteration in squamous cell verrucous malignancies of the lower genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Donghi, R; D'Amato, L; Giarola, M; Longoni, A; Della Torre, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1993-12-01

    We examined five cases of verrucous carcinoma (VC) and two cases of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein (GCBL) associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC), by immunocytochemistry and molecular techniques. Neither human papillomavirus (HPV) footprints nor p53-altered expression and/or mutation were observed among the cases of VC. By contrast, both cases of GCBL with ISCC turned out to be HPV 6 or 11 positive, showed overexpression of p53 and, one of the two, a mutation in the nucleotide sequence of this tumor suppressor gene. The results point out that VC and GCBL with ISCC, in spite of some morphologic similarities, are two distinct entities, the former being unrelated to both HPV and p53 inactivation and the latter related to both. Regarding p53, immunocytochemical and molecular data on GCBL with ISCC suggest a role of mutant p53 in the progression of malignancy into invasion.

  11. [Oncogenic human papillomaviruses in extra-genital Bowen disease revealed by in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derancourt, C; Mougin, C; Chopard Lallier, M; Coumes-Marquet, S; Drobacheff, C; Laurent, R

    2001-01-01

    The association between mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) and bowenoid papulosis or genital Bowen's disease is well documented. In contrast this association with extra-genital Bowen's disease is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to detect oncogenic (16/18, 31/33/51) and non oncogenic (8/11) mucosal HPV using a in situ hybridization method in 28 skin biopsy specimens of extra-genital Bowen's disease. Twenty-eight cases of extra-genital Bowen's disease seen in the period 1990-96 in the Dermatology department were included: 19 women and 9 men (mean age: 72 years). Bowen's disease locations were: hands and feet (8 cases), limbs (11 cases), face (8 cases), trunk (1 case). Blinded histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and signs of HPV infection (koilocytosis). In situ hybridization was performed using three biotinylated probes detecting HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/51. Oncogenic HPV genoma was detected in 8 skin samples (28.6 p. 100). In all these cases, 16/18 probe was positive and in two cases, both 16/18 and 31/33/51 probes were positive; 4/8 Bowen's diseases of the extremities were positive for HPV. Koilocytes were found in 6/8 of skin samples with positive HPV detection. Mucosal oncogenic HPV are detected by in situ hybridization in 28.6 p. 100 of extra-genital Bowen's disease. In situ hybridization is an easier technique than Southern-Blot hybridization which is the gold standard. Five studies reported similar results and three studies reported different results that we discuss. A precise understanding of oncogenic HPV implication in the development of extra-genital Bowen's disease could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies (topical cidofovir or imiquimod).

  12. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    -glucosidase activity that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (P<0.001. These studies present compelling evidence that the vaginal ecosystem responds to the presence of different vaginal microorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract.

  13. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

  14. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

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    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  15. Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin.

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    Gregory T Spear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs occur each day. The immune responses and inflammation induced by STDs and other frequent non-STD microbial colonizations (i.e. Candida and bacterial vaginosis can have serious pathologic consequences in women including adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility and increased susceptibility to infection by other pathogens. Understanding the types of immune mediators that are elicited in the lower genital tract by these infections/colonizations can give important insights into the innate and adaptive immune pathways that are activated and lead to strategies for preventing pathologic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 32 immune mediators were measured by multiplexed immunoassays to assess the immune environment of the lower genital tract mucosa in 84 women attending an urban STD clinic. IL-3, IL-1ß, VEGF, angiogenin, IL-8, ß2Defensin and ß3Defensin were detected in all subjects, Interferon-α was detected in none, while the remaining mediators were detected in 40% to 93% of subjects. Angiogenin, VEGF, FGF, IL-9, IL-7, lymphotoxin-α and IL-3 had not been previously reported in genital mucosal fluid from women. Strong correlations were observed between levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, between chemokines IP-10 and MIG and between myeloperoxidase, IL-8 and G-CSF. Samples from women with any STD/colonization had significantly higher levels of IL-8, IL-3, IL-7, IL-1ß, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase. IL-1ß and lactoferrin were significantly increased in gonorrhea, Chlamydia, cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that mucosal fluid in general appears to be an environment that is rich in immune mediators. Importantly, IL-1ß and lactoferrin are biomarkers for STDs/colonizations providing insights into immune responses and pathogenesis at this mucosal site.

  16. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence......The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...

  17. Association Between Vaginal Douching and Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Thai, Thuy Nhu; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Shete, Sanjay S; Ramondetta, Lois M; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2016-11-01

    The very few studies that have examined the association between vaginal douching and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have found contrary results. We investigated the associations between douching and numbers of HPV genotypes infecting 1271 participants aged 20-49 years in the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After controlling for relevant covariates, douching in the past 6 months was significantly associated with infection by higher numbers of all genital HPV types (relative risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) and HPV high-risk types (1.40; 1.09-1.80). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. The Genital Ulcer Disease Surveillance Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Trees, D; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Litchfield, B; Pettus, K S; Morse, S A; St Louis, M E; Weiss, J B; Schwebke, J; Dickes, J; Kee, R; Reynolds, J; Hutcheson, D; Green, D; Dyer, I; Richwald, G A; Novotny, J; Weisfuse, I; Goldberg, M; O'Donnell, J A; Knaup, R

    1998-12-01

    To determine the etiology of genital ulcers and to assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ulcer patients in 10 US cities, ulcer and serum specimens were collected from approximately 50 ulcer patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in each city. Ulcer specimens were tested using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV); sera were tested for antibody to HIV. H. ducreyi was detected in ulcer specimens from patients in Memphis (20% of specimens) and Chicago (12%). T. pallidum was detected in ulcer specimens from every city except Los Angeles (median, 9% of specimens; range, 0%-46%). HSV was detected in >/=50% of specimens from all cities except Memphis (42%). HIV seroprevalence in ulcer patients was 6% (range by city, 0%-18%). These data suggest that chancroid is prevalent in some US cities and that persons with genital ulcers should be a focus of HIV prevention activities.

  19. HIV-DNA in the genital tract of women on long-term effective therapy is associated to residual viremia and previous AIDS-defining illnesses.

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    Thierry Prazuck

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of long-term combined antiretroviral therapy (cART on HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions of HIV-1-infected women with sustained undetectable plasma RNA viral load (PVL; to explore factors predictive of residual viral shedding; and to evaluate the risk of heterosexual transmission. METHODS: Women with undetectable PVL (6 months were included in this cross-sectional study. HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were measured in blood and cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL. Women were systematically tested for genital infections. The risk of transmission to male partners during unprotected intercourse was estimated. RESULTS: Eighty-one women composed the study population: all had HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL in CVL. HIV-DNA was detectable in CVL of 29/78 patients (37%. There was a weak positive correlation between HIV-DNA levels in PBMCs and CVL (r = 0.20; p = 0.08. In multivariate analysis, two factors were associated with HIV-DNA detection in CVL: previous AIDS-defining illnesses (OR = 11; 95%CI = 2-61 and current residual viremia (20genital bacterial or fungal colonization were associated with HIV-DNA detection in CVL. Twenty-eight percent of the women had unprotected intercourse with their regular HIV-seronegative male partner, for between 8 and 158 months. None of their male partners became infected, after a total of 14 000 exposures. CONCLUSION: In our experience, HIV-RNA was undetectable in the genital tract of women with sustained control of PVL on cART. HIV-DNA shedding persisted in about one third of cases, with no substantial evidence of residual infectiousness.

  20. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

    2006-06-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and positive samples were typed using an array technique which enabled us to detect the 35 most common types of mucous-associated HPV. Of the 401 patients studied, 185 (46.1%) were positive, and only one type of HPV was detected in 133 cases. We found that 41.6% of the women and 56.7% of the men were positive. A total of 260 HPVs were typed; 154 were high oncogenic risk. They infected 16 men (23.5%) and 88 women (75.2%). The difference was statistically significant (pHVP 16 in 52 cases. We found a 46% prevalence of HPV infection. More than half of these patients were infected by high-risk HPV. The presence of high-risk HPV was significantly higher in women.

  1. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex ecosystem in which host and microbial cells live in close contact with each other. The microbial community in the human GI tract has an important nutritional and protective function and mainly consists of anaerobic bacteria. After birth, the germ-fr

  2. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Role of imaging to identify and evaluate the uncommon variation in development of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Taglieri, Amedeo; Gisone, Vito; Coco, Irene; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a spectrum of Müllerian duct anomalies characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper part (2/3) of the vagina, in young women presenting otherwise with normal endocrine status. The ovaries and fallopian tubes are present. It is one of the most common causes of primary amenorrhea and affects at least 1 out of 4500 women. Its penetrance varies, as does the involvement of other organ systems and itcan be isolated (type I) or associated with other malformations (type II). The MRKH syndrome usually remains undetected until the patient presents with primary amenorrhea despite normal development of secondary sexual characteristics, so imaging evaluation can demonstrate in one setting, non invasively, the anomalies in development of genital tract. We report a case of MRKH syndrome in a 16-year-old woman who presented with primary amenorrhea, stressing the role and benefit of imaging in the differential diagnosis.

  3. Multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report and review of literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Lv, Bingjian; Dong, Lifeng; Wan, Fang; Qin, Jiale; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) composed of multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with lower abdominal pain resulting from PJS involves sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT), ovarian mucinous tumor, ovarian serous tumor, mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. The CEA concentration is high before surgery, and decreases after the surgery and subsequent chemoradiotherapy. This case demonstrates a classic clinical presentation of a patient with PJS. PJS patients have increased risk of malignancy and early detection and regular surveillance of the high-risk patients with PJS is crucial. Surgery may be required for obstructive gastrointestinal lesions as well as those exhibiting malignant degeneration.

  4. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of /sup 131/I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-02-15

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of /sup 131/I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma.

  5. Fatores de risco para recidiva após tratamento de lesões provocadas pelo HPV no trato genital feminino Risk factors for relapse of HPV-induced lesions of the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Ricardo Cosiski Marana

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliação de fatores de risco [grau da lesão e associação com o vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida tipo 1 (HIV-1 e gestação] para recidiva após tratamento de lesões provocadas pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV no trato genital feminino. Material e métodos: foram avaliadas 70 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico, colposcópico e citológico de infecção pelo HPV. O seguimento clínico foi de no mínimo 6 meses após o tratamento inicial, possibilitando avaliar os resultados terapêuticos. Neste grupo, 26 pacientes eram grávidas, sendo 12 com sorologia positiva para o HIV-1. As 44 pacientes restantes encontravam-se fora do período gravídico-puerperal, sendo que destas, 14 eram contaminadas pelo HIV-1. Segundo os critérios citológicos as lesões de colo foram classificadas em alterações associadas ao HPV ou neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC graus I (lesões de baixo grau ou NIC II/III (lesões de alto grau. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste exato de Fisher com nível de significância para pPurpose: evaluation of the risk factors [lesion grade, seropositivity for type 1 acquired immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and association with pregnancy ] for relapse of human papillomavirus (HPV induced lesions of the female genital tract. Patients and Methods: seventy patients with a clinical, colposcopic and cytologic diagnosis of HPV infection were studied. Clinical follow-up lasted at least 6 months after the initial treatment, thus permitting the evaluation of the therapeutic results. Twenty-seven of these patients were pregnant and 12 were seropositive for HIV-1. The remaining 44 patients were not in the pregnancy-puerperium cycle and 14 of them were HIV-1 positive. According to cytologic criteria, the cervical lesions were classified as changes associated with HPV or grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I (low grade lesions or CIN II/III (high grade lesions. Data were analyzed statistically by

  6. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Dlamini, Xolisile; Östensson, Ellinor

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden. Materials and methods A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($). Results The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million). Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million). Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million). Conclusion According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV

  7. Parenteral is more efficient than mucosal immunization to induce regression of human papillomavirus-associated genital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrausaz, Loane; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Duc, Mélanie; Bobst, Martine; Romero, Pedro; Schiller, John T; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cervical cancer is a public health concern as it represents the second cause of cancer death in women worldwide. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiologic agents, and HPV E6 and/or E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines are under development to treat HPV-related lesions in women. Whether the use of mucosal routes of immunization may be preferable for inducing cell-mediated immune responses able to eradicate genital tumors is still debated because of the uniqueness of the female genital mucosa (GM) and the limited experimentation. Here, we compared the protective activity resulting from immunization of mice via intranasal (i.n.), intravaginal (IVAG) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes with an adjuvanted HPV type 16 E7 polypeptide vaccine. Our data show that s.c. and i.n. immunizations elicited similar frequencies and avidity of TetE71CD81 and E7-specific Interferon-gamma-secreting cells in the GM, whereas slightly lower immune responses were induced by IVAG immunization. In a novel orthotopic murine model, both s.c. and i.n. immunizations allowed for complete long-term protection against genital E7-expressing tumor challenge. However, only s.c. immunization induced complete regression of already established genital tumors. This suggests that the higher E7-specific systemic response observed after s.c. immunization may contribute to the regression of growing genital tumors, whereas local immune responses may be sufficient to impede genital challenges. Thus, our data show that for an efficiently adjuvanted protein-based vaccine, parenteral vaccination route is superior to mucosal vaccination route for inducing regression of established genital tumors in a murine model of HPV-associated genital cancer.

  8. Leptospira interrogans in the genital tract of sheep. Research on ewes and rams experimentally infected with serovar hardjo (hardjobovis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, R; Cerri, D; Renzoni, G; Andreani, E; Mani, P; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Nuvoloni, R

    1996-07-01

    To verify if Leptospira hardjo can colonize the male and female genital organs of sheep, 9 animals (6 non pregnant ewes and 3 mature rams) were infected with a strain of L. hardjobovis recently recovered from the kidneys of a seropositive ewe. Postinfection controls (bacteriologic, serologic, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy) failed to disclose the presence of leptospires in the uterus and oviducts, testicles, epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral glands of animals used for the experiment and slaughtered from 37 to 242 postinfection days. All animals showed a renal localization of L. hardjobovis lasting for the entire period of the study (over 8 months). These results emphasize the important role of sheep as maintenance hosts of the serovar.

  9. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Banerjee, Joya; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Fried, Susana T

    2017-05-12

    Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. 2013), nor are they sufficient to respond to health needs of millions of women and girls living with FGM. International efforts to address FGM have thus far focused primarily on preventing the practice, with less attention to treating associated health complications, caring for survivors, and engaging health care providers as key stakeholders. Recognizing this imperative, WHO developed guidelines on management of health complications of FGM. In this paper, based on foundational research for the development of WHO's guidelines, we situate the practice of FGM as a rights violation in the context of international and national policy and efforts, and explore the role of health providers in upholding health-related human rights of women at girls who are survivors, or who are at risk. Findings are based on a literature review of relevant international human rights treaties and UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.

  10. Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women.

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    Jordan K Kyongo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. METHODS: Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17 expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10 CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity

  11. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

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    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  12. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Andrew

    Full Text Available IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii the development of oviduct pathology and (iii the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/- to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated

  13. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

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    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  14. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types.

  15. Ongoing decline in genital warts among young heterosexuals 7 years after the Australian human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Read, Tim R H; Wigan, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Australia has provided free quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to school girls since mid-2007 and a catch-up programme in the community to women aged up to 26 years in 2007-2009. We describe the temporal trend of genital warts in different populations in Melbourne. We analysed the proportion diagnosed with genital warts for all new patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from July 2004 to June 2014, stratified by different risk groups and age. Adjusted ORs were calculated to compare the annual trend in the proportion of patients with genital warts in different risk groups in the prevaccination period (before June 2007) and the vaccination period (after July 2007). The proportion with genital warts decreased in women aged 32 years, from 4.0% to 8.5% (p=0.037). The odds per year for diagnosis of genital warts adjusted for number of sexual partners in the vaccination period were 0.55 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.65) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) in women and heterosexual men aged warts in both women and men aged >32 years. A small annual decline in genital warts was observed in men who have sex with men (aOR=0.92; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Genital warts have now become rare in young Australian women and heterosexual men 7 years after the launch of the national HPV vaccination programme but in stark contrast, remain common in men who have sex with men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  17. Roles of bovine Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis in human preterm birth

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    D. Baud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis are intracellular bacteria associated with human miscarriage. We investigated their role in human preterm birth. Whereas presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in genital tract was associated with human preterm birth, Waddlia was not, despite being present in women's genital tracts.

  18. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P boar (44 ejaculates, P sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15–17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  19. Primary Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma in the Female Genital Tract:A Report of Six Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jusheng An; Lingying Wu; Bin Li; Haizhen Lu; Ning Li; Shaokang Ma

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical characteristics,pathologic diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of amelanotic melanoma in the female genital tract (AMFGT).METHODS The medical records of 6 patients with AMFGT between 1991 and 2006 in our hospital were reviewed.RESULTS Of these cases,4 were preliminarily misdiagnosed as chorioepithelioma,sarcoma,adenocarcinoma or lymphoma.Two patients were determined to have AMFGT preoperatively after positive immunohistochemical staining for both S-100 protein and HMB-45.Specimens removed from all 6 cases were tested for immunohistochemical staining,as well as H & E histochemical stains.S-100 and vimentin were both positive in all patients,and HMB-45 was positive in 3 out of 5 patients.Four patients recurred (at 6,6,12 and 19 months) after primary treatments.Three patients died (at 13,18 and 19 months) after the initial diagnosis.CONCLUSION Because of an absence of pigmentation AMFGT is extremely difficult to diagnose.Combined immunohistochemical staining,such as the S-100 protein,HMB-45 and vimentin etc,is important in the evaluation of AMFGT.Correct diagnosis plays a crucial role in the treatment of this disease.

  20. Effect of HSV-2 Suppressive Therapy on Genital Tract HIV-1 RNA Shedding among Women on HAART: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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    A. E. Nijhawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of suppressive HSV therapy in women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is unclear. Methods. 60 women with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection on HAART with plasma HIV-1 viral load (PVL ≤75 copies/mL were randomized to receive acyclovir (N=30 or no acyclovir (N=30. PVL, genital tract (GT HIV-1, and GT HSV were measured every 4 weeks for one year. Results. Detection of GT HIV-1 was not significantly different in the two arms (OR 1.23, P=0.67, although this pilot study was underpowered to detect this difference. When PVL was undetectable, the odds of detecting GT HIV were 0.4 times smaller in the acyclovir arm than in the control arm, though this was not statistically significant (P=0.07. The odds of detecting GT HSV DNA in women receiving acyclovir were significantly lower than in women in the control group, OR 0.38, P<0.05. Conclusions. Chronic suppressive therapy with acyclovir in HIV-1/HSV-2-positive women on HAART significantly reduces asymptomatic GT HSV shedding, though not GT HIV shedding or PVL. PVL was strongly associated with GT HIV shedding, reinforcing the importance of HAART in decreasing HIV sexual transmission.

  1. Characteristics of HIV target CD4 T cells collected using different sampling methods from the genital tract of HIV seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Smita S; Sabula, Michael J; Mehta, C Christina; Haddad, Lisa B; Brown, Nakita L; Amara, Rama R; Ofotokun, Igho; Sheth, Anandi N

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune profile of CD4 T cells, the primary targets for HIV, in the female genital tract (FGT) is critical for evaluating and developing effective biomedical HIV prevention strategies in women. However, longitudinal investigation of HIV susceptibility markers expressed by FGT CD4 T cells has been hindered by low cellular yield and risk of sampling-associated trauma. We investigated three minimally invasive FGT sampling methods to characterize and compare CD4 T cell yield and phenotype with the goal of establishing feasible sampling strategies for immune profiling of mucosal CD4 T cells. FGT samples were collected bimonthly from 12 healthy HIV negative women of reproductive age in the following order: 1) Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), 2) two sequential endocervical flocked swabs (FS), and 3) two sequential endocervical cytobrushes (CB1, CB2). Cells were isolated and phentoyped via flow cytometry. CD4 T cell recovery was highest from each individual CB compared to either CVL or FS (p sampling method, expressed CCR5 relative to peripheral blood (p samples. Using three different mucosal sampling methods collected longitudinally we demonstrate that CD4 T cells within the FGT express CCR5 and α4β7 and are highly activated, attributes which could act in concert to facilitate HIV acquisition. FS and CB sampling methods can allow for investigation of strategies to reduce HIV target cells in the FGT and could inform the design and interpretation microbicide and vaccine studies in women.

  2. The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Changes in reproductive tract histomorphology, and estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression throughout the breeding cycle were evaluated in free-ranging stranded female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. During a large portion of the cycle, ovaries contained both a corpora lutea (CL) and follicles in varying stages of development. In the periods of pupping and estrus during June and July, and in the spring morphologic features of the endometrium suggested estrogen influence. There were areas of squamous differentiation in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the cervix and vagina in some animals during estrus and in the spring. Estrogen receptor immunohistochemical scores were highest during pupping and estrus and in the spring and lowest during embryonic diapause. Cyclic changes in uterine PR expression throughout the cycle were minimal. Both ERalpha and PR were expressed in epithelial and stromal cells throughout the cervix and vagina, however, receptor expression was typically higher in the stroma. Stromal cell hormone receptors may play an important role in epithelial responses to circulating sex hormones. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of California sea lion reproduction and establish baseline information on reproductive tract hormone receptors that will aid in determining the factors involved in urogenital cancer development in sea lions.

  3. College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

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    Keith Richards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study set out to investigate what influences the intentions of college students to get vaccinated against genital human papillomavirus (HPV. College men and women were surveyed to understand their intentions. Regression was used and supported that the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as well as gender, norms, and information seeking contributed to predicting intent to receive the HPV vaccine, R2 = .61, F(6, 159 = 39.41, p < .001. Benefits and barriers were the most influential variable, and men were more likely to intend to receive the vaccine. The findings should be applied to future campaigns aimed at increasing preventive health behaviors, especially vaccinations among college students.

  4. Herpes simplex and human papillomavirus genital infections: controversy over obstetric management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, N G; Adelson, M D

    1990-12-01

    Plasma inhibitory factors, high levels of sex hormones, and depression of cell-mediated immunity may interfere with the natural host resistance to viral infections during pregnancy. It is apparent that hormonal, immunologic, and vascular changes in pregnancy may account for increased replication of herpes and for enhanced growth of condylomatous lesions. The challenge is to develop a rational plan of management for pregnant patients with herpes simplex or human papilloma virus infection. There has been a reevaluation of previous recommendations for the management of herpes in pregnancy. Although the consequences of neonatal infection are severe or fatal, the value of routine weekly screening is questionable. This regimen is a poor predictor of neonatal exposure to herpes since only one fourth of women shedding virus at the time of delivery can be identified by routine cultures. The mode of delivery should therefore be based on the presence or absence of lesions at the time of confinement. Cesarean section should be reserved for patients with lesions or with prodromal symptoms of recurrent disease at the time of delivery. Patients with ruptured membranes and active genital lesions should also be delivered by cesarean section. The spectrum of HPV-related diseases in pregnancy is poorly understood. Many questions remain unanswered. It may not be practical to treat very large or extensive genital warts during pregnancy. A cesarean section may be the best choice in these cases. It may be premature to recommend cesarean section for delivery of all pregnant women with symptomatic genital HPV infection. More data are needed. We recommend laser ablation of condylomatous lesions when discovered during pregnancy. Laser vaporization is associated with minimal morbidity when used by experienced surgeons. Trichloroacetic acid is excellent for minimal disease or for treatment of recurrences in pregnancy. Since the immune system seems to play an important role in control of viral

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Impact of human papillomavirus-related genital diseases on quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing: results of an observational, health-related quality of life study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine; Cohet, Catherine; Atrux-Tallau, Samantha; Gilet, Hélène; Tristram, Amanda; Fiander, Alison

    2013-11-12

    Data on the psychosocial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases other than cervical cancer are scarce. The objectives of this study were to measure and compare the psychosocial burden and the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HPV-related lower genital tract diseases and genital warts (GW) using several generic and disease-specific instruments. Overall, 842 individuals with normal cervical cytology (n = 241), borderline nuclear abnormalities and/or mild dyskaryosis (n = 23), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 (n = 84), CIN2/3 (n = 203), vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN)2/3 (n = 43), GW (n = 186) and a history of GW (non-current) (n = 62) were included. The generic European Quality of Life Index Version 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire was completed by patients with GW and VIN2/3. Sexual functioning was evaluated using the Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ). Psychosocial impact was measured in women using the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) questionnaire. HRQoL was assessed using a GW-specific questionnaire, the Cuestionario Especifico en Condilomas Acuminados (CECA) (completed by patients with GW and history of GW). For each instrument, scores were compared between groups using the Student's t-test. In addition, utility loss due to GW and VIN2/3 was evaluated by comparing mean EQ-5D scores weighted by age and sex with the UK general population normal values. A significant psychosocial impact was found in women diagnosed with HPV-related genital diseases, particularly in those with GW. The health state of younger adults with GW was significantly impaired compared with UK normal values (mean EQ-5D index score 0.86 vs 0.94, p HPV-related lower genital tract lesions and GW significantly impair psychosocial wellbeing and HRQoL. The psychosocial aspects of HPV-related diseases need to be considered when evaluating the potential benefit of HPV vaccination.

  7. 253 Use of Transfer Factor in Patients with Persistent Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca Maria; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 75 to 80% of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime. The risk of HPV infection seems to be related with age at first intercourse, younger age and number of sexual partners. HPV infection is limited to the basal cells of stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranas. There is a wide latency period, from months to years, before squamous intraepithelial lesions develop. Most HPV infections are cleared within 2 years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women with “high risk” types the infection persists determining a high risk of developing intraepithelial neoplasias, as cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer, and/or anal cancer. The gynecological evaluation and Papanicolau smear are the primary screening tools for detecting HPV infection. There is currently no specific treatment for HPV infection. The Transfer Factor (TF) or Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. TF induces the expression of RNAm and IFN-γ and increases CD4+ cells. The IFN-γ activates macrophages, neutrophils, B lymphocytes, NK cells, and favours the differentiation of T cells into Th1 lymphocytes that are requiried for the control of intracellular patho gens. Methods We used TF in a group of patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection. Results We included 12 patients, aged 19 to 45 years old (mean 30), with 14 to 23 years at first intercourse and a mean of 3 sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options (including cervical freezing, cauterizing loop, imiquimod, podophyllin and/or cervical conization). Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and

  8. Healthcare costs of urinary tract infections and genital mycotic infections among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiated on canagliflozin: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Tony B; Montejano, Leslie; Juneau, Paul; Bolge, Susan C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the economic impact of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and genital mycotic infections (GMIs) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiated on canagliflozin. Administrative claims data from April 2013 through June 2014 MarketScan(®) databases were extracted. Adults with ≥1 claim for canagliflozin, T2DM diagnosis, and ≥90 days enrollment before and after canagliflozin initiation were propensity score matched to controls with T2DM initiated on other anti-hyperglycemic agents (AHAs). UTI and GMI healthcare costs were evaluated 90-days post-index and reported as cohort means. Rates of UTI claims 90 days post-index were similar in patients receiving canagliflozin for T2DM (n = 31,257) and matched controls (2.7% vs 2.8%, p = .677). More canagliflozin than control patients had GMI claims (1.2% vs 0.6%, p canagliflozin patients vs matched controls ($27.61 vs $37.33, p = .150). GMI treatment costs were higher for the canagliflozin cohort ($3.68 vs $2.44, p = .041). Combined costs to treat either UTI and/or GMI averaged $31.29 per patient for the canagliflozin cohort v $39.77 for controls (p = .211). Rates and costs of UTIs and GMIs were higher for females than males, but the canagliflozin vs control trends observed for the overall sample were similar for both sexes. There were no significant cost differences between the canagliflozin and control cohorts among patients aged 18-64. Among patients aged 65 and above, GMI treatment costs were not significantly different, but costs to treat UTIs and either UTI and/or GMI were significantly lower for canagliflozin patients vs controls. In a real-world setting, the costs to payers of treating UTIs and GMIs are generally similar for patients with T2DM initiated on canagliflozin vs other AHAs.

  9. Seasonal and Ageing-Depending Changes of Aquaporins 1 and 9 Expression in the Genital Tract of Buffalo Bulls (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, S; Bosi, G; Accogli, G; Desantis, S

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn-winter) and non-mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels. In the efferent ducts, AQP1 immunoreactivity was strongly evidenced at the apical surface of the non-ciliated cells and weakly along the basal membrane of the epithelial cells. The latter reactivity disappeared during the non-mating season. No AQP1 immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium of epididymis and vas deferens, whereas AQP1 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer of the vas deferens. Aquaporin 1 was present in the blood vessels and in small nerve bundles all along the genital tract. The supranuclear zone of the epididymal principal cells was AQP9 immunoreactive, limited to the corpus and cauda regions, and vas deferens. The samples collected in the two reproductive seasons showed a weaker AQP9 immunoreactivity during the non-mating season. A typical AQP9 immunoreactivity was noticed in the old buffalo examined. The tested AQP molecules showed a different expression pattern in comparison with laboratory mammals, primates, equine, dog and cat. In addition, seasonal differences were noticed which are possibly useful in regard to the comprehension of the morphophysiology of reproduction in the bubaline species, which are still a matter of debate.

  10. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research gr

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Hu, Yifei; Carlucci, James G; Yin, Lu; Li, Xiangwei; Giuliano, Anna R; Li, Dongliang; Gao, Lei; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-06-28

    Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs. Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01-2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17-2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91-4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site.

  12. Respiratory tract deposition of polydisperse aerosols in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, C K; Yu, C P

    1983-01-01

    Total and regional deposition of polydisperse aerosols in the human respiratory tract are studied theoretically. The size distribution of the aerosol is assumed to be lognormal. For a given mass median particle diameter, mass deposition fraction is found to vary with the geometric standard deviation of the aerosol. The departure of the deposition pattern in various regions of the respiratory system from that of a monodisperse aerosol is interpreted in terms of the average mobility effect and deposition limitation effect of the polydisperse aerosol together with the sequential filtering effect of the respiratory tract.

  13. Limited penetration of lopinavir and ritonavir in the genital tract of men infected with HIV-1 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Tania R C; Estrela, Rita C E; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Schechter, Mauro; Cerbino-Neto, José; Barroso, Paulo F

    2006-04-01

    The concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir in seminal and blood plasma and the seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load were quantified by HPLC and the Nuclisens assay, respectively, in a cross-sectional study of 16 HIV-1-infected Brazilian men under stable treatment with a lopinavir/ritonavir containing antiretroviral regimen. Semen and blood samples were collected on 2 occasions: at 6 to 60 minutes before ("trough"), and 5 to 6 hours after ("peak") ingestion of regular doses of lopinavir/ritonavir. Median seminal lopinavir levels were 120.6 ng/mL (range, semen were, respectively, 1.9% to 3% and 3.7% to 4.4% of those measured in blood plasma samples collected within 30 minutes. HIV-1 viral load was detectable in the semen of 2 and in the blood of 6 of 16 patients. These results may have implications for drug-resistant HIV-1 evolution and transmission.

  14. Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.

    OpenAIRE

    Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...

  15. Microbial functionality in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The extent of metabolic interactions between symbiotic intestinal microbes and the human host, and their system-wide effects on the host physiology are beginning to be understood. The metabolic capacity encoded by the intestinal microbiome significantly extends that of the host, making many of man's

  16. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and mo

  17. 长期使用避孕药和宫内节育器妇女生殖道衣原体及人乳头瘤病毒检测%Assay of chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus in genital tract of women long-term using oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉璘; 石慧; 孙志明; 潘丽; 李瑛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of the Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women long-term using combined oral contraceptives (OC) or intrauterine device (IUD), in order to guide quality of care in family planning. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for women who had long-term taken Combined Norethisterone, or Combined Norgestrel, or had worn the IUD for birth control. 226 women were divided into three groups: Norethisterone group, Norgestrel group and IUD group. Results The total detectable rate of CT was 21.24% in all subjects, the rates were 24.69% in the Norethisterone group, 20.45% in the Norgestrel group and 17.54% in the IUD group. The total detectable rate of HPV was 14.2% in all subjects, the rates were 11.11% in the Norethisterone, 20.45% in the Norgestrel group and 8.77% in the IUD group. The rates of CT and HPV in the two OC groups were higher than that in the IUD group, but had no significant difference (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in clinical symptoms among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, most of women with CT or HPV infections had no clinical symptoms. Conclusion Following up should be strengthened for women who use contraception method for long time. Reproductive health care services, including regular cervical smears, CT and HPV assay should be provided, especially for the long-term users of con -traception methods to improve their physical and mental health.%目的 了解长期使用口服避孕药(OC)及宫内节育器(IUD)避孕妇女生殖道衣原体(CT)及人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染的情况,指导计划生育优质服务.方法 采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测服用口服避孕药、使用宫内节育器5年以上的妇女226例宫颈分泌物中CT及HPV DNA.研究对象按避孕措施分成1号片组、复方18-甲组和宫内节育器组.结果 三组研究对象的CT总检出率为21.24%,1号片组为24.69%,复方18甲组为20.45%,IUD组为17

  18. Characteristics of the aberrant pyramidal tract in comparison with the pyramidal tract in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Yong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aberrant pyramidal tract (APT refers to the collateral pathway of the pyramidal tract (PT through the medial lemniscus in the midbrain and pons. Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT, we investigated the characteristics of the APT in comparison with the PT in the normal human brain. Results In thirty-four (18.3%, right hemisphere: 20, left hemisphere: 14 of the 186 hemispheres, the APTs separated from the PT at the upper midbrain level, descended through the medial lemniscus from the midbrain to the pons, and then rejoined with the PT at the upper medulla. Nine (26.5% of the 34 APTs were found to originate from the primary somatosensory cortex without a primary motor cortex origin. Values of fractional anisotropy (FA and tract volume of the APT were lower than those of the PT (P P >0.05. Conclusion We found that the APT has different characteristics, including less directionality, fewer neural fibers, and less origin from the primary motor cortex than the PT.

  19. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  20. A randomized trial to assess anti-HIV activity in female genital tract secretions and soluble mucosal immunity following application of 1% tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical and early phase clinical microbicide studies have not consistently predicted the outcome of efficacy trials. To address this gap, candidate biomarkers of microbicide pharmacodynamics and safety were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir gel, the first microbicide to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition. METHODS: 30 women were randomized to apply a single daily dose of tenofovir or placebo gel for 14 consecutive days. Anti-HIV activity was measured in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL on Days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 by luciferase assay as a surrogate marker of pharmacodynamics. Endogenous activity against E. coli and HSV-2 and concentrations of immune mediators were quantified in CVL as candidate biomarkers of safety. Tenofovir levels were measured in CVL and blood. RESULTS: A significant increase in anti-HIV activity was detected in CVL from women who applied tenofovir gel compared to their endogenous anti-HIV activity in genital tract secretions on Day 0 and compared to activity in CVL from women in the placebo group. The activity correlated significantly with CVL concentration of tenofovir (r = 0.6, p<0.001 and fit a sigmoid E(max pharmacodynamic model. Anti-HIV activity in CVL from women who applied tenofovir persisted when virus was introduced in semen, whereas endogenous anti-HIV activity decreased. Tenofovir did not trigger an inflammatory response or induce sustained loss in endogenous antimicrobial activity or immune mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Tenofovir gel had no deleterious impact on soluble mucosal immunity. The increased anti-HIV activity in CVL, which persisted in the presence of semen and correlated with tenofovir concentration, is consistent with the efficacy observed in a recent clinical trial. These results promote quantified CVL anti-HIV activity as a surrogate of tissue pharmacodynamics and as a potential biomarker of adherence to product. This simple, feasible and

  1. Impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine on genital warts in an opportunistic vaccination structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel; Mizrachi, Yossi; Chodick, Gabi; Katz, Rachel; Schejter, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted disease and have a detrimental impact on quality of life. Genital warts could be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccination. The objective was to study real-life benefit of opportunistic HPV vaccination on age and gender specific incidence of genital warts. We performed a register-based population cohort study from publicly funded health-care provider in Israel. The incidence of genital warts was assessed during three time frame intervals: 2006-2008 (pre-vaccination effect period) 2009-2012 (early post-vaccination effect period) and 2013-2015 (late post-vaccination effect period), with an average annual number of members of 1,765,481, 1,906,774 and 2,042,678 in the years 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015, respectively. Among females, annual incidence of genital warts per 100,000 women decreased from 210.43 to 161.71 (OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.71-0.82, pwarts per 100,000 men decreased from 262.85 to 232.40 (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.83-0.93, pwarts even in opportunistic HPV vaccination structure. This information may be relevant for health-care providers in countries where national immunization programs do not include HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ‘Peptoniphilus pacaensis’ sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We relate here the primary characteristics of ‘Peptoniphilus pacaensis’ strain KHD5 (= CSUR P2271, a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus. Strain KHD5 was isolated from a vaginal sample of a 33-year-old woman exhibiting a bacterial vaginosis.

  3. ‘Peptoniphilus vaginalis’ sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We relate here the main characteristics of ‘Peptoniphilus vaginalis’, strain KHD2 (= CSUR P0125 = DSM 101742, a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus, cultivated from a vaginal sample of a woman with bacterial vaginosis.

  4. ‘Peptoniphilus raoultii’ sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the principal characteristics of ‘Peptoniphilus raoultii’ strain KHD4 (= CSUR P0110, a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus. Strain KHD4 was isolated from the vaginal flora of a 33-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis.

  5. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  7. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  8. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  9. Analysis of persistence of human papillomavirus infection in men evaluated by sampling multiple genital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, G; Nyitray, A G; Lu, B; Perino, A; Marci, R; Schillaci, R; Matranga, D; Firenze, A; Caleca, M; Bellavia, C; Guarneri, F; Giuliano, A; Giovannelli, L

    2015-11-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been studied extensively in women, data on male infection are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate persistence of HPV infection at multiple genital sites in men and to define potential associations with socio-behavioural characteristics. Penile, urethral and seminal specimens were tested by the INNO-LiPA HPV system (Innogenetics) and a PCR assay. Persistence was defined as the detection of same HPV type at ≥ 2 consecutive visits. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were applied to estimate the likelihood of persistence. A total of 50 men (median age: 33 years) were followed for a median of 14.7 months. Altogether, 49%, 36%, 26% and 11% of baseline HPV-positive men had 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month persistent infection with any HPV type, respectively. The 6-, 12- and 18- month persistence was more common for oncogenic HPV infections; 24-month persistence was similar. The median duration of persistence was 21.7 months for any HPV. The median duration of persistence for any HPV type was significantly longer in the penile sample (22.5 months, 95% CI: 18.3-26.7) than the semen sample (15.3 months, 95% CI: 14.5-16.1). Over a third of type-specific HPV infections in men remained persistent over a 24-month period. The median duration of HPV infection was longer in penile samples compared to seminal samples. As being increasing the attention of HPV vaccination as a potential preventive approach also for men, it is imperative to obtain additional insight on natural history of HPV infection in men, particularly as far as incidence and duration are concerned.

  10. CTA1-DD is an effective adjuvant for targeting anti-chlamydial immunity to the murine genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kelly A; Carey, Alison J; Lycke, Nils; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2009-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a significant human pathogen with potentially severe disease sequelae in the genital tract, including infertility. A successful vaccine will need to effectively target immunity to the genital mucosa. Intranasal immunisation with cholera toxin (CT) can target immunity to the genital tract, but has the potential to cause neurological side effects. CTA1-DD is a non-toxic potent mucosal adjuvant which combines the enzymatic properties of CT, with a B cell targeting moiety. Here, we demonstrate that intranasal immunisation with CTA1-DD and chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) results in the induction of neutralising systemic and mucosal antibodies, and reduces the level of chlamydial shedding following intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum. Thus, CTA1-DD is an effective adjuvant for vaccine development against Chlamydia trachomatis, and possibly also a range of other genital pathogens.

  11. Genital Tract Interleukin-8 but not Interleukin-1β or Interleukin-6 Concentration is Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Clearance in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Losikoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital tract infections and cytokine perturbations are associated with increased HIV acquisition and transmission. We measured the relationship between bacterial vaginosis (BV and concentrations of Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected longitudinally from 16 HIV-infected and 8 HIV-uninfected high-risk women. CVL samples were analyzed when women presented with BV, and at their next visit, after successful treatment, when BV was cleared. A subset of participants had cytokine levels evaluated at three consecutive clinic visits: before developing BV, at the time of BV diagnosis, and after clearing BV. Significantly higher IL-8, but not IL-1β or IL-6 levels were present when women had active BV compared to when BV was absent. Trends in cytokine levels were similar for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. BV in these women was associated with significantly higher concentrations of genital tract IL-8 which decreased 2.4 fold when BV was cleared.

  12. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and other preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide-derived peptides in the female and male genital tract: localization, biosynthesis, and functional and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J

    1995-01-01

    in the control of erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been suggested as a causative factor in some diseases of the genital organs (e.g., it may play a pathophysiologic role in male impotence and the peptide is currently used in the treatment of this condition). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide may...

  14. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  15. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue culture fluid and in genital secretions by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, M A; Spira, B; Bleau, G; Thomas, R

    1990-01-01

    We have shown that the spermicidal agent benzalkonium chloride can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the viral reverse transcriptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when utilized at concentrations of 0.05% and higher. Exposure of HIV-1 to this disinfectant at concentrations of more than 0.05% was able to completely destroy viral infectivity, as assessed on susceptible target cells. We have further shown that HIV-1, which is present in both seminal and genital secretions, can be inactivated in such fluids by direct exposure to benzalkonium chloride. PMID:1688873

  16. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  17. ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DE ENFERMIDADES CIRÚRGICAS DO APARELHO GENITAL DE TOUROS EM UMA POPULAÇÃO DE 12.320 REPRODUTORES (1982-2007 NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SURGICAL DISEASES OF THE GENITAL TRACT IN A POPULATION OF 12.320 BREEDING BULLS (1982-2007 IN THE STATE OF GOIAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Souza Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O aparelho genital do touro pode ser acometido por enfermidades que resultam em impotência coeundi, levando à queda na eficiência reprodutiva. Aspectos anatômicos, raciais e manejo são considerados fatores predisponentes de injúrias à genitália. Neste estudo, catalogaram-se 12.320 touros entre 1982 e 2007, sendo que, destes, 898 (7,29% eram portadores de alguma enfermidade cirúrgica no aparelho reprodutor, diagnosticados pelo exame clínico específico da genitália ou por meio do teste de capacidade de serviço. Concomitantemente, aplicou-se questionário para obtenção de informações relacionadas à epidemiologia das enfermidades genitais. Dos 898 touros enfermos,

    741 (82,52% eram zebuínos, 133 (14,81% taurinos e 24 (2,67% mestiços. Observou-se que 570 (63,5% possuíam idade igual ou superior a 60 meses, 220 (24,5% entre 40 e 60; e 108 (12,0% inferior a 40 meses. Dentre as enfermidades diagnosticadas, registraram-se 728 (81% casos de acropostite-fimose, 46 (5,20% desvios penianos, 23 (2,60% fibropapiloma de glande, 14 (1,60% abscessos prepuciais e 11 (1,20% fraturas penianas. Dos 417 produtores rurais visitados, 256 (61,50% efetuavam, empiricamente, tratamento das enfermidades, ignorando a importância do diagnóstico. Concluiu-se que o manejo e a característica racial foram os principais fatores predisponentes relacionados à etiopatogenia das enfermidades do aparelho reprodutor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovino, epidemiologia, reprodução.

     

    The genital tract of bulls might be affected by diseases that result in coeundi impotence leading to decrease of reproductive efficiency. Anatomic, breed and handling aspects are considered predisponent factors to genital injuries. In this study, it was considered 12,320 bulls evaluated between 1982 and 2007. From these, 898 (7.29% bulls had some reproductive tract disease

  18. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  19. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000886.htm Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  20. Reproductive and genital health and risk of cervical human papillomavirus infection: results from the Ludwig-McGill cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eileen; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; El-Zein, Mariam; Silva, Flavia R; Galan, Lenice; Baggio, Maria L; Villa, Luisa L; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-08

    There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study, a longitudinal, repeated-measurements investigation on the natural history of HPV infection. We analyzed a cohort subset of 1867 women with one complete year of follow-up. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reproductive and genital health characteristics from questionnaire and laboratory data in relation to 1-year period prevalence of HPV infection. Two outcomes were measured; the first based on phylogenetic grouping of HPV types based on tissue tropism and oncogenicity (Alphapapillomavirus Subgenus 1: species 1, 8, 10 and 13; Subgenus 2: species 5, 6, 7, 9, 11; Subgenus 3: species 3, 4 and 14) and the second based on transient or persistent HPV infections. Lifetime (Subgenus 3 OR = 2.00, CI: 1.23-3.24) and current (Subgenus 3 OR =2.00, CI: 1.15-3.47) condom use and use of contraceptive injections (Subgenus 1 OR = 1.96, CI: 1.22-3.16, Subgenus 2 OR = 1.34, CI: 1.00-1.79) were associated with increased risk of HPV infection. Intrauterine device use was protective (Subgenus 1 OR = 0.48, CI: 0.30-0.75, Subgenus 2 OR = 0.78, CI: 0.62-0.98). These factors were not associated with persistence of HPV infection. Tampon use, previous gynecologic infections and cervical inflammation were associated with an overall increased risk of HPV infection. Cervical HPV infection was associated with reproductive and genital health factors. Further studies are necessary to confirm the low to moderate associations observed.

  1. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  2. The Natural History of Genital Human Papillomavirus Among HIV-Negative Men Having Sex With Men and Men Having Sex With Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Chang, Mihyun; Villa, Luisa L.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative men having sex with men (MSM) bear a substantial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated disease, prospective studies of genital HPV infection in this population are scarce. Methods. HPV genotyping was conducted on genital samples from men (aged 18–70 years) from Brazil, Mexico, or the United States who provided specimens at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Eligibility criteria included no history of genital warts or HIV infection. Evaluable specimens were collected from 564 MSM and 3029 men having sex with women (MSW). Incidence and clearance estimates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. The 12-month cumulative incidence of genital HPV was high in both MSM (25%; 95% confidence interval, 21%–30%) and MSW (21%; 20%–23%). After stratifying by city, MSM and MSW incidence rates were comparable, with 3 exceptions where MSM had higher incidence in ≥1 city: the group of quadrivalent vaccine types, HPV-45, and HPV-11. Median times to HPV-16 clearance were also comparable, with point estimates of >6 months for both MSM and MSW. Conclusions. Unlike with many other sexually transmitted infections, genital HPV natural history may be similar in HIV-negative MSM and MSW. Study periods of ≤6 months, however, may not be long enough to accurately measure the persistence of these infections in men. PMID:25649172

  3. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albero Ginesa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95, in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.

  4. Application of the Human Intestinal Tract Chip to the non-human primate gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, T.D.G.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Tims, S.; Fuentes, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Belzer, C.

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota is responsible for various health-related functions, and its diversity can be readily mapped with the 16S ribosomal RNA targeting Human Intestinal Tract (HIT) Chip. Here we characterise distal gut samples from chimpanzees, gorillas and marmosets, and compare them with

  5. Application of the Human Intestinal Tract Chip to the non-human primate gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, T.D.G.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Tims, S.; Fuentes, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Belzer, C.

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota is responsible for various health-related functions, and its diversity can be readily mapped with the 16S ribosomal RNA targeting Human Intestinal Tract (HIT) Chip. Here we characterise distal gut samples from chimpanzees, gorillas and marmosets, and compare them with

  6. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 – 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 – 0.18)/100 person-years (P warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  7. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  8. UNITED NATION'S RESOLUTION ON ELIMINATION OF FEMALE GENITAL RITUAL: A LEGITIMATE RESPONSE TO A HUMAN RIGHTS PROBLEM OR WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamuchi, Obiajulu

    2014-12-01

    A recent United Nations' (U.N.) Resolution, "Intensifying Global Efforts for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilations," urging all countries to enact legislation outlawing female circumcision or female genital ritual (FGR) signals a disturbingly new frontier in the polemic surrounding the ancient cultural practice. Never before has the apex global institution lent its imprimatur to a project whose foundation is profoundly muddled in uncertainties and murkiness. That the Resolution received an instantaneous and near-universal acclaim as a necessary protective weapon against supposed assault on the human rights of women is not news. After all, aside from essentially validating extant legislative frameworks in several countries, the proclamation fits seamlessly with decades-long agitations of activists, scholars and media pundits of one stripe or the other. What is absurd--indeed, the real news--is continued neglect of calls for a rethinking of the criminalization fervor currently gripping the world, for a reassessment of the evidence trumpeted by abolitionists as justificatory of their unbridled interference in what practicing communities revere as a sacred cultural rite. Relying on the premise that claims regarding harmful impact of FGR, the fulcrum upon which eradication forces depend for their activism, cannot be substantiated, this paper argues that prohibitory regimes based thereon, whether at the U.N. or country level, is per se a violation of the human rights of the women purportedly sought to be protected. Human rights (including, in this case, its self-appointed "apostles"), cannot, as a popular Igbo maxim admonishes, become "outsiders who wept louder than the bereaved." This is the prism from which this paper analyzes the on-going supranational crusade to suppress FGR. It is a critique of extant FGR legal and policy regimes, an instance of which is the U.N. Resolution, as unrepresentative of legitimate advancement of human rights.

  9. Measuring Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Human Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) evolved by acquisition of pathogenicity islands, phage, plasmids, and DNA segments by horizontal gene transfer. Strains are heterogeneous but virulent uropathogenic isolates more often have specific fimbriae, toxins, and iron receptors than commensal strains. One may ask whether it is the virulence factors alone that are required to establish infection. While these virulence factors clearly contribute strongly to pathogenesis, bacteria must survive by metabolizing nutrients available to them. By constructing mutants in all major metabolic pathways and co-challenging mice transurethrally with each mutant and the wild type strain, we identified which major metabolic pathways are required to infect the urinary tract. We must also ask what else is E. coli doing in vivo? To answer this question, we examined the transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 in the murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as for E. coli strains collected and analyzed directly from the urine of patients attending either a urology clinic or a university health clinic for symptoms of UTI. Using microarrays and RNA-seq, we measured in vivo gene expression for these uropathogenic E. coli strains, identifying genes upregulated during murine and human UTI. Our findings allow us to propose a new definition of bacterial virulence. PMID:26784237

  10. Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Guo, Theresa W; Smith, David F; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I; Westra, William H

    2013-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (Pcarcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The

  11. Prevalência de papilomavirus humano (HPV anal, genital e oral, em ambulatório geral de coloproctologia Prevalence of anal, genital and oral human papillomavirus (HPV in general ambulatory for diseases of colon and rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O Papilomavirus Humano (HPV anal tem alta prevalência e incidência na população. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a prevalência de HPV anal, bucal e genital em ambulatório público de Coloproctologia, com base no exame de captura hibrida. Foram estudados 64 pacientes atendidos no ambulatório geral de Coloproctologia do Hospital Heliópolis, no período de 22/11/2005 a 20/12/2005, onde foram levantados, de forma prospectiva, dados clínicos, pessoais e comportamentais, identificando o perfil do grupo como não sendo de risco para HPV. Nenhum paciente deste grupo veio à consulta com queixa ou apresentando sinais de HPV ou outra doença sexualmente transmissível. Foram colhidos para cada paciente um esfregaço com escova de boca, outro de vulva/pênis e outro do ânus. O resultado mostrou que 15,62% dos pacientes apresentaram HPV anal, bucal ou genital, sendo que 4,68% do total de pacientes apresentavam HPV anal, um paciente de alto risco associado ao HPV genital, outro misto e outro de baixo risco. Trinta por cento dos pacientes HPV+ apresentavam dor anal como queixa principal. A conclusão é que a prevalência de HPV anal, genital e bucal é elevada, sendo que 4,68% apresentavam HPV anal e daqueles HPV positivos 30% apresentavam dor anal na queixa principal.Anal Human Papilomavirus (HPV has a high prevalence and incidence in the population. The purpose of this project is to verify the prevalence of anal, oral and genital HPV at the Coloproctology Clinic, based on the hybrid capture exam. Sixty four patients were assisted at the clinic from November 22nd to December 20th 2005. Clinical, personal and behavioral data of the patients were set up in a prospective way. The group profile was identified as not being a risky one to HPV. No patient of this group, when was assisted, had complained of or had presented any symptoms of HPV or any other sexually transmitted disease (STD. From each patient it was collected a mouth sample, a vulva

  12. Significant Reduction in the Incidence of Genital Warts in Young Men 5 Years into the Danish Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program for Girls and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerup, Signe; Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Blomberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Denmark introduced the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine into the vaccination program for 12- to 15-year-old girls in 2008 to 2009. In 2012, the program was supplemented with a catch-up program for women aged up to 27 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Danish...... vaccination program on the nationwide incidence of genital warts (GWs), after the second catch-up by including information on both hospital treatments and on self-administered treatment with podophyllotoxin. Genital wart incidence was investigated in both sexes; however, the main focus was on potential herd...... percentage change (EAPC) was calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Genital wart incidence was either stable or increased in both sexes in 2006 to 2008. After introduction of the vaccination program, GW incidence decreased significantly in women aged 12 to 35 years and men aged 12 to 29 years, with rapid...

  13. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population of...

  14. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  15. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  16. Mucosal biofilm communities in the human intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Sandra; Bahrami, Bahram; Macfarlane, George T

    2011-01-01

    Complex and highly variable site-dependent bacterial ecosystems exist throughout the length of the human gastrointestinal tract. Until relatively recently, the majority of our information on intestinal microbiotas has come from studies on feces, or from aspirates taken from the upper gut. However, there is evidence showing that mucosal bacteria growing in biofilms on surfaces lining the gut differ from luminal populations, and that due to their proximity to the epithelial surface, these organisms may be important in modulating the host's immune system and contributing to some chronic inflammatory diseases. Over the past decade, increasing interest in mucosal bacteria, coupled with advances in molecular approaches for assessing microbial diversity, has begun to provide some insight into the complexity of these mucosa-associated communities. In gastrointestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), it has been shown that a dysbiosis exists in microbial community structure, and that there is a reduction in putatively protective mucosal organisms such as bifidobacteria. Therefore, manipulation of mucosal communities may be beneficial in restoring normal functionality in the gut, thereby improving the immune status and general health of the host. Biofilm structure and function has been studied intensively in the oral cavity, and as a consequence, mucosal communities in the mouth will not be covered in this chapter. This review addresses our current knowledge of mucosal populations in the gastrointestinal tract, changes that can occur in community structure in disease, and therapeutic modulation of biofilm composition by antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seroprevalence of Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses and the Risk of External Genital Lesions in Men: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Rollison, Dana E.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Wang, Wei; Borenstein, Amy R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) are detectable in genital epithelial lesions in men and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. It remains unclear whether these viruses are associated causally with skin lesions. To date, no study has prospectively examined the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and development of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men. Objectives To examine the association between seropositivity to cutaneous HPV types and the risk of subsequent development of EGLs. Methods A nested case-control study including 163 incident EGL cases and 352 EGL-free controls in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study cohort was conducted. Cases were ascertained at each of up to 10 biannual clinical visits and verified through biopsy and pathological diagnoses. EGLs were categorized as condyloma, suggestive of condyloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), and other EGLs. Archived serum specimens collected at baseline were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV types (β types (5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 38, and 47), α type 27, γ type 4, μ type 1, and ν type 41) using a GST L1-based multiplex serology assay. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were collected through a questionnaire. Using logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results Overall, seropositivity to ≥1 cutaneous HPV type (any-HPV) and ≥1 β types (any-β) was 58.3% and 37.5% among other EGL cases, 71.6% and 46.8% among condyloma, 66.8% and 50.0% among PeIN, and 71.9% and 38.4% among controls, respectively. Type-specific seropositivity was most common for ɤ-HPV 4, μ-HPV 1, and β-HPV 8. No statistically significant association was observed between any-HPV, any-β, and type-specific HPV seropositivity and subsequent development of EGLs across all pathological diagnoses. Conclusions Overall, seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was common among men; however, it appears that cutaneous

  18. Sequential Acquisition of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Following Genital Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Women: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Female Genital Cutting: shattering the debate yet still violating human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Jacquemin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Summary: The international fight against the various forms of female circumcision, or the mutilation of the genitals of women and children, has many different aspects. Although no religious text from any religion suggests the practice, still in many countries the torture of young girls and women continue. Even though there is an assumption that the phenomenon is exclusive to the developing world, many practices in the West, such as vaginal and vulvar surgeries, as well as changes to the face and body of women can be included in the same tendency to portray women as impure, incomplete, and in need of improvement so that she can be accepted by prospective husbands.

  20. Human papillomavirus detection in genital lesions by in situ hybridization and ultrastructural observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. S. Oliveira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of papillomavirus DNA in sity hybridization technique was perfomed in 29 symptomatic patients (6 males and 23 females during the period of 1989-1991 at the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Universidade Federal Fluminense, State of rio de Janeiro. All the male patients had condyloma acuminata. Only HPV 6/11 were found in these lesions. Clinical features inthe female patients included vulvar condyloma acuminata, bowenoid populosis, flat cervical condyloma, cervical condyloma acuminatum and cervical intraepithelialneoplasia grade II (CIN II. We also found cases of condyloma acuminata associated to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (VIN III, as well as to vaginal invasive carcinoma. HPV 6/11 and 16/18 were found in vulvar condyloma acuminata. Mixed infection by 6/11-16/18 HPV were also seen in these lesions as well as in the patient who had cervical condyloma acuminatum. HPV 16/18 were found in the condyloma acuminatum plus VIN III and in the CIN II lesions. We have found HPV31/33/51 in the specimen of condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma. In order to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of HPV infection in genital tissue, the biopsies of three female patients were observed under electron microscope.Mature virus particles were found in the cells of a condyloma acuminatum as wellas in the condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma case. In another sample, chromosome breakages were found in the nuclei of the infected cells although no viral particles were observed.

  1. Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M; Landay, Alan L; Veazey, Ronald S

    2010-02-01

    The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3-16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0-39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6-18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis.

  2. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  3. Female Genital Warts: Global Trends and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Stanley A.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidi...

  4. Blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in the genital tract and blood of HIV-exposed, seronegative female sex workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Chege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells producing the cytokine IL17 (Th17 cells, may represent a highly susceptible target for HIV infection after sexual exposure. Therefore, we characterized the cellular pro-inflammatory and IL17/IL22 cytokine immune milieu in the genital mucosa and blood of HESN female sex workers (FSWs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blinded lab personnel characterized basal and mitogen-induced gene and cytokine immune responses in the cervix and blood of HESN FSWs (n = 116 and non-FSW controls (n = 17 using qPCR and ELISA. IL17 and IL22 production was significantly reduced in both the cervix and blood of HESNs, both in resting cells and after mitogen stimulation. In addition, HESN participants demonstrated blunted production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and β-chemokines. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HIV exposure without infection was associated with blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory responses, both systemically and at the site of mucosal HIV exposure. It will be important for further studies to examine the causal nature of the association and to define the cell subsets responsible for these differences.

  5. 2 Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts: Study Findings back up new CDC recommendations for ... human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts in preteens and teens. Investigators at Boston University ...

  6. Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in he

  7. Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in he

  8. Married Women of Childbearing Age Genital Tract Infection and Its Level Influence Factors Analysis%已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染及其多水平影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨妮

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the married women of childbearing age epidemiological characteristics of reproductive tract in-fections and its influential factors. Methods Field investigation method, in free medical activities into the physical examination of 492 cases, factor analysis. Results Genital tract infection positive rate of 21.14%, of which 8 cases trichomonas vaginitis, bacterial vaginal disease in 16 cases, 70 cases of vaginal yeast infection, 10 cases of mixed infection, self-knowledge rate is 70.19%, 46.15% symptomatic behavior; Infected and uninfected whether the marriage age, age of first sexual life, birth, educational back-ground, overall health, partner with front whether clean vulva, whether to have period sex, bathhouse number 1 or more times per week, whether sex without contraception and reproductive tract distribution differences statistically significant ( P<0.05); Three lev-els of logistic regression analysis showed that married women of childbearing age RTI happen in marriage age, partner with house cleaning not aggregation, bathhouse number 1 or more times per week were independent factors (P<0.05). Conclusion Married women of childbearing age genital tract infection status is not optimistic, disease rate of self-knowledge is no obvious symptoms;Infection is associated with the formation of the concept of family health, age.%目的:分析已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染流行病学特征,分析其影响因素、层次分布,为疾病预防提供依据。方法采用现场调查方法,在免费体检活动中纳入体检者492例,进行因素分析。结果生殖道感染阳性率21.14%,其中滴虫性阴道炎8例、细菌性阴道病16例、念珠菌性阴道炎70例,混合感染10例,自知率70.19%,有症状表现者46.15%;感染者与未感染者婚龄、初次性生活年龄、是否生育、学历、总体健康水平、伴侣同房前是否清洗外阴、是否有经期性生活、澡堂洗澡次数≥1次/周、性

  9. Comparison on Different Test Methods Applied in Female Genital Tract Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection%不同检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quantitative analysis of fluorescent PCR assay and colloidal gold in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis value in the diagnosis of infection.Methods:Gynecological hospital in July 2012 to June 2013 were treated 350 suspected female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a clinical observation of the object,respecti vely,using fluorescence quantitative PCR assay and colloidal gold pathogens in these patients detection sensitivity of comparing two test methods in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection,specificity,false-positive rate,false negative rate,the degree of diagnostic and You den index.Results:The sensitivity and colloidal gold fluorescence quantitative PCR assays were 90.91% and 52.41% (P0.05);false positive rate of 9.09% and were 1.84%(P0.05);diagnosis degree were 94.29% and 73.43% (P<0.01);Yourdon index were 0.89 and 0.50.Conclusion:The two methods have advantages and disadvantages;PCR detection method is applicable to large hospitals,colloidal gold method applied to the primary hospital.%目的:比较分析荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染诊断中的应用价值。方法:选取我院妇科2012年7月~2013年6月收治的350名疑为女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染患者作为临床观察对象,分别采用荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法对这些患者进行病原体检测,比较两种检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的灵敏度,特异性,假阳性率,假阴性率,诊断符合度与Youden指数。结果:荧光PCR定量检测法的与胶体金法的灵敏度分别为90.91%与52.41%(P<0.01);特异性分别为98.16%与97.55%(P>0.05);假阳性率分别为9.09%与1.84%(P<0.01);假阴性率分别为1.84%与2.45%(P>0.05);诊断符合度分别为94.29%与73.43%(P<0.01);Youden指数分别为0.89与0.50。结论:两种检测方法各有利弊,荧光PCR检测方法

  10. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population...... of HPV-exposed and -unexposed women (intention-to-treat group)....

  11. Detection of intracellular bacterial communities in human urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Rosen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. While UTIs are typically considered extracellular infections, it has been recently demonstrated that UPEC bind to, invade, and replicate within the murine bladder urothelium to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs. These IBCs dissociate and bacteria flux out of bladder facet cells, some with filamentous morphology, and ultimately establish quiescent intracellular reservoirs that can seed recurrent infection. This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an IBC pathway could be found in urine specimens from women with acute UTI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected midstream, clean-catch urine specimens from 80 young healthy women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and 20 asymptomatic women with a history of UTI. Investigators were blinded to culture results and clinical history. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy for evidence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria. Evidence of IBCs was found in 14 of 80 (18% urines from women with UTI. Filamentous bacteria were found in 33 of 80 (41% urines from women with UTI. None of the 20 urines from the asymptomatic comparative group showed evidence of IBCs or filaments. Filamentous bacteria were present in all 14 of the urines with IBCs compared to 19 (29% of 66 samples with no evidence of IBCs (p < 0.001. Of 65 urines from patients with E. coli infections, 14 (22% had evidence of IBCs and 29 (45% had filamentous bacteria, while none of the gram-positive infections had IBCs or filamentous bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria in the urines of women with acute cystitis suggests that the IBC pathogenic pathway characterized in the murine model may occur in humans. The

  12. Impact of short-term HAART initiated during the chronic stage or shortly post-exposure on SIV infection of male genital organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2-4 weeks initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

  13. Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmerón, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

  14. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  15. Generation of human female reproductive tract epithelium from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD, the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; GFP-hESC (ENVY. We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1(+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT.

  16. Implementation of the international and regional human rights framework for the elimination of female genital mutilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, M.J.; Desiderio, Rene

    2014-01-01

    A human rights approach to FGM places the practice within a broader social justice agenda — one that emphasizes the responsibilities of governments to ensure realization of the full spectrum of women’s and girls’ rights. In order to place FGM within a human rights framework, it is critical to know m

  17. Characteristics of the Spatial and Temporal Expression of SPMI Gene in the Genital Tracts of Boars and Gilts%SPMI基因在公母猪生殖道的时空表达特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成义; 高波; 王宵燕; 吴晗; 周辉云; 李碧春; 陈国宏; 毛九德

    2011-01-01

    为揭示猪精子运动抑制因子(Seminal plasma motility inhibitor,SPMI)基因在公母猪生殖道的时空表达特性,本研究运用定性RT-PCR分析了SPMI在生殖道的组织表达谱,利用半定量RT-PCR技术分析了SPMI在公猪精囊腺和尿道球腺组织的发育性表达.定性RT-PCR分析结果发现,SPMI基因在精囊腺中的表达丰度最高,在尿道球腺和子宫角中呈中等丰度表达,在前列腺、子宫颈和卵巢中的表达较弱,在其它生殖道组织未检测到mRNA表达.半定量RT-PCR分析结果显示,SPMI基因在公猪精囊腺和尿道球腺中的发育性表达规律相似,都在初生时即启动,表达水平随着日龄的增加不断提高,直至性成熟(150日龄).其中SPMI基因在精囊腺中的表达在60、90和150日龄均有显著提高(P<0.05);而在尿道球腺中,SPMI基因的表达在30、90和150日龄均有显著提高(P<0.05),而60日龄的表达较30日龄时有所提高,但差异不显著(P>0.05).这些结果提示SPMI基因在公母猪生殖道呈广泛表达,其发育性表达呈日龄依赖性特点,表达水平在初情期至性成熟期有显著提高.%To investigate the spatial and temporal expression profiles of seminal plasma motility inhibitor (SPMI) gene in the genital tracts of boars and gilts, the qualitative RT-PCR was used to detect tissue expression pattern along reproductive tracts and semi-quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the developmental expression of SPMI in seminal vesicle and bulbourethral gland in the current study. The qualitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of SPMI mRNA was highest in seminal vesicle, moderate in bulbourethral gland and uterine horn, weak in prostate, cervix and ovary, no signal was found in the other reproductive tissues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the similar developmental expression pattern of SPMI in seminal vesicle and bulbourethral gland was found, and the expression of SPMI both in seminal vesicle

  18. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  20. The spectrum of genital human papillomavirus infection among men attending a Swedish sexually-transmitted infections clinic: human papillomavirus typing and clinical presentation of histopathologically benign lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Arne; Vassilaki, Ismini; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-03-27

    There have been a number of Swedish studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in men, most of which have used less sensitive HPV-typing techniques. The present study included male patients with genital HPV-induced lesions planned for surgery. Samples were prepared for histopathology and PCR. HPV was detected in 233/253 (92%) and HPV 6 or 11 in 89% of the HPV-positive lesions. There were statistically significant differences regarding morphology (p=0.002), location (p=0.000001) and colour (p=0.005) of the lesions for low- vs. mixed or high-risk HPV types. For example, acuminate lesions were mostly found among men with low-risk HPV types, whereas macular lesions were over-represented among them with mixed or high-risk types. The HPV type distribution is similar to that in earlier studies, but we also found correlations with some clinical parameters.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  3. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) A A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  4. Fibronectin type II-module proteins in the bovine genital tract and their putative role in cell volume control during sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Evrim; Petrunkina, Anna M; Ekhlasi-Hundrieser, Mahnaz; Hettel, Christiane; Waberski, Dagmar; Harrison, Robin A P; Töpfer-Petersen, Edda

    2009-01-01

    The male reproductive tract of ungulates contains two protein families bearing tandemly arranged fibronectin II (Fn2) modules; one (small Fn2 proteins) bears two modules (e.g. BSP-A1/2), the other (long Fn2 proteins) bears four (e.g. epididymal sperm-binding protein 1 (ELSPBP1)). While it is well known that small Fn2 proteins are present in bull semen, nothing is known about long Fn2 proteins. In the present study, the presence of ELSPBP1 proteins in the bull epididymis and their association with maturing spermatozoa were investigated using a specific antibody against canine ELSPBP1. Analysis of western blots showed ELSPBP1 to be present in the caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis. The protein, which bound phosphorylcholine (PC) strongly, appeared to associate with the spermatozoa during maturation because it was absent from caput spermatozoa but present on cauda spermatozoa. Immunocytochemistry of cauda spermatozoa showed the protein to be bound to the post-acrosomal and midpiece regions. ELSPBP1 could not be detected on freshly ejaculated spermatozoa but was revealed after a capacitating treatment. Our previous studies have shown differences between bovine caput and cauda spermatozoa in terms of their ability to control cell volume. Because of the close homology of BSP-A1/2 PC binding regions with Fn2 regions in ELSPBP1, BSP-A1/2 was used as a model to investigate the effect of a PC-binding Fn2 protein on cell volume control. While the protein had no effect on cauda spermatozoa, it caused caput spermatozoa to swell more in response to hypotonic stress, similarly to untreated cauda spermatozoa.

  5. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    OpenAIRE

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All le...

  6. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  7. Genitalverstümmelungen aller Art sind Menschenrechtsverletzungen All types of genital mutilation are human rights violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Feuerbach

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Die in Amerika lebende, 1924 geborene Hanny Lightfood-Klein befasst sich in ihrem Buch Der Beschneidungsskandal mit global verbreiteten Verstümmelungspraktiken an intersexuellen, weiblichen und männlichen Genitalien. Als Menschenrechtsverletzungen werden diese, aus soziokulturell unterschiedlichem Kontext stammenden Praktiken in ihrer Schädlichkeit dokumentiert und kommentiert. Die hohe Zahl der Gebärmutterentfernungen, Damm- und Kaiserschnitten in Industriestaaten wird von der Autorin kritisch in Frage gestellt. Zudem werden Schönheitsoperationen kritisiert. Die westliche Öffentlichkeit tendiere zur Barbarisierung und/oder Exotisierung afrikanischer Praktiken, ignoriere jedoch die in Industriestaaten serienmäßig durchgeführten Verstümmelungspraktiken. Diese würden bislang tabuisiert und selten öffentlich diskutiert. Ziel des Buches sei es deshalb, die Öffentlichkeit über die Problematik dieser Eingriffe aufzuklären und zu sensibilisieren. Die Autorin will ferner motivieren, gegen diese Praktiken einzutreten.Born in 1924 and now living in America, the author of The Circumcision Scandal, Hanny Lightfood-Klein, deals in her book with the global practices of mutilation of intersexual, female and male genitals. She documents and critiques the harmfulness of these human rights violations, which stem from different socio-cultural contexts. The author critically addresses the large number of hysterectomies, episiotomies, and Caesareans in industrialised societies and criticises cosmetic surgery. The western public tends to barbarise and/or exoticise African practices of mutilation, but at the same time ignores those practices regularly carried out in industrialised societies. Up until now such practices have been taboo and rarely discussed in public. Hence, this book aims to make the public more aware of these operations and to encourage people to stand up against such practices.

  8. Low Prevalence of Oral and Nasal Human Papillomavirus in Employees Performing CO2-laser Evaporation of Genital Warts or Loop Electrode Excision Procedure of Cervical Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato......-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p = 0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts......, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal...

  9. Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rama; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV. All consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. HRQOL was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, which evaluates QOL under physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Data concerning demographic and socioeconomic status were collected. There were 65 (27.3%), 60 (25.2%) and 53 (22.3%) patients with HIV, HSV-2 and HPV, respectively, and 25 (10.5%) patients with mixed infections. The WHOQOL-BREF scores of patients in different STI groups were significantly lower than those of controls. The total HRQOL scores (mean±SD) were 280.1±83.56 (among controls), 196.9±72.41 (genital HPV), 141.0±50.50 (HSV-2), 101.0±75.25 (HIV) and 103.4±47.23(mixed infection groups). Mean HRQOL scores were lowest in the physical and psychological domains. HRQOL scores were least in HIV and mixed infections groups, while patients with genital HPV infection had significantly better HRQOL scores compared to other patient groups. Higher education and socioeconomic status had a positive influence on HRQOL. Viral STIs were associated with a significant reduction in HRQOL scores. Among patient groups, the greatest impact on HRQOL was seen in those with HIV and mixed infections and the least impact seen in those with genital HPV infection. Comprehensive care including counselling services need to be implemented in STI clinics.

  10. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  11. 1530例女性生殖道支原体感染及药敏试验分析%The analysis on female genital tract specimens mycoplasma infection and drug sensitivity test in 1 530 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the positive rate of female genital tract specimens mycoplasma infection and drug susceptibility to assist clinical rational drug use.Methods Mycoplasma culture and drug susceptibility test were performed in 1 530 female outpatients in Women's and Children's Center Hospital of Chengdu City from Nov 2013 to Oct 2014.All cases were divided into different groups on the basis of clinical information, positive rate of mycoplasma infection and drug susceptibility for each group were analyzed.Results In 1 530 cases of female genital tract secretions sample test, mycoplasma infection were positive in 650 cases ( 42.5%) .Sensitive rates of mycoplasma to tetracycline, doxycycline, josamycin, mincycline and clarithromycin were high ( all above 98 %), followed by rom erythromycin (84.6 %), while ofloxacin (19.2 %), azithromycin (18.8 %), sparfloxacin (11.5 %), levofloxacin (4.31 %) were with high drug resistance rate of mycoplasma.In different groups of genital tract secretions samples, the positive rates of mycoplasma detection and the drug resistance rates had statistically differences ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion Overall positive rate of the mycoplasma infection is high in gynecologic patients, and the positive rate and drug resistance rate differ between groups.For women of childbearing age who have no obvious self-conscious symptoms, mycoplasma screening can be more scientific, more timely to guide the clinical treatment and prenatal care which promotes eugenics.%目的:探讨女性生殖道支原体感染检测的阳性率和药敏情况,以辅助临床合理用药。方法对2013年11月至2014年10月成都市妇女儿童中心医院门诊就诊的1530例女性生殖道分泌物进行支原体培养及体外药敏试验。依据临床信息,将其进行分组,对各组支原体检测阳性率和药敏试验结果进行分析。结果1530例女性生殖道分泌物标本的检测结果中,支原体检测结果阳性650例(42.5

  12. Chemoattractant-mediated leukocyte trafficking enables HIV dissemination from the genital mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruaz, Maud; Murooka, Thomas T.; Ji, Sophina; Gavin, Marc A.; Vrbanac, Vladimir D.; Lieberman, Judy; Tager, Andrew M.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Luster, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    HIV vaginal transmission accounts for the majority of newly acquired heterosexual infections. However, the mechanism by which HIV spreads from the initial site of viral entry at the mucosal surface of the female genital tract to establish a systemic infection of lymphoid and peripheral tissues is not known. Once the virus exits the mucosa it rapidly spreads to all tissues, leading to CD4+ T cell depletion and the establishment of a viral reservoir that cannot be eliminated with current treatments. Understanding the molecular and cellular requirements for viral dissemination from the genital tract is therefore of great importance, as it could reveal new strategies to lengthen the window of opportunity to target the virus at its entry site in the mucosa where it is the most vulnerable and thus prevent systemic infection. Using HIV vaginal infection of humanized mice as a model of heterosexual transmission, we demonstrate that blocking the ability of leukocytes to respond to chemoattractants prevented HIV from leaving the female genital tract. Furthermore, blocking lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes prevented viremia and infection of the gut. Leukocyte trafficking therefore plays a major role in viral dissemination, and targeting the chemoattractant molecules involved can prevent the establishment of a systemic infection. PMID:28405607

  13. Women of Childbearing Age Genital Tract Infection Status and Influence Factors Analysis%育龄妇女生殖道感染情况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand women of childbearing age genital tract infection status and influencing factors. Methods 400 cases of women of childbearing age with reproductive health examinations from January 2014 to December 2014 in this unit, on the questionnaire survey, regular gynecological examination and laboratory examination. Results Women of childbearing age preva-lence rate of reproductive tract infections was 46%;The incidence of the top five diseases were: chronic cervicitis, the incidence of 67.75%;candidal vaginitis, incidence of a disease 5.25%;trichomonas vaginitis,The incidence of 13.75%;bacterial vaginal disease, the incidence of 8.25%;candidal vaginitis, the incidence of 5.25%; chronic pelvic inflammatory diseaseand accessory is phlogistic, incidence of a disease 4.25%. Age, educational level, marital status,history of abortion, contraception five factors are independent risk factors of reproductive tract infections. Conclusion The women of childbearing age of reproductive tract infections in the pres-ence have multiple risk factors, should be aimed at these factors to strengthen health education and intervention.%目的:了解育龄妇女生殖道感染现状及影响因素。方法随机选择2014年1月-2014年12月在该院进行生殖健康检查的400例育龄妇女,对其进行问卷调查、常规妇科检查和实验室检查。结果育龄妇女生殖道感染患病率为46.0%。发病率居前五位的疾病依次为:慢性宫颈炎,发病率67.75%;念珠菌性阴道炎,发病率5.25%;滴虫性阴道炎,发病率13.75%;细菌性阴道病,发病率8.25%;念珠菌性阴道炎,发病率5.25%;慢性盆腔炎和附件炎,发病率4.25%。年龄、文化程度、婚姻状况、流产史、避孕方式五个因素是生殖道感染的独立影响因素。结论育龄女性生殖道感染存在多种危险因素,应针对这些因素大力开展健康教育和健康干预。

  14. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  15. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  16. Expression of Genes for Drug Transporters in the Human Female Genital Tract and Modulatory Effect of Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hijazi

    Full Text Available Anti-retroviral (ARV -based microbicides are one of the strategies pursued to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Delivery of ARV drugs to subepithelial CD4+ T cells at concentrations for protection is likely determined by drug transporters expressed in the cervicovaginal epithelium. To define the role of drug transporters in mucosal disposition of topically applied ARV-based microbicides, these must be tested in epithelial cell line-based biopharmaceutical assays factoring the effect of relevant drug transporters. We have characterised gene expression of influx and efflux drug transporters in a panel of cervicovaginal cell lines and compared this to expression in cervicovaginal tissue. We also investigated the effect of dapivirine, darunavir and tenofovir, currently at advanced stages of microbicides development, on expression of drug transporters in cell lines. Expression of efflux ABC transporters in cervical tissue was best represented in HeLa, Ect1/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cell lines. Expression of influx OCT and ENT transporters in ectocervix matched expression in Hela while expression of influx SLCO transporters in vagina was best reflected in VK2/E6E7 cell line. Stimulation with darunavir and dapivirine upregulated MRP transporters, including MRP5 involved in transport of tenofovir. Dapivirine also significantly downregulated tenofovir substrate MRP4 in cervical cell lines. Treatment with darunavir and dapivirine showed no significant effect on expression of BCRP, MRP2 and P-glycoprotein implicated in efflux of different ARV drugs. Darunavir strongly induced expression in most cell lines of CNT3 involved in cell uptake of nucleotide/nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and SLCO drug transporters involved in cell uptake of protease inhibitors. This study provides insight into the suitability of cervicovaginal cell lines for assessment of ARV drugs in transport kinetics studies. The modulatory effect of darunavir and dapivirine on expression of drug transporters involved in transport of tenofovir points to the possibility of combining these drugs to improve retention of individual drugs at target tissues.

  17. ‘Lascolabacter vaginalis’ strain KHD1, a new bacterial species cultivated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the major characteristics of ‘Lascolabacter vaginalis’ strain KHD1 (= CSUR P0109 = DSM 101752, a new member of the family Prevotellaceae that was cultivated from a vaginal sample of a 33-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis.

  18. High Risk Human Papillomavirus genital infections in asymptomatic population: effectiveness of Micro-Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Addonisio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV is the primary cause for the development of various anogenital cancers in females and males. Most infections are either latent or subclinical and the majority occur as asymptomatic. HPV infections are not currently treatable by antiviral compounds. Micro-immunotherapy (MI medications using high dilutions of cytokines and specific nucleotide sequences have been developed to treat targeted viral infections and are currently prescribed in medical practice as immune regulators: 2L®PAPI (Labo’Life is indicated for HPV infection and may represent a new therapeutic approach. Aims: this exploratory study was to assess the effectiveness of 2L®PAPI on HPV infection eradication in HR-HPV infected asymptomatic patients attending an STD Centre in a long-term microbiological follow-up population survey. Methodology: adult patients of both genders, diagnosed with HR-HPV infection, with no evidence of symptomatic HPV or anogenital cancer, were followed during a 2 year-period (2009-2010. Selected patients had not previously been vaccinated for HPV or treated with medications having an impact on the immune system. HPV testing was performed on biological samples using PCR detection (Innogenetics, Italy. In addition, detection of E6/E7 mRNA of five carcinogenic HPV types was performed by EasyQ HPV (BioMerieux, Italy. HPV-positives were requested by their urology specialist to take 2L®PAPI (composition in table 1 during 4 months (1 caps/day by sublingual route. Globally 46 patients were followed: 23 treated with MI medication, and 23 not treated. Results: one third of selected patients were lost at the control visit (15/46. At the end of the study period, HR-HPV negativity was observed in 50% (8/16 of patients under MI medication in comparison with only 7% (1/15 of the non treated patients who were HPV-DNA negative at the follow

  19. Evidence of human papillomavirus vaccine effectiveness in reducing genital warts: an analysis of California public family planning administrative claims data, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi M; Wright, Glenn; Chow, Joan

    2012-05-01

    Because of the rapid development of genital warts (GW) after infection, monitoring GW trends may provide early evidence of population-level human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness. Trends in GW diagnoses were assessed using public family planning administrative data. Between 2007 and 2010, among females younger than 21 years, these diagnoses decreased 35% from 0.94% to 0.61% (P(trend) < .001). Decreases were also observed among males younger than 21 years (19%); and among females and males ages 21-25 (10% and 11%, respectively). The diagnoses stabilized or increased among older age groups. HPV vaccine may be preventing GW among young people.

  20. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  1. The prevalence and genotype of human papillomavirus on cervical samples from an Irish female population with external genital warts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cremin, Suzanne M

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cervical genotype profile of females who presented to an STI Clinic with external genital warts (EGW); and to determine the potential vaccine coverage prior to the uptake of the HPV vaccines. Sixty-one cervical scrapings were taken from females aged 18-35 y who had external genital warts or a history of external genital warts. The resulting 50 samples that were positive for HPV-DNA were subjected to genotype identification. Forty-six of these samples had detectable genotypes by LIPA analysis and most (78%, 36\\/46) had multiple low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) genotypes on the cervix. Twenty-five of these samples (54%) had more than 1 HR genotype. Of the 36 patients who had any HR genotypes, 18 (50%) were identified to have the most oncogenic HPV genotypes, namely 16 and 18. Three of these samples had both 16 and 18 on the cervix. The presence of multiple HR genotypes on the majority of cervical samples from a self-referred population of females with EGW is presented. This study is of importance since persistent HR-HPV is the necessary risk factor in the development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Gardisil, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine would have been useful in the prevention of 28% (13\\/46) of these infections.

  2. Analysis of Bacterial Culture of Genital Tract Secretions and Drug Resistance of 526 Children%526例儿童生殖道分泌物细菌培养及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 徐樨巍; 宋文琪

    2011-01-01

    of pathogenic bacteria,distribution and drug resistance of 526 children of genital tract secretions with bacterial culture,which were outpatients Or inpatients in Beijing Children's Hospital from January to December in 2009,to provide for the clinical diagnosis to chose reasonable antibiotic therapy to improve treatment efficacy.through the changes of bacteria of genital tract secretions resistance to antibiotics. Metbods Analysed the exam results concluded from bacterial isolation and culture ,identification and susceptibility testing of 526 cases of genital tract secretions .which were outpatients or inpatients in Beijing Children's Hospital from January to December in 2009. Results Except 50 cases were detected without bacteria growing,there were 476 bacreria detected,the ratio was 90. 5% (476/526). Among 476 bacteria ,there were 106 Gram-positive bacteria,the ratio was 22. 3% (106/476),87 coagulase-negative staphylococci, the ratio was 18. 3% (87/476). 283 pathogens were detected.the ratio was 59. 5% (283/476)and among them there were 82 Gram-positive cocci,the ratio was 17. 2 % (82/476) ,173 Gram-negative bacilli,the ratio was 36. 3% (173/476). 12 Neisseria spp were detected,among them there were 10 Neisseria gonorrhoeae,the ratio was 2. 1% (10/476) and 16 Fungi,tbe ratio was 3. 4% (16/476). 100% Staphylococcus aureus resistanted to penicillin G,the resistance to azithromycin and erythromycin was 68. 8%,the resistance to Clindamycin reached 31. 2%,the resistance ratio of streptococcus pyogenes to erythromycin and clindamycin was up to 84. 6 % , the resistance ratio of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin,clindamycin and tetracycline was up to 100%, The resistance to penicillin G reached 10%,intermediate rate was 30 %. The resistance to Cefotaxime.cefepime was 10 % and 20%. 11. 6 % of Haemophilus influenzae could produce β-lactamases,which would resistent to antibiotic β-lactamases. The resistance to cotrimoxazole was up

  3. Actinomycosis of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, C W; Harbert, G M; Thornton, W N

    1976-09-01

    Four cases of actinomycosis involving the uterus and adnexal structures are reported. In 2 cases the infection was transmitted from a ruptured appendix. Ascending actinomycosis involving the endometrium and resulting in adnexal abscesses was associated with the use of an IUD in 2 patients. This infection should be suspected in any patient who develops a pelvic abscess with an IUD in place. Culture and histologic examination of tissue removed with the IUD may be a means of early diagnosis. The nature of these infections became apparent only after serious complications developed. Each patient required several surgical procedures. The diagnosis remained unsuspected until repeated laboratory examinations detected the fungus. The difficulty encountered identifying Actinomyces israeli indicates the infection is often undetected. Gallium scans were helpful in localizing occult abscesses in 2 patients.

  4. The molecular fingerprint of human papillomavirus infection and its effect on the Langerhans cell population in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Rios-Yuil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, p53 protein (p53, retinoblastoma protein (pRb and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236. The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273. Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.

  5. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HPV in men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Papenfuss, Mary R; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-06-01

    Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV-related pathogenesis. Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine, and blood from 3971 men recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with 4 HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, nononcogenic only, and multiple infections). A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive, and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.53-6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.69-6.95) prevalence. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), nononcogenic HPV only (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behavior, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting 2 or more recent sexual partners, whereas HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0 to 5 lifetime sexual partners. In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence.

  6. Hematopoietic tumors of the female genital system: imaging features with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Usama; Menias, Christine O; Shaaban, Akram; Bhosale, Priya R; Youssef, Ayda; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2014-08-01

    Various hematopoietic neoplasms can involve the female genital system. The most common hematological malignancy that involves the female genital system is lymphoma and secondary involvement is more common than primary genital lymphoma. Rarely, leukemic infiltration and extramedullary plasmacytomas of the female genital tract may also occur. Being infrequent, these lesions are commonly misdiagnosed radiologically. Therefore, understanding these malignancies of the female genital system and recognizing their imaging features are of utmost clinical importance. Although definitive diagnosis can be made only by histological analysis, imaging of these tumors plays an important role in detecting lesion extensions, guiding biopsies, staging disease, planning therapy, and detecting recurrence.

  7. The mucin degrader Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant resident of the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrien, M.M.N.; Collado, M.C.; Ben-Amor, K.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted probe, MUC-1437, was designed and validated in order to determine the presence and numbers of cells of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, in the human intestinal tract. As determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, A. muciniphila accounted more than 1% of the total

  8. Isolation of DNA from bacterial samples of the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Booijink, C.C.G.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex microbial community that develops in time and space. The most widely used approaches to study microbial diversity and activity are all based on the analysis of nucleic acids, DNA, rRNA and mRNA. Here, we present a DNA isolation protocol that i

  9. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  10. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  11. Global gene expression profiling of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 in the human urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important health problem worldwide, with many million cases each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTIs in humans. The asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli strain 83972 is an excellent colonizer of the human urinary tract, where it causes...

  12. 治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体感染的临床研究%Clinical analysis on treatment of ureaplasma urealyticum infection in female genital tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜仁托娅

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of azithromycin and vaginal gel in the treatment of female genital tract antibacterial ureaplasma urealyticum infection. METHODS:50 patients with ureaplasma urealyticum infection admitted to our hospital from May 201 1 to May 2013 were divided into two groups randomly,the test group and the control group (25 cases in each group).The control group received treatment of Azithromycin,Azithromycin tablet administered (0.25 mg/piece),twice a day for three weeks.We give the test group anti-bacterial gel in the treatment of vaginal along with Azithromycin tablets therapy (the same usage and dosage as the control group). Patients cleaned the vulva before bedtime,and then one pushed vagina antibacterial gel into the vagina,once a day for three weeks.Improvement and adverse reactions of the clinical symp-toms of the situation between the two groups were compared.RE-SULTS:The total effective rate of 25 patients in the control group was 68.0%;The total effective rate of 25 patients in the test group was 92.0%,and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05).CONCLUSION:Clinical effects of Azithromycin and vaginal gel in the treatment of female genital tract antibacterial ureaplasma urealyticum infection are better than the treatment of Azithromycin solely,and the adverse reactions are equal to treatment of Azithromycin solely.Therefore,we recom-mend the clinical use of Azithromycin combined with vaginal anti-bacteria gel.%目的:探讨阿奇霉素联合阴道抑菌凝胶治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体感染的临床疗效及不良反应.方法:选取我院于2011-05/2013-05收治的生殖道解脲支原体感染女性患者共50例,将其随机分为两组,分别为试验组和对照组,每组25例,其中对照组给予阿奇霉素治疗,每天给予阿奇霉素片剂(0.25 mg/片),每次1片,2次/d,连服3周.试验组在给予阿奇霉素片剂治疗的基础上(

  13. Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Harlan D.; Wood, Heidi; Crane, Debbie; Bailey, Robin; Jones, Robert B.; Mabey, David; Maclean, Ian; Mohammed, Zeena; Peeling, Rosanna; Roshick, Christine; Schachter, Julius; Solomon, Anthony W.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Taylor, Lacey; West, Sheila K.; Quinn, Tom C.; Belland, Robert J.; McClarty, Grant

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogen’s tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical isolates — specifically, all ocular trachoma isolates tested have inactivating mutations in the synthase, whereas all genital isolates encode a functional enzyme. Moreover, functional enzyme activity was directly correlated to IFN-γ resistance through an indole rescue mechanism. Hence, a strong selective pressure exists for genital strains to maintain a functional synthase capable of using indole for tryptophan biosynthesis. The fact that ocular serovars (serovar B) isolated from the genital tract were found to possess a functional synthase provided further persuasive evidence of this association. These results argue that there is an important host-parasite relationship between chlamydial genital strains and the human host that determines organotropism of infection and the pathophysiology of disease. We speculate that this relationship involves the production of indole by components of the vaginal microbial flora, allowing chlamydiae to escape IFN-γ–mediated eradication and thus establish persistent infection. PMID:12782678

  14. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Rollison, Dana E; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C; Baggio, Maria L; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-09-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Metagenomics of the human intestinal tract: from who is there to what is done there

    OpenAIRE

    Lapaque, Nicolas; Doré, Joël; Blottière, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The human gastro-intestinal tract is colonized by 10(6)-10(14) microorganisms from the three domains, eukaria, archaea and bacteria that are collectively referred as the human gut microbiota. Gut microbiota actively contributes to the digestion of the nutrients, mainly the fibers otherwise undigested by the host, and participate to the host capacity of energy recovery from food. It plays also a key role in gut homeostasis, impacting on its barrier function and regulating the immune and metabo...

  16. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  17. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V; Abat, C; Moal, V; Rolain, J-M

    2016-05-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.

  18. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia,V.; C. Abat; V. Moal; J.-M. Rolain

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.

  19. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  20. Intravaginal TLR agonists increase local vaccine-specific CD8 T cells and human papillomavirus-associated genital-tumor regression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos-Pereira, S; Decrausaz, L; Derré, L; Bobst, M; Romero, P; Schiller, J T; Jichlinski, P; Nardelli-Haefliger, D

    2013-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV)-related cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Despite active development, HPV E6/E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines have had limited clinical efficacy to date. Here, we report that intravaginal (IVAG) instillation of CpG-ODN (TLR9 agonist) or poly-(I:C) (TLR3 agonist) after subcutaneous E7 vaccination increased ~fivefold the number of vaccine-specific interferon-γ-secreting CD8 T cells in the genital mucosa (GM) of mice, without affecting the E7-specific systemic response. The IVAG treatment locally increased both E7-specific and total CD8 T cells, but not CD4 T cells. This previously unreported selective recruitment of CD8 T cells from the periphery by IVAG CpG-ODN or poly-(I:C) was mediated by TLR9 and TLR3/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 signaling pathways, respectively. For CpG, this recruitment was associated with a higher proportion of GM-localized CD8 T cells expressing both CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors and E-selectin ligands. Most interestingly, IVAG CpG-ODN following vaccination led to complete regression of large genital HPV tumors in 75% of mice, instead of 20% with vaccination alone. These findings suggest that mucosal application of immunostimulatory molecules might substantially increase the effectiveness of parenterally administered vaccines.

  1. Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.

  2. 下生殖道感染对胎膜早破及母婴结局影响的临床分析%Clinical analysis of lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴婵娟; 华莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨下生殖道感染对胎膜早破及母婴结局的影响。方法选择胎膜早破孕妇413例为研究组。根据是否足月分为足月亚组和未足月亚组。同时选择无胎膜早破孕妇420例为对照组。对所有纳入研究的的对象宫颈分泌物检测衣原体、支原体,阴道分泌物检测假似酵母菌、细菌检测、滴虫,并取胎膜进行病理学检查,分析下生殖道感染对胎膜早破及母婴结局的影响。结果胎膜早破组发生支原体感染、衣原体感染、细菌性阴道病、假丝酵母菌、滴虫感染率显著高于未胎膜早破组(P<0.01或P<0.05)。胎膜早破孕妇,未足月亚组支原体、衣原体、细菌性阴道病、假丝酵母菌、滴虫感染率显著高于足月亚组(P<0.01或P<0.05)。下生殖道感染孕妇早产、产褥感染、绒毛膜羊膜炎、新生热肺炎发生率显著高于未感染孕妇(P<0.01);胎膜早破组早产、产褥感染、绒毛膜羊膜炎、新生热肺炎发生率显著高于未胎膜早破组(P<0.01)。结论下生殖道感染增加胎膜早破几率,也是导致母婴不良结局重要因素。%Objective To study effect of lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes. Methods Selected 413 cases with lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes were divided into term subgroup and preterm subgroup. Selected 420 cases without premature rupture of membranes as control group. Cervical secretions were collected to detect Chlamydia and My-coplasma, and vaginal secretions were collected to detect candida yeast, bacteria and trichomoniasis. Membranes were collected for pathological examination. Effect of lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes was analyzed. Results Mycoplasma infection, chlamydia infection, bacterial vaginosis,candida, trichomonas infection rates of

  3. Female genital warts: global trends and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S A

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidity of the disease, and therefore successful treatment is crucial. Current treatments are patient-applied and provider-administered therapies. Imiquimod 5% cream, a patient-applied therapy, is an efficacious treatment with tolerable side-effects and a low recurrence rate, and has the potential to be an effective strategy for the management of genital warts.

  4. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth......, an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...... identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  5. 孕妇生殖道无乳链球菌带菌状况及药物敏感性分析%Analysis of carrying status and drug susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae in genital tract of pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林爱心; 袁春雷; 汪伟山; 谭南; 杨晓华; 李丽莲

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解孕妇生殖道无乳链球菌携带及耐药状况,为临床用药提供依据。方法取孕妇阴道分泌物标本进行细菌培养,分离出的无乳链球菌经 VITEK 2全自动细菌鉴定分析仪进行鉴定和药物敏感试验。结果1042份标本中分离出无乳链球菌56例,分离率为5.4%。药物敏感试验结果显示无乳链球菌对青霉素、头孢唑啉、万古霉素、利奈唑烷、呋喃妥因均高度敏感,未发现中介或耐药菌株;左旋氧氟沙星、莫西沙星及克林霉素、红霉素、四环素的敏感率分别为84.0%、84.0%、71.4%、39.3%和8.9%。结论该院孕妇无乳链球菌的携带率不高,青霉素和头孢唑啉可作为治疗的首选药。临床和实验室应重视孕妇无乳链球菌的检测。%Objective To understand the carrying status and drug resistance of streptococcus agalactiae in the genital tract of pregnant women.Methods The vaginal discharge from pregnant women was collected for conducting the bacterial culture.The iso-lated streptococcus agalactiae was performed the identification and the drugs susceptibility test by the VITEK 2 fully automatice bacterial identification analyzer.Results Among 1 042 samples,streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in 6 cases with the separation rate of 5.4%.The drug sensitivity test showed the Streptococcus agalactiae was highly sensitive to penicillin,cefazolin,vancomycin, linezolid and nitrofurantoin.The intermediate strains or drug resistant strains were not found.The sensitive rate to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and clindamycin,erythromycin,tetracycline were 84.0%,84.0%,71.4%,39.3% and 8.9% respectively.Conclusion The carrying rate of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women is not high in our hospital.Penicillin and cefazolin should be as the drug of first choice for therapy and the clincal and laboratory nould payattention to detection of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women.

  6. Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemolato, S.; Cabras, T.; Fanari, M.U.; Cau, F.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Manconi, B.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested Tβ4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of Tβ4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of Tβ4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. Tβ4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; Tβ4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that Tβ4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life. PMID:21263742

  7. [Bacterial infection as a cause of infertility in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleha, Radek; Boštíková, Vanda; Salavec, Miloslav; Mosio, Petra; Kusáková, Eva; Kukla, Rudolf; Mazurová, Jaroslava; Spliňo, Miroslav

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms which are present in the human urogenital tract may be involved in the development of inflammatory changes negatively affecting the genitals in both men and women. Pathological conditions due to inflammatory alterations may result in complete loss of fertility. Infections of the urogenital tract are responsible for 15% of all cases of infertility in couples. Negative impact on the human reproduction is mainly caused by direct damage to the genital tract mucosa by metabolic products of microorganisms or by induction of pro-inflammatory responses of the body. Another mechanism is indirect impact of microorganisms on the genital function. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on spermatogenesis and semen quality is important in men. Infections mainly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae represent the greatest risk in terms of permanent consequences for human reproduction. As for other sexually transmitted disorders, such as infections caused by Gardnerella vaginalis, urogenital mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas, the link between infection and infertility has been intensively researched.

  8. Involvement of the corticospinal tract in the control of human gait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Grey, Michael James; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Given the inherent mechanical complexity of human bipedal locomotion, and that complete spinal cord lesions in human leads to paralysis with no recovery of gait, it is often suggested that the corticospinal tract (CST) has a more predominant role in the control of walking in humans than in other...... animals. However, what do we actually know about the contribution of the CST to the control of gait? This chapter will provide an overview of this topic based on the premise that a better understanding of the role of the CST in gait will be essential for the design of evidence-based approaches...

  9. Role of urinary cathelicidin LL-37 and human β-defensin 1 in uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs...

  10. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  11. The nondecussating pathway of the dentatorubrothalamic tract in humans: human connectome-based tractographic study and microdissection validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Antonio; Comert, Ayhan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) is the major efferent cerebellar pathway arising from the dentate nucleus (DN) and decussating to the contralateral red nucleus (RN) and thalamus. Surprisingly, hemispheric cerebellar output influences bilateral limb movements. In animals, uncrossed projections from the DN to the ipsilateral RN and thalamus may explain this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomy of the dentatorubrothalamic connections in humans. METHODS The authors applied advanced deterministic fiber tractography to a template of 488 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (Q1-Q3 release, WU-Minn HCP consortium) and validated the results with microsurgical dissection of cadaveric brains prepared according to Klingler's method. RESULTS The authors identified the "classic" decussating DRTT and a corresponding nondecussating path (the nondecussating DRTT, nd-DRTT). Within each of these 2 tracts some fibers stop at the level of the RN, forming the dentatorubro tract and the nondecussating dentatorubro tract. The left nd-DRTT encompasses 21.7% of the tracts and 24.9% of the volume of the left superior cerebellar peduncle, and the right nd-DRTT encompasses 20.2% of the tracts and 28.4% of the volume of the right superior cerebellar peduncle. CONCLUSIONS The connections of the DN with the RN and thalamus are bilateral, not ipsilateral only. This affords a potential anatomical substrate for bilateral limb motor effects originating in a single cerebellar hemisphere under physiological conditions, and for bilateral limb motor impairment in hemispheric cerebellar lesions such as ischemic stroke and hemorrhage, and after resection of hemispheric tumors and arteriovenous malformations. Furthermore, when a lesion is located on the course of the dentatorubrothalamic system, a careful preoperative tractographic analysis of the relationship of the DRTT, nd-DRTT, and the lesion should be performed in order to tailor the surgical approach properly

  12. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably.

  13. Conduction velocity of the human spinothalamic tract as assessed by laser evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruccu, G.; Iannetti, G. D.; Agostino, R.

    2000-01-01

    To study the conduction velocity of the spinothalamic tract (STT) we delivered CO2 laser pulses, evoking pinprick sensations, to the skin overlying the vertebral spinous processes at different spinal levels from C5 to T10 and recorded evoked potentials (LEPs) in 15 healthy human subjects. These s......To study the conduction velocity of the spinothalamic tract (STT) we delivered CO2 laser pulses, evoking pinprick sensations, to the skin overlying the vertebral spinous processes at different spinal levels from C5 to T10 and recorded evoked potentials (LEPs) in 15 healthy human subjects....... These stimuli yielded large-amplitude vertex potentials consisting of a negative wave at a peak latency of about 200 ms followed by a positive wave at a peak latency of about 300 ms. The mean conduction velocity of the STT was 21 m/s, i.e. higher than the reported velocity of the corresponding primary sensory...

  14. Global gene expression profiling of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 in the human urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    long-term bladder colonization. The strain has been used for prophylactic purposes in patients prone to more severe and recurrent UTIs. For this study, we used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract. Significant differences in expression levels were......Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important health problem worldwide, with many million cases each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTIs in humans. The asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli strain 83972 is an excellent colonizer of the human urinary tract, where it causes...

  15. Identification and localization of soluble sulfotransferases in the human gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Teubner, Wera; Meinl, Walter; Florian, Simone; Kretzschmar, Michael; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soluble sulfotransferases (SULTs) are important in the regulation of messenger molecules and the elimination of xenobiotics. However, sulfo-conjugation of various substrates can also lead to the formation of reactive metabolites that may induce cancer and cause other damage. Our aim was to identify the SULT forms expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract, especially colon and rectum (common sites for cancer) and to determine their cellular localization. Normal colonic ...

  16. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion structures along the human digestive tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. All the functions of the digestive system are controlled, guided and initiated by the autonomic nervous system. A special part of this system placed in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract is known as the enteric or metasympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyse myenteric nervous plexus in different parts of the digestive tract. Methods. We examined the myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and rectum in tissue samples taken from 30 cadavers of persons aged 20-84 years. After standard histological processing sections were stained with hematoxylineosin, cresyl violet (CV and AgNO3 method. Multipurpose test system M42 was used in morphometric analysis. The results were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. Results. The number of neurons per cm2 surface was the lowest in the esophagus (2.045 ± 310.30 and the largest in the duodenum (65,511 ± 5,639. The statistical processing showed significant differences (p < 0.001 in the number of neurons between the esophagus and all other parts of the digestive tract. The maximal value of the average surface of the myenteric nervous plexus neurons was observed in the esophagus (588.93 ± 30.45 μm2 and the lowest in the stomach (296.46 ± 22.53 μm2. Conclusion. There are differences in the number of ganglion cells among different parts of the human digestive tract. The differences range from a few to several tens of thousands of neuron/cm2. The myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus was characterized by a significantly smaller number of neurons but their bodies and nuclei are significantly larger compared to other parts of the digestive tract.

  17. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  18. Warts (non-genital)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; cimetidine; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde; homeopathy; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; topical salicylic acid; and zinc sulphate. PMID:21726478

  19. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    , since it is not solely dependent on VDR expression, but also on cellular uptake of circulating VD and presence and activity of VD metabolizing enzymes. Expression of VD metabolizing enzymes has not previously been investigated in human testis and male reproductive tract. Therefore, we performed......The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex...

  20. Protection of human upper respiratory tract cell lines against sulphur mustard toxicity by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, D J; Lindsay, C D

    1998-07-01

    1. Sulphur mustard ('mustard gas', HD) is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent which affects the skin and respiratory tract. The primary targets of inhaled HD are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) has been shown to protect human lung cells against HD toxicity and has also been shown to be effective in vivo against the chemical warfare agent phosgene. The ability of HMT to protect against the toxicity of HD was investigated in the human upper respiratory tract cell lines BEAS-2B and RPMI 2650. 2. HD was highly toxic to both cell lines, with LC50 values of 15-30 microM. HMT, at a concentration of 10 mM, was shown to protect the cell lines against the toxic effects of 20 microM and 40 microM HD. Results demonstrated that it was necessary for HMT to be in situ at the time of exposure to HD for effective cytoprotection. No protection was seen when cells were treated with HMT following exposure to HD, or where HMT was removed prior to HD exposure. 3. Results suggest that HMT may be effective prophylaxis for exposure to HD by inhalation.

  1. In vivo Measurement of Unattached Radon Progeny Deposited in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterweck, G.; Vezzu, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A

    2001-07-01

    Seven nose breathing and seven mouth breathing volunteers were exposed to atmospheres enriched with unattached radon progeny ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). The activity of these radionuclides deposited in the respiratory track was measured in vivo after the exposures. The results of these measurements are in agreement with predictions calculated with the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model. Temporal analysis of the activity deposited in the heads of the volunteers leads to the conclusion that a significant amount of the deposited activity associated with particle diameters of about 1 nm is not subject to a fast transport to the gastrointestinal tract as generally reported for larger aerosol particles. (author)

  2. [THE MICRO-ECOLOGY OF DIGESTIVE TRACT AS AN INDICATOR OF HUMAN HEALTH CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoukina, A M; Mikhailova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Mironov A Yu; Alekseeva, Yu A

    2015-06-01

    The study was carried out to analyze qualitative and quantitative parameters of oral fluid and feces in 74 healthy individuals of different age groups. In most of the cases, alterations of micro-ecology are established characterizing by decreasing of amount of indigenous micro-flora and increasing of number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms of genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Candida. The degree of evidence of these alterations reliably increases with age. It is established that microbiota, initial and terminal biotopes of digestive tract are closely interrelated and have number of common characteristics depending on age, hormonal and immune status and reflect conditions of micro-biocenosis of digestive tract in general. The character and degree of evidence of alterations of micro-biocenosis can be an effective diagnostic criterion for complex evaluation of human health conditions with following formation of risk groups in need of particular volume of correction activities.

  3. Second heart field and the development of the outflow tract in human embryonic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Ping; Li, Hai-Rong; Cao, Xi-Mei; Wang, Qin-Xue; Qiao, Cong-Jin; Ya, Jing

    2013-04-01

    The second heart field (SHF) is indicated to contribute to the embryonic heart development. However, less knowledge is available about SHF development of human embryo due to the difficulty of collecting embryos. In this study, serial sections of human embryos from Carnegie stage 10 (CS10) to CS16 were stained with antibodies against Islet-1 (Isl-1), Nkx2.5, GATA4, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) to observe spatiotemporal distribution of SHF and its contribution to the development of the arterial pole of cardiac tube. Our findings suggest that during CS10 to CS12, SHF of the human embryo is composed of the bilateral pharyngeal mesenchyme, the central mesenchyme of the branchial arch and splanchnic mesoderm of the pericardial cavity dorsal wall. With development, SHF translocates and consists of ventral pharyngeal mesenchyme and dorsal wall of the pericardial cavity. Hence, the SHF of human embryo shows a dynamic spatiotemporal distribution pattern. The formation of the Isl-1 positive condense cell prongs provides an explanation for the saddle structure formation at the distal pole of the outflow tract. In human embryo, the Isl-1 positive cells of SHF may contribute to the formation of myocardial outflow tract (OFT) and the septum during different development stages.

  4. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

  5. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain.

  6. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  7. Inverted papilloma of the cervix and vagina: report of 2 cases of a rare lesion associated with human papillomavirus 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennell, Claire; Jamison, Jackie; Wells, Michael; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of a lesion that we term inverted papilloma of the lower female genital tract, occurring in the cervix and upper vagina of 60- and 50-year-old women, respectively. Microscopically, the features were similar to those of inverted transitional papilloma of the urinary bladder with interconnecting islands, trabeculae, and solid sheets of bland transitional epithelium with an inverted growth pattern. There were small foci of squamous and glandular differentiation in the cervical case. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping revealed human papillomavirus type 42 in both cases. Inverted papilloma in the lower female genital tract is extremely rare with, as far as we are aware, only 3 previously reported similar cases in the cervix and none in the vagina. Our results suggest that these neoplasms when occurring in the lower female genital tract may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus, perhaps specifically human papillomavirus 42. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of BLT humanized mice to investigate the immune reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Angela; Victor Garcia, J

    2014-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ has its own well-developed and fully functional immune organization that is similar and yet different in many important ways to the rest of the immune system. Both a compromised and an overactive immune system in the gut can have dire and severe consequences to human health. It has therefore been of great interest to develop animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the human condition to better understand the interplay of the host immune system with its friends and its foes. However, reconstitution of the GI tract in humanized mice has been difficult and highly variable in different systems. A better molecular understanding of the development of the gut immune system in mice has provided critical cues that have been recently used to develop novel humanized mouse models that fully recapitulate the genesis and key functions of the gut immune system of humans. Of particular interest is the presence of human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) aggregates in the gut of NOD/SCID BLT humanized mice that demonstrate the faithful development of bona fide human plasma cells capable of migrating to the lamina propria and producing human IgA1 and IgA2.

  9. Genital injuries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  10. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  11. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  12. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston JR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer R HuddlestonBiology Department, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, USAAbstract: Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed.Keywords: gut microbiome, conjugation, natural transformation, transduction

  13. Genetic Risk for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Humans: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zaffanello; Malerba, G.; Cataldi, L; Antoniazzi, F.; M. Franchini; Monti, E.; Fanos, V.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in children and adults and affect up to 10% of children; its recurrence rate is estimated at 30–40%. UTI may occur in up to 50% of all women in their lifetimes and frequently require medication. Recent advances have suggested that a deregulation of candidate genes in humans may predispose patients to recurrent UTI. The identification of a genetic component of UTI recurrences will make it possible to diagnose at-risk adults and ...

  14. Genital/Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience genital itching, burning, and sometimes a "cottage cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Men with genital candidiasis may ... number of Candida organisms are present. A fungal culture may not always be useful because Candida species ...

  15. The fingerprint of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota: a hypothesis of molecular mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, G; Mazzola, M; Jurjus, A; Cappello, F; Carini, F; Damiani, P; Gerges Geagea, A; Zeenny, M N; Leone, A

    2017-01-01

    The precise etiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IDB) remains unclear and several factors are believed to play a role in its development and progression, including the composition of microbial communities resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Human intestinal microbiota are extensive with at least 15,000-36,000 bacterial species. However, thanks to the new development in sequencing and molecular taxonomic methodologies, our understanding of the microbiota population composition, dynamics, and ecology has greatly increased. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the maintenance of the host intestinal barrier homeostasis, while dysbiosis, which involves reduction in the microbiome diversity, can lead to progression of inflammatory disorders, such as IBD and colorectal cancer. It is hypothesized that fingerprinting characterization of the microbiota community composition is the first step in the study of this complex bacterial ecosystem and a crucial step in the targeted therapy. Molecular fingerprinting of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota could be performed by different techniques including the semi quantitation, 16SrRNA, the DNA- microarray as well as other relatively new methods which were developed to study many complex bacterial ecosystems. These techniques provide individual data and profiles, using fast and sensitive tools for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota and provide estimation of the relative presence of the microbial target groups within each individual. Such personalized information serves as a remarkable and unprecedented opportunity to improve targeted medical treatment and probably develop strategies to prevent disease.

  16. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Genetic Risk for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Humans: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaffanello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a frequent cause of morbidity in children and adults and affect up to 10% of children; its recurrence rate is estimated at 30–40%. UTI may occur in up to 50% of all women in their lifetimes and frequently require medication. Recent advances have suggested that a deregulation of candidate genes in humans may predispose patients to recurrent UTI. The identification of a genetic component of UTI recurrences will make it possible to diagnose at-risk adults and to predict genetic recurrences in their offspring. Six out of 14 genes investigated in humans may be associated with susceptibility to recurrent UTI in humans. In particular, the HSPA1B, CXCR1 & 2, TLR2, TLR4, TGF-1 genes seem to be associated with an alteration of the host response to UTIs at various levels.

  18. Genetic risk for recurrent urinary tract infections in humans: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, M; Malerba, G; Cataldi, L; Antoniazzi, F; Franchini, M; Monti, E; Fanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in children and adults and affect up to 10% of children; its recurrence rate is estimated at 30-40%. UTI may occur in up to 50% of all women in their lifetimes and frequently require medication. Recent advances have suggested that a deregulation of candidate genes in humans may predispose patients to recurrent UTI. The identification of a genetic component of UTI recurrences will make it possible to diagnose at-risk adults and to predict genetic recurrences in their offspring. Six out of 14 genes investigated in humans may be associated with susceptibility to recurrent UTI in humans. In particular, the HSPA1B, CXCR1 & 2, TLR2, TLR4, TGF-beta1 genes seem to be associated with an alteration of the host response to UTIs at various levels.

  19. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  20. Female genital mutilation: medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2010-12-01

    The rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women still persists in South Africa. Both economically and socially the HIV/AIDS pandemic strikes women the hardest, with disadvantaged black women mainly at risk of higher infection. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the connection between HIV/AIDS, sexual inequalities and sexual violence, and more precisely, female genital mutilation, a cultural practice and custom which amplifies women's exposure to HIV. Pertinent to this focus is inescapably an analysis of apparent threats to precise essential human rights as a result of the continued use of the practice of female genital mutilation in South Africa.

  1. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  2. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  3. Somatotopic organization of the white matter tracts underpinning motor control in humans: an electrical stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-09-01

    The somatotopic organization of the primary motor cortex is well documented. However, a possible somatotopy of the network involved in motor control, i.e., eliciting negative motor phenomena during electrostimulation, is unknown in humans, particularly at the subcortical level. Here, we performed electrical stimulation mapping in awake patients operated for gliomas, to study the distribution of the white matter tracts subserving movement control of the lower limb, upper limb(s), and speech. Eighteen patients underwent awake surgery for frontal low-grade gliomas, by using intraoperative subcortical electrostimulation mapping to search interference with movement of the leg, arm(s), and face. We assessed the negative motor responses and their distribution throughout the tracts located under premotor areas. The corresponding stimulation sites were reported on a standard brain template for visual analysis and between-subjects comparisons. During stimulation of the white matter underneath the dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, rostral to the corticospinal tracts, all patients experienced cessation of the movement of lower and upper limbs, of bimanual coordination, and/or speech. These subcortical sites were somatotopically distributed. Indeed, stimulation of the fibers from mesial to lateral directions and from posterior to anterior directions evoked arrest of movement of the lower limb (mesially and posteriorly), upper limb(s), and face/speech (laterally and anteriorly). There were no postoperative permanent deficits. This is the first evidence of a somatotopic organization of the white matter bundles underpinning movement control in humans. A better knowledge of the distribution of this motor control network may be helpful in neurosciences and neurosurgery.

  4. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  5. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  6. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  7. Prevalence of Genital Tuberculosis among Infertile Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is a kind of infectious diseases with a relatively high prevalence in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Cochrane databases (from 1980 to the present, date of last search March 2016 was carried out using the search keywords tuberculosis, genital tuberculosis, female genital, genital tract, genital system, female infertility, endometrial tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy, bacteriological, tuberculin antigen, histological, infertility, fallopian tube diseases, prevalence, rate, percent in order to find the studies which have reported the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. Data were extracted from retrieved studies and a meta-analysis was done. 23 studies were found. In these studies a total of 4361 infertile women have been studied. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women with 95% confidence interval was 24.2% (18.5-29.99. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women is high. It seems that exact planning and action for the prevention and treatment of genital tuberculosis can reduce the infertility prevalence and prevent the negative consequences of infertility

  8. Host-specific induction of Escherichia coli fitness genes during human urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Hazen, Tracy H; Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Smith, Sara N; Ernst, Robert D; Rasko, David A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-12-23

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant etiological agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI), manifested by inflammation of the urinary bladder, in humans and is a major global public health concern. Molecular pathogenesis of UPEC has been primarily examined using murine models of UTI. Translational research to develop novel therapeutics against this major pathogen, which is becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant, requires a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis during human UTIs. Total RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and comparative transcriptional analysis of UTI samples to the UPEC isolates cultured in human urine and laboratory medium were used to identify novel fitness genes that were specifically expressed during human infection. Evidence for UPEC genes involved in ion transport, including copper efflux, nickel and potassium import systems, as key fitness factors in uropathogenesis were generated using an experimental model of UTI. Translational application of this study was investigated by targeting Cus, a bacterial copper efflux system. Copper supplementation in drinking water reduces E. coli colonization in the urinary bladder of mice. Additionally, our results suggest that anaerobic processes in UPEC are involved in promoting fitness during UTI in humans. In summary, RNA-seq was used to establish the transcriptional signature in UPEC during naturally occurring, community acquired UTI in women and multiple novel fitness genes used by UPEC during human infection were identified. The repertoire of UPEC genes involved in UTI presented here will facilitate further translational studies to develop innovative strategies against UTI caused by UPEC.

  9. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  10. Various hysterosalpingography findings of female genital tuberculosis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Afzali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients. Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG. Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis

  11. White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Letendre, Scott L; Alhassoon, Omar M; Jacobus, Joanna; Woods, Steven P; Jernigan, Terry L; Ellis, Ronald J; Frank, Lawrence R; Grant, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive impairment and antiretroviral treatment variables. Participants included 39 HIV-infected individuals (49% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]; mean CD4 = 529) and 25 seronegative subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were mapped onto a common whole-brain white matter tract skeleton, allowing between-subject voxelwise comparisons. The total HIV-infected group exhibited abnormal white matter in the internal capsule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiation; whereas those with AIDS exhibited more widespread damage, including in the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Cognitive impairment in the HIV-infected group was related to white matter injury in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. White matter injury was not found to be associated with HIV viral load or estimated CNS penetration of antiretrovirals. Diffusion tensor imaging was useful in identifying changes in white matter tracts associated with more advanced HIV infection. Relationships between diffusion alterations in specific white matter tracts and cognitive impairment support the potential utility of diffusion tensor imaging in examining the anatomical underpinnings of HIV-related cognitive impairment. The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment.

  12. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  13. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  14. STUDY OF GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS IN INFERTILE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To determine the incidence of female Genital Tuberculosis (GTB and to analyse clinicopathological features for GTB and comparison of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB staining and Histopathology (HPR. STUDY SETTING A prospective study conducted on 50 infertile patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Krishna Hospital, Karad, for a period of 2 years between December 2013 and December 2015. METHODS Patients were investigated for the presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB on samples collected by endometrial curettage by PCR, AFB and HPR. Additional tests like Hysterosalpingography (HSG Laparoscopic chromopertubation and hysteroscopy were performed if not done earlier. RESULT PCR demonstrated MTB DNA in 9 patients, and 2 were positive with AFB and HPR. Within positive patients HSG findings were suggestive of TB in 3 cases and laparoscopy in 5 cases and hysteroscopy in 4 cases. Two MTB PCR positive patients conceived spontaneously after 6 months of anti-tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION Genital tuberculosis is a diagnostic challenge if untreated it is chronic, progressive and destructive disease. Early diagnosis is crucial because once the infection damages the tubes, reverting tubal patency is very difficult. Molecular tests like DNA PCR have enabled us to detect the organism in its latent stage and initiation of treatment early in the disease can prevent many irreversible changes in the female genital tract.

  15. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Gao; Yu Kang; Jun Yu; Lufeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respi-ratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pha-ryngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treat-ment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections.

  16. Lab experiment using physical models of the human vocal tract for high-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Arai, Takayuki; Saika, Noriko; Murahara, Yuji

    2002-11-01

    Recently, the development of educational tools for acoustics has become popular in Japan. We believe that physical models of the human vocal tract are particularly useful for teaching acoustics. Formerly we proposed three models of the vocal tract corresponding to the Japanese vowels, /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/. We presented cylindrical, nasalized, and plate type models. The models were made of transparent acrylic resin, enabling the configurations of the oral cavity to be seen from the outside of the model. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of a lab experiment in which we used these tools to teach the mechanism of vowel production to high-school students who had just finished studying basic acoustics. By manipulating the plates in the plate type model, students were able to simulate constrictions at nodes and antinodes, and they were able to hear the shift in formant frequencies. The exercise helped students to understand vowel production. We received positive feedback from those who participated in the experiment.

  17. New approach to managing genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  18. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  19. Tumor growth effects of rapamycin on human biliary tract cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuer Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with liver-originated tumors including biliary tract carcinomas (BTCs. Post-transplant tumor recurrence remains a limiting factor for long-term survival. The mammalian target of rapamycin-targeting immunosuppressive drug rapamycin could be helpful in lowering BTC recurrence rates. Therein, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of rapamycin on BTC cells and compared it with standard immunosuppressants. Methods We investigated two human BTC cell lines. We performed cell cycle and proliferation analyses after treatment with different doses of rapamycin and the standard immunosuppressants, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. Results Rapamycin inhibited the growth of two BTC cell lines in vitro. By contrast, an increase in cell growth was observed among the cells treated with the standard immunosuppressants. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that rapamycin inhibits BTC cell proliferation and thus might be the preferred immunosuppressant for patients after a liver transplantation because of BTC.

  20. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  1. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmeier, D

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psycholog...

  2. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  5. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  6. Use of AffiProbe HPV test kit for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital scrapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranki, M; Leinonen, A W; Jalava, T. (Tiina); Nieminen, P.; Soares, V R; Paavonen, J; Kallio, A

    1990-01-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical and vaginal scrapes was analyzed by the AffiProbe HPV test kit (Orion Corp., Orion Pharmaceutica, Helsinki, Finland), which is a 1-day solution hybridization test for HPV type 6/11, 16, or 18. The AffiProbe test was compared with a commercially available dot blot test (ViraPap and ViraType tests; Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.). The study group consisted of 178 patients seen in a gynecological outpatient clinic. Altogether,...

  7. Fimbriation, capsulation, and iron-scavenging systems of Klebsiella strains associated with human urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, A M; Allen, B L; Williams, P H; Kauppi, M; Haahtela, K; Siitonen, A; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Clegg, S; Korhonen, T K

    1992-03-01

    Thirty-two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and seven strains of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from urinary tract infections in elderly adults were analyzed for capsular antigens, iron-scavenging systems, and fimbriation. All strains were capsulated. Twenty-seven different K antigens were identified among the strains, with no particular antigen dominating. All strains produced the iron-scavenging system enterochelin as analyzed by bioassay and DNA hybridization. In contrast, the aerobactin iron-sequestering system was not detected in any of the strains. All strains caused hemagglutination of tannin-treated human erythrocytes and reacted with an anti-type 3 fimbriae antiserum as well as in DNA hybridization with a type 3 fimbria-specific probe, indicating that the Klebsiella strains possessed this fimbrial type. Possession of type 1 fimbriae was analyzed by agglutination tests and by hybridization with DNA probes from two distinct Klebsiella type 1 fimbria gene clusters. Phenotypic expression of the type 1 fimbriae was found in 29 of 32 K. pneumoniae strains, whereas 30 strains reacted with either of the two type 1 fimbrial cluster DNA probes. In K. oxytoca, however, only three of seven strains expressed type 1 fimbriae and reacted with the DNA probes. The type 3 fimbriae were found to bind to a fraction of epithelial cells exfoliated in normal human urine, whereas the type 1 fimbriae bound strongly to urinary slime. No inhibitors of type 3 fimbrial binding were detected in human urine.

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor tractography of the corticopontocerebellar tract in the human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Heon Hong; Sung Ho Jang

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical organization of the corticopontocerebellar tract (CPCT) in the human brain remains poorly understood.The present study investigated probabilistic tractography of the CPCT in the human brain using diffusion tensor tractography with functional magnetic resonance imaging.CPCT data was obtained from 14 healthy subjects.CPCT images were obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor tractography,revealing that the CPCT originated from the primary sensorimotor cortex and descended to the pontine nucleus through the corona radiata,the posterior limb of the internal capsule,and the cerebral peduncle.After crossing the pons through the transverse pontine fibers,the CPCT entered the cerebellum via the middle cerebral peduncle.However,some variation was detected in the midbrain (middle cerebral peduncle and/or medial lemniscus) and pons (ventral and/or dorsal transverse pontine fibers).The CPCT was analyzed in 3 dimensions from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum.These results could be informative for future studies of motor control in the human brain.

  9. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  10. Differential expression of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tracts of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Widagdo; V.S. Raj (Stalin); D. Schipper (Debby); K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); A. Bensaid (Albert); J. Segalés (Joaquim); W. Baumgärtner (Wolfgang); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-02-04

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Mignolet et al.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a human commensal bacterium highly prevalent in the digestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular

  13. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a human commensal bacterium highly prevalent in the digestive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence ofStreptococcus salivariusHSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides.

  15. The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    In healthy human subjects, descending motor pathways including the corticospinal tract were stimulated electrically at the level of the cervicomedullary junction to determine the effects on the discharge of motoneurones innervating the biceps brachii. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) were co...

  16. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their

  17. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  18. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  19. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  20. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  1. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  2. On the behavior of particles in the human respiratory tract. Ueber das Verhalten von Aerosolteilchen im menschlichen Atemtrakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlhofen, W.; Scheuch, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The results of a series of inhalation experiments (nose- as well as mouth-breathing) are the basis for an estimation of particle behavior in the whole human respiratory tract and in certain regions as extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and alveolar region. Particle behavior depends on the breathing parameters and on particle diameter. Additionally the clearance function of the tracheobronchial tract is given. The clearance is shown to be slowed down for particles being smaller than six micrometers. This fact cannot be neglected in case dosis effect relations are calculated. The corresponding consequences are discussed. (orig.).

  3. Assessing genital human papillomavirus genoprevalence in young Australian women following the introduction of a national vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sarah L; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Brotherton, Julia M L; Cornall, Alyssa M; Wark, John D; Wrede, C David; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Gertig, Dorota M; Pitts, Marian K; Garland, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Following the implementation of Australia's National HPV Vaccination Program in April 2007, this study evaluated the prevalence of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst vaccine-eligible young women. Between September 2011 and August 2013, women from Victoria, Australia aged 18-25 were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire, and sexually active women were asked to provide a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and genotyping. Samples positive for HPV were genotyped using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics). Self-reported HPV vaccination details were verified with the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). Of 431 vaginal swabs, 24.8% were positive for HPV DNA. Vaccine-targeted HPV genotypes were detected in only seven (1.6%) samples; all HPV 16 (of the six HPV 16 positive vaccinated women, all had received the vaccine after sexual debut). There were no cases of HPV 6, 11 or 18 identified. HPV types 51, 59, 73, 84, and 89 were the most prevalent genotypes. Vaccination rates were high, with 77.3% of participants having received all three doses of the vaccine, and there was an 89.8% concordance between self-reported and registry-reported HPV vaccination status. Strong associations were observed between vaccination status, age, language spoken at home and country of birth, as well as between HPV detection and the number of male sexual partners. Preliminary data from this study demonstrate a very low prevalence of vaccine-related HPV genotypes amongst vaccine-eligible women from Victoria, Australia. We were able to use Facebook to effectively reach and recruit young women to participate in the assessment of the impact of Australia's HPV vaccination program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  7. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  8. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, {sup 18}F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses.

  9. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  10. 四川东北地区女性生殖道感染沙眼衣原体、淋球菌和解脲脲原体的结果分析%Analysis on detection results of Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in female genital tract in northeast Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许媛; 方莉; 赵维皎; 赵明才; 谢宁; 苏中龙; 廖涛; 黄义山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the infection status and variation tendency of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) ,Neisseria gonorrhoe-ae(NG) and ureaplasma urealyticum(UU) in female genital tract in northeast Sichuan province during 2005 -2012 to provide the laboratory basis for their diagnosis and treatment Methods The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to detect the CT DNA ,NG DNA and UU DNA in 1 386 samples from female genital tract and the detection results were performed the statistical analysis .Results The total positive rate of these 3 kinds of pathogens was 62 .8% (871/1 386) .Among the simple in-fection ,UU had the highest positive rate(48 .0% ,665/1 386);the positive rates of CT and NG were only 2 .2% .In the mixed infec-tion ,the positive rate of CT + UU was highest(6 .5% ,90/1 386) ,while which of UU + NG ,CT + NG and CT+ NG+ UU was 2 .5% (35/1 386) ,0 .4% (5/1 386) and 1 .1% (15/1 386) respectively .In different age groups ,the positive rate in the age 20 years old groups were all more than 60% .The positive rate of the CT ,NG and UU pathogens in females was in continuous high level during 2005 -2012 ,and which totally showed an increasing tendency . Conclusion CT and UU are the main pathogens in female genital tract infection in this region ,and the positive rate of genital tract infection in females aged more than 20 years is higher ,the infection rate of these 3 kinds of pathogens demonstrates the increasing trend year by year ,so more attention should be paid to the detection of CT and UU in this group for guiding the clinicians to con-duct the diagnosis and treatment .%目的:分析川东北地区2005~2012年女性生殖道沙眼衣原体(CT)、淋球菌(NG)和解脲脲原体(UU)感染状况及变化趋势,为该类患者的诊断和治疗提供实验室依据。方法应用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)技术对1386例女性生殖道标本进行CT、NG、UU病原体DNA检测,并对结果进行统计分析。结果3

  11. Intersexual stages. Ambiguous genitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador G. Carrillo Soriano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that every newborn that presents a confused aspect of external genitalia, that does not permit to define his phenotypic sex, has Ambiguous Genitals. It includes real cases of intersex abnormalities, or those with severe hypospadia and bilateral chryptorchidism. In spite of the large advances in genetic, hormonal regulation and molecular biology studies in intersex abnormalities, today continues being motive of confussion when a doctor found a newborn with ambiguous genitalia. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intersex and ambiguos genitalia, approved by consensus in the 4th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Las Tunas, Cuba, March, 2005.

  12. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeier, D.

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psychological aspects of counselling before testing for serum herpes simplex type 2 antibodies are also discussed. 




 PMID:9849561

  13. Genital sores - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Atlasing location, asymmetry and inter-subject variability of white matter tracts in the human brain with MR diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Ffytche, Dominic H; Bizzi, Alberto; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Allin, Matthew; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin; Williams, Steven C; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a white matter atlas of the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and to describe the constant and variable features of the major pathways. DTI was acquired from 40 healthy right-handed adults and reconstructed tracts mapped within a common reference space (MNI). Group effect maps of each tract defined constant anatomical features while overlap maps were generated to study inter-subject variability and to compare DTI derived anatomy with a histological atlas. Two patients were studied to assess the localizing validity of the atlas. The DTI-derived maps are overall consistent with a previously published histological atlas. A statistically significant leftward asymmetry was found for the volume and number of streamlines of the cortico-spinal tract and the direct connections between Broca's and Wernicke's territories (long segment). A statistically significant rightward asymmetry was found for the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the fronto-parietal connections (anterior segment) of the arcuate fasciculus. Furthermore, males showed a left lateralization of the fronto-temporal segment of the arcuate fasciculus (long segment), while females had a more bilateral distribution. In two patients with brain lesions, DTI was acquired and tractography used to show that the tracts affected by the lesions were correctly identified by the atlas. This study suggests that DTI-derived maps can be used together with a previous histological atlas to establish the relationship of focal lesions with nearby tracts and improve clinico-anatomical correlation.

  15. Age-related changes of the corticospinal tract in the human brain A diffusion tensor imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang; Sang-Hyun Cho; Mi Young Lee; Yong Hyun Kwon; Min Cheul Chang

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is one of the most important neural tracts for motor function in the human brain. Little is known about age-related changes of the CST. In this study, we tried to evaluate age-related changes of the CST using diffusion tensor imaging in 60 healthy subjects. The diffusion tensor imaging result revealed that the tract number and fractional anisotropy value were decreased, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was increased with aging. The distribution showed a semilog pattern for tract number, fractional anisotropy and ADC of the CST, and the pattern of each graph was near-linear. When compared with the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of subjects in the 20 s age group, tract number and fractional anisotropy values were significantly decreased in the 50 s–70 s age groups. Likewise, the ADC value was significantly higher in the 50 s–70 s age groups. The CST in the brain of normal subjects degenerated continuously from the 20 s to the 70 s, with a near-linear pattern, and degeneration of the CST began to manifest significantly in the subjects in their 50 s, compared with the subjects in their 20 s.

  16. Enterobius vermicularis in the male urinary tract: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariou Athanasios

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode of humans. Adults usually have low worm burdens and are asymptomatic. Ectopic infections in the pelvic area or urinary tract rarely occur in women. We report a case of the patient with mild voiding difficulties such as urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria, mild low back pain or perineal discomfort. The patient's prostatic secretions showed a large number of inflammatory cells and several eggs. The size and the shape of the eggs identified them as a group of E. vermicularis. On examination we found a soft palpable material which was 5 mm diameter in size and spherical shape. Palpation gave the impression of a tissue than a stone. An incision was performed and a 4 mm long living worm was found. The microscopic examination identified the worm as E- vermicularis. It is an extremely rare manifestation of enterobius vermicularis infection since an intestinal-breeding worm is rarely found in the male genital tract.

  17. Pyramidal tract abnormalities in the human fetus and infant with trisomy 18 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Miyata, Mio; Ohama, Eisaku

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome is known to exhibit various developmental abnormalities in the central nervous system. We report dominant uncrossed pyramidal tract in trisomy 18 syndrome, based on the postmortem neuropathologic study of eight consecutive autopsied fetuses and infants with trisomy 18 ranging in age from 16 to 39 weeks of gestation, including six males and two females, along with autopsy cases of a stillborn triploid infant with 69XXX and two stillborn infants without chromosomal or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Five out of eight cases with trisomy 18 showed a larger proportion of uncrossed than crossed pyramidal tract. All of these cases were male, and the anterior corticospinal tract on one side was constantly larger than the contralateral lateral corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on both sides, while the pyramidal tract was hypoplastic in female cases with trisomy 18 and a case with 69XXX. Abnormal pyramidal decussation has been found in cases with posterior fossa malformations such as occipital encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, Joubert syndrome and Möbius syndrome, but has not been described in cases with trisomy 18. Our data, together with the previous reports describing uncrossed aberrant ipsilateral pyramidal tract in patients with congenital mirror movements caused by DCC gene mutation in chromosome 18, and hypolasia and hyperplasia of the pyramidal tract in X-linked recessive disorders caused by L1CAM and Kal1 gene mutations, respectively, suggest a role of trisomy 18 in association with X-chromosome in the abnormal development of the pyramidal tract.

  18. Glycosylation of human fetal mucins: a similar repertoire of O-glycans along the intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Maes, Emmanuel; Rousset, Monique; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Capon, Calliope

    2009-05-01

    Intestinal mucins are very high molecular weight glycoproteins secreted by goblet cells lining the crypt and the surface of the colonic mucosa. Profound alterations of mucin O-glycans are observed in diseases such as cancer and inflammation, modifying the function of the cell and its antigenic and adhesive properties. Based on immunohistochemical studies, certain cancer- and inflammation- associated glycans have been defined as oncofetal antigens. However, little or no chemical analysis has allowed the structural elucidation of O-glycans expressed on human fetal mucins. In this paper, mucins were isolated from different regions of the normal human intestine (ileum, right, transverse and left colon) of eight fetuses with A, B or O blood group. After alkaline borohydride treatment, the released oligosaccharides were investigated by nanoESI Q-TOF MS/MS (electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry). More than 117 different glycans were identified, mainly based on core 2 structures. Some core 1, 3 and 4 oligosaccharides were also found. Most of the structures were acidic with NeuAc residues mainly alpha2-6 linked to the N-acetylgalactosaminitol and sulphate residues 3-linked to galactose or 6-linked to GlcNAc. In contrast to adult human intestinal mucins, Sda/Cad determinants were not expressed on fetal mucin O-glycans and the presence of an acidic gradient along the intestinal tract was not observed. Similar patterns of glycosylation were found in each part of the intestine and the level of expression of the major oligosaccharides was in the same order of magnitude. This study could help determining new oncofetal antigens, which can be exploited for the diagnosis or the treatment of intestinal diseases.

  19. THALIDOMIDE: A THERAPEUTIC BOON IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RECURRENT GENITAL APHTHOUS ULCERATION IN AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubabu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genital lesions are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients. Aetiology of the genital lesions are mainly due to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and non-specific genital ulcers. They usually respond to the antiviral and antibacterial agents. We are presenting a young unmarried HIV positive and Hepatitis-B positive patient who presented with non-healing genital ulcer lesions while on antiretroviral therapy and showed variable response and challenges to treatment with antivirals, steroids, antibacterials and change of ART and finally dramatic response with Thalidomide therapy which is rarely described in the literature.

  20. A Computer Model for the Simulation of Nonspherical Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory Tract

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    Robert Sturm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study presented here deposition of spheres and nonspherical particles with various aspect ratios (0.01–100 in the human respiratory tract was theoretically modeled. Shape of the nonspherical particles was considered by the application of the latest aerodynamic diameter concepts. Particle deposition was predicted by using a stochastic model of the lung geometry and simulating particle transport trajectories according to the random-walk algorithm. Concerning fibers total deposition is significantly enhanced with respect to that of spheres for μm-sized particles, whereby at normal breathing conditions peripheral lung compartments serve as primary deposition targets. In the case of oblate disks, total deposition becomes mostly remarkable for submicron particles, with the bronchioli and alveoli being targeted to a high extent. Enhancement of the aerodynamic diameter and/or flow rate generally causes a displacement of deposition maxima from peripheral to more proximal lung regions. From these findings, it can be concluded that these particle classes may represent tremendous occupational hazards, especially if they are attached with radioactive elements or heavy metals.

  1. Reduction of azo dyes and nitroaromatic compounds by bacterial enzymes from the human intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii, F.; Cerniglia, C.E. [Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Several anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract are capable of reducing azo dyes and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the corresponding aromatic amines with enzymes that have azoreductase and nitroreductase activities. The majority of bacteria with these activities belong to the genera Clostridium and Eubacterium. The azoreductases and nitroreductases from three Clostridium strains and one Eubacterium strain were studied. Both enzymes were produced constitutively in each of the bacteria; the enzymes from various bacteria had different electrophoretic mobilities. The azoreductases from all of the bacteria had immunological homology, as was evident from the cross-reactivity of an antibody raised against the azoreductase of C perfringens with azoreductases from other bacteria. Comparison of azoreductases and nitroreductases showed that they both had identical electrophoretic mobilities on polyacrylamide gels and reacted with the antibody against the azoreductase from C. perfringens. Furthermore, the nitroaromatic compounds competitively inhibited the azoreductase activity. The data indicate that the reduction of both nitroaromatic compounds and azo dyes may be carried out by the same enzyme, which is possibly a flavin adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase that is synthesized throughout the cell and not associated with any organized subcellular structure. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Investigation of Microencapsulated BSH Active Lactobacillus in the Simulated Human GI Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 ± 0.28 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ± 0.15 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards tauroconjugates in the simulated intestine, a significant (P< .05 increase over microencapsulated wild-type cells. Microcapsules protected the encased cells in the simulated stomach prior to intestinal release, maintaining cell viability above 109 cfu/mL at pH 2.5 and 3.0 and above 106 cfu/mL at pH 2.0 after 2-hour residence times. In the simulated intestine, encased cell viability was maintained above 1010 cfu/mL after 3, 6, and 12-hour residence times in bile concentrations up to 1.0%. Results show that microencapsulation has potential in the oral delivery of live BSH active bacterial cells. However, in vivo testing is required.

  3. Molecular Analysis of Human Metapneumovirus Detected in Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Upper Egypt

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    Mona S. Embarek Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 2001, when Human metapneumovirus (HMPV was isolated in the Netherlands, the virus has been detected in several continents. Although reports have confirmed the prevalence of HMPV worldwide, data from Egypt remain limited. HMPV plays an important role in respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages particularly in children. This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of HMPV in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory infection in Upper Egypt and characterizing the circulating Egyptian HMPV strains for the first time. Materials and Methods. From 2005 to 2008, respiratory samples from 520 patients were analyzed for the presence of HMPV by real-time RT-PCR. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses were performed on partial fusion gene sequences of HMPV-positive patients. Results. HMPV-positive patients were detected in 2007-2008. The overall infection rate was 4%, while 57% of the patients were children. Sequence analysis demonstrated circulation of subgroup B viruses with predominance of lineage B2. Nucleotide sequence identity within lineage B1 was 98.8%–99.7% and higher than that in lineage B2 (94.3%–100%. Three new amino acid substitutions (T223N, R229K, and D280N of lineage B2 were observed. Conclusion. HMPV is a major viral pathogen in the Egyptian population especially in children. During 2007-2008, predominantly HMPV B2 circulated in Upper Egypt.

  4. A human case of urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda sp. larvae in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadawi, Walid K; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin B

    2017-01-01

    Urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda spp. involving human are very rare and present with unusual symptoms. Larvae belonging to Psychoda sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) were found in the urogenital tract of a 9-year-old girl, who lives in Tajoura, Libya, and had suffered from genital pruritus and moving larvae in urine. This is the first record of such case in Libya.

  5. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  6. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

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    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  7. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system.

  8. The Revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The new respiratory tract model is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive, argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses for radiation protection purposes. The new model is more complex than the current lung model because it describes deposition of inhaled radioactive material in the clearance from several tissues and regions of the respiratory tract and is applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  9. A CASE REPORT OF GIANT GENITAL WARTS

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    L. Grimaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant genital warts (GGW represent a rare form of sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, arising more frequently in the vulvar and perianal regions as large exophytic cauliflower-like mass. Estimated rate of recurrence is 60 to 66%, while malignant transformation is possible and it has been reported in 30 to 56% of cases. A 45- years-old woman was admitted to our Structure of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Siena, Italy with an extensive cauliflower- like masses diffused on vulvar and perianal region. The patient was treated in general anaesthesia, with a wide en bloc excision up to free clinical edges and immediate reconstruction of the vulvar continuity. Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant genital warts is a sporadic tumour with an elevate local recurrence rate. In some cases, surgery can be very difficult and it must be associated to other strategies. An accurate follow-up is always necessary

  10. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  11. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  12. Condiloma Acuminado (Verruga Genital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesión.

  13. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Thomas Berkemeier; Haijie Tong; Arangio, Andrea M.; Kurt Lucas; Ulrich Pöschl; Manabu Shiraiwa

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) con...

  14. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer E Bouchard

    Full Text Available A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial--especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics.

  15. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumanchipalli, Gopala K.; Dichter, Benjamin; Chaisanguanthum, Kris S.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial—especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics. PMID:27019106

  16. Human Coronavirus in the 2014 Winter Season as a Cause of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Han, Song Yi; Kim, Ho Seong; Cheong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sung Soon; Kim, Dong Soo

    2017-01-01

    During the late autumn to winter season (October to December) in the Republic of Korea, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (HCoV) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also LRTIs more commonly than in other years. Therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with HCoV infections at a single center in Korea. We retrospectively identified patients with positive HCoV respiratory specimens between October 2014 and December 2014 who were admitted to Severance Children's Hospital at Yonsei University Medical Center for LRTI. Charts of the patients with HCoV infection were reviewed and compared with RSV infection. During the study period, HCoV was the third most common respiratory virus and accounted for 13.7% of infections. Coinfection was detected in 43.8% of children with HCoV. Interestingly, one patient had both HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63. Mild pneumonia was most common (60.4%) with HCoV, and when combined with RSV, resulted in bronchiolitis. Two patients required care in the intensive care unit. However, compared with that of RSV infection, the disease course HCoV was short. Infections caused by HCoVs are common, and can cause LRTIs. During an epidemic season, clinicians should be given special consideration thereto. When combined with other medical conditions, such as neurologic or cardiologic diseases, intensive care unit (ICU) care may be necessary.

  17. Heat and water rate transfer processes in the human respiratory tract at various altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandjov, I M

    2001-02-01

    The process of the respiratory air conditioning as a process of heat and mass exchange at the interface inspired air-airways surface was studied. Using a model of airways (Olson et al., 1970) where the segments of the respiratory tract are like cylinders with a fixed length and diameter, the corresponding heat transfer equations, in the paper are founded basic rate exchange parameters-convective heat transfer coefficient h(c)(W m(-2) degrees C(-1)) and evaporative heat transfer coefficient h(e)(W m(-2)hPa(-1)). The rate transfer parameters assumed as sources with known heat power are connected to airflow rate in different airways segments. Relationships expressing warming rate of inspired air due to convection, warming rate of inspired air due to evaporation, water diffused in the inspired air from the airways wall, i.e. a system of air conditioning parameters, was composed. The altitude dynamics of the relations is studied. Every rate conditioning parameter is an increasing function of altitude. The process of diffusion in the peripheral bronchial generations as a basic transfer process is analysed. The following phenomenon is in effect: the diffusion coefficient increases with altitude and causes a compensation of simultaneous decreasing of O(2)and CO(2)densities in atmospheric air. Due to this compensation, the diffusion in the peripheral generations with altitude is approximately constant. The elements of the human anatomy optimality as well as the established dynamics are discussed and assumed. The square form of the airways after the trachea expressed in terms of transfer supposes (in view of maximum contact surface), that a maximum heat and water exchange is achieved, i.e. high degree of air condition at fixed environmental parameters and respiration regime.

  18. The human alimentary tract transfer and body retention of environmental polonium-210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Rumney, H S

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4 year study to investigate the human alimentary tract transfer factor (f(A) value) and body retention of 210 Po in shellfish. In the first 3 years, mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), cockles (Cerastoderma edule L.) and brown meat from crab (Cancer pagurus L.) were successively studied. In each year five volunteers (from a pool of seven) ate a suitable portion of the shellfish and provided 24 h samples of excreta usually for 3 days before and for at least 7 days during and after eating. Subsamples of shellfish were analysed to determine the intakes of 210 Po. Faeces were analysed and the data used to assess apparent fA values. Urine samples were analysed in the mussel and crab studies to provide urinary excretion parameters. Pb-210 was also analysed during the mussel study; the levels were low, leading to large uncertainties, but confirming the negligible effect of radioactive decay to its granddaughter 210 Po in the main study. In the fourth year, larger samples of brown crab meat were eaten by five volunteers and faecal samples were taken at suitable times over periods of up to 43 days to study body retention of 210 Po. The first approximately 7 days provided additional data on fA values. Pooled results for the apparent fA for the whole study lay in the range 0.15-0.65 with a mean of 0.46; corrections for endogenous excretion suggest a true fA value of approximately 0.51, supporting the value of 0.5 currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The retention data suggest a biological half-time of about 40 days, in broad consistency with the 50 days currently used by the ICRP. Thus there is no strong evidence from this study suggesting a change in dose coefficient for 210 Po. Full experimental data are provided to allow independent further interpretation.

  19. Drug sensitivity of ureaplasma unrealytium accompanying mycoplasma hominis infection in female genital tract and its therapeutic effect%女性生殖道解脲支原体合并人型支原体感染药敏分析及疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树琴; 王振国; 宋萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价联合用药与单独用药治疗女性生殖道感染的疗效.方法 将2009年10月-2010年10月我院妇科门诊就诊76例生殖道解脲支原体(Ureaplasma Urealyticum)合并人型支原体(Mycoplasma Hominis)感染患者随机分成2组.联合用药组:外阴阴道冲洗(0.9%氯化钠注射液稀释5%碘伏1:10),口服强力霉素每次4mg,1次/d,连服7d,同时干扰素栓剂置阴道深部,隔日1次,共14d.单独用药组:口服强力霉素每次4mg,1次/d,共7d.停药1周后行妇科检查,停药2周后做官颈支原体培养.结果 76例患者对强力霉素、交沙霉素、美满霉素较敏感,敏感率依次为61.9%、59.2%和50%,而对罗红霉素、螺旋霉素、克拉霉素高度耐药,耐药率依次为90.8%、88.2%和76.3%.联合用药组总有效率92.1%,单独用药组总有效率78.9%,有显著差异(P<0.001).结论 应用外用干扰素栓剂联合强力霉素比单独口服强力霉素治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体合并人型支原体感染效果好.%To evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined doxycycline and interferon suppository or doxycycline alone on female genital tract infection. Methods Seventy-six patients infected with ureaplasma unrealytium and mycoplasma hominis who visited our department from October 2009 to October 2010 were randomly divided into combined drug treatment group(group A) and single drug treatment group(group B). Vulvovagina of patients in group A was irrigated with 0.9% normal saline and 5% iodophor(l:10). Then, the patients were treated with doxycycline(4mg), once a day for 7 days. Interferon suppository was placed in the deep vagina, every other day for 14 days. Patients in group B were treated with oral doxycycline only(4mg), once a day for 7 days. One week after withdrawal of the drugs, the patients in two groups underwent gynecological examination. Two weeks after withdrawal of the drugs, mycoplasma from cervix was cultured. Results The sensitivity rate of the 76 patients to

  20. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  1. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaowen; Peng, Yun; Mishra, Virendra; Ouyang, Austin; Li, Hang; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Min; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation, and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length, and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc), hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh) and fornix (fx) were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE) algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2 years old followed by a slow increase to 25 years old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of the right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with mental

  2. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  3. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  4. Anatomic Problems of the Lower GI Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a thin membrane—this condition is also called anal atresia an anus that is missing or incorrectly placed a rectum that is not connected to the anus a rectum that is connected to the urinary tract or genitals by a fistula Although most girls with imperforate anus have a ...

  5. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  6. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  7. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to ca

  8. ANGPTL4 is produced by entero-endocrine cells in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alex, S.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Dijk, W.; Mensink, R.P.; Tan, N.S.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gut hormones produced by entero-endocrine cells (EEC) located throughout the gastrointestinal tract play a major role in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4, also referred to as fasting induced adipose factor) is a secreted factor involved in regulation of

  9. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to

  10. Do type 1 fimbriae promote inflammation in the human urinary tract?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsten, G.; Wullt, B.; Schembri, Mark;

    2007-01-01

    . This was unexpected, as type 1 fimbriae enhanced the inflammatory response to the same strain in the murine urinary tract and as P fimbrial expression by E. coli 83972 enhances adherence and inflammation in challenged patients. We conclude that type 1 fimbriae do not contribute to the mucosal inflammatory response...

  11. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  12. Seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air and resulting radiation dose to human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is essential to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics of the radon progenies, which are either attached or unattached to aerosol particles, because the dose is strongly dependent on the location of deposition in respiratory tract and hence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosol particles. This paper presents the seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air under domestic conditions at Nagoya University, Japan. A low pressure cascade impactor as an instrument for classifying aerosol sizes and imaging plate as a radiation detector have been employed to characterize the activity size distribution of short-lived radon decay products. In parallel, radon and its progenies concentrations were measured. Taking into account the progeny characteristics, the inhalation dose in the different seasons was also estimated based on a lung dose model with the structure that is related to the ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The result evident that, the highest dose 0.22 mSvy−1 was observed during the winter where the highest value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC and lowest value of the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD were found in this season; whereas, the dose in spring appeared to be lowest 0.02 mSvy−1.

  13. Detection of human papilloma virus in 249 cases of patients with genital warts%249例生殖器疣患者人乳头瘤病毒检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 邹先彪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes from outpatients with genital wart in Beijing.Method Flow cytometry HPV genotyping technique were used to detect and identify HPV genotypes from individual lesions. Result Among 249 cases of genital warts, 232 (93.17%) were DNA HPV positive. The positive rate of HPV single type was 63.86%, the positive rate of multiple type of HPV was 36.14%. The infection rate of low-risk HPV was 55.4%, in which HPV6 and HPV11 were the most popular genotypes. HPV16, HPV58, HPV18 were the most prevalent high-risk genotypes.Conclusion The peak of HPV infection concentrates in sexually active population younger than 40 years old. HPV6, HPV11 and HPV16 are the predominant genotypes for genital wart in Beijing.%目的:调查生殖器疣患者人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus,HPV)感染特点,为HPV感染的预防和诊治提供理论依据。方法采用流式荧光HPV基因分型技术检测249例生殖器疣患者皮损组织中HPV的型别。结果249例生殖器疣患者中,232例(93.17%)HPV DNA阳性。单一型感染率为63.86%,复合型感染率为36.14%。低危型HPV阳性率为55.4%,其中以HPV6、HPV11最多;高危型中以HPV16最多,其次为HPV58、HPV18型。结论本地区生殖器HPV感染集中于40岁以下性活跃期的人群。以单一型感染为主,最常见HPV6、HPV11和HPV16型感染。

  14. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases

  15. Circumcision related to urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus infections, and penile and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Male circumcision has been carried out as a prophylactic measure against future diseases, as well as a rite of passage due to religious practice and definite medical indication. The present review discusses the benefits of male circumcision on the prevention of urinary tract infections, and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies, such as vesicoureteral reflux. Additionally the present review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, and the preventive effect of circumcision on penile cancer and cervical cancer of female partners. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Haemophilus haemolyticus: A Human Respiratory Tract Commensal to Be Distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, T.F.; Brauer, A.L.; Sethi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Haemophilus influenzae is a common pathogen in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a prospective study, selected isolates of apparent H. influenzae had an altered phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that these variant strains were genetically different from ty...... distinguish H. haemolyticus from H. influenzae. H. haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal. The recognition that some strains of apparent H. influenzae are H. haemolyticus substantially strengthens the association of true H. influenzae with clinical infection....

  17. Gender differences in elements of human anterior commissure and olfactory bulb and tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Setsuko; Ongkana, Nutcharin; Ke, Lining; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Minami, Takeshi; Suwannahoy, Patipath; Sinthubua, Apichat; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2010-10-01

    To examine whether there were gender differences in the various brain regions, the authors investigated the gender differences in seven element contents of the anterior commissure, mammillary body, and olfactory bulb and tract by direct chemical analysis. After ordinary dissection at Nara Medical University was finished, the anterior commissures, mammillary bodies, and olfactory bulbs and tracts were resected from the cerebra cut at median line. The brain samples were treated with 99.5% ethanol three times to remove lipids. After ashing with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the seven element contents Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that the Zn content was significantly higher in the anterior commissures of men than in those of women. In the olfactory bulbs and tracts, it was found that the Ca, P, and Zn contents were significantly higher in men than in women. In contrast, no significant difference was found between the mammillary bodies of men and women regarding the seven element contents.

  18. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  19. Emollients on the genital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Male genital trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  1. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  2. Isolation of human β-defensin-4 in lung tissue and its increase in lower respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Hiroshi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-defensin-4 (hBD-4, a new member of the β-defensin family, was discovered by an analysis of the genomic sequence. The objective of this study was to clarify hBD-4 expression in human lung tissue, along with the inducible expression in response to infectious stimuli, localization, and antimicrobial activities of hBD-4 peptides. We also investigated the participation of hBD-4 in chronic lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI by measuring the concentrations of hBD-4 peptides in human bronchial epithelial lining fluid (ELF. Methods The antimicrobial activity of synthetic hBD-4 peptides against E. coli and P. aeruginosa was measured by radial diffusion and colony count assays. We identified hBD-4 in homogenated human lung tissue by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a radioimmunoassay (RIA. Localization of hBD-4 was studied through immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS on hBD-4 expression and its release from small airway epithelial cells (SAEC. We collected ELF from patients with chronic LRTI using bronchoscopic microsampling to measure hBD-4 concentrations by RIA. Results hBD-4 exhibited salt-sensitive antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa. We detected the presence of hBD-4 peptides in human lung tissue. IHC demonstrated the localization of hBD-4-producing cells in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. The levels of hBD-4 peptides released from LPS-treated SAECs were higher than those of untreated control cells. ELF hBD-4 was detectable in 4 of 6 patients with chronic LRTI, while the amounts in controls were all below the detectable level. Conclusion This study suggested that hBD-4 plays a significant role in the innate immunity of the lower respiratory tract.

  3. Numerical simulation of micro-particle deposition in a realistic human upper respiratory tract model during transient breathing cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian hua Huang; Lian zhong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    An more reliable human upper respiratory tract model that consisted of an oropharynx and four generations of asymmetric tracheo-bronchial (TB) airways has been constructed to investigate the micro-particle deposition pattern and mass distribution in five lobes under steady inspiratory condition in former work by Huang and Zhang (2011 ).In the present work,transient airflow patterns and particle deposition during both inspiratory and expiratory processes were numerically simulated in the realistic human upper respiratory tract model with 14 cartilaginous rings (CRs) in the tracheal tube.The present model was validated under steady inspiratory flow rates by comparing current results with the theoretical models and published experimental data.The transient deposition fraction was found to strongly depend on breathing flow rate and particle diameter but slightly on turbulence intensity.Particles were mainly distributed in the high axial speed zones and traveled basically following the secondary flow.“Hot spots” of deposition were found in the lower portion of mouth cavity and posterior wall of pharynx/larynx during inspiration,but transferred to upper portion of mouth and interior wall of pharynx/larynx during expiration.The deposition fraction in the trachea during expiration was found to be much higher than that during inspiration because of the stronger secondary flow.

  4. Response of lower genital tract flora to external pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.N.; Martens, M.; LaPread, Y.; Faro, S. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Endocervical and vaginal cultures were obtained every week from patients undergoing external pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancy. Gram-positive aerobes accounted for 52 to 56% of isolates, gram-negative aerobes accounted for 15 to 16%, and anaerobes accounted for 29 to 32% of all isolates prior to therapy. No significant changes occurred during or after completion of radiation for the group. In individual patients, however, over 50% of organisms found on initial culture were no longer present on completion of external therapy.

  5. Genital tract actinomycosis caused by Actimyces israëlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, R; Bani Sadr, F; Cortez, A; Arlet, G; Pialoux, G

    2006-07-01

    We report a case of actinomycosis caused by actinomyces israelii, related to the removal of intrauterine device (IUD). Diagnosing actinomycosis is difficult but should be considered in the event of any acute abdominal problems in a woman carrying an IUD. All abdominal organs may be affected. Even with a disseminated infection, the combination of appropriate antibiotic therapy (penicillin G) and surgery ensures a full recovery in most cases.

  6. Actinomyces israelii in the female genital tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D T

    1993-02-01

    Actinomyces israelii (a gram-positive, branching, anaerobic or microaerophilic bacterium) infects 1.6-11.6% of IUD users worldwide. Physicians must decide whether to treat A. israelii infection with antibiotics, remove the IUD, or refer the patient to the family planning clinic. Culture techniques tend to be inadequate, so many US health professionals use a microscope to identify A. israelii and often confirm the microscopy findings with direct immunofluorescent techniques. A sophisticated culture from pelvic infection or abscesses is needed. It appears that A. israelii infection is more common in women with plastic IUDs than those with copper IUDs and in women who have had an IUD for more than 4 years. Pelvic actinomycotic disease occurs infrequently, but when it does this condition the right ovary and fallopian tube are generally involved; this condition can be life threatening. It is indistinguishable from other forms of pelvic inflammatory disease. Evidence suggests that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between IUD use and pelvic actinomycosis. It is difficult to predict which IUD users harboring A. israelii will develop subsequent serious pelvic infection. Nevertheless, Pap smears can detect A. israelii infection early so physicians can prophylactically treat it before it spreads. Prophylactic treatment in IUD users may consist of changing the IUD every 4 years of long term penicillin or doxycycline treatment. Combinations of various antibiotics used to treat actinomyces infection are penicillin, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol, amoxycillin, metronidazole, and doxycycline. In the case of tubo-ovarian abscesses larger than 8 cm in diameter, however, surgical treatment is warranted.

  7. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  8. [The effect of spermicides on physiological and pathogenic genital flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, J; Poitschek, C; Kopp, W

    1983-05-31

    In vitro-studies concerning the influence of commercially available spermicides on lactobacillus acidophilus as well as on pathogenic organisms of the genital tract revealed, that the preparations had only weak antimicrobial effect on Döderlein's bacteria and pathogenic fungi. However, all four preparations tested, revealed a good inhibition effect on neisseria gonorrhoeae, treponema pallidum and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas was subject to considerable variation, probably due to the different chemical composition of the commercially in Austria available spermicides.

  9. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  10. [Human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes.

  11. Novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus attaches to epithelium in both upper and lower respiratory tract of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); J.Y. Siegers (Jurre); K.R. Short (Kirsty); M.I. Spronken (Monique); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza A viruses from animal reservoirs have the capacity to adapt to humans and cause influenza pandemics. The occurrence of an influenza pandemic requires efficient virus transmission among humans, which is associated with virus attachment to the upper respiratory tract. Pandemic se

  12. MUC1 positive, Kras and Pten driven mouse gynecologic tumors replicate human tumors and vary in survival and nuclear grade based on anatomical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirodkar, Tejas S; Budiu, Raluca A; Elishaev, Esther; Zhang, Lixin; Mony, Jyothi T; Brozick, Joan; Edwards, Robert P; Vlad, Anda M

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations of Kras oncogene and deletions of Pten tumor suppressor gene play important roles in cancers of the female genital tract. We developed here new preclinical models for gynecologic cancers, using conditional (Cre-loxP) mice with floxed genetic alterations in Kras and Pten. The triple transgenic mice, briefly called MUC1KrasPten, express human MUC1 antigen as self and carry a silent oncogenic KrasG12D and Pten deletion mutation. Injection of Cre-encoding adenovirus (AdCre) in the ovarian bursa, oviduct or uterus activates the floxed mutations and initiates ovarian, oviductal, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Anatomical site-specific Cre-loxP recombination throughout the genital tract of MUC1KrasPten mice leads to MUC1 positive genital tract tumors, and the development of these tumors is influenced by the anatomical environment. Endometrioid histology was consistently displayed in all tumors of the murine genital tract (ovaries, oviducts, and uterus). Tumors showed increased expression of MUC1 glycoprotein and triggered de novo antibodies in tumor bearing hosts, mimicking the immunobiology seen in patients. In contrast to the ovarian and endometrial tumors, oviductal tumors showed higher nuclear grade. Survival for oviduct tumors was significantly lower than for endometrial tumors (p = 0.0015), yet similar to survival for ovarian cancer. Oviducts seem to favor the development of high grade tumors, providing preclinical evidence in support of the postulated role of fallopian tubes as the originating site for high grade human ovarian tumors.

  13. Computer-aided segmentation and 3D analysis of in vivo MRI examinations of the human vocal tract during phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismüller, Axel; Behrends, Johannes; Hoole, Phil; Leinsinger, Gerda L.; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2008-03-01

    We developed, tested, and evaluated a 3D segmentation and analysis system for in vivo MRI examinations of the human vocal tract during phonation. For this purpose, six professionally trained speakers, age 22-34y, were examined using a standardized MRI protocol (1.5 T, T1w FLASH, ST 4mm, 23 slices, acq. time 21s). The volunteers performed a prolonged (>=21s) emission of sounds of the German phonemic inventory. Simultaneous audio tape recording was obtained to control correct utterance. Scans were made in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes each. Computer-aided quantitative 3D evaluation included (i) automated registration of the phoneme-specific data acquired in different slice orientations, (ii) semi-automated segmentation of oropharyngeal structures, (iii) computation of a curvilinear vocal tract midline in 3D by nonlinear PCA, (iv) computation of cross-sectional areas of the vocal tract perpendicular to this midline. For the vowels /a/,/e/,/i/,/o/,/ø/,/u/,/y/, the extracted area functions were used to synthesize phoneme sounds based on an articulatory-acoustic model. For quantitative analysis, recorded and synthesized phonemes were compared, where area functions extracted from 2D midsagittal slices were used as a reference. All vowels could be identified correctly based on the synthesized phoneme sounds. The comparison between synthesized and recorded vowel phonemes revealed that the quality of phoneme sound synthesis was improved for phonemes /a/ and /y/, if 3D instead of 2D data were used, as measured by the average relative frequency shift between recorded and synthesized vowel formants (pproduction.

  14. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  15. Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Human Voice Parameters to Investigate the Influence of Psychological Stress and to Determine the Vocal Tract Transfer Function of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar Mongia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 parameters follow a unique course of variation from normal to positive and negative stress in 32% of the total analyzed signals. The upshot of the analysis is to determine the vocal tract transfer function for each vowel for an individual. The analysis indicates that it can be computed by estimating the mean of the pole zero plots of that individual’s vocal tract estimated for the whole day. Besides this, an analysis is presented to find the relationship between the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract and the vocal tract cavities. The results of the analysis indicate that all the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract are affected due to change in the position of any cavity.

  16. COMPARATIVE COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF AIRFLOWS AND VAPOR DOSIMETY IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACTS OF RAT, MONKEY, AND HUMAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Minard, Kevin R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Timchalk, Charles; Glenny, Robb W.; Pipavath, Sudhaker; Cox, Timothy C.; Wallis, Chris; Larson, Richard; Fanucchi, M.; Postlewait, Ed; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2012-07-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is useful for predicting site-specific dosimetry of airborne materials in the respiratory tract and elucidating the importance of species differences in anatomy, physiology, and breathing patterns. Historically, these models were limited to discrete regions of the respiratory system. CFD/PBPK models have now been developed for the rat, monkey, and human that encompass airways from the nose or mouth to the lung. A PBPK model previously developed to describe acrolein uptake in nasal tissues was adapted to the extended airway models as an example application. Model parameters for each anatomic region were obtained from the literature, measured directly, or estimated from published data. Airflow and site-specific acrolein uptake patterns were determined under steadystate inhalation conditions to provide direct comparisons with prior data and nasalonly simulations. Results confirmed that regional uptake was dependent upon airflow rates and acrolein concentrations with nasal extraction efficiencies predicted to be greatest in the rat, followed by the monkey, then the human. For human oral-breathing simulations, acrolein uptake rates in oropharyngeal and laryngeal tissues were comparable to nasal tissues following nasal breathing under the same exposure conditions. For both breathing modes, higher uptake rates were predicted for lower tracheo-bronchial tissues of humans than either the rat or monkey. These extended airway models provide a unique foundation for comparing dosimetry across a significantly more extensive range of conducting airways in the rat, monkey, and human than prior CFD models.

  17. Correction of Free Radical Lipid Oxidation in Internal Female Genital Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Belyaevsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper descries a specific view on the mechanism responsible for development of the resistance of an inflammatory process in the female genital tract to drugs and on the role of a free radical process activation factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Emphasis is laid on the importance of measures to diminish cell membrane permeability, by correcting their structural and functional states with antioxidants. Key words: inflammatory processes in the female genital organs, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative defense, cell membrane structural and functional state.

  18. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  19. Detection of human bocavirus from children and adults with acute respiratory tract illness in Guangzhou, southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human fetal and adult male reproductive tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, A; Liotta, D R; Yao, S; Liu, X H; Klausner, A P; Unger, P; Shapiro, E; Leav, I; Levine, A C

    2000-09-01

    The first rate-limiting step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (Cox). Two isoforms of Cox have been identified, Cox-1 (constitutively expressed) and Cox-2 (inducible form), which are the products of two different genes. In this study we describe the immunohistochemical localization of Cox-1 and -2 in the human male fetal and adult reproductive tracts. There was no Cox-1 expression in fetal samples (prostate, seminal vesicles, or ejaculatory ducts), and only minimal expression in adult tissues. There was no expression of Cox-2 in the fetal prostate. In a prepubertal prostate there was some Cox-2 expression that localized exclusively to the smooth muscle cells of the transition zone. In adult hyperplastic prostates, Cox-2 was strongly expressed in smooth muscle cells, with no expression in the luminal epithelial cells. Cox-2 was strongly expressed in epithelial cells of both fetal and adult seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts. The Cox-2 staining intensity in the fetal ejaculatory ducts during various times of gestation correlated with previously reported testosterone production rates by the fetal testis. These data indicate that Cox-2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the fetal male reproductive tract, and its expression may be regulated by androgens. The distinct cell type-specific expression patterns of Cox-2 in the prostate (smooth muscle) vs. the seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts (epithelium) may reflect the different roles of PGs in these tissues.

  1. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  2. Metaproteomics of the Human Intestinal Tract to Assess Microbial Functionality and Interactions with the Host

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmeder, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Human physiological processes are complemented by those of the microbiota, the collection of all microbes living in and on our body. The human intestinal microbiota is one of the most prominent representatives and many associations with a wide spectrum of human diseases have been identified. Analysing faecal material with nucleic acid based approaches revealed the species richness of the intestinal microbiota and its individuality, being unique to each human being. In addition, to date approx...

  3. Secretory Products of the Human GI Tract Microbiome and Their Potential Impact on Alzheimer's Disease (AD): Detection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in AD Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhai; Jaber, Vivian; Lukiw, Walter J

    2017-01-01

    Although the potential contribution of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiome to human health, aging, and disease is becoming increasingly acknowledged, the molecular mechanics and signaling pathways of just how this is accomplished is not well-understood. Major bacterial species of the GI tract, such as the abundant Gram-negative bacilli Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), secrete a remarkably complex array of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins which, when released from the confines of the healthy GI tract, are pathogenic and highly detrimental to the homeostatic function of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). For the first time here we report the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in brain lysates from the hippocampus and superior temporal lobe neocortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Mean LPS levels varied from two-fold increases in the neocortex to three-fold increases in the hippocampus, AD over age-matched controls, however some samples from advanced AD hippocampal cases exhibited up to a 26-fold increase in LPS over age-matched controls. This "Perspectives" paper will further highlight some very recent research on GI tract microbiome signaling to the human CNS, and will update current findings that implicate GI tract microbiome-derived LPS as an important internal contributor to inflammatory degeneration in the CNS.

  4. Secretory Products of the Human GI Tract Microbiome and Their Potential Impact on Alzheimer's Disease (AD: Detection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in AD Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the potential contribution of the human gastrointestinal (GI tract microbiome to human health, aging, and disease is becoming increasingly acknowledged, the molecular mechanics and signaling pathways of just how this is accomplished is not well-understood. Major bacterial species of the GI tract, such as the abundant Gram-negative bacilli Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis and Escherichia coli (E. coli, secrete a remarkably complex array of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins which, when released from the confines of the healthy GI tract, are pathogenic and highly detrimental to the homeostatic function of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS. For the first time here we report the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS in brain lysates from the hippocampus and superior temporal lobe neocortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD brains. Mean LPS levels varied from two-fold increases in the neocortex to three-fold increases in the hippocampus, AD over age-matched controls, however some samples from advanced AD hippocampal cases exhibited up to a 26-fold increase in LPS over age-matched controls. This “Perspectives” paper will further highlight some very recent research on GI tract microbiome signaling to the human CNS, and will update current findings that implicate GI tract microbiome-derived LPS as an important internal contributor to inflammatory degeneration in the CNS.

  5. Impact of reference geosorbents on oral bioaccessibility of PAH in a human in vitro digestive tract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wiebke; Kons, Sandra; Achten, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Former studies on human oral bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from natural soil samples using human in vitro digestive tract models (physiologically based extraction tests, PBET) show highly variable results (0-100% of mobilized PAH). Apart from other factors, the type and amount of present geosorbents are assumed to be significant for the degree of desorption/release of PAH into the digestive juice. Therefore, in this study, the reference geosorbents pure quartz sand, Na-montmorillonite clay, Pahokee peat, and charcoal "Sommerhit" were spiked with selected deuterated PAH and employed as single materials in a PBET. Lowest bioaccessibility was determined in charcoal, representing black carbon (0.1 ± 0.1 % for ∑10 PAH-d) in contrast to higher bioaccessibility in peat (6.4 ± 2.2%) and clay (4.8 ± 1.1%). Highest bioaccessibility was determined in sand (26.9 ± 7.5%). The results show a systematic impact of heterogeneous geosorbents on human oral bioaccessibility of PAH and particularly black carbon acting as a very strong geosorbent that reduces human health risk.

  6. The human nucleus of the solitary tract: visceral pathways revealed with an "in vitro" postmortem tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, D A; Underwood, M D; Mann, J J; Anwar, M; Arango, V

    2000-03-15

    Visceral relay neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) regulate behavior and autonomic reflex functions. NTS projections have been extensively characterized in animal studies but not in humans. For the first time, NTS fiber trajectories in the human medulla oblongata were revealed with an "in vitro" postmortem tracing method. Local intramedullary pathways were labeled by direct pressure injections of free horseradish peroxidase centered on the medial subnucleus at a level adjacent to true obex. Labeled elements were resolved by peroxidase histochemistry as a dark brown intracellular reaction product. A prominent transtegmental system of axons emerged from the NTS injection sites and entered the intermediate reticular zone, a region corresponding to an autonomic reflex center in other mammals. A medial system of axons arched across the dorsomedial reticular formation toward the dorsal medullary raphe and projected ventrally toward the nucleus gigantocellularis. A small lateral fiber trajectory coursed towards the dorsomedial zone of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Presumptive terminals appeared as dustings of fine punctate processes within the NTS, dorsomotor nucleus and reticular formation. NTS projections in humans resemble those identified in other mammals including primates. Axonal tracing studies predict that visceral impulses in humans may transmit over evolutionarily conserved pathways involved in autonomic feedback control and stress adaptation.

  7. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  8. Modeling the deposition of bioaerosols with variable size and shape in the human respiratory tract – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sturm

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of bioaerosol particles with various size and shape in the human respiratory tract was simulated by using a probabilistic model of the lung and an almost realistic mathematical approach to particle deposition. Results obtained from the theoretical computations clearly show that biogenic particle deposition in different lung compartments does not only depend on physical particle properties, but also on breathing mode (nose or mouth breathing and inhalative flow rate (=tidal volume × breathing frequency/30. Whilst ultrafine (5 μm particles tend to accumulate in the extrathoracic region and the uppermost airways of the tracheobronchial tree, particles with intermediate size are characterized by higher penetration depth, leading to their possible accumulation in the lung alveoli. Due to their deposition in deep lung regions and insufficient clearance, some bioaerosol particles may induce severe lung diseases ranging from infections, allergies, and toxic reactions to cancer.

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  10. The ferric yersiniabactin uptake receptor FyuA is required for efficient biofilm formation by urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in patients with indwelling urinary catheters, and bacterial biofilm formation is a major problem in this type of infection. Escherichia coli is responsible for the large majority of UTIs. Free iron is strictly limited in the human urinary...... tract and there is fierce competition between the host and infectious bacteria for this essential metal. Urinary tract infectious E coli have highly efficient mechanisms of iron acquisition, one of which is the yersiniabactin system. The fyuA gene, encoding the yersiniabactin receptor, is one...... of the most upregulated genes in biofilm; it was upregulated 63-fold in the E coli UTI strain VR50. FyuA was found to be highly important for biofilm formation in iron-poor environments such as human urine. Mutants in fyuA show aberrant biofilm formation and the cells become filamentous; a VR50fyuA mutant...

  11. GATA6 mutations cause human cardiac outflow tract defects by disrupting semaphorin-plexin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodo, Kazuki; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Furutani, Michiko; Arai, Shoichi; Yamamura, Eiji; Joo, Kunitaka; Takahashi, Takao; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) occur in nearly 1% of all live births and are the major cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Although an improved understanding of the genetic causes of CHD would provide insight into the underlying pathobiology, the genetic etiology of most CHD remains unknown. Here we show that mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor GATA6 cause CHD characteristic of a severe form of cardiac outflow tract (OFT) defect, namely persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA). Two different GATA6 mutations were identified by systematic genetic analysis using DNA from patients with PTA. Genes encoding the neurovascular guiding molecule semaphorin 3C (SEMA3C) and its receptor plexin A2 (PLXNA2) appear to be regulated directly by GATA6, and both GATA6 mutant proteins failed to transactivate these genes. Transgenic analysis further suggests that, in the developing heart, the expression of SEMA3C in the OFT/subpulmonary myocardium and PLXNA2 in the cardiac neural crest contributing to the OFT is dependent on GATA transcription factors. Together, our data implicate mutations in GATA6 as genetic causes of CHD involving OFT development, as a result of the disruption of the direct regulation of semaphorin-plexin signaling. PMID:19666519

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albero Ginesa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828. Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more

  13. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  14. Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Victoria S; Burnett, Bruce P

    2015-03-07

    Oral immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations are prime examples of medicinal nutrition from natural sources. Plasma products containing Ig have been used for decades in animal feed for intestinal disorders to mitigate the damaging effects of early weaning. These preparations reduce overall mortality and increase feed utilization in various animal species leading to improved growth. Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety of enteric microbial infections and other conditions which cause diarrhea. In infants, children, and adults, the amount of intact IgG recovered in stool ranges from trace amounts up to 25% of the original amount ingested. It is generally understood that IgG can only bind to antigens within the GI tract if the Fab structure is intact and has not been completely denatured through acidic pH or digestive proteolytic enzymes. This is a comprehensive review of human studies regarding the survivability of orally-administered Ig preparations, with a focus on IgG. This review also highlights various biochemical studies on IgG which potentially explain which structural elements are responsible for increased stability against digestion.