WorldWideScience

Sample records for human genital herpes

  1. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  2. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  3. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  4. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fetal scalp electrode (tiny wire used to check fetal heart rate). Cesarean birth may be recommended if you have an active herpes sore or prodromal symptoms such as pain or burning when you go into labor. After ...

  5. Genital herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... JT and Corey L. Herpes simplex virus. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, ...

  6. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  7. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeier, D.

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psychological aspects of counselling before testing for serum herpes simplex type 2 antibodies are also discussed. 




 PMID:9849561

  8. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmeier, D

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psycholog...

  9. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...

  10. Herpes simplex and human papillomavirus genital infections: controversy over obstetric management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, N G; Adelson, M D

    1990-12-01

    Plasma inhibitory factors, high levels of sex hormones, and depression of cell-mediated immunity may interfere with the natural host resistance to viral infections during pregnancy. It is apparent that hormonal, immunologic, and vascular changes in pregnancy may account for increased replication of herpes and for enhanced growth of condylomatous lesions. The challenge is to develop a rational plan of management for pregnant patients with herpes simplex or human papilloma virus infection. There has been a reevaluation of previous recommendations for the management of herpes in pregnancy. Although the consequences of neonatal infection are severe or fatal, the value of routine weekly screening is questionable. This regimen is a poor predictor of neonatal exposure to herpes since only one fourth of women shedding virus at the time of delivery can be identified by routine cultures. The mode of delivery should therefore be based on the presence or absence of lesions at the time of confinement. Cesarean section should be reserved for patients with lesions or with prodromal symptoms of recurrent disease at the time of delivery. Patients with ruptured membranes and active genital lesions should also be delivered by cesarean section. The spectrum of HPV-related diseases in pregnancy is poorly understood. Many questions remain unanswered. It may not be practical to treat very large or extensive genital warts during pregnancy. A cesarean section may be the best choice in these cases. It may be premature to recommend cesarean section for delivery of all pregnant women with symptomatic genital HPV infection. More data are needed. We recommend laser ablation of condylomatous lesions when discovered during pregnancy. Laser vaporization is associated with minimal morbidity when used by experienced surgeons. Trichloroacetic acid is excellent for minimal disease or for treatment of recurrences in pregnancy. Since the immune system seems to play an important role in control of viral

  11. Human Herpes Virus Type 2 (HSV2), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Male Genital Tract and Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtot Anne Marie; Pallier Coralie; Testart Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of infection of the human male genital tract by human herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is well established and their sexual transmission has been the object of many studies. Moreover, medically assisted procreation, which helps in numerous fertility problems, raises the question of new viral risks linked to the application of these new technologies. In this review, we shall consider current knowledge in terms of the presence of HSV2 and HCMV in the different parts of the genital tract of immunocompetent or immunodepressed men. We shall also consider the possibility of viral transmission by the sexual act or by the various techniques used in medically assisted procreation. We shall describe studies in human beings and in animals.

  12. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  13. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Sauerbrei Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, German Consulting Laboratory for Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. Keywords: herpes simplex virus, epidemiology, infection, antiviral therapy, laboratory diagnosis, prevention

  14. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

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    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  15. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  16. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedi T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

  17. Clinical Presentation of Atypical Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 梁沛杨; 罗北京

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To make a clinical analysis on the basis of 36cases of atypical genital herpes (GH) patients. Methods: Thirty-six cases of atypical GH were diagnosedclinically, and their case histories, symptoms and signs wererecorded in detail and followed up. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was adopted for testing HSV2-DNA with cotton-tippedswabs. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) forserum anti-HSV2-IgM was done to establish a definfiivediagnosis. Other diagnoses were excluded at the same time bytesting for related pathogens including fungi, Chlamydia,Mycoplasma, Treponema pallidum, gonococci, Trichomonas,etc. Results: The main clinical manifestations of atypical GHwere: (1) small genital ulcers; (2) inflammation of urethralmeatus; (3) nonspecific genital erythema; (4) papuloid noduleson the glands; (5) nonspecific vaginitis. Twenty-three cases(64%) tested by PCR were HSV2-DNA sera-positive, and 36cases (100 %) anti-HSV2-IgM sera-positive by ELISA. Conclusion: atypical HSV is difficult to be diagnosed. Butthe combination of PCR and ELIAS will be helpful to thediagnosis of atypical HSV.

  18. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Howard K

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HPV in men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Papenfuss, Mary R; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-06-01

    Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV-related pathogenesis. Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine, and blood from 3971 men recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with 4 HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, nononcogenic only, and multiple infections). A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive, and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.53-6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.69-6.95) prevalence. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), nononcogenic HPV only (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behavior, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting 2 or more recent sexual partners, whereas HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0 to 5 lifetime sexual partners. In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence.

  20. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  1. Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rama; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV. All consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. HRQOL was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, which evaluates QOL under physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Data concerning demographic and socioeconomic status were collected. There were 65 (27.3%), 60 (25.2%) and 53 (22.3%) patients with HIV, HSV-2 and HPV, respectively, and 25 (10.5%) patients with mixed infections. The WHOQOL-BREF scores of patients in different STI groups were significantly lower than those of controls. The total HRQOL scores (mean±SD) were 280.1±83.56 (among controls), 196.9±72.41 (genital HPV), 141.0±50.50 (HSV-2), 101.0±75.25 (HIV) and 103.4±47.23(mixed infection groups). Mean HRQOL scores were lowest in the physical and psychological domains. HRQOL scores were least in HIV and mixed infections groups, while patients with genital HPV infection had significantly better HRQOL scores compared to other patient groups. Higher education and socioeconomic status had a positive influence on HRQOL. Viral STIs were associated with a significant reduction in HRQOL scores. Among patient groups, the greatest impact on HRQOL was seen in those with HIV and mixed infections and the least impact seen in those with genital HPV infection. Comprehensive care including counselling services need to be implemented in STI clinics.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  3. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  4. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  5. Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160205.html Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended Unless someone ... Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A U.S. federal task force is prepared to recommend that teens, adults and ...

  6. Case report: symptomatic oral herpes simplex virus type 2 and asymptomatic genital shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Laura; Wald, Anna

    2006-05-01

    A 42-year-old bisexual man with a history of recurrent oral herpes and no history of genital herpes was noted to have antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) only. During a symptomatic oral recurrence, HSV-2 was found in a perioral lesion as well as in the genital area.

  7. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-01-04

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.

  8. The theoretical basis of stigma as applied to genital herpes.

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    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2004-04-01

    This paper defines stigma and its characteristics, outlines strategies and consequences of stigma management, describes the theoretical basis of stigma, and offers methodological considerations for those applying stigma theory to the domain of genital herpes. Stigma is an interactional process, defined within societies, in which particular social identities are collectively devalued. The subjective experience of stigma may vary due to features associated with the stigmatizing condition (e.g. concealability, course, strain, aesthetic qualities, cause and peril). The interpersonal management of stigma may include secrecy, withdrawal, covering, informing or disclosing. Future research addressing herpes-associated stigma should benefit from theoretical frameworks including attribution theory, social-cognitive theory, preoccupation model of secrecy and the illness intrusiveness framework, although the difficulty in identifying and recruiting stigmatized individuals and the lack of domain-specific measures of herpes-related stigma remain barriers to progress.

  9. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  10. Human herpes simplex labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahzadeh, M; Schwartz, R A

    2007-11-01

    Humans are the natural host for eight of more than 80 known herpes viruses. Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are ubiquitous worldwide and highly transmissible. Herpes simplex labialis (HSL) is the best-recognized recrudescent infection of the lips and perioral tissues caused by HSV-1. Facial lesions of HSL may be unsightly, frequent outbreaks unpleasant, and the infection itself more severe locally and systemically in immunocompromised people. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic features and management issues for HSL.

  11. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

  12. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle A Lang Kuhs

    Full Text Available IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815 genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported oral herpes, (self-reported genital sores and (clinician-observed genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons; oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35; genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71; genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53; detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49; HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68. In this large prospective study, IFNL4

  13. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R.; Peters, Marion G.; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Villacres, Maria C.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; O’Brien, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV–1 and HSV–2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV–2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV–1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV–2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV–1 or HSV–2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV–2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV–2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large

  14. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  15. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  16. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  17. A comparative analysis of polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Patwardhan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  18. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  19. Sex differences in health care provider communication during genital herpes care and patients' health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ports, Katie A; Reddy, Diane M; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L

    2013-01-01

    Research in primary care medicine demonstrates that health care providers' communication varies depending on their sex, and that these sex differences in communication can influence patients' health outcomes. The present study aimed to examine the extent to which sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to the sensitive context of gynecological care for genital herpes and whether these potential sex differences in communication influence patients' herpes transmission prevention behaviors and herpes-related quality of life. Women (N = 123) from the United States recently diagnosed with genital herpes anonymously completed established measures in which they rated (a) their health care providers' communication, (b) their herpes transmission prevention behaviors, and (c) their herpes-related quality of life. The authors found significant sex differences in health care providers' communication; this finding supports that sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to gynecological care for herpes. Specifically, patients with female health care providers indicated that their providers engaged in more patient-centered communication and were more satisfied with their providers' communication. However, health care providers' sex did not predict women's quality of life, a finding that suggests that health care providers' sex alone is of little importance in patients' health outcomes. Patient-centered communication was significantly associated with greater quality-of-life scores and may provide a promising avenue for intervention.

  20. Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth

    2017-03-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P < .001] and from 15.0% to 10.3% for 100 µg [P < .001]). Lesion rates were also significantly (P < .01) reduced immediately following immunization with 30 µg or 100 µg of GEN-003. GEN-003 elicited increases in antigen binding, virus neutralizing antibody, and T-cell responses. GEN-003 had an acceptable safety profile and stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses. GEN-003 at doses of 30 µg and 100 µg reduced genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea).

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  2. Bases teóricas del estigma, aproximación en el cuidado de personas con herpes genital Theoretical approaches of stigma, analysis in persons with genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hernández Cortina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: analizar las diferentes perspectivas teóricas sobre el estigma y su aplicación en el dominio del herpes genital. Metodología: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura enfocada en una búsqueda de artículos en las bases datos EBSCO, CINHAL, SCIELO, MEDLINE y Social Science full text. Resultados principales: se encuentran escasos estudios en la revisión bibliográfica realizada donde validen intervenciones educativas basadas en los marcos teóricos sobre el estigma en personas con herpes genital. Conclusión principal: los diferentes marcos teóricos revisados sobre el estigma pueden ser útiles como marco de referencia en investigaciones de personas que padecen herpes genital.Objective: the aim of this manuscript is to analyze different stigma's theories in the context of persons with genital herpes. Methods: reviews of the literature were searched in the EBSCO, CINHAL, SCIELO, MEDLINE and Social Science full text databases. Results: there is a little evidence in the literature review about educational intervention in patient with genital herpes base on stigma's theories. Conclusions: stigma's theories can be useful as a framework in the researches of persons with genital herpes.

  3. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients.

  4. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  5. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  6. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir in patient initiated treatment of recurrent genital herpes: A randomised, double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Bodsworth; R.J. Crooks; S. Borelli; G. Vejlsgaard; J. Paavonen; A.M. Worm; N. Uexkull; J. Esmann; A. Strand; A.J. Ingamells; A. Gibb (A.); S.E. Barton (Simon); C. Beylot (C.); J. Bingham (J.); G. Bojs (G.); D. Cheetham (D.); E. Curless (E.); B. Czarnetzki (B.); S. Davies (S.); A. Eichmann (A.); B. Goh; D. Goldmeir (D.); G. Gross; U.F. Haustein; G. Kinghorn (G.); J. Lauharanta; C. Law; G. Luzzi (G.); A. McMillan (A.); J. Meaden (J.); U. Montemagno (U.); P. Morel; M. Negosanti; J.E. Nielsen (Jorgen); A. Nilsen; E-K. Ong; J.P. Ortonne; R. Patel; J. Patten; D. Petzold; T. Rufli; S. Saari; M. Shahmanesh; A. Simpanen (A.); J. Soltz-Szots; J.P. Stahl; E. Stolz (Ernst); I. Thelin; N. von Uexkull; A. Wikstrom; P. Woolley

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the efficacy and safety of twice daily valaciclovir with five times daily aciclovir in the treatment of an episode of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompetent individuals. Methods: 739 patients with a history of recurrent genital HSV

  7. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Marie R. Roger; Anstead, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minim...

  8. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  9. Comparison of Washing and Swabbing Procedures for Collecting Genital Fluids To Assess Cervicovaginal Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions. PMID:12791898

  10. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Marie R; Anstead, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  11. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie R. Roger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  12. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test ... whether a person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  13. Bases teóricas del estigma, aproximación en el cuidado de personas con herpes genital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hernández Cortina

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: analizar las diferentes perspectivas teóricas sobre el estigma y su aplicación en el dominio del herpes genital. Metodología: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura enfocada en una búsqueda de artículos en las bases datos EBSCO, CINHAL, SCIELO, MEDLINE y Social Science full text. Resultados principales: se encuentran escasos estudios en la revisión bibliográfica realizada donde validen intervenciones educativas basadas en los marcos teóricos sobre el estigma en personas con herpes genital. Conclusión principal: los diferentes marcos teóricos revisados sobre el estigma pueden ser útiles como marco de referencia en investigaciones de personas que padecen herpes genital.

  14. Pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in Sheffield with particular reference to herpes simplex virus and Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; McEntegart, M G

    1982-12-01

    The pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in 161 (80 men and 81 women) unselected patients was studied prospectively. In only one case was Treponema pallidum responsible whereas herpes simplex virus was considered to be the cause of 130 (80.8%) genital ulcers. H ducreyi was isolated from 46 (28.6%) patients, most commonly as a secondary pathogen in herpetic lesions. Two or more pathogens were isolated from the ulcers in 67 (41.6%) patients, and in 21 (13%) patients no pathogens were isolated. Our results indicate an urgent need for antiviral treatment to reduce the local reservoir of genital herpes, challenge traditional concepts about the prevalence of H ducreyi in Britain, and call for a reappraisal of its role in the causation of genital ulcers.

  15. Chronic ulcerating genital herpes simplex virus infection: A diagnosis mislead by HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Parajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of chronic herpes simplex in a 27 year old lady presenting with a history of persistent verrucous ulcer in the natal cleft of nine months duration. The patient was diagnosed and treated initially as a case of Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis (TVC based on the chronicity of the ulcer, negative HIV serological tests and histopathological findings. The diagnosis had to be revised as the lesion was increasing in size and the patient was not responding to treatment even after completing antituberculous treatment for six months. Repeat histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry showed DNA of herpes simplex. Based on this finding a repeat HIV serology was sent which was positive. The ulcer healed after a course of acyclovir. The case is being reported to highlight the importance of considering chronic herpes simplex infection in a case of chronic genital ulcer. In addition this case reminds us the nature of HIV infection to mislead the diagnosis by altering the natural course of the disease process.

  16. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  17. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milk to give to your baby in a bottle for another feeding. But if parts of your pump also touch ... milk to give to your baby in a bottle for another feeding. But if parts of your pump also touch ...

  18. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elisa might be falsely positive at low index values (1.1–3.5). 11 Such low values should be confirmed with another test such as ... for an STD evaluation (especially those with multiple sex partners); Persons with HIV infection; and MSM at ...

  19. Quantitation of Genital Herpes Virus DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction and ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peihua(程培华)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To detect and quantitate genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in specimens from 100 patients clinically diagnosed with genital herpes.Methods: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used with a standard curve of DNA copies of HSV as quantitative contrast.Results: Ninety-three cases were confirmed HSV positive and 7 cases were found to be negative. There were 58 cases of HSV-2 (62.4%) and 35 cases of HSV-1 (37.6%) among the 93 positive cases. The number of DNA plasmids ranged from 115 to 1.1×105 per 250μL among the 93 positive samples (mean =7.1×104/250μL). The number of HSV DNA plasmids ranged from 136 to 1.1×105 copies per 250μL (mean =7.6×104) among those with HSV-2, and 115 to 9.4×104 per 250μL (mean =6.3×104) among those with HSV-1. Meanwhile 10μL of extracted and dissolved DNA randomly taken from 8 each of HSV-2 and HSV-1 samples were tested. The number of HSV-2 DNA plasmids ranged from 35 copies to 2.7×104 (Mean =1.8×104) and the number of HSV-1 DNA ranged from 29 to 2.5×104 (Mean = 1.6×104). In the 7 negative cases, the quantity of HSV plasmids was zero.Conclusion: The sensitivity of ELISA quantitation (93%) is equal to that of Southern blot. The sensitivity of PCR for diagnosis is 91%, and 88% for PCR typing.

  20. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  1. Integrative pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of amenamevir (ASP2151) for treatment of recurrent genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Akitsugu; Katashima, Masataka; Kaibara, Atsunori; Chono, Koji; Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Sawamoto, Taiji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2016-08-01

    Amenamevir is a novel drug that targets the viral helicase-primase complex. While dose-dependent efficacy had been observed in non-clinical studies, no clear dose dependence has been observed in humans. We therefore developed a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to explain this inconsistency between species and to clarify the immune-related healing of amenamevir in humans. The model consisted of a non-linear kinetic model for a virtual number of virus plaques as a built-in biomarker. Lesion score was defined as an endpoint of antiviral efficacy, and logit model analysis was applied to the ordered-categorical lesion score. The modeling results suggested the time course profiles of lesion score could be explained with the efficacy terms in the logit model, using change in number of virus plaques as an indicator of the effects of amenamevir and time elapsed as an indicator of the healing of the immune response. In humans, the PD effect was almost dose-independent, and immune-related healing may have been the driving force behind the reduction in lesion scores. Drug efficacy is occasionally masked in diseases healed by the immune response, such as genital herpes. The PK/PD model proposed in the present study must be useful for explanation the PK/PD relationship of such drugs.

  2. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

  3. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 2, genital ulcers and HIV-1 disease progression in postpartum women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Roxby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 has been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels and immune activation, two predictors of HIV-1 progression. The impact of HSV-2 on clinical outcomes among HIV-1 infected pregnant women is unclear. METHODS: HIV-1 infected pregnant women in Nairobi were enrolled antenatally and HSV-2 serology was obtained. HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count were serially measured for 12-24 months postpartum. Survival analysis using endpoints of death, opportunistic infection (OI, and CD4<200 cells µL, and linear mixed models estimating rate of change of HIV-1 RNA and CD4, were used to determine associations between HSV-2 serostatus and HIV-1 progression. RESULTS: Among 296 women, 254 (86% were HSV-2-seropositive. Only 30 (10% women had prior or current genital ulcer disease (GUD; median baseline CD4 count was 422 cells µL. Adjusting for baseline CD4, women with GUD were significantly more likely to have incident OIs (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.33-5.85, and there was a trend for association between HSV-2-seropositivity and incident OIs (aHR 3.83, 95% CI: 0.93-15.83. Rate of change in CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA did not differ by HSV-2 status or GUD, despite a trend toward higher baseline HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2-seropositive women (4.73 log10 copies/ml vs. 4.47 log10 copies/ml, P = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: HSV-2 was highly prevalent and pregnant HIV-1 infected women with GUD were significantly more likely to have incident OIs than women without GUD, suggesting that clinically evident HSV-2 is a more important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression than asymptomatic HSV-2.

  5. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

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    Sun Mianmian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2 vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo", or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8. For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility.

  6. Effect of ASP2151, a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, in a guinea pig model of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Chono, Koji; Sudo, Kenji; Shimizu, Yasuaki; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-08-25

    ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV), respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg). This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  7. Effect of ASP2151, a Herpesvirus Helicase-Primase Inhibitor, in a Guinea Pig Model of Genital Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kontani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1 and 2 (HSV-2. Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV, respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED50 values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg. This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  8. Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Herpes Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Herpes Culture; Herpes Simplex Viral Culture; HSV DNA; HSV ...

  9. Detection of Treponema pallidum, Herpes Simplex Virus, and Haemophilus ducreyi from Genital Ulcers by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 傅笑冰; 熊礼宽; 杨帆; 洪福昌; 曾序春; 董时富

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of multiplex PCR in the detection of Treponema pallidum, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Haemophilus ducreyi. Method: Three standard strains were used to set up a multiplex PCR (MPCR) for detecting syphilis, herpes genitalis, and chancroid simultaneously. Samples from 122 patients with genital ulcer disease(GUD) were subjected to MPCR and the results were compared with these of dark-fidd microscopy and TP serology, HSV anligen ELISA,and H. ducreyi culture, Result: In the 122 patients with GUD, MPCR identified 34 casesof T.pallidum infection, 40 cases of HSV infection, and 2 cases of mixed infection of T.pallidum and herpes. No positive results of H. ducreyi were found. The sensitivity of MPCR to T. pallidum and herpes was 100% and 93.3%, respectivdy. The sensitivities of dark-field microscopy and TP serology, HSV antigen ELISA, and H. ducreyi culture was 35.3%, 50% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: MPCR showed a relatively higher sensitivity for T.pallidum as compared with the routine techniques. Although its sensitivity for HSV was not as good as that of antigen ELISA, it also yielde da high detection rate. MPCR can detect more than one pathogen. It is simple, quick, sensitive, and suitable for clinical use or epidemiological investigation.

  10. Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Antiviral Capsules On Animal Model Genital Herpes and HSV-2 in Cell Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞强; 李红毅; 谢长才; 禤国维; 朱宇同

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional Chinese medicine antiviral capsules in the treatment of genital herpes.Methods: Using female guinea pig genital herpes as the animal model, this study used oral administration of two formulations of antiviral capsules (AC) and observed the effect on vaginal HSV-2 titers and vulvar symptoms. Cell cultures were also used to examine the direct inactivation of HSV-2 by the antiviral capsules and the suppression of HSV-2 via three drug administration methods.Results: There was no significant difference of mean vaginal virus titers between the antiviral capsule groups and that of the positive acyclovir (ACV) control (P>0.05). Mean vulvar symptom scores of the two antiviral capsule groups were also significantly lower than that of the saline negative control group on days 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 (P<0.05) and similar to that of the ACV control (P>0.05). Cell culture showed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antiviral capsules No. 1 and No. 2 were 0.390625 mg/ml and 1,5625 mg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The traditional Chinese medicine antiviral capsules had suppressive effects on HSV-2 in both animal model GH and in vitro cell culture.

  11. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Candidiasis, Genital Herpes, Chlamydiasis, and Actinomycosis among Urban and Rural Women of Haryana, India

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    Brij Bala Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being curable reproductive tract infections (RTIs including sexually transmitted infections continue to be a major health problem in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, and actinomycosis in rural and urban women of Haryana by using wet mount, PAP smear, and fluorescent microscopic examination. Patients suspected of suffering from bacterial vaginosis were given treatment and were not included in the study. RTIs were seen in 16.6% of urban and 28.7% of rural women. The highest prevalence seen was that of trichomoniasis in both rural (24.2% and urban (15.7% women, followed by candidiasis (4.2% in rural and 0.6% in urban women, genital herpes (0.3% in rural and 0.2% in urban women, and chlamydiasis (0.02% in rural and 0.05% in urban women. Pelvic actinomycosis was seen in 1.4% of rural and 0.06% of urban women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Mixed infection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Candida spp. was seen in 6.3% of rural women only. It is desirable to have a baseline profile of the prevalence of various agents causing RTIs in a particular geographic area and population which will help in better syndromic management of the patients.

  12. Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2013-06-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

  13. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. The Genital Ulcer Disease Surveillance Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Trees, D; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Litchfield, B; Pettus, K S; Morse, S A; St Louis, M E; Weiss, J B; Schwebke, J; Dickes, J; Kee, R; Reynolds, J; Hutcheson, D; Green, D; Dyer, I; Richwald, G A; Novotny, J; Weisfuse, I; Goldberg, M; O'Donnell, J A; Knaup, R

    1998-12-01

    To determine the etiology of genital ulcers and to assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ulcer patients in 10 US cities, ulcer and serum specimens were collected from approximately 50 ulcer patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in each city. Ulcer specimens were tested using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV); sera were tested for antibody to HIV. H. ducreyi was detected in ulcer specimens from patients in Memphis (20% of specimens) and Chicago (12%). T. pallidum was detected in ulcer specimens from every city except Los Angeles (median, 9% of specimens; range, 0%-46%). HSV was detected in >/=50% of specimens from all cities except Memphis (42%). HIV seroprevalence in ulcer patients was 6% (range by city, 0%-18%). These data suggest that chancroid is prevalent in some US cities and that persons with genital ulcers should be a focus of HIV prevention activities.

  14. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  15. Progress in research on genital herpes and its vaccines%生殖器疱疹及其疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴橄

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes, a widespread sexually transmitted disease, is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.HSV can establish lifelong latent infection in the host and cause severe and recurrent diseases.In addition, HSV infection significantly increases the risk of HIV infection.Although antiHSV drugs have some effects, they are not capable of preventing reactivation of latent HSV.Therefore, it is urgent to develop effective vaccines to control HSV infection, and limit spread and relapse of the disease.In this paper, the etiology and epidemiology of genital herpes and development progress of genital herpes vaccines are reviewed.%生殖器疱疹由单纯疱疹病毒(herpes simplex virus,HSV)感染所致,在世界范围内广泛流行.HSV可在宿主体内建立终身潜伏感染,并引起严重的复发性疾病.此外,HSV感染还能明显增加HIV感染的机率.虽然目前抗HSV药物有一定作用,但是不能防止潜伏HSV复活.因此,亟需研制有效的疫苗来控制HSV感染、限制疾病传播和复发.此文对生殖器疱疹的病原学、流行病学及疫苗的研究进展做一综述.

  16. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  17. Herpes simplex virus infections of women and their offspring: implications for a developed society.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitley, R J

    1994-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections of humans have been known since ancient times. Contemporary society has witnessed a series of devastating manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections--namely, genital herpes simplex virus infection and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. With the evolution of society, particularly advances in birth control and increasing promiscuity, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections has increased worldwide, however, more so in developed so...

  18. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  19. 生殖器疱疹动物模型的建立及应用%Establishment and application of animal models of genital herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙福泉; 王千秋

    2011-01-01

    生殖器疱疹主要是由2型人类单纯疱疹病毒引起的性传播疾病.在动物阴道内注射病毒液可以建立生殖器疱疹动物模型,在此基础上还可以进一步建立复发感染模型.利用雌性豚鼠建立生殖器疱疹动物模型对于需要观察皮损变化方面的药效学等研究是较为理想的选择.通过观察豚鼠/小鼠外阴及阴道皮损病变情况并进行评分可以用于生殖器疱疹发病机制的研究,还可以用于抗疱疹病毒新药和疫苗的研究.%Genital herpes is a kind of sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2(HSV-2). Injecting virus into the vagina of animals is a common method to establish animal models of genital herpes, which can be used as a basis for the building of recurrent infection models. It is an ideal option to set up animal models of genital herpes by using femal guinea pigs for the observation of drug efficacy in skin lesions. To assess the lesion changes in vulva and vagina of guinea pigs or mice after the inoculation by a scoring method may be used to study the pathogenesis of genital herpes and to develop new antiviral agents and vaccines.

  20. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

  1. 生殖器疱疹的诊断和处理%Diagnosis and Management of Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕婷

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent,lifelong uncurable disease with no cure. It can produces symptomatic disease and asymptomatic viral excretion. It is currently the main cause of genital ulceration and an important public health problem. Since clinical diagnosis is neither sensitive nor specific, virological and type-specific serological tests should be used routinely. Oral antiviral drugs for HSV infections are safe and effective and can be used to treat episodes and prevent recurrences.%生殖器单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)感染是不可治愈的复发性、终生性疾病,可表现为生殖器疱疹或无症状性病毒排出.生殖器疱疹是生殖器溃疡的主要病因,已成为重要的公共卫生问题.由于临床诊断的不敏感和非特异性,通常需要病毒学或血清学检查确诊.HSV感染患者口服抗病毒药物治疗安全有效,可用于疾病发作时的治疗及预防复发.

  2. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  3. Clinical and virologic response to episodic acyclovir for genital ulcers among HIV-1 seronegative, herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive African women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Jared M; Reid, Stewart E; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hughes, James P; Wang, Richard S; Wilcox, Ellen; Limbada, Mohammed; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized trial among African women with recurrent genital herpes, episodic acyclovir therapy resulted in modestly greater likelihood of lesion healing (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, P = 0.098; mean, 5.1 vs. 6.0 days) and cessation of herpes simplex virus shedding (HR = 1.88, P = 0.008; mean, 3.0 vs. 5.0 days) compared with placebo, similar to results of studies in high-income countries (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00808405).

  4. Characterizing human herpes virus 6 following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Anthony J; Gulbis, Alison; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Howell, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    Human herpes virus 6 reactivation occurs in approximately 50% of patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplant, however, the significance of human herpes virus 6 reactivation remains uncertain. A retrospective study was conducted analyzing clinical data of patients testing positive for human herpes virus 6 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction following hematopoietic stem cell transplant from 1 January 1998 to 1 October 2011. Data retrieved were used to describe the clinical course and outcome of human herpes virus 6 positive hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Sixty patients were identified who tested positive for human herpes virus 6 by polymerase chain reaction following hematopoietic stem cell transplant. A high proportion of patients were identified in this cohort with acute myeloid leukemia (28.3%), active disease (65%), transplanted with a matched unrelated donor (30%), ≥ 1 antigen mismatched (28.3%) matched unrelated donor, or an umbilical cord graft (25%), and those who received antithymocyte globulin (42.4%). Thirty-eight (63.3%) patients were treated for human herpes virus 6 with foscarnet alone or in combination with intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 18 (30%) did not require treatment survival at Day 100 was 73.3%. This study suggests human herpes virus 6 reactivation occurs shortly after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (median of 25 days (interquartile range, 20-31.75) after hematopoietic stem cell transplant). Many potential risk factors are described in this report. Treatment of human herpes virus 6 predominately consisted of foscarnet with or without intravenous immunoglobulin; however, treatment of human herpes virus 6 was not always warranted. Furthermore, the effect of treatment on patient outcomes is uncertain. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency.

  6. Episodic therapy for genital herpes in sub-saharan Africa: a pooled analysis from three randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial in South Africa found a beneficial effect of acyclovir on genital ulcer healing, but no effect was seen in trials in Ghana, Central African Republic and Malawi. The aim of this paper is to assess whether the variation in impact of acyclovir on ulcer healing in these trials can be explained by differences in the characteristics of the study populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled data were analysed to estimate the impact of acyclovir on the proportion of ulcers healed seven days after randomisation by HIV/CD4 status, ulcer aetiology, size and duration before presentation; and impact on lesional HIV-1. Risk ratios (RR were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Of 1478 patients with genital ulcer, most (63% had herpetic ulcers (16% first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and a further 3% chancroid, 2% syphilis, 0.7% lymphogranuloma venereum and 31% undetermined aetiology. Over half (58% of patients were HIV-1 seropositive. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 days. Patients on acyclovir were more likely to have a healed ulcer on day 7 (63% vs 57%, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.98-1.18, shorter time to healing (p = 0.04 and less lesional HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.03. Small ulcers (<50 mm(2, HSV-2 ulcers, first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and ulcers in HIV-1 seropositive individuals responded best but the better effectiveness in South Africa was not explained by differences in these factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There may be slight benefit in adding acyclovir to syndromic management in settings where most ulcers are genital herpes. The stronger effect among HIV-1 infected individuals suggests that acyclovir may be beneficial for GUD/HIV-1 co-infected patients. The high prevalence in this population highlights that genital ulceration in patients with unknown HIV status provides a potential entry point for provider-initiated HIV testing.

  7. [The relationship between herpes simplex virus II, human papillomavirus infection and infertility after artificial abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Huang, T; Zhang, Z

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the relationship between infection of sexually transmitted virus Herpes simplex virus II (HSV2), Human papillomavirus (HPV) and female infertility after artificial abortion, we collected 60 genital samples from infertile women who had accepted artificial abortions and 39 genital samples from normal women. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HSV2 and HPV. The results were compared by x2. The positive rate of HSV2 in infertile and normal women were 80.0% and 25.6% respectively, there was a significant difference (P 0.05). Mixed infection rates of HSV2 and HPV were 43.3% and 23.1% in infertile and normal women, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was statistically calculated. The results showed that there was a relationship between infertility after artificial abortion and genital infection of HSV2 and HPV or mited infection of HSV 2 and HPV. Taking total 99 genital samples into calculation, the mired infection rate of HSV 2 was 35.35%, a significant relatedness of HSV2 and HPV infection to infertility was proved by chi 2, chi 2 = 12.5, P < 0.01.

  8. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500 mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400 mg TDS) instead, a saving of £828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made.

  9. [Latent infection of human herpes virus in hematopoietic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Song, Yu-Hua

    2008-12-01

    Up to date, eight types of human herpes viruses have been identified, all of which are ubiquitous, and usually establish latent infection in the host after primary infection. Since most of the herpes viruses are maintained in an asymptomatic form, they are often neglected. However, under some circumstances, these herpes viruses can cause fatal or severe diseases. Furthermore, the association of herpes viruses with hematopoietic malignancies is attracting researchers' attention. With the extensive development of hematopoietic stem cell and organ transplantation, reports regarding transplantation failure and complication caused by infection of human herpes virus has been increasing. Cytokine storm was firstly suggested as the mechanism of graft-versus-host diseases. In recent years, which has also been applied in the pathogenesis research of inflammation, and is supposed to play an important role in severe virus infection. In this paper, through discussing the possible role of latent infection of human herpes virus in the failure or complication of bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and in refractory leukemia, the function and significance of latent infection of human herpes virus and the cytokine storm it caused were investigated.

  10. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Detection of Intracellular Cytokine Production in Peripheral Blood CD3+ T Cells of Patients with Recurrent Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qifeng(钱起丰); GUO Hongwei(郭红卫)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of Th1fTh2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes (RGH), and to better understand the relationship between them.Methods: A two-color immunofluorescent staining of cell surface antigen and intracellular cytokines for flow cytometric analysis was used for CD3, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12,IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD3+ T-lymphocytes in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with RGH.Results: Compared to controls, patients with RGH showed fewer CD3+T cells (P<0.05) and IL-2 producing and IFN-γ producing T cells (P<0.02 and P<0.001, respectively)after in vitro stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of a protein transport inhibitor. More IL-10 producing and IL-12 producing T cells were found in patients with RGH (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the number of TNF-α producing cells between RGH patients and controls (P<0.05).Conclusion: RGH patients showed relatively more Th2 cytokines. The imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines results in inhibitory effects on a series of cell-immune responses, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RGH.

  12. A live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 virus elicits 10 to 100 times greater protection against genital herpes than a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Halford

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein D (gD-2 is the entry receptor of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2, and is the immunogen in the pharmaceutical industry's lead HSV-2 vaccine candidate. Efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-2 subunit vaccines have been ongoing for 20 years at a cost in excess of $100 million. To date, gD-2 vaccines have yielded equivocal protection in clinical trials. Therefore, using a small animal model, we sought to determine if a live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus would elicit better protection against genital herpes than a gD-2 subunit vaccine. Mice immunized with gD-2 and a potent adjuvant (alum+monophosphoryl lipid A produced high titers of gD-2 antibody. While gD-2-immunized mice possessed significant resistance to HSV-2, only 3 of 45 gD-2-immunized mice survived an overwhelming challenge of the vagina or eyes with wild-type HSV-2 (MS strain. In contrast, 114 of 115 mice immunized with a live HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus, 0ΔNLS, survived the same HSV-2 MS challenges. Likewise, 0ΔNLS-immunized mice shed an average 125-fold less HSV-2 MS challenge virus per vagina relative to gD-2-immunized mice. In vivo imaging demonstrated that a luciferase-expressing HSV-2 challenge virus failed to establish a detectable infection in 0ΔNLS-immunized mice, whereas the same virus readily infected naïve and gD-2-immunized mice. Collectively, these results suggest that a HSV-2 vaccine might be more likely to prevent genital herpes if it contained a live-attenuated HSV-2 virus rather than a single HSV-2 protein.

  13. HPV and Herpes Zoster Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genital warts and Herpes Zoster are relatively frequent encountered diseases in dermatology practice. Cervical cancers are also caused by some spesific types of human papillomaviruses. The purpose of this review is to give some knowledge about the vaccines which were developed for these diseases. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 108-12

  14. Treatment of relapse in herpes simplex on labial and facial areas and of primary herpes simplex on genital areas and "area pudenda" with low-power He-Ne laser or Acyclovir administered orally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Gonzalez, Mariano; Urrea-Arbelaez, Alejandro; Nicolas, M.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Perez, J. L.; Pavesi, M.; Camarasa, J. M.; Trelles, Mario A.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (greater than 16 yrs old) suffering primary or relapse genital herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and relapse labial HSV were appointed for this study. Three or more relapses were experienced per year. Patients (under treatment) were divided into two groups (distribution areas), corresponding to either labial herpes or genital herpes. These groups were sub-divided into 3 groups. The total number of labial or facial HSV patients was 36 (10 in group 1, 12 in group 2, 14 in group 3) and 24 for genital, buttocks, or 'area pudenda' HSV patients (6 in group 1, 8 in group 2, 10 in group 3). The design was a randomized, double- blind study. The setting was hospital and outpatient. The patients diagnosed as having the HVS disease were sent to the dermatology department and were assigned to a group at random. Treatment was begun as follows: During the treatment signs and symptoms were assessed and after the treatment, the relapses were also assessed (biochemical and hematological tests before and after the treatment) and the diagnosis of the HSV type I and II. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed and carried out with the SPSS and BMDP program. The relapses of the herpes infection in the lips and the face were significantly reduced (p less than 0.026) in patients treated with laser He-Ne and laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. The interim between the relapses also increased significantly (p less than 0.005) in relation with the group treated with Acyclovir. The duration of the herpetic eruptions was clearly reduced in all locations in patients treated with laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. No differences were noted between patients treated with laser He-Ne only or Acyclovir only. Therefore it is probable that therapeutic synergism took place. In relation with this, laser He-Ne shows the same therapeutic efficacy as Acyclovir taken orally. The association of Acyclovir and laser Ne-Ne could be an alternative method for the treatment of HSV in the face. The number

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  16. Can behavior change explain increases in the proportion of genital ulcers attributable to herpes in sub-Saharan Africa? A simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline L; Bakker, Roel; De Vlas, Sake J; Robinson, N Jamie; Hayes, Richard; Habbema, J Dik F

    2002-04-01

    The proportion of cases of genital ulcer disease attributable to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appears to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the contributions of HIV disease and behavioral response to the HIV epidemic to the increasing proportion of genital ulcer disease (GUD) attributable to HSV-2 in sub-Saharan Africa. Simulations of the transmission dynamics of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV with use of the model STDSIM. In simulations, 28% of GUD was caused by HSV-2 before a severe HIV epidemic. If HIV disease was assumed to double the duration and frequency of HSV-2 recurrences, this proportion rose to 35% by year 2000. If stronger effects of HIV were assumed, this proportion rose further, but because of increased HSV-2 transmission this would shift the peak in HSV-2 seroprevalence to an unrealistically young age. A simulated 25% reduction in partner-change rates increased the proportion of GUD caused by HSV-2 to 56%, following relatively large decreases in chancroid and syphilis. Behavioral change may make an important contribution to relative increases in genital herpes.

  17. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed.

  18. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  19. Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 protects against HSV-2 genital disease in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brans Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CJ9-gD is a novel dominant-negative recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 that is completely replication-defective, cannot establish detectable latent infection in vivo, and expresses high levels of the major HSV-1 antigen glycoprotein D immediately following infection. In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs. Results Animals immunized with CJ9-gD developed at least 700-fold higher titers of HSV-2-specific neutralization antibodies than mock-immunized controls. After challenge with wild-type HSV-2, all 10 control guinea pigs developed multiple genital lesions with an average of 21 lesions per animal. In contrast, only 2 minor lesions were found in 2 of 8 CJ9-gD-immunized animals, representing a 40-fold reduction on the incidence of primary genital lesions in immunized animals (p Conclusions Collectively, we demonstrate that vaccination with the HSV-1 recombinant CJ9-gD elicits strong and protective immune responses against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital disease and significantly reduces the extent of latent infection.

  20. Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16-18 in Turkish pregnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Dinc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infections in the world. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV are the main agents of viral sexually transmitted diseases, which cause genital ulcers and genital warts, respectively. HPV infection has been linked to the majority of the anogenital malignancies. The aim of this study was to detect the existence of CMV, HSV-2 and HPV type 16-18 in Turkish pregnants by using sensitive molecular assays. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four women (18-41 years old; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 8 applied to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in between 18th - 22nd weeks of their pregnancy and a control group of 99 healthy women (15-39 years old; mean age ± SD: 24 ± 8 were included in the study. Cervical smear samples were used for DNA extraction. CMV, HSV-2 and HPV 16-18 detections were carried out by real time PCR and in house PCR method, respectively. RESULTS: Three patients (3/134; 2.2% were found to be positive for each HPV and HSV-2. Dual infection with HPV and HSV was found in just one patient. HPV 18 was detected in all positive samples. CMV was found to be positive in two patients (2/134; 1.4 %. CONCLUSION: HPV, HSV and CMV must be screened due to high prevalence of these viruses in pregnants by using sensitive molecular methods.

  1. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie B; Olesen, Tina B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were...... influencing prevalence in general and high-risk male populations in Europe. RESULTS: We included 31 articles that gave the prevalence of genital HPV DNA among men in northern, southern and western Europe; no studies from eastern Europe were identified. The pooled HPV prevalence among 1,863 men representing...

  2. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Human Herpes Virus-6 and Human Herpes Virus -7 in Pityriasis Rosea

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    Kıymet Baz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The etiology of pityriasis rosea (PR remains unknown despite numerous investigations. In recent years, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 and HHV-7 were accused as causative agents in PR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 in the pathogenesis of PR. Methods: Twenty three PR patients and 23 healthy blood donors as a control group were included in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers for HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA sequences was performed on the serum samples of 23 active PR patients and controls, and also the lesional skin biopsies from 11 PR patients. Additionally, serum levels of IgM antibodies againts HHV-7 were detected by using indirect immunofluorescence test on the serum samples of all of the study population. Results: No statistically significant differences were detected between PR patients and controls regarding all serum results. Conclusion: These findings do not support a primary etiological role for HHV-6 and HHV-7 in PR as in some previous studies.

  4. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they're infected. It's important for all teens who have had sex to get screened regularly for STDs so that ... more serious health problems. Getting Help If your teen is thinking of becoming sexually active or already has started having sex, it's important to discuss it. Make sure your ...

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  7. A test for the relative potency of herpes simplex virus vaccines based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillpotts, R J; Welch, M J; Ridgeway, P H; Walkland, A C; Melling, J

    1988-04-01

    An ELISA for total herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 antigen content and a test of immunogenicity based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection were applied to two samples from batches of HSV 1 subunit ('Skinner') vaccine. The ELISA was reproducible within an approximately threefold limit of error and batches 1 and 2 were indistinguishable in antigen content. The effects of vaccination in the guinea-pig model were assessed by a statistical analysis of scores derived from the principal clinical signs, vaginal oedema and lesions on the external genitalia. The statistical power of the guinea-pig assay was such that reductions in the severity of illness approaching 40% would be significant (P less than 0.05) on 90% of occasions. The ability to make quantitative estimates of immunogenicity will prove useful in the quality control of HSV vaccine batches which are destined for clinical trials in man.

  8. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.

  9. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA)); Murray, R.S. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  10. THALIDOMIDE: A THERAPEUTIC BOON IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RECURRENT GENITAL APHTHOUS ULCERATION IN AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubabu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genital lesions are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients. Aetiology of the genital lesions are mainly due to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and non-specific genital ulcers. They usually respond to the antiviral and antibacterial agents. We are presenting a young unmarried HIV positive and Hepatitis-B positive patient who presented with non-healing genital ulcer lesions while on antiretroviral therapy and showed variable response and challenges to treatment with antivirals, steroids, antibacterials and change of ART and finally dramatic response with Thalidomide therapy which is rarely described in the literature.

  11. Human herpes viruses in burn patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Guillory, Ashley; Parvizi, Daryousch; Clayton, Robert P; Branski, Ludwik K; Kamolz, Lars-P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jong O

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of human herpes viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) to morbidity and mortality after burns remains controversial. This systematic review was undertaken to assess evidence of herpes virus-related morbidity and mortality in burns. PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science were searched to identify studies of HSV, CMV, or VZV infections in burn patients. Exclusion criteria included: A level of evidence (LoE) of IV or V; nonhuman in vivo studies; and non-English articles. There was no limitation by publication date. Fifty articles were subjected to full-text analysis. Of these, 18 had LoE between I-III and were included in the final review (2 LoE I, 16 LoE II-III). Eight had a prospective study design, 9 had a retrospective study design, and 1 included both. No direct evidence linked CMV and HSV infection with increased morbidity and mortality in burns. Following burn, CMV reactivation was more common than a primary CMV infection. Active HSV infection impaired wound healing but was not directly correlated to mortality. Infections with VZV are rare after burns but when they occur, VZV infections were associated with severe complications including mortality. The therapeutic effect of antiviral agents administered after burns warrants investigation via prospective randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. 253 Use of Transfer Factor in Patients with Persistent Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca Maria; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 75 to 80% of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime. The risk of HPV infection seems to be related with age at first intercourse, younger age and number of sexual partners. HPV infection is limited to the basal cells of stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranas. There is a wide latency period, from months to years, before squamous intraepithelial lesions develop. Most HPV infections are cleared within 2 years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women with “high risk” types the infection persists determining a high risk of developing intraepithelial neoplasias, as cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer, and/or anal cancer. The gynecological evaluation and Papanicolau smear are the primary screening tools for detecting HPV infection. There is currently no specific treatment for HPV infection. The Transfer Factor (TF) or Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. TF induces the expression of RNAm and IFN-γ and increases CD4+ cells. The IFN-γ activates macrophages, neutrophils, B lymphocytes, NK cells, and favours the differentiation of T cells into Th1 lymphocytes that are requiried for the control of intracellular patho gens. Methods We used TF in a group of patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection. Results We included 12 patients, aged 19 to 45 years old (mean 30), with 14 to 23 years at first intercourse and a mean of 3 sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options (including cervical freezing, cauterizing loop, imiquimod, podophyllin and/or cervical conization). Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and

  13. Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to human keratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Julia; Gallo, Antonio; Schommartz, Tim; Handke, Wiebke; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Günther, Patrick; Brune, Wolfram; Reich, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects. We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein. The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup. Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream. These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system...... in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system......Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good...

  15. CLINICAL AND VIROLOGIC FOUNDATION FOR PATHOGENETIC THERAPY OF HUMAN HERPES VIRUS TYPE 6 INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Myukke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about an infection caused by human herpes virus type 6, its' epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical variants, is reviewed. Clinical cases, diagnosed at a time of study, are briefly reviewed.Key words: human herpes virus type 6, exanthema subitum (roseola infantum, fever of unknown origin, mononucleosis like syndrome, meningoencephalitis, children.

  16. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  17. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...... genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance...... between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common...

  18. Incidence rate of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomavirus infection in Czech population

    OpenAIRE

    Petráš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomaviruses in the Czech population Marek Petráš Abstract Genital warts (condyloma acuminate) caused up to 90% cases by two human papillomaviruses of type 6 and 11 are not life-threatening diseases but can cause not only clinical symptoms (burning, itching, bleeding, and pain) but also psychosocial stress, embarrassment, and anxiety making for impaired quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the p...

  19. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephaliti...

  20. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine

  1. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  3. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, María-Pilar; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bermejo, Paulina; Abad, María-José; Carro, Rubén; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Otero-Espinar, Francisco; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV. PMID:26393621

  4. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  5. A cloudy bag and genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesker, J; van Elsacker-Niele, A M; Blanken, R; Halma, C

    2006-05-01

    A 30-year-old patient treated with CCPD presented with genital ulcers and a culture-negative peritonitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was cultured from the effluent and the genital lesions. Primary HSV-2 infection was diagnosed by serology. This is the first documented case of PD peritonitis caused by HSV-2. We speculate that cases of culture-negative PD peritonitis may be due to recurrences of genital herpes.

  6. Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

  7. The equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, L; Tiraby, M; Cazaux, C; Brisson, E; Grisoni, M; Zhao-Emonet, J; Tiraby, G; Klatzmann, D

    1999-09-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (HSV1tk) together with ganciclovir (GCV) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. With the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (HSV1, varicella-zoster virus, equine herpes virus type-4 and Epstein-Barr virus) as suicide genes in association with the nucleoside analogs acyclovir, ganciclovir and bromovinyldeoxyur- idine. Using various murine and human cell lines expressing these viral tk, we show that HSV1- and EHV4tk are the more efficient suicide genes for the different nucleoside analogs tested. Moreover, EHV4tk expressing murine and human cells were three- to 12-fold more sensitive to GCV than HSV1tk expressing cells. This was correlated with the presence of five-fold higher amounts of the toxic triphosphated-GCV in EHV4- versus HSV1tk expressing cells. Altogether, these experiments underline the potential advantages of the EHV4tk as a suicide gene.

  8. Clinical Analysis of Gamma Interferon Combined with Valaciclovir in the Treatment of Recurrent Genital Herpes%γ-干扰素与伐昔洛韦联用有效治疗复发性生殖器疱疹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋顼; 孙克红; 周海霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of gamma interferon and cut yesterday galloway together clinical curative effect for the treatment of recurrent genital herpes. Methods 64 patients with recurrent genital herpes were randomly divided into two groups, observation group intramuscular gamma interferon 1 million IU, day 1, 20 d Ed;At the same time of oral cutting yesterday 0.3 g, respectively.there 2 times/d, even served 7 d. Control simple oral cutting yesterday galloway. Observe two groups of relapse. Results Observation group recurrence rate significantly lower than the control group ( < 0.05). Conclusion Combination of gamma interferon and cutting yesterday respectively.there is an ideal method to reduce the recurrent genital herpes.%目的探讨γ-干扰素与伐昔洛韦联用治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床疗效。方法将64例生殖器疱疹复发患者随机分成两组,观察组肌肉注射γ-干扰素100万IU,隔日1次,连用20d;同时口服伐昔洛韦0.3g,2次/d,连服7d。对照组单纯口服伐昔洛韦,观察两组复发情况。结果观察组复发率明显低于对照组(<0.05)。结论联合使用γ-干扰素与伐昔洛韦是降低生殖器疱疹复发率的理想方法。

  9. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (USA)); June, C.H. (Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  10. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  11. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination.

  12. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  13. Dose-Related Differences in Effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Against Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Maria; Dehlendorff, Christian; Sand, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing the number of doses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination regimen from 3 to 2 could increase coverage rates. In this cohort study, we assessed the risk of genital warts (GWs) according to timing and number of doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine. METHODS: From population...

  14. Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald H Gray

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Randomized trials show that male circumcision (MC reduces the incidence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infections, and symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD. We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-uninfected men were randomized to immediate (n = 2,756 or delayed MC (n = 2,775 in two randomized trials in Rakai, Uganda. GUD symptoms, HSV-2 status, and HIV acquisition were determined at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 24 mo of follow up. Ulcer etiology was assessed by PCR. We estimated the prevalence and prevalence risk ratios (PRRs of GUD in circumcised versus uncircumcised men and assessed the effects of HSV-2 serostatus as a risk-modifying factor for GUD. We estimated the proportion of the effect of MC on HIV acquisition that was mediated by symptomatic GUD, and by HSV-2 infection. Circumcision significantly reduced symptomatic GUD in HSV-2-seronegative men (PRR = 0.51, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.43-0.74, HSV-2-seropositive men (PRR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.69, and in HSV-2 seroconverters (PRR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.79. The proportion of acute ulcers due to HSV-2 detected by PCR was 48.0% in circumcised men and 39.3% in uncircumcised men (chi(2p = 0.62. Circumcision reduced the risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 seronegative men (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.81, and potentially in HSV-2 seroconverters (IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.19-1.57; not significant, but not in men with prevalent HSV-2 at enrollment (IRR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.49-1.60. The proportion of reduced HIV acquisition in circumcised men mediated by reductions in symptomatic GUD was 11.2% (95% CI 5.0-38.0, and the proportion mediated by reduced HSV-2 incidence was 8.6% (95% CI -1.2 to 77.1. CONCLUSIONS: Circumcision reduced GUD irrespective of HSV-2 status, but this reduction played only a modest role in the protective effect of circumcision on HIV acquisition.

  15. [Oncogenic human papillomaviruses in extra-genital Bowen disease revealed by in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derancourt, C; Mougin, C; Chopard Lallier, M; Coumes-Marquet, S; Drobacheff, C; Laurent, R

    2001-01-01

    The association between mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) and bowenoid papulosis or genital Bowen's disease is well documented. In contrast this association with extra-genital Bowen's disease is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to detect oncogenic (16/18, 31/33/51) and non oncogenic (8/11) mucosal HPV using a in situ hybridization method in 28 skin biopsy specimens of extra-genital Bowen's disease. Twenty-eight cases of extra-genital Bowen's disease seen in the period 1990-96 in the Dermatology department were included: 19 women and 9 men (mean age: 72 years). Bowen's disease locations were: hands and feet (8 cases), limbs (11 cases), face (8 cases), trunk (1 case). Blinded histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and signs of HPV infection (koilocytosis). In situ hybridization was performed using three biotinylated probes detecting HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/51. Oncogenic HPV genoma was detected in 8 skin samples (28.6 p. 100). In all these cases, 16/18 probe was positive and in two cases, both 16/18 and 31/33/51 probes were positive; 4/8 Bowen's diseases of the extremities were positive for HPV. Koilocytes were found in 6/8 of skin samples with positive HPV detection. Mucosal oncogenic HPV are detected by in situ hybridization in 28.6 p. 100 of extra-genital Bowen's disease. In situ hybridization is an easier technique than Southern-Blot hybridization which is the gold standard. Five studies reported similar results and three studies reported different results that we discuss. A precise understanding of oncogenic HPV implication in the development of extra-genital Bowen's disease could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies (topical cidofovir or imiquimod).

  16. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

  17. The human herpes virus 8-encoded chemokine receptor is required for angioproliferation in a murine model of Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Manfra, Denise J; Grisotto, Marcos G;

    2005-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus or human herpes virus 8 is considered the etiological agent of KS, a highly vascularized neoplasm that is the most common tumor affecting HIV/AIDS patients. The KS-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 open reading frame 74 encodes a constitutively...

  18. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  19. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  20. Genital ulcers: their diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S L

    1987-08-01

    THIS ARTICLE OFFERS SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THREE MAJOR CAUSES OF GENITAL ULCERS: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment.

  1. 生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒2型抗原抗体检测结果分析%Patients with genital herpes herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen antibody test results of analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余宝珠

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒2型(HSV-2)抗原抗体检测结果,探讨HSV-2抗原抗体检测的临床诊断意义.方法 86例生殖器疱疹患者开展HSV-2抗原抗体ELISA检测.结果 86例生殖器疱疹患者中,HSV-2抗原阳性检出率为90.70%,HSV-2 IgG阳性检出率为70.93%,HSV-2 IgM阳性为13.95%;45例初发患者HSV-2抗原阳性检出率为88.89%,HSV-2 IgG阳性检出率为40%,HSV-2 IgM阳性检出率为26.67%;41例复发患者,HSV-2抗原阳性检出率为87.80%,HSV-2 IgG阳性检出率为100%,HSV-2 IgM阳性检出率为0%.结论 ELISA法具有快速、简便、特异性高的特点;应根据患者不同症状选择HSV-2抗原抗体不同的检测方式.%Objective Analysis of patients with genital herpes herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen antibody detection results,discusses the HSV-2 antigen antibody detection in clinical diagnostic significance;. Methods Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in,selection of 86 patients with genital herpes patients HSV-2 carry out antigen antibody detection. Results In 86 patients with genital herpes patients, the HSV-2 antigen positive detection rate was 90. 70%, HSV-2 positive rate of IgG was 70. 93%, HSV-2 IgM positive rate was 13. 95%. 45 cases of patients with incipient HSV-2 antigen positive rate was 88. 89% ,HSV-2 positive rate of IgG was 40% ,HSV-2 IgM positive rate was 26. 67% ; in 41 cases of recurrent patients, HSV-2 antigen positive rate was 87. 80% , HSV-2 positive rate of IgG was 100% , HSV-2 IgM positive rate was 0%. Conclusion Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay could be a rapid,simple,highly specific characteristics. According to different symptoms of patients with HSV-2 antigen antibody of different detection methods.

  2. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS......: All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977......-1984 through 1984-1991. Three mothers (10%) had recurrent herpes at delivery, three (10%) had primary herpes, and five (17%) had oral herpes. Seven infants (23%) were delivered by Cesarean section. Nine (30%) only had cutaneous herpes, four (13%) had CNS herpes, nine (30%) had disseminated disease. Six (20...

  3. The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin(谷进); ZENG Zhirong(曾志荣); CHEN Rongzhang(陈荣章); ZHU Huilan(朱慧兰); QIU Xiaoshan(邱晓珊)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the etiology of genital ulcerdisease (GUD) among patients attending sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangzhou, China.Methods: Between September 8, 1998, and August 9,2001, 267 patients with a genital ulcer were clinicallyassessed. Clinical etiology of GUD was dependent onphysical appearance and microbiologic examination,including the following: dark field microscopy and serologyfor Treponema pallidum (TP), swabs of genital ulcer forHerpes simplex virus (HSV), processed quantitativefluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) forsimultaneous detection of HSV, TP, Haemophilus ducreyi(HD), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and serology for HIVinfection.Results: Two hundred thirty men and thirty-sevenwomen with a median age of 33.4 (range 16-74 years) wereanalyzed. The etiology of GUD was syphilis (26.59%)(71/267), genital herpes (17.60%) (47/267), condylomataacuminata (4.87%) (13/267), candidiasis (3.37%) (9/267),bacterial infection (3.75%) (10/267), and multiple infection(6.74%) (18/267). The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.75%(2/267). No etiology was identified in 50.56% (135/267).Conclusion: The etiology of GUD among STD patients inour area was multifactorial with a predominance of syphilisand genital herpes. Based on this limited data obtained atSTD clinics, HIV infection was not common.

  4. Association Between Vaginal Douching and Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Thai, Thuy Nhu; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Shete, Sanjay S; Ramondetta, Lois M; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2016-11-01

    The very few studies that have examined the association between vaginal douching and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have found contrary results. We investigated the associations between douching and numbers of HPV genotypes infecting 1271 participants aged 20-49 years in the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After controlling for relevant covariates, douching in the past 6 months was significantly associated with infection by higher numbers of all genital HPV types (relative risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) and HPV high-risk types (1.40; 1.09-1.80). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. 生殖器疱疹患者健康相关生命质量及其影响因素%Health-related quality of life and influencing factors in patients with geni-tal herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴若以; 顾小红

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解生殖器疱疹患者心理状况、健康相关生命质量(HRQOL)评分,以及 HRQOL 评分的影响因素。方法对2014年1月—2015年8月大坪医院皮肤科门诊就诊的生殖器疱疹发作期患者进行调查,使用抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估其心理状况,使用生活质量评价量表(SF-36)测量 HRQOL 评分,分析 HRQOL 和 SDS 评分相关性,对 HRQOL 评分的影响因素进行分析。结果实际调查145例生殖器疱疹患者,HRQOL 评分为(479.46±92.45)分,SDS 评分为(62.2±14.1)分。其中轻度抑郁者46例(31.73%),中度抑郁者28例(19.31%),重度抑郁者17例(11.73%)。Pearson 相关分析显示,受试者 HRQOL 评分与 SDS 评分呈负相关(R =-0.37,P <0.001)。多元线性逐步回归法分析结果显示:与 HRQOL 评分相关的因素按相关程度由大到小依次为接受治疗、知晓生殖器疱疹防治知识、饮酒、年龄、SDS 评分、睡眠时间、锻炼(均 P <0.05),其中 HRQOL 评分与年龄、饮酒、SDS 评分呈负相关(均 P <0.05),与接受治疗、锻炼、知晓生殖器疱疹防治知识、睡眠时间呈正相关(均 P <0.05)。结论生殖器疱疹患者普遍出现抑郁心理,HRQOL 较差。在临床中应重视年龄偏大和伴发抑郁的患者,并对其进行干预。%Objective To understand the psychological state,health-related quality of life (HRQOL)score,and the influencing factors of HRQOL score in patients with genital herpes.Methods From January 2014 to August 2015,patients with genital herpes in dermatology outpatient clinic of Daping Hospital were investigated,and their psychological status was assessed by self-rating depression scale(SDS),HRQOL score was measured with the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36),correlation between HRQOL and SDS score,as well as influencing factors of HRQOL score were analyzed.Results A total of 145

  6. Immunogenicity and efficacy of intramuscular replication-defective and subunit vaccines against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the mouse genital model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delagrave

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted virus that is highly prevalent worldwide, causing a range of symptoms that result in significant healthcare costs and human suffering. ACAM529 is a replication-defective vaccine candidate prepared by growing the previously described dl5-29 on a cell line appropriate for GMP manufacturing. This vaccine, when administered subcutaneously, was previously shown to protect mice from a lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge and to afford better protection than adjuvanted glycoprotein D (gD in guinea pigs. Here we show that ACAM529 given via the intramuscular route affords significantly greater immunogenicity and protection in comparison with subcutaneous administration in the mouse vaginal HSV-2 challenge model. Further, we describe a side-by-side comparison of intramuscular ACAM529 with a gD vaccine across a range of challenge virus doses. While differences in protection against death are not significant, ACAM529 protects significantly better against mucosal infection, reducing peak challenge virus shedding at the highest challenge dose by over 500-fold versus 5-fold for gD. Over 27% (11/40 of ACAM529-immunized animals were protected from viral shedding while 2.5% (1/40 were protected by the gD vaccine. Similarly, 35% (7/20 of mice vaccinated with ACAM529 were protected from infection of their dorsal root ganglia while none of the gD-vaccinated mice were protected. These results indicate that measuring infection of the vaginal mucosa and of dorsal root ganglia over a range of challenge doses is more sensitive than evaluating survival at a single challenge dose as a means of directly comparing vaccine efficacy in the mouse vaginal challenge model. The data also support further investigation of ACAM529 for prophylaxis in human subjects.

  7. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Ioannidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6 and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. METHODS: Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4% versus controls (4/38; 10.5%, but the difference did not reach significance (p = 0.06. Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29% versus controls (10/38; 26.32%,p = 0.13. In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%, and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%, versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11. CONCLUSION: Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis.

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  9. 酶联免疫吸附试验检测单纯疱疹病毒抗体在生殖器疱疹筛查中的应用%Application of ELISA detection of herpes simplex virus antibodies in genital herpes screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪峰; 皮治兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨酶联免疫吸附试验检测单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)抗体对生殖器疱疹筛查的意义。方法:选取50例2010年2月至2013年10月来我院治疗疑似生殖器疱疹患者,将其作为试验组,使用酶联免疫吸附试验进行HSV抗体检测,另外选择50例健康体检人员血清作为对照组。结果:在50例疑似生殖器疱疹患者HSV-I IgM,HSV-I IgG的检出率依次为14%,32%,HSV-ⅡIgM检出率为20%,HSV-ⅡIgG的检出率为34%;在对照组中HSV-I IgM,HSV-I IgG的检出率依次为0.8%,14%,HSV-ⅡIgM检出率为10%,HSV-ⅡIgG的检出率为24%,两组患者HSV抗体检测阳性率有显著的不同,二者明显的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:疑似生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒抗体检出率高,酶联免疫检测HSV抗原的方法可直接检测出泌尿生殖道及皮损中HSV病原体,在生殖器疱疹筛查中具有一定的优势。%Objectives:To investigate the application of ELISA detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody in screening genital herpes.Method:50 patients,from February 201 0 to October 201 3,in our hospital with suspected genital herpes were selected as the test group,using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect HSV antibodies.In addition,50 healthy people were selected as control group.Results:In the 50 cases of test group,the detection rates of HSV-I IgMand HSV-I IgG were 1 4%and 32%respectively.HSV-ⅡIgMdetec-tion rate was 20%.HSV-ⅡIgG detection rate was 34%.In the control group,HSV-I IgM and HSV-I IgG de-tection rates were 0.8% and 1 4%,respectively.HSV-Ⅱ IgM detection rate was 1 0%.HSV-Ⅱ IgG detection rate was 24%.The difference of the HSV antibody positive rates in the two groups were statistically significant (P<0. 05 ).Conclusion:The detection rate of simplex virus antibody in patients with suspected genital herpes is high. ELISA method can directly detect HSV antigen

  10. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

    2006-06-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and positive samples were typed using an array technique which enabled us to detect the 35 most common types of mucous-associated HPV. Of the 401 patients studied, 185 (46.1%) were positive, and only one type of HPV was detected in 133 cases. We found that 41.6% of the women and 56.7% of the men were positive. A total of 260 HPVs were typed; 154 were high oncogenic risk. They infected 16 men (23.5%) and 88 women (75.2%). The difference was statistically significant (pHVP 16 in 52 cases. We found a 46% prevalence of HPV infection. More than half of these patients were infected by high-risk HPV. The presence of high-risk HPV was significantly higher in women.

  11. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract.

  13. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Dlamini, Xolisile; Östensson, Ellinor

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden. Materials and methods A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($). Results The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million). Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million). Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million). Conclusion According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV

  14. Parenteral is more efficient than mucosal immunization to induce regression of human papillomavirus-associated genital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrausaz, Loane; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Duc, Mélanie; Bobst, Martine; Romero, Pedro; Schiller, John T; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cervical cancer is a public health concern as it represents the second cause of cancer death in women worldwide. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiologic agents, and HPV E6 and/or E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines are under development to treat HPV-related lesions in women. Whether the use of mucosal routes of immunization may be preferable for inducing cell-mediated immune responses able to eradicate genital tumors is still debated because of the uniqueness of the female genital mucosa (GM) and the limited experimentation. Here, we compared the protective activity resulting from immunization of mice via intranasal (i.n.), intravaginal (IVAG) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes with an adjuvanted HPV type 16 E7 polypeptide vaccine. Our data show that s.c. and i.n. immunizations elicited similar frequencies and avidity of TetE71CD81 and E7-specific Interferon-gamma-secreting cells in the GM, whereas slightly lower immune responses were induced by IVAG immunization. In a novel orthotopic murine model, both s.c. and i.n. immunizations allowed for complete long-term protection against genital E7-expressing tumor challenge. However, only s.c. immunization induced complete regression of already established genital tumors. This suggests that the higher E7-specific systemic response observed after s.c. immunization may contribute to the regression of growing genital tumors, whereas local immune responses may be sufficient to impede genital challenges. Thus, our data show that for an efficiently adjuvanted protein-based vaccine, parenteral vaccination route is superior to mucosal vaccination route for inducing regression of established genital tumors in a murine model of HPV-associated genital cancer.

  15. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palella, T D; Silverman, L J; Schroll, C T; Homa, F L; Levine, M; Kelley, W N

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  16. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  17. Surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Folasade; Shaver, Aaron; Raffanti, Stephen

    2017-05-15

    Recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with HIV who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. He initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. The lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical excision, which led to resolution without recurrences. Our case highlights the importance of surgical excision as a treatment option in refractory herpes simplex virus anogenital infections.

  18. Repertoire of Epitopes Recognized by Serum IgG from Humans Vaccinated with Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Cairns, Tina M.; Gallagher, John R.; Lou, Huan; Ponce-de-Leon, Manuel; Belshe, Robert B.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The results of a clinical trial of a subunit vaccine against genital herpes were recently reported (R. B. Belshe, P. A. Leone, D. I. Bernstein, A. Wald, M. J. Levin, J. T. Stapleton, I. Gorfinkel, R. L. Morrow, M. G. Ewell, A. Stokes-Riner, G. Dubin, T. C. Heineman, J. M. Schulte, C. D. Deal, N. Engl. J. Med. 366:34–43, 2012, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1103151). The vaccine consisted of a soluble form of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) with adjuvant. The goal of the current study was to examine the composition of the humoral response to gD2 within a selected subset of vaccinated individuals. Serum samples from 30 vaccine recipients were selected based upon relative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers against gD2; 10 samples had high titers, 10 had medium titers, and the remaining 10 had low ELISA titers. We employed a novel, biosensor-based monoclonal antibody (MAb)-blocking assay to determine whether gD2 vaccination elicited IgG responses against epitopes overlapping those of well-characterized MAbs. Importantly, IgGs from the majority of gD2-immunized subjects competed for gD binding with four antigenically distinct virus-neutralizing MAbs (MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11). Screening of patient IgGs against overlapping peptides spanning the gD2 ectodomain revealed that about half of the samples contained antibodies against linear epitopes within the N and C termini of gD2. We found that the virus-neutralizing abilities of the 10 most potent samples correlated with overall gD-binding activity and to an even greater extent with the combined content of IgGs against the epitopes of MAbs MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11. This suggests that optimal virus-neutralizing activity is achieved by strong and balanced responses to the four major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD2. IMPORTANCE Several herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine studies have been conducted in human subjects using a recombinant form of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2

  19. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  20. Susceptibility of human iris stromal cells to herpes simplex virus 1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, John; Park, Paul J; Zanotti, Brian; Maus, Erika; Volin, Michael V; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2013-04-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to multiple complications, including iritis, an inflammation of the iris. Here, we use human iris stroma cells as a novel in vitro model to demonstrate HSV-1 entry and the inflammatory mediators that can damage the iris. The upregulated cytokines observed in this study provide a new understanding of the intrinsic immune mechanisms that can contribute to the onset of iritis.

  1. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Banerjee, Joya; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Fried, Susana T

    2017-05-12

    Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. 2013), nor are they sufficient to respond to health needs of millions of women and girls living with FGM. International efforts to address FGM have thus far focused primarily on preventing the practice, with less attention to treating associated health complications, caring for survivors, and engaging health care providers as key stakeholders. Recognizing this imperative, WHO developed guidelines on management of health complications of FGM. In this paper, based on foundational research for the development of WHO's guidelines, we situate the practice of FGM as a rights violation in the context of international and national policy and efforts, and explore the role of health providers in upholding health-related human rights of women at girls who are survivors, or who are at risk. Findings are based on a literature review of relevant international human rights treaties and UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.

  2. A multicenter prospective trial to asses a new real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex-1/2 and Haemophilus ducreyi in genital, anal and oropharyngeal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, M; Juricevic, N; Altwegg, M; Bruisten, S; Komericki, P; Lautenschlager, S; Weber, R; Bosshard, P P

    2014-12-01

    Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2 (HSV-1/2) and Haemophilus ducreyi are sexually transmitted pathogens that can cause genital, anal and oropharyngeal ulcers. Laboratory evaluation of these pathogens in ulcers requires different types of specimens and tests, increasing the risk of improper specimen handling and time lapse until analysis. We sought to develop a new real-time PCR (TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR) to facilitate the detection of T. pallidum, HSV-1/2 and H. ducreyi in ulcers. The TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR was tested (i) in a retrospective study on 193 specimens of various clinical origin and (ii) in a prospective study on 36 patients with genital, anal or oropharyngeal ulcers (ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01688258). The results of the TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR were compared with standard diagnostic methods (T. pallidum: serology, dark field microscopy; HSV-1/2: PCR; H. ducreyi: cultivation). Sensitivity and specificity of the TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR for T. pallidum were both 100%, for HSV-1 100% and 98%, and for HSV-2 100% and 98%, respectively. T. pallidum and HSV-1/2 were detected in 53% and 22% of patients in the prospective study; H. ducreyi was not detected. In the prospective study, 5/19 (26%) specimens were true positive for T. pallidum in the TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR but non-reactive in the VDRL. The TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR is sensitive and specific for the detection of T. pallidum and HSV-1/2 in routine clinical practice and it appears superior to serology in early T. pallidum infections.

  3. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses...... conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8....... RESULTS: In all 30 biopsies, PCR was negative for DNAs of parvovirus B19, each of the eight human herpes viruses and C. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of DNA from parvovirus B19, human herpes virus or C. pneumoniae in any of the temporal arteries. These agents do not seem to play a unique...

  4. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types.

  5. Human herpes viruses are associated with classic fever of unknown origin (FUO) in Beijing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weimin; Tan, Xinyi; Li, Yamin; Tan, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Few reports have examined the viral aetiology of fever of unknown origin (FUO). This study determined the prevalence of human herpes virus (HHV) DNA in blood of Chinese patients with classic FUO using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and explored the possible role of HHV. Blood samples were collected from 186 patients (151 children, 35 adults) with classic FUO and 143 normal individuals in Beijing during the years 2009-2012. The HHV DNA, including Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2, Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Human herpes virus (HHV)-6 and -7, was detected by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological and clinical features were also analysed. HHV DNA was detected in 63 (33.9%) of the FUO patients, and the prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 was significantly higher than in the normal cohort. HHV co-infection was also frequent (10.2%) in the patients with FUO. The majority of patients with HHV infection present with a fever only. Our data also revealed that EBV infection was associated with hepatitis and abnormal blood indices, HHV-6 was associated with a cough, and HHV-7 was associated with hepatitis. HHVs are associated with Chinese patients (especially for children) with classic FUO. Our study adds perspective to the aetiological and clinical characteristics of classic FUO in beijing patients.

  6. Profound CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in human immunodeficiency virus negative individuals, improved with anti-human herpes virus treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Betancourt, María Lilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia can be associated with many bacterial, fungal, parasite and viral infections. They can also be found in autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, common variable immunodeficiency syndrome, physical, psychological and traumatic stress, malnutrition and immunosuppressive therapy. Besides, they can also be brought into relation, without a known cause, with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Among viral infections, the Retrovirus, specially the human immunodeficiency virus, is the most frequently cause. However, many acute viral infections, including cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus can be associated with transient ymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. As is well known, transient ymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia are temporary and overcome when the disease improves. Nonetheless, severe CD4+ T Lymphocytopenia associated with chronic infections by human herpes virus has not been reported. We describe 6 cases of human immunodeficiency virus negative patients, with chronic cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infections and profound lymphocytopenia with clinical symptoms of cellular immunodeficiency. These patients improved rapidly with ganciclovir or valganciclovir treatment. We claim here that it is important to consider the chronic human herpes virus infection in the differential diagnosis of profoundly CD4+ T lymphocytopenia etiology, when human mmunodeficiency virus is absent, in order to start effective treatment and to determine, in future studies, the impact of chronic human herpes virus infection in human beings’ health

  7. Ongoing decline in genital warts among young heterosexuals 7 years after the Australian human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Read, Tim R H; Wigan, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Australia has provided free quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to school girls since mid-2007 and a catch-up programme in the community to women aged up to 26 years in 2007-2009. We describe the temporal trend of genital warts in different populations in Melbourne. We analysed the proportion diagnosed with genital warts for all new patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from July 2004 to June 2014, stratified by different risk groups and age. Adjusted ORs were calculated to compare the annual trend in the proportion of patients with genital warts in different risk groups in the prevaccination period (before June 2007) and the vaccination period (after July 2007). The proportion with genital warts decreased in women aged 32 years, from 4.0% to 8.5% (p=0.037). The odds per year for diagnosis of genital warts adjusted for number of sexual partners in the vaccination period were 0.55 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.65) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) in women and heterosexual men aged warts in both women and men aged >32 years. A small annual decline in genital warts was observed in men who have sex with men (aOR=0.92; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Genital warts have now become rare in young Australian women and heterosexual men 7 years after the launch of the national HPV vaccination programme but in stark contrast, remain common in men who have sex with men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  9. Evaluation of effectiveness of acyclovir and interferon in treatment of genital herpes%对无环乌苷及干扰素治生殖器疱疹的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立亚; 张忠祥; 崔荣

    1997-01-01

    114 patients with genital herpes(GH)divided into three groups at random were treated separately with acyclovir(ACV,0.8g daily orally),interferon(IFN,one million u.in.)and routine external therapy,such as 3% boric acid solution or 0.1% rivanol solution.There was no difference in age and time of onset between these three groups.The effect of drugs was observed at the fourth and eighth days of treatment.A definite effectiveness was manifested in 10(37%)and 21 cases(77.8%)in ACV group,14(48.3%)and 25 cases(86.2%)in IFN group,and only 9(6.9%)and 13cases(22.4%)in routine therapy group.Statistical analysis revealed that ACV and IFN were much mor effective than routine therapy in terms of shortened course and symptoms relieved(P<0.05),but they could not prevent the recurrence of CH.

  10. Detection of Human Herpes Virus 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, Rabecca; Kaile, Trevor; Kafita, Doris; Chisanga, Chrispin; Kalonda, Annie; Zulu, Ephraim; Samutela, Mulemba; Polepole, Pascal; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its causative agent, Human Herpes virus 8 is not sought. This means poor prognosis for affected patients since the causative agent is not targeted during diagnosis and KS lesions may be mistaken for other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations when only histological techniques are used. Therefore, this study was aimed at providing evidence of Human Herpes virus 8 infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and twenty suspected Kaposi's sarcoma archival formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues stored from January 2013 to December 2014 in the Histopathology Laboratory at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia were analysed using histology and Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the ORF26 gene of Human Herpes virus 8. The predominant histological type of Kaposi's sarcoma detected was the Nodular type (60.7%) followed by the plaque type (22.6%) and patch type (16.7%). The nodular lesion was identified mostly in males (40.5%, 34/84) than females (20.2%, 17/84) (p=0.041). Human Herpes virus 8 DNA was detected in 53.6% (45/84) and mostly in the nodular KS lesions (60%, 27/84) (p=0.035). The findings in this study show that the Human Herpes virus-8 is detectable in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues, and, as previously reported in other settings, is closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. The study has provided important baseline data for use in the diagnosis of this disease and the identification of the virus in the tissues will aid in targeted therapy.

  11. College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Richards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study set out to investigate what influences the intentions of college students to get vaccinated against genital human papillomavirus (HPV. College men and women were surveyed to understand their intentions. Regression was used and supported that the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as well as gender, norms, and information seeking contributed to predicting intent to receive the HPV vaccine, R2 = .61, F(6, 159 = 39.41, p < .001. Benefits and barriers were the most influential variable, and men were more likely to intend to receive the vaccine. The findings should be applied to future campaigns aimed at increasing preventive health behaviors, especially vaccinations among college students.

  12. Preliminary study on Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of human oral epithelial cell in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao; Weibin Sun; Juan Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the functions and mechanisms of herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) while infecting human oral epithelial cells in vitro(being similar to the infection in vivo). Methods:An abundance of HSV-1 strains amplified in Vero cells were used to infect human oral epithelial cells. The culture supernatant was collected to infect Veto cells again. Morphology of HSV-1 was identified by inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope. Nucleic acid of the virus was detected by PCR. Results:The infected human oral epithelial cells didn't display an obvious cytopathic effect(CPE) under inverted microscope(while Veto cells which were infected by the culture supematant showed typical(CPE). The virus particles were not observed in the cytoplasm nor in nucleus of human oral epithelial cells, however under transmission electron microscope in the cytoplasm of Vero cells, the nucleic acid of HSV-1 could be detected in infected human oral epithelial cells, by PCR. Conclusion:HSV-1 can successfully infect human oral epithelial cells. This model may provide a useful approach for studying the pathogenesis of herpes virus-associated periodontal disease.

  13. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Association between human herpes virus and aggressive periodontitis: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdullah Alzahrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to elucidate the association between HHVs [Human Herpes Viruses–human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and herpes simplex virus (HSV] and risk of aggressive periodontitis (AgP and advanced periodontitis (AP. Materials and methods: the addressed focused question was: “Is there an association between HHVs and AgP and do HHVs implicate in the pathogenesis of AgP and AP?” Electronic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, and Google-Scholar databases was combined with hand searching of articles published from 1970 up to and including March 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Review papers, in-vitro and experimental studies, case reports, commentaries, interviews, updates and duplicate publications were excluded. Results: twelve studies were included. Three studies reported elevated percentage of HSV1 carriage in AgP patients whereas two studies reported comparable percentage levels of HSV1 among AgP patients and periodontally healthy patients. Seven studies reported significantly higher percentage levels of HCMV in AgP patients as compared to healthy controls whereas four studies showed comparable levels of HCMV among AgP and healthy controls. Six studies reported higher EBV carriage in AgP patients than healthy controls whereas five studies showed comparable EBV percentage levels among AgP and periodontally healthy patients. Conclusion: overall, human herpes virus (HSV, CMV and EBV levels are increased and are found to be associated with AgP and AP as compared to healthy individuals. However a possible involvement of HHVs in the pathogenesis of AgP warrants further investigation.

  16. Detection and analysis of herpes simplex virus antigens and antibodies in patients with suspected genital herpes%疑似生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒抗原及抗体检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小娴; 林贤娜; 方苗; 廖胡君

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解性病门诊疑似生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒抗原及抗体检测情况.方法 对2008年4月至2012年3月到我院性病门诊就诊的1101名疑似GH患者进行HSV-2抗原检测,并对其中336名愿意同时采集血标本进行HSV-2血清抗体检测患者进行血清HSV-2IgM、HSV-2IgG抗体检测,对所检测结果及临床资料进行统计分析.结果 1101例疑似GH患者共检出551例HSV-2 DNA阳性,总阳性率50.05%,其中男性患者HSV-2 DNA阳性率为52.33%,女性患者HSV-2 DNA阳性率为40.99%,男女患者阳性率比较差异有显著性(P<0.01);不同类型的标本HSV-2 DNA检出率有明显的差异,其中疱液拭子的检出率最高,为57.05%,其次是男性的阴茎拭子及包皮拭子,两者检出率分别为56.25%、46.62%;从年龄段来看,以20 ~ 29岁年龄段患者HSV-2抗原检出率最低,除该年龄段,其它年龄段阳性率均超过50%,≥50岁受检测患者,HSV-2抗原检出率高达56.21%.336位同时接受HSV-2 DNA及血清HSV-2IgM、HSV-2 IgG抗体检测患者中,共检出血清HSV-2 IgM抗体阳性33例,阳性率9.82%.血清HSV-2 IgG抗体阳性149例,阳性率44.35%,其中155名HSV-2 DNA阳性患者有104例至少一种抗体阳性,181名HSV-2 DNA阴性患者有61例至少一种抗体阳性.结论 对于疑似生殖器疱疹患者,同时进行HSV-2抗原及血清HSV-2 IgM、HSV-2 IgG抗体三者联合检测更有助于临床GH诊断;老年生殖器疱疹的防治应引起足够的重视.%Objectives To explore the detection of antigens and antibodies of herpes simplex virus in patients with suspected genital herpes ( GH ).Methods HSV-2 antigens were detected in 1101 patients with suspected GH who visited our sexually transmitted disease clinic from April 2008 to March 2012; HSV-2 IgM and HSV-2 IgG antibodies were also detected in 336 of the patients by using serological tests.The test results and clinical data were analyzed statistically.Results 551 of the 1101

  17. Therapeutic options for herpes labialis: experimental and natural therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elish, Diana; Singh, Fiza; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Herpes labialis, a common condition characterized by recurrent vesicular eruptions primarily on the lips and perioral skin, causes pain and discomfort for millions of adults each year. Over the past several years, the major focus of herpes research has been on the treatment of genital herpes. However, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of therapies specifically for herpes labialis. Last year in Cutis, we reviewed oral and topical therapies for herpes labialis. In this final part of the series, we review experimental and natural treatments that are available for herpes labialis and its associated symptoms.

  18. Optimization of Substitution Matrix for Sequence Alignment of Major Capsid Proteins of Human Herpes Simplex Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipan Kumar Sohpal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein sequence alignment has become an informative tool in modern molecular biology research. A number of substitution matrices have been readily available for sequence alignments, but it is challenging task to compute optimal matrices for alignment accuracy. Here, we used the parameter optimization procedure to select the optimal Q of substitution matrices for major viral capsid protein of human herpes simplex virus. Results predict that Blosum matrix is most accurate on alignment benchmarks, and Blosum 60 provides the optimal Q in all substitution matrices. PAM 200 matrices results slightly below than Blosum 60, while VTML matrices are intermediate of PAM and VT matrices under dynamic programming.

  19. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Pritchett

    2012-01-01

    Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i idiosyncratic reactions, (ii drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy.

  20. Pityriasis Lichenoides Chronica Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Javier González Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare, acquired spectrum of skin conditions of an unknown etiology. Case Report. A 28-year-old man presented with recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus associated with the onset of red-to-brown maculopapules located predominantly in trunk in each recurrence. Positive serologies to herpes simplex virus type 2 were detected. Histopathological examination of one of the lesions was consistent with a diagnosis of pityriasis lichenoides chronica. Discussion. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare cutaneous entity of an unknown cause which includes different clinical presentations. A number of infectious agents have been implicated based on the clustering of multiple outbreaks and elevated serum titers to specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and herpes simplex virus. In our patient, resolution of cutaneous lesions coincided with the administration of antiviral drugs and clinical improvement in each genital herpes recurrence. In conclusion, we report a case in which cutaneous lesions of pityriasis lichenoides chronica and a herpes simplex virus-type 2-mediated disease have evolved concomitantly.

  1. Further Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with ICP8, the Major DNA-Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Diseases Produced by Herpes Simplex Viruses Disease Gingivostomatitis Pha ryngotonsill itis Herpes labialis Genital herpes Primary (P) or Recurrent... herpes simplex labialis : experimental induction of lesions with UV light. J. Clin. Micro. 22:366-368. Stanberry, L.R. 1986. Herpesvirus latency and...UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with [CPS, the Major DNA~Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus" beyond brief

  2. Seroprevalence and Co-Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Among Pregnant Women in Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Amuda, Oluwatomi Olufunke; Nzurumike, Charles; Suleiman, Muhammed Mustapha; Ikhevha Ogah, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. Objectives To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Methods This was a hospital-based cross-sectional, prospective study, which was carried out among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the federal medical centre in Lokoja, Nigeria. sociodemographic characteristics and HIV-HSV status were determined by the use of a structured questionnaire and immunoassay kits, respectively. All data were analyzed using Stata statistical software (version 12), and the level of significance was determined to be P < 0.05 using the chi-square test. Results Of the 250 pregnant women screened for HIV and HSV, 154 (61.6%) were in the 2nd trimester of gestation, and all of the co-infected respondents were in their 2nd trimester. Only six (2.4%) of the respondents tested positive for HIV, with all six (100%) showing positivity for HSV so the co-infection rate was six (2.4%). Co-infection was found to occur between the ages of 15 and 35 years, while higher age groups did not show any co-infection. Parity, level of education, and history of painful genital ulcers had no significant association with co-infection. Conclusions Advocacy and publicity to raise awareness of the potential public health impact of HSV and HIV co-infection in Nigeria, where anti-HSV testing is not generally performed in all populations, is therefore recommended.

  3. HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes identified from herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Zhang, Xiuli; Lamberth, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Evidence obtained from both animal models and humans suggests that T cells specific for HSV-1 and HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) contribute to protective immunity against herpes infection. However, knowledge of gD-specific human T cell responses is limited to CD4+ T cell epitopes, with no CD8+ T cell...... following ocular or genital infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. The functional gD CD8+ T cell epitopes described herein are potentially important components of clinical immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic herpes vaccines....

  4. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  5. Early human herpes virus type 6 reactivation in umbilical cord blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, Frank; Ippoliti, Cindy; Wang, Hanhan; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; van Besien, Koen

    2016-11-01

    Human herpes virus type 6 can reactivate in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and has been associated with serious sequelae such as delayed engraftment and an increased risk of developing acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This study investigated human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) reactivation within 60 days of transplantation in stem cell transplants utilizing single umbilical cord blood, double umbilical cord blood, or umbilical cord blood plus haploidentical stem cells. Of 92 patients, 60 (65%) had HHV-6 reactivation. Reactivation was not significantly influenced by any patient characteristics, disease characteristics, or by stem cell source (umbilical cord blood only versus haploidentical plus umbilical cord blood). We did not observe any impact of HHV-6 reactivation on neutrophil or platelet count recovery or on relapse-free survival. HHV-6 reactivation was associated with subsequent development of prerelapse acute GVHD (HR = 3.00; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.4; p = 0.004).

  6. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation by endometrial CD4(+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+ CD4(+ and CD3(+ CD4(- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Hu, Yifei; Carlucci, James G; Yin, Lu; Li, Xiangwei; Giuliano, Anna R; Li, Dongliang; Gao, Lei; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-06-28

    Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs. Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01-2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17-2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91-4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site.

  8. Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.

    OpenAIRE

    Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...

  9. Evaluation and management of acute genital ulcers in sexually active patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S J

    1984-02-01

    The causes of genital ulcers vary with the age of the patient. Although sexually related genital ulcers can be seen at any age, they are most common between the ages of 15 and 30. The differential diagnosis includes syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, fixed drug reactions, and traumatic ulcers.

  10. Biochemical and serological characterization of mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Adewole, I F

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-five (55) Mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans were biochemically characterized using various biochemical tests and also serologically identified by growth inhibition technique using 5 mycoplasma antisera namely M. hominis PG2 1: M. genitalium G37: M. penetrans GTU54 and 2 strains of M. fermentans PG18 (HRC 6-62-S-170 and MB713-501-069). Biochemically, 43 (78.2%) strains were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, 8 (14.5%) strains as M. fermentans and 4 (7.3%) as M. penetrans. The M. hominis strains hydrolyzed only arginine while the M. fermentans and M. penetrans strains in addition to arginine hydrolysis also broke down glucose fermentatively and oxidatively. The M. fermentans strains showed varying reactions to phosphatase activity and to the reduction of tetrazolium chloride. Serologically, 4 (7.3%) mycoplasma strains were confirmed as M. penetrans GTU54 and of the 8 M. fermentans strains, 4 (7.3%) were identified as M. fermentans PG18 serotype HRC 6-62-S-170 and the other 4 (7.3%) as M. fermentans PG18 serotype MB 713-501-069. Only 13 (30.2%) of the 43 M. hominis strains were identified as M. hominis serotype PG2 1. None was identified as M. genitalium. The heterogeneity of the mycoplasma strains especially M. hominis was observed in this study and the need for the use of multiple antisera in growth inhibition test is hereby supported.

  11. Antiviral activity of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil Gaikwad,1 Avinash Ingle,1 Aniket Gade,1 Mahendra Rai,1 Annarita Falanga,3 Novella Incoronato,2 Luigi Russo,2 Stefania Galdiero,3 Massimilano Galdiero2 1Department of Biotechnology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, II University of Naples, 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, DFM and Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples, Italy Abstract: The interaction between silver nanoparticles and viruses is attracting great interest due to the potential antiviral activity of these particles, and is the subject of much research effort in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and with human parainfluenza virus type 3. We show that production of silver nanoparticles from different fungi is feasible, and their antiviral activity is dependent on the production system used. Silver nanoparticles are capable of reducing viral infectivity, probably by blocking interaction of the virus with the cell, which might depend on the size and zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles. Smaller-sized nanoparticles were able to inhibit the infectivity of the viruses analyzed. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, antiviral, herpes simplex virus, parainfluenza virus

  12. College Students' Perceptions of and Experiences with Human Papillomavirus and Herpes: Implications for College Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Christopher; Hope, Andrea; Myers, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections spread through skin-to-skin contact represent unique prevention challenges. This study examines how college students perceive safer sex practices with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 275) were collected using an online questionnaire. College students'…

  13. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  14. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Teunissen, M.B.M.; Zorgdrager, F.; Picavet, D.; Cornelissen, M

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid d

  15. Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, A; Ericsson, M.; Krantz, E; Selke, S; Corey, L

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 reactivate preferentially in the oral and genital area, respectively. We aimed to define frequency and characteristics associated with oral shedding of HSV-2.

  16. No. 208-Guidelines for the Management of Herpes Simplex Virus in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah M; Steben, Marc

    2017-08-01

    To provide recommendations for the management of genital herpes infection in women who want to get pregnant or are pregnant and for the management of genital herpes in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission to the infant. More effective management of complications of genital herpes in pregnancy and prevention of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant. Medline was searched for articles published in French or English related to genital herpes and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. VALIDATION: These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  18. Impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine on genital warts in an opportunistic vaccination structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel; Mizrachi, Yossi; Chodick, Gabi; Katz, Rachel; Schejter, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted disease and have a detrimental impact on quality of life. Genital warts could be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccination. The objective was to study real-life benefit of opportunistic HPV vaccination on age and gender specific incidence of genital warts. We performed a register-based population cohort study from publicly funded health-care provider in Israel. The incidence of genital warts was assessed during three time frame intervals: 2006-2008 (pre-vaccination effect period) 2009-2012 (early post-vaccination effect period) and 2013-2015 (late post-vaccination effect period), with an average annual number of members of 1,765,481, 1,906,774 and 2,042,678 in the years 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015, respectively. Among females, annual incidence of genital warts per 100,000 women decreased from 210.43 to 161.71 (OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.71-0.82, pwarts per 100,000 men decreased from 262.85 to 232.40 (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.83-0.93, pwarts even in opportunistic HPV vaccination structure. This information may be relevant for health-care providers in countries where national immunization programs do not include HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... herpes overview genital herpes links & resources oral herpes hiv/aids ... overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause flu no such thing as ...

  20. Association of human endogenous retroviruses with multiple sclerosis and possible interactions with herpes viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2005-01-01

    may be members of the Herpesviridae. Several herpes viruses, such as HSV-1, VZV, EBV and HHV-6, have been associated with MS pathogenesis, and retroviruses and herpes viruses have complex interactions. The current understanding of HERVs, and specifically the investigations of HERV activation...... and expression in MS are the major subjects of this review, which also proposes to synergise the herpes and HERV findings, and presents several possible pathogenic mechanisms for HERVs in MS. Copyright (c) 2005 ...

  1. Therapeutic options for herpes labialis, I: Oral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elish, Diana; Singh, Fiza; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2004-07-01

    Given the prevalence of herpes labialis, effective therapy has the potential to affect the lives of many and presents a challenge for clinicians. Over the last several years, most of the focus of herpes research has been on the treatment of genital herpes. Recently, however, several studies have been published examining the efficacy of therapies specifically for herpes labialis. Several therapeutic agents, both prescription and over-the-counter, are available for controlling and managing the disease. In this series of articles, we review oral and topical therapeutic agents that are available in the treatment of herpes labialis and its associated symptoms. This article will review oral treatment options.

  2. Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chêne

    Full Text Available Human herpes viruses (HHVs are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8. We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0 and 14 days later (after treatment, or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.

  3. Analysis of persistence of human papillomavirus infection in men evaluated by sampling multiple genital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, G; Nyitray, A G; Lu, B; Perino, A; Marci, R; Schillaci, R; Matranga, D; Firenze, A; Caleca, M; Bellavia, C; Guarneri, F; Giuliano, A; Giovannelli, L

    2015-11-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been studied extensively in women, data on male infection are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate persistence of HPV infection at multiple genital sites in men and to define potential associations with socio-behavioural characteristics. Penile, urethral and seminal specimens were tested by the INNO-LiPA HPV system (Innogenetics) and a PCR assay. Persistence was defined as the detection of same HPV type at ≥ 2 consecutive visits. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were applied to estimate the likelihood of persistence. A total of 50 men (median age: 33 years) were followed for a median of 14.7 months. Altogether, 49%, 36%, 26% and 11% of baseline HPV-positive men had 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month persistent infection with any HPV type, respectively. The 6-, 12- and 18- month persistence was more common for oncogenic HPV infections; 24-month persistence was similar. The median duration of persistence was 21.7 months for any HPV. The median duration of persistence for any HPV type was significantly longer in the penile sample (22.5 months, 95% CI: 18.3-26.7) than the semen sample (15.3 months, 95% CI: 14.5-16.1). Over a third of type-specific HPV infections in men remained persistent over a 24-month period. The median duration of HPV infection was longer in penile samples compared to seminal samples. As being increasing the attention of HPV vaccination as a potential preventive approach also for men, it is imperative to obtain additional insight on natural history of HPV infection in men, particularly as far as incidence and duration are concerned.

  4. A clinico-epidemiological study of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases with human immunodeficiency virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavesh

    2014-01-01

    Genital ulcerative diseases are a major public health problem. The advert of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS over the past 25 years has deepened the scope of morbidity, mortality, and various forms of clinical presentations of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 50 cases having Genital ulcerative diseases and STD reporting to STD clinic during the period of the year from November 2005 to December 2006 were included and detailed history and clinical examination were carried out and provisional diagnosis is made. Laboratory confirmation of clinically diagnosed cases was done using laboratory tests such as S. HIV, venereal disease research laboratory, Tzanck smear, gram stain, and Giemsa stain. In the present study, the incidence of herpes progenitalis was (38%) followed by primary syphilis (32%), chancroid (26%), lymphogranuloma venereum (02%), and genital scabies (02%). HIV sero-positivity was detected in 12% (n = 6) cases. HIV was found to be more common among genital ulcer disease patients, especially syphilis and genital herpes.

  5. Cold sore susceptibility gene-1 genotypes affect the expression of herpes labialis in unrelated human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Our group has recently described a gene on human chromosome 21, the Cold Sore Susceptibility Gene-1 (CSSG-1, also known as C21orf91), which may confer susceptibility to frequent cold sores in humans. We present here a genotype-phenotype analysis of CSSG-1 in a new, unrelated human population. Seven hundred fifty-eight human subjects were enrolled in a case/control Cold Sore Study. CSSG-1 genotyping, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) serotyping, demographic and phenotypic data was available from 622 analyzed subjects. Six major alleles (H1-H6) were tested for associations with each of the self-reported phenotypes. The statistical analysis was adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Genotype-phenotype associations were analyzed from 388 HSV1-seropositive subjects. There were significant CSSG-1 haplotype effects on annual cold sore outbreaks (P=0.006), lifetime cold sores (P=0.012) and perceived cold sore severity (P=0.012). There were relatively consistent trends toward protection from frequent and severe cold sores among those with the H3 or H5/6 haplotypes, whereas those with H1, H2, and H4 haplotypes tended to have more frequent and more severe episodes. Different alleles of the newly described gene CSSG-1 affect the expression of cold sore phenotypes in this new, unrelated human population, confirming the findings of the previous family-based study.

  6. Association of human endogenous retroviruses with multiple sclerosis and possible interactions with herpes viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2005-01-01

    may be members of the Herpesviridae. Several herpes viruses, such as HSV-1, VZV, EBV and HHV-6, have been associated with MS pathogenesis, and retroviruses and herpes viruses have complex interactions. The current understanding of HERVs, and specifically the investigations of HERV activation...

  7. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  8. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  9. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue culture fluid and in genital secretions by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, M A; Spira, B; Bleau, G; Thomas, R

    1990-01-01

    We have shown that the spermicidal agent benzalkonium chloride can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the viral reverse transcriptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when utilized at concentrations of 0.05% and higher. Exposure of HIV-1 to this disinfectant at concentrations of more than 0.05% was able to completely destroy viral infectivity, as assessed on susceptible target cells. We have further shown that HIV-1, which is present in both seminal and genital secretions, can be inactivated in such fluids by direct exposure to benzalkonium chloride. PMID:1688873

  10. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vectors for the treatment of human breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ren-bin; Samuel D.Rabkin

    2005-01-01

    Background Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors can be used for cancer therapy as direct cytotoxic agents, inducers of anti-tumor immune responses, and as expressers of anti-cancer genes. In this study, the efficacy of HSV vectors, G47Δ and NV1023 were examined for the treatment of the human breast cancer.Methods Human breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells were cultured or implanted subcutaneously in BALB/c nude mice. The cells or tumors were inoculated with G47Δ or NV1023, and cell killing or inhibition of tumor growth determined. Both viruses contained the LacZ gene and expression in infected cells was detected with X-gal histochemistry. Results G47Δ and NV1023 were highly cytotoxic to MDA-MB-435 cells in vitro at very low multiplicities of infection. X-gal staining of infected tumor cells in vitro and in vivo illustrated the replication and spread of both viruses. G47Δ and NV1023 inoculation inhibited tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival. Both vectors behaved similarly.Conclusions Oncolytic HSV vectors, G47Δ and NV1023, were extremely effective at killing human breast cancer cells in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. This novel form of cancer therapy warrants further investigation and consideration of clinical application.

  11. Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and ganciclovir suicide gene therapy for human pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Xiao-Xuan Lu; Dao-Zhen Chen; Shu-Feng Li; Li-Shan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vitro effects of suicide gene therepy system of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK) in combination with the treatment of nucleotide analog-ganciclovir (GCV) on human pancreatic cancer, and to provide a novel clinical therapeutic method for human pancreatic cancer.METHODS: We used a replication defective recombinant retrovirus vector GINaTK (bearing HSV-TK gene) to make packaging cell PA317 produce progeny virions. We then transferred the HSV-TK gene to target cells SW1990 using these progeny virions, and treated these gene-modified tumor cells with GCV to study the sensitivity of the cells to GCV and their bystander effects by routine MTT-method.RESULTS: Packaging cell PA317/TK was successfully constructed, and we acquired SW1990/TK through virus progeny infection. These gene-modified pancreatic cancer cells were sensitive to the treatment of GCV compared with unmodified tumor cells (t=4.15, n=10, P<0.0025). We also observed a remarkable bystander effect by mixing two kinds of cells at different ratio.CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that HSV-TK/GCV suicide gene therapy system is effective for treating experimental human pancreatic cancer, which is largely resistant to the common therapies, so the suicide gene therapy system may be a potential treatment approach for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the genital tract determined by hybrid capture assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda N. Carestiato

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted virus worldwide. It is known to be the etiological agent of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Recently developed, the second generation of the hybrid capture test (HCA II is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, hybridization assay, designed to detect 18 HPV types divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 7,314 patients (5,833 women and 1,481 men for HPV infection by HCA II. Among them, 3,008 (41.1% presented HPV infection: 430 (14.2% had HPV DNA of low risk for cancer, 1,631 (54.2% had high risk HPV types and 947 (31.5% had both types. The prevalence in females was 44.9%. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the group for which cytological results were available was slightly higher: 55.3% (1007/1824. Significant differences were detected in the frequency of HPV infection of the cervix between normal cases and those with high-grade squamous-intraepithelial lesions (HSIL(P<0.0001. Among males, the prevalence was 26.2%, composed of 9.1% in Group A, 9.7% in Group B and 7.4% with multiple infections. We observed that male prevalence was lower and that low-risk types were more frequent than in females. HPV viral load was significantly greater in SILs than in normal or inflammatory cases (P<0.0001, suggesting an association between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of high costs, the HCA II test cannot be recommended for routine mass screening for cervical infection in poor countries. Nevertheless, it was found to be a useful tool, when combined with cytology, discovering high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues and revealing silent infections that may be responsible for the maintenance of HPV in the general population. These findings point to the need for close and careful management of patients, thereby reducing overtreatment

  13. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period.

  14. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, H J C; Teunissen, M.B.M.; Zorgdrager, F.; Picavet, D.; Cornelissen, M

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid dendritic cells. If HHV-7 is associated with lichen planus, then HHV-7 replication would reduce upon lichen planus remission. HHV-7 DNA detection was performed by nested PCR and HHV-7 protein by imm...

  15. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS......: All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977......%) did not have any sequelae. Four (13%) died. Six (20%) had serious neurological sequelae. Seven (23%) only had cutaneous recurrences. In seven cases (23%) information was insufficient. CONCLUSIONS: During a 15 year period in Denmark only one neonate had serious sequelae following a recognized maternal...

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Oral Valaciclovir Hydrochloride Tablets Pidotimod Tablets in the Treatment of Recurrent Genital Herpes%评价口服盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合匹多莫德片治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志光; 姜乐

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析和评价口服盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合口服匹多莫德片治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年4月~2015年10月收治的82例复发性生殖器疱疹患者,按照抽签法将患者平均分为观察组和对照组,观察组患者接受盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合匹多莫德片的治疗,对照组患者仅接受盐酸伐昔洛韦片的治疗,比较临床疗效。结果观察组患者治疗有效率更高(97.56%vs.80.49%,χ2=4.493,P<0.05)、复发率更低(43.90%vs.70.73%,P<0.05)。结论盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合匹多莫德片口服治疗复发性生殖器疱疹临床疗效显著,可提高患者治疗有效率、降低复发率。%Objective Clinical analysis and evaluation of oral and oral valaciclovir hydrochloride tablets pidotimod tablets in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes.MethodsIn our hospital from April 2014 to October 2015, 82 cases of recurrence of genital herpes patients, according to the draw method patients were divided into the observation group and the control group and observation group patients were treated with valaciclovir hydrochloride valacyclovir tablets combined with pidotimod tablets, patients in the control group only received the treatment of valaciclovir hydrochloride tablets, compared the clinical efifcacy.Results The effective rate of the observation group was higher (97.56%vs. 80.49%, χ2=4.493,P< 0.05), and the recurrence rate was lower (43.90%vs. 70.73%,P < 0.05). Conclusion Hydrochloride cutting valacyclovir tablets combined with pidotimod tablets oral in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes clinical curative effect significantly, improve treatment efficiency and reduce the recurrence rate.

  17. Cold Sore, Cold Soul? An Examination of Orolabial Herpes in Film

    OpenAIRE

    Holliday, Alex C.; Salih, Amanda; Wagner, Richard F.Jr.

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The sociocultural phenomenon of herpes is attributed to two strains of the herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes orolabial cold sores while herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is typically identified in genital lesions, though both viruses may cause clinically similar signs and symptoms anywhere in or on the body. While these infections are extremely prevalent and typically benign, media sources such as film have perpetuated a negative public percep...

  18. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000886.htm Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  19. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  20. Reproductive and genital health and risk of cervical human papillomavirus infection: results from the Ludwig-McGill cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eileen; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; El-Zein, Mariam; Silva, Flavia R; Galan, Lenice; Baggio, Maria L; Villa, Luisa L; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-08

    There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study, a longitudinal, repeated-measurements investigation on the natural history of HPV infection. We analyzed a cohort subset of 1867 women with one complete year of follow-up. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reproductive and genital health characteristics from questionnaire and laboratory data in relation to 1-year period prevalence of HPV infection. Two outcomes were measured; the first based on phylogenetic grouping of HPV types based on tissue tropism and oncogenicity (Alphapapillomavirus Subgenus 1: species 1, 8, 10 and 13; Subgenus 2: species 5, 6, 7, 9, 11; Subgenus 3: species 3, 4 and 14) and the second based on transient or persistent HPV infections. Lifetime (Subgenus 3 OR = 2.00, CI: 1.23-3.24) and current (Subgenus 3 OR =2.00, CI: 1.15-3.47) condom use and use of contraceptive injections (Subgenus 1 OR = 1.96, CI: 1.22-3.16, Subgenus 2 OR = 1.34, CI: 1.00-1.79) were associated with increased risk of HPV infection. Intrauterine device use was protective (Subgenus 1 OR = 0.48, CI: 0.30-0.75, Subgenus 2 OR = 0.78, CI: 0.62-0.98). These factors were not associated with persistence of HPV infection. Tampon use, previous gynecologic infections and cervical inflammation were associated with an overall increased risk of HPV infection. Cervical HPV infection was associated with reproductive and genital health factors. Further studies are necessary to confirm the low to moderate associations observed.

  1. Evidence for repair of ultraviolet light-damaged herpes virus in human fibroblasts by a recombination mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J.D.; Featherston, J.D.; Almy, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    Human cells were either singly or multiply infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) damaged by ultraviolet (uv) light, and the fraction of cells able to produce infectious virus was measured. The fraction of virus-producing cells was considerably greater for multiply infected cells than for singly infected cells at each uv dose examined. These high survival levels of uv-irradiated virus in multiply infected cells demonstrated that multiplicity-dependent repair, possibly due to genetic exchanges between damaged HSV-1 genomes, was occurring in these cells. To test whether uv light is recombinogenic for HSV-1, the effect of uv irradiation on the yield of temperature-resistant viral recombinants in cells infected with pairs of temperature-sensitive mutants was also investigated. The results of these experiments showed that the defective functions in these mutant host cells are not required for multiplicity-dependent repair or uv-stimulated viral recombination in herpes-infected cells.

  2. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners. Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012. Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007 and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012 were also calculated. RESULTS: Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001 and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001. For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. CONCLUSION: The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.

  3. Entry of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus into Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusuke Okunaga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity ultrasound is a useful method to introduce materials into cells due to the transient formation of micropores, called sonoporations, on the cell membrane. Whether oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 can be introduced into oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells through membrane pores remains undetermined. Human SCC cell line SAS and oncolytic HSV-1 RH2, which was deficient in the 134.5 gene and fusogenic, were used. Cells were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of microbubbles. The increase of virus entry was estimated by plaque numbers. Viral infection was hardly established without the adsorption step, but plaque number was increased by the exposure of HSV-1-inoculated cells to ultrasound. Plaque number was also increased even if SAS cells were exposed to ultrasound and inoculated with RH2 without the adsorption step. This effect was abolished when the interval from ultrasound exposure to virus inoculation was prolonged. Scanning electron microscopy revealed depressed spots on the cell surface after exposure to ultrasound. These results suggest that oncolytic HSV-1 RH2 can be introduced into SAS cells through ultrasound-mediated pores of the cell membrane that are resealed after an interval.

  4. Vulvar carcinomas: search for sequences homologous to human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; D'Amato, L; Di Luca, D; Shah, K V; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1990-07-01

    Ten cases of intraepithelial carcinoma, five with Bowenoid features and five with early invasion, and ten cases of invasive vulvar carcinoma were examined by in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis using DNA probes for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18 and 31. HPV DNA was detected in 90% of the intraepithelial cases and in 10% of the invasive cases. All positive cases showed the presence of DNA of HPV type 16. The cases with intraepithelial lesions revealed a strong correlation between the presence of HPV type 16 DNA, cigarette smoking habit, other potential cofactors such as herpes simplex (HSV) DNA sequences and the use of contraceptive drugs, and clinicopathologic features of Bowen's type in situ squamous cell carcinoma. Similar associations were not observed among the cases with invasive disease. While HPV-16 is associated with differentiated Bowenoid type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, which appears to be the most common form of early carcinoma of the vulva, the same association was not seen with respect to advanced vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  6. The Natural History of Genital Human Papillomavirus Among HIV-Negative Men Having Sex With Men and Men Having Sex With Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Chang, Mihyun; Villa, Luisa L.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative men having sex with men (MSM) bear a substantial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated disease, prospective studies of genital HPV infection in this population are scarce. Methods. HPV genotyping was conducted on genital samples from men (aged 18–70 years) from Brazil, Mexico, or the United States who provided specimens at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Eligibility criteria included no history of genital warts or HIV infection. Evaluable specimens were collected from 564 MSM and 3029 men having sex with women (MSW). Incidence and clearance estimates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. The 12-month cumulative incidence of genital HPV was high in both MSM (25%; 95% confidence interval, 21%–30%) and MSW (21%; 20%–23%). After stratifying by city, MSM and MSW incidence rates were comparable, with 3 exceptions where MSM had higher incidence in ≥1 city: the group of quadrivalent vaccine types, HPV-45, and HPV-11. Median times to HPV-16 clearance were also comparable, with point estimates of >6 months for both MSM and MSW. Conclusions. Unlike with many other sexually transmitted infections, genital HPV natural history may be similar in HIV-negative MSM and MSW. Study periods of ≤6 months, however, may not be long enough to accurately measure the persistence of these infections in men. PMID:25649172

  7. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albero Ginesa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95, in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.

  8. Observation on the Efifcacy of Biological Gene Immune Remodeling in the Treatment of Recurrent Genital Herpes%生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈旭辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的疗效。方法收集2014年3月~2015年6月来我院就诊的复发性生殖器疱疹病例368例,随机分为两组,对照组167例,研究组201例。对照组采用常规治疗,研究组则加载生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗,比较两组间疗效及复发情况差异。结果经过治疗后研究组治愈率和总有效率高于对照组,皮损愈合时间、疼痛持续时间、瘙痒持续时间短于对照组,复发率低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗复发性生殖器疱疹,能有效缩短病程、降低复发率,临床有效率高达100.00%,解决了生殖器疱疹易复发的难题。%Objective To observe the effect of biological gene immune remodeling therapy in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes. Methods 368 patients with recurrent genital herpes in our hospital from March 2014 to June 2015 were selected, and they were randomly divided into two groups, the control group consisted of 167 cases, the research group consisted of 201 cases, and the control group were treated with conventional treatment, the research group were treated with biological gene immune remodeling therapy based on the basic treatment, then the effect and recurrence status of two groups were compared.Results The cure rate and efifciency rate of research group after the treatment were signiifcantly higher than those of control group, the healing time of skin lesions, durante dolors and itch duration were significantly shorter than those of control group, the recurrence rate was signiifcantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05).ConclusionThe treatment of biological gene immune remodeling therapy in the patientsof recurrent genital herpes can effectively shorten the course of disease and reduce the recurrence rate, the clinical efifciency is 100.00%, so it solves the problem of the easy recurrence of genital herpes.

  9. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 – 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 – 0.18)/100 person-years (P warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  10. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  11. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  12. UNITED NATION'S RESOLUTION ON ELIMINATION OF FEMALE GENITAL RITUAL: A LEGITIMATE RESPONSE TO A HUMAN RIGHTS PROBLEM OR WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamuchi, Obiajulu

    2014-12-01

    A recent United Nations' (U.N.) Resolution, "Intensifying Global Efforts for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilations," urging all countries to enact legislation outlawing female circumcision or female genital ritual (FGR) signals a disturbingly new frontier in the polemic surrounding the ancient cultural practice. Never before has the apex global institution lent its imprimatur to a project whose foundation is profoundly muddled in uncertainties and murkiness. That the Resolution received an instantaneous and near-universal acclaim as a necessary protective weapon against supposed assault on the human rights of women is not news. After all, aside from essentially validating extant legislative frameworks in several countries, the proclamation fits seamlessly with decades-long agitations of activists, scholars and media pundits of one stripe or the other. What is absurd--indeed, the real news--is continued neglect of calls for a rethinking of the criminalization fervor currently gripping the world, for a reassessment of the evidence trumpeted by abolitionists as justificatory of their unbridled interference in what practicing communities revere as a sacred cultural rite. Relying on the premise that claims regarding harmful impact of FGR, the fulcrum upon which eradication forces depend for their activism, cannot be substantiated, this paper argues that prohibitory regimes based thereon, whether at the U.N. or country level, is per se a violation of the human rights of the women purportedly sought to be protected. Human rights (including, in this case, its self-appointed "apostles"), cannot, as a popular Igbo maxim admonishes, become "outsiders who wept louder than the bereaved." This is the prism from which this paper analyzes the on-going supranational crusade to suppress FGR. It is a critique of extant FGR legal and policy regimes, an instance of which is the U.N. Resolution, as unrepresentative of legitimate advancement of human rights.

  13. Prevalência de papilomavirus humano (HPV anal, genital e oral, em ambulatório geral de coloproctologia Prevalence of anal, genital and oral human papillomavirus (HPV in general ambulatory for diseases of colon and rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O Papilomavirus Humano (HPV anal tem alta prevalência e incidência na população. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a prevalência de HPV anal, bucal e genital em ambulatório público de Coloproctologia, com base no exame de captura hibrida. Foram estudados 64 pacientes atendidos no ambulatório geral de Coloproctologia do Hospital Heliópolis, no período de 22/11/2005 a 20/12/2005, onde foram levantados, de forma prospectiva, dados clínicos, pessoais e comportamentais, identificando o perfil do grupo como não sendo de risco para HPV. Nenhum paciente deste grupo veio à consulta com queixa ou apresentando sinais de HPV ou outra doença sexualmente transmissível. Foram colhidos para cada paciente um esfregaço com escova de boca, outro de vulva/pênis e outro do ânus. O resultado mostrou que 15,62% dos pacientes apresentaram HPV anal, bucal ou genital, sendo que 4,68% do total de pacientes apresentavam HPV anal, um paciente de alto risco associado ao HPV genital, outro misto e outro de baixo risco. Trinta por cento dos pacientes HPV+ apresentavam dor anal como queixa principal. A conclusão é que a prevalência de HPV anal, genital e bucal é elevada, sendo que 4,68% apresentavam HPV anal e daqueles HPV positivos 30% apresentavam dor anal na queixa principal.Anal Human Papilomavirus (HPV has a high prevalence and incidence in the population. The purpose of this project is to verify the prevalence of anal, oral and genital HPV at the Coloproctology Clinic, based on the hybrid capture exam. Sixty four patients were assisted at the clinic from November 22nd to December 20th 2005. Clinical, personal and behavioral data of the patients were set up in a prospective way. The group profile was identified as not being a risky one to HPV. No patient of this group, when was assisted, had complained of or had presented any symptoms of HPV or any other sexually transmitted disease (STD. From each patient it was collected a mouth sample, a vulva

  14. Cold Sore, Cold Soul? An Examination of Orolabial Herpes in Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. HOLLIDAY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sociocultural phenomenon of herpes is attributed to two strains of the herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 causes orolabial cold sores while herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is typically identified in genital lesions, though both viruses may cause clinically similar signs and symptoms anywhere in or on the body. While these infections are extremely prevalent and typically benign, media sources such as film have perpetuated a negative public perception of the disease. Thus, a large portion of society continues to associate these conditions with sexual misconduct and moral failing. Despite decades of available antiviral therapy to shorten and suppress outbreaks, movies continue to exploit herpes for degradation and for humor. Portrayal of genital herpes in films is avoided in order to avert unnecessary and grotesque nude scenes, so depictions of cold sores are preferred. This article analyzes the use of orolabial herpes lesions in selected English language films released from 1984-2012.

  15. Significant Reduction in the Incidence of Genital Warts in Young Men 5 Years into the Danish Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program for Girls and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerup, Signe; Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Blomberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Denmark introduced the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine into the vaccination program for 12- to 15-year-old girls in 2008 to 2009. In 2012, the program was supplemented with a catch-up program for women aged up to 27 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Danish...... vaccination program on the nationwide incidence of genital warts (GWs), after the second catch-up by including information on both hospital treatments and on self-administered treatment with podophyllotoxin. Genital wart incidence was investigated in both sexes; however, the main focus was on potential herd...... percentage change (EAPC) was calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Genital wart incidence was either stable or increased in both sexes in 2006 to 2008. After introduction of the vaccination program, GW incidence decreased significantly in women aged 12 to 35 years and men aged 12 to 29 years, with rapid...

  16. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available José Gutiérrez-Fernández,1 Juan de Dios Luna del Castillo,2 Sara Mañanes-González,1 José Antonio Carrillo-Ávila,1 Blanca Gutiérrez,3 Jorge A Cervilla,3 Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto1 1Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Statistics and Operation Research, 3Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Neurosciences and CIBERSAM, School of Medicine and Biohealth Research Institute (Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria IBS-Granada, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1 C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2 there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3 herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. Keywords: meta-analysis, analytical study, Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, Toxoplasma gondii, schizophrenia

  17. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population of...

  18. Associations of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C Alleles Frequency with Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections and Diseases Across Global Populations: Implication for the Development of an Universal CD8+ T-Cell Epitope-Based Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandary, Sarah; Kridane-Miledi, Hédia; Sandoval, Jacqueline S.; Choudhury, Zareen; Langa-Vives, Francina; Spencer, Doran; Chentoufi, Aziz A.; Lemonnier, François A.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of the world’s population is infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 and/or type 2 (HSV-1 and/or HSV-2), that cause a wide range of diseases including genital herpes, oro-facial herpes, and the potentially blinding ocular herpes. While the global prevalence and distribution of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections cannot be exactly established, the general trends indicate that: (i) HSV-1 infections are much more prevalent globally than HSV-2; (ii) Over half billion people worldwide are infected with HSV-2; (iii) the sub-Saharan African populations account for a disproportionate burden of genital herpes infections and diseases; (iv) the dramatic differences in the prevalence of herpes infections between regions of the world appear to be associated with differences in the frequencies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. The present report: (i) analyzes the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections across various regions of the world; (ii) analyzes potential associations of common HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C alleles with the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in the Caucasoid, Oriental, Hispanic and Black major populations; and (iii) discusses how our recently developed HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C transgenic/H-2 class I null mice will help validate HLA/herpes prevalence associations. Overall, high prevalence of herpes infection and disease appears to be associated with high frequency of HLA-A*24, HLA-B*27, HLA-B*53 and HLA-B*58 alleles. In contrast, low prevalence of herpes infection and disease appears to be associated with high frequency of HLA-B*44 allele. The finding will aid in developing a T-cell epitope-based universal herpes vaccine and immunotherapy. PMID:24798939

  19. 盐酸伐昔洛韦与复方甘草酸苷片联合治疗初发性生殖器疱疹临床观察%Clinical Treatment Observation of Valaciclovir Hydrochloride Combined With Compound Glycyrrhizin Tablets in Primary Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hydrochloride on cutting famciclovir combined with compound glycyrrhizic acid glucoside tablets in the treatment of early send sexual genital bleb clinical effect.Methods 86 cases of primary genital herpes patients were divided into study group (HCl valaciclovir+ compound licorice tablets) and control group (valaciclovir).ResultsThe total effective rate of the study group was higher than that of the control group (P0.05).Conclusion Hydrochloric acid cutting famciclovir combined with compound glycyrrhizic acid glucoside tablets in the treatment of early send sexual genital bleb has a good clinical effect.%目的:探讨盐酸伐昔洛韦联合复方甘草酸苷片治疗初发性生殖器疱疹的临床效果。方法将86例初发性生殖器疱疹患者分为研究组(盐酸伐昔洛韦+复方甘草酸苷片)和对照组(盐酸伐昔洛韦)。结果研究组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05);复发率低于对照组(P<0.05);两组不良反应发生率无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论盐酸伐昔洛韦联合复方甘草酸苷片治疗初发性生殖器疱疹有较好临床效果。

  20. Seroprevalence of Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses and the Risk of External Genital Lesions in Men: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Rollison, Dana E.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Wang, Wei; Borenstein, Amy R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) are detectable in genital epithelial lesions in men and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. It remains unclear whether these viruses are associated causally with skin lesions. To date, no study has prospectively examined the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and development of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men. Objectives To examine the association between seropositivity to cutaneous HPV types and the risk of subsequent development of EGLs. Methods A nested case-control study including 163 incident EGL cases and 352 EGL-free controls in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study cohort was conducted. Cases were ascertained at each of up to 10 biannual clinical visits and verified through biopsy and pathological diagnoses. EGLs were categorized as condyloma, suggestive of condyloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), and other EGLs. Archived serum specimens collected at baseline were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV types (β types (5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 38, and 47), α type 27, γ type 4, μ type 1, and ν type 41) using a GST L1-based multiplex serology assay. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were collected through a questionnaire. Using logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results Overall, seropositivity to ≥1 cutaneous HPV type (any-HPV) and ≥1 β types (any-β) was 58.3% and 37.5% among other EGL cases, 71.6% and 46.8% among condyloma, 66.8% and 50.0% among PeIN, and 71.9% and 38.4% among controls, respectively. Type-specific seropositivity was most common for ɤ-HPV 4, μ-HPV 1, and β-HPV 8. No statistically significant association was observed between any-HPV, any-β, and type-specific HPV seropositivity and subsequent development of EGLs across all pathological diagnoses. Conclusions Overall, seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was common among men; however, it appears that cutaneous

  1. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  2. Human herpes virus-6 seroprevalence and leukaemias: a case-control study. GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, G; Mele, A; Ragona, G; Faggioni, A; Zompetta, C; Tosti, M E; Visani, G; Castelli, G; Pulsoni, A; Monarca, B; Martino, P; Mandelli, F

    1999-06-01

    The relationships between acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and human herpes virus (HHV)-6 antibody level were investigated in a multicentre case-control study. An association between increased HHV-6 seropositivity and geometric mean titre ratio with AML was shown: P for trend = 0.022, adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.33 respectively. No association was found between HHV-6 and ALL, CML or RAEB.

  3. Decreased Management of Genital Warts in Young Women in Australian General Practice Post Introduction of National HPV Vaccination Program: Results from a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional General Practice Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Garland, Suzanne; Conway, Lynne; Stein, Alicia; Pirotta, Marie; Fairley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. Methods Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners). Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012). Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007) and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012) were also calculated. Results Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15–27 years) decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (pwarts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. Conclusion The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community. PMID:25180698

  4. Prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in human cornea tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Remeijer (Lies); R. Duan (Rui); J.M. van Dun (Jessica); M.A.W. Bettink; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. We determined the prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in cornea tissues obtained after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed. Methods. The excised corneas of 83 patients

  5. Prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in human cornea tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Remeijer (Lies); R. Duan (Rui); J.M. van Dun (Jessica); M.A.W. Bettink; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. We determined the prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in cornea tissues obtained after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed. Methods. The excised corneas of 83 patients

  6. Sequential Acquisition of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Following Genital Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Women: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Herpes and papilloma viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palo, G.; Rilke, F.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Seroepidemiologic Asociation of HSV-2 with Cervical Cancers: Transforming Viral Genes; Organization and Expression of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Cervical Cancer Cell Lines; An Investigation of Cervical Scrapes by DNA Hybridization: and Human Papillomaviruses in Genital Tissue: Examination by Immunohistochemistry and in situ DNA Hybridization.

  8. [Natural Outcome of Genital Tract High-risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Factors among 760 Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Di; Ma, Qian; Li, Na; Cui, Xu-qin; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the natural outcome of genital tract high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and associated factors among women in Xi'an region. Totally 760 women with primary genital tract HR-HPV infection were enrolled and followed up by HPV-DNA genotyping technology. The cervical cytological techniques and/or colposcopy were used when necessary. Among these subjects,the natural clearance rate of HR-HPV infection was 71.58%,with the median time of 8.10 months. The rate of HPV persistent infection was 22.63%, with the median time of 17.23 months. The rate of progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/cervical cancer (CC) was 5.79%, with the median time of 29.34 months. The natural clearance rate (P=0.000), persistent infection rate (P=0.000) and progression rate (P=0.040) in women older than 50 years were statistically difference from other age groups. The persistent infection rate in multiple infections group was significantly lower than that in single infection group (P=0.010), with the median time statistically longer than that in single infection group (P=0.018). The most easily progressive genotypes were HPV-16,HPV-33, HPV-58,HPV-18,HPV-52, and HPV-68, among which HPV-16 was the most common genotype in CIN 3/CC cases, accounting for 85.00%. Most of HR-HPV infections are naturally cleared within 2 years, and only a few cases progresses to CIN/CC. Women older than 50 years have a lower natural clearance rate and higher persistent and progressive rates. Multiple infections can affect the persistent infection. HPV-16 is the most common carcinogenic genotype in Xi'an region.

  9. Interferon susceptibility of herpes simplex virus strains isolated from patients enrolled in clinical trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, J. A.; Skicki-Mullen, M B; Breinig, M K; Ho, M

    1983-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 strains isolated from patients who had received interferon in a clinical trial were not more resistant to human leukocyte interferon than strains derived from recipients of a placebo. The susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 2 strains isolated from herpes genitalis was slightly less than that of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains causing herpes genitalis.

  10. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Wiafe MD MSc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common infection caused by the human herpes virus 3, the same virus that causes chickenpox. It is a member of herpes viridae, the same family as the herpes simplex virus, Epstein- Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when a latent varicella zoster virus in the trigeminal ganglia involving the ophthalmic division of the nerve is reactivated. Of the three divisions of the fifth cranial nerve, the ophthalmic is involved 20 times more frequently than the other divisions.

  11. Female Genital Cutting: shattering the debate yet still violating human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Jacquemin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Summary: The international fight against the various forms of female circumcision, or the mutilation of the genitals of women and children, has many different aspects. Although no religious text from any religion suggests the practice, still in many countries the torture of young girls and women continue. Even though there is an assumption that the phenomenon is exclusive to the developing world, many practices in the West, such as vaginal and vulvar surgeries, as well as changes to the face and body of women can be included in the same tendency to portray women as impure, incomplete, and in need of improvement so that she can be accepted by prospective husbands.

  12. Human papillomavirus detection in genital lesions by in situ hybridization and ultrastructural observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. S. Oliveira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of papillomavirus DNA in sity hybridization technique was perfomed in 29 symptomatic patients (6 males and 23 females during the period of 1989-1991 at the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Universidade Federal Fluminense, State of rio de Janeiro. All the male patients had condyloma acuminata. Only HPV 6/11 were found in these lesions. Clinical features inthe female patients included vulvar condyloma acuminata, bowenoid populosis, flat cervical condyloma, cervical condyloma acuminatum and cervical intraepithelialneoplasia grade II (CIN II. We also found cases of condyloma acuminata associated to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (VIN III, as well as to vaginal invasive carcinoma. HPV 6/11 and 16/18 were found in vulvar condyloma acuminata. Mixed infection by 6/11-16/18 HPV were also seen in these lesions as well as in the patient who had cervical condyloma acuminatum. HPV 16/18 were found in the condyloma acuminatum plus VIN III and in the CIN II lesions. We have found HPV31/33/51 in the specimen of condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma. In order to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of HPV infection in genital tissue, the biopsies of three female patients were observed under electron microscope.Mature virus particles were found in the cells of a condyloma acuminatum as wellas in the condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma case. In another sample, chromosome breakages were found in the nuclei of the infected cells although no viral particles were observed.

  13. Neonatal herpes infections in The Netherlands in the period 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelaar, Steffannie J A L; Poeran, Jashvant; Steegers, Eric A P; van der Meijden, Willem I

    2015-05-01

    To monitor the incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands between 2006 and 2011, as well as the adherence to the rather conservative Dutch prevention policy. Questionnaires were sent to all virology laboratories (n = 44), gynaecology and paediatrics departments of all hospitals in The Netherlands (n = 89). Questionnaires for the laboratories pertained to rates of proven cases of neonatal herpes; for the gynaecologists and paediatricians it pertained to rates of genital herpes during pregnancy and neonatal herpes, and their policy. For gynaecologists this concerned the risk of herpes simplex virus transmission in case of primary genital herpes during pregnancy or labour; for paediatricians it concerned the diagnostic policy in a neonate suspected of neonatal herpes. For the period 2006-2011 38 cases of neonatal herpes were reported, yielding an incidence of 4.7 per 100,000 births. The estimated annual number of pregnant women with primary or recurrent genital herpes was 278. Of the responding gynaecologists and paediatricians, only 59% and up to 39%, respectively, reported a policy in accordance with the national guideline. The incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands seems to have increased in the period 2006-2011. Combined with suboptimal guideline adherence this warrants strategies to improve awareness and subsequent adherence.

  14. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Malhotra, S; Kumar, Bhushan

    2004-01-01

    Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having 'genital ulcer syndrome' in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  15. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  16. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  17. Female Genital Warts: Global Trends and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Stanley A.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidi...

  18. 2 Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts: Study Findings back up new CDC recommendations for ... human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts in preteens and teens. Investigators at Boston University ...

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the Netherlands : seroprevalence, risk factors and changes during a 12-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; Tjhie, Jeroen H T; de Melker, Hester E; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital herpes results in considerable morbidity, including risk of neonatal herpes, and is increasingly being caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1. Possibly children are less often HSV-1 infected, leaving them susceptible until sexual debut. We assessed changes in the Dutch HSV-1

  20. C·A生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗120例生殖器疱疹的临床观察%The Clinical Observation of C•A Biological Gene Immunotherapy for 120 Cases Patients With Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of C•A biological gene immunotherapy for patients with genital herpe.Methods 240 cases of patients with recurrent genital herpe were randomly divided into two groups, treatment group (120 cases) and control group (120 cases), control group were took aciclovir tablets oral treatment, treatment group were treated by both aciclovir tablets and C•A biological gene immunotherapy. Then the improvement of clinical symptoms and cellular immune of the two groups were compared.Results After ifnished all the therapy, the mission success rate of treatment group was 100.00% which was significantly higher than control group by 79.65% (P<0.05). The levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 of treatment group were higher than control group, while the SIL-2R was lower than control group (P<0.05). 3, 6, 12 months after treatment, the recurrence rate of treatment group was all lower than control group (P<0.05). ConclusionC•A biological gene immunotherapy has the advantages of high cure rate and low recurrence rate for genital herpes through the regulation of immune system of organism.%目的:观察C·A生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗生殖器疱疹的疗效。方法240例复发性生殖器疱疹患者随机分为两组,治疗组(120例)和对照组(120例),对照组口服阿昔洛韦片治疗,治疗组则在服用阿昔洛韦片的基础上加载C·A生物基因免疫重塑疗法治疗。观察患者临床症状及细胞免疫改善情况。结果治疗组成功率高达100.00%高于对照组的79.65%(P<0.05)。治疗后,治疗组IFN-γ、IL-2水平高于对照组,SIL-2R水平低于对照组(P<0.05)。跟踪随访结果显示,治疗组接受治疗后3、6、12个月复发率低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论 C·A生物基因免疫重塑疗法通过对机体免疫系统的调节来治疗生殖器疱疹,具有治愈率高、复发率低的优点。

  1. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  2. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  3. Consequences of chemoresistance for the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir-induced bystander effect in a human small cell lung cancer cell line model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dillen, IJ; Mulder, NH; Sluiter, WJ; Meijer, C; De Jong, S; Loncarek, J; Mesnil, M; De Vries, EFJ; Vaalburg, W; Hospers, GAP

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of chemoresistance on the herpes simplex virus (HSVtk)/ganciclovir (GCV)-induced bystander effect (BE), as studied in a human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (GLC(4)) and its sublines with in vitro acquired resistance to adriamycin (GLC(4)/ADR),

  4. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population...... of HPV-exposed and -unexposed women (intention-to-treat group)....

  5. Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmerón, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

  6. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  7. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA

  8. Apparent rarity of asymptomatic herpes cervicitis in a woman with intra-uterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Fowotade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy.

  9. Apparent Rarity of Asymptomatic Herpes Cervicitis in a Woman with Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Abu Clement; Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Anaedobe, Chinenye Gloria; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Akang, Effiong Essien Udo

    2013-01-01

    Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy. PMID:28299103

  10. Implementation of the international and regional human rights framework for the elimination of female genital mutilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, M.J.; Desiderio, Rene

    2014-01-01

    A human rights approach to FGM places the practice within a broader social justice agenda — one that emphasizes the responsibilities of governments to ensure realization of the full spectrum of women’s and girls’ rights. In order to place FGM within a human rights framework, it is critical to know m

  11. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  12. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chen Jiang; Hui Feng; Yu-Chun Lin; Xiu-Rong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV.

  13. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections of the cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the

  14. Anal herpes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andre Goulart; Jose Pinto; Pedro Leão

    2017-01-01

    ... that irradiated to the buttocks and the physical examination revealed red bumps with ulceration ( figure 1 ). Anal herpes was suspected and the patient was treated with an antiviral (brivudine) and carbamazepine for symptomatic relief. Seven days after treatment the patient had complete resolution of his symptoms and there were no cut...

  15. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...... of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, only 2/39 samples from HIV-infected patients without evidence of KS were positive (p = 0.007). Detection of HHV-8 in BAL cells of patients with pulmonary KS was highly specific (95%), with a sensitivity of 58% and a positive predictive value of 78%. In conclusion, HHV-8 is associated with pulmonary KS...

  16. 非人灵长类疱疹病毒对人的潜在危害%Potential Risk of Herpes Virus in Non-human Primates to Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔

    2011-01-01

    非人灵长类动物(Non-human primate,NHP)是开展人类组织结构、免疫、生理和代谢等医学研究必不可少的实验动物之一,但NHP携带多种人兽共患病病毒,对人类健康造成不同程度的威胁,甚至危及生命.本文对非人灵长类疱疹病毒的致病特性及对人类的生物安全性作一综述.%Non-human primates (NHPs) were necessary to medical study in humans in several fields such as tissue structure, immunity, physiology and metabolism. However, NHPs carry various viruses of zoonoses, which threaten the health even life of humans. This paper reviews the pathogenic character of herpes virus in NHPs as well as its biosafety to humans.

  17. The spectrum of genital human papillomavirus infection among men attending a Swedish sexually-transmitted infections clinic: human papillomavirus typing and clinical presentation of histopathologically benign lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Arne; Vassilaki, Ismini; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-03-27

    There have been a number of Swedish studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in men, most of which have used less sensitive HPV-typing techniques. The present study included male patients with genital HPV-induced lesions planned for surgery. Samples were prepared for histopathology and PCR. HPV was detected in 233/253 (92%) and HPV 6 or 11 in 89% of the HPV-positive lesions. There were statistically significant differences regarding morphology (p=0.002), location (p=0.000001) and colour (p=0.005) of the lesions for low- vs. mixed or high-risk HPV types. For example, acuminate lesions were mostly found among men with low-risk HPV types, whereas macular lesions were over-represented among them with mixed or high-risk types. The HPV type distribution is similar to that in earlier studies, but we also found correlations with some clinical parameters.

  18. HLA Class I and II alleles, heterozygosity and HLA-KIR interactions are associated with rates of genital HSV shedding and lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, A; Dong, L; John, M; Mallal, S A; James, I; Warren, T; Gaudieri, S; Koelle, D M; Wald, A

    2016-12-01

    Variation at HLA and KIR loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. To assess associations of genital HSV-2 infection with human HLA and KIR genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection and of genital lesions in HSV-2 seropositive persons. We followed 267 HSV-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. All persons were laboratory-documented as HIV-seronegative, and all were Caucasian by self-report. HSV detection rate and lesion frequency were compared by genotype using Poisson regression. Overall, HSV was detected on 19.1% of days and lesions on 11.6% of days. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with HSV detection frequency, whereas the presence of HLA-C*12 was inversely associated with HSV detection frequency. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with lesion rate, while HLA-A*26, -C*01 and -DQB1*0106 were associated with decreased lesions. We observed an interaction between the absence of both 2DS4del and HLA-Bw4 and higher lesion rate. Heterozygosity of HLA was also associated with reduced lesion frequency. Immune control of genital HSV infection relies on multiple interacting immunogenetic elements, including epistatic interactions between HLA and KIR.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  1. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) A A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  2. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  3. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ault, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfec...

  4. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    OpenAIRE

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All le...

  5. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  6. Genitalverstümmelungen aller Art sind Menschenrechtsverletzungen All types of genital mutilation are human rights violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Feuerbach

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Die in Amerika lebende, 1924 geborene Hanny Lightfood-Klein befasst sich in ihrem Buch Der Beschneidungsskandal mit global verbreiteten Verstümmelungspraktiken an intersexuellen, weiblichen und männlichen Genitalien. Als Menschenrechtsverletzungen werden diese, aus soziokulturell unterschiedlichem Kontext stammenden Praktiken in ihrer Schädlichkeit dokumentiert und kommentiert. Die hohe Zahl der Gebärmutterentfernungen, Damm- und Kaiserschnitten in Industriestaaten wird von der Autorin kritisch in Frage gestellt. Zudem werden Schönheitsoperationen kritisiert. Die westliche Öffentlichkeit tendiere zur Barbarisierung und/oder Exotisierung afrikanischer Praktiken, ignoriere jedoch die in Industriestaaten serienmäßig durchgeführten Verstümmelungspraktiken. Diese würden bislang tabuisiert und selten öffentlich diskutiert. Ziel des Buches sei es deshalb, die Öffentlichkeit über die Problematik dieser Eingriffe aufzuklären und zu sensibilisieren. Die Autorin will ferner motivieren, gegen diese Praktiken einzutreten.Born in 1924 and now living in America, the author of The Circumcision Scandal, Hanny Lightfood-Klein, deals in her book with the global practices of mutilation of intersexual, female and male genitals. She documents and critiques the harmfulness of these human rights violations, which stem from different socio-cultural contexts. The author critically addresses the large number of hysterectomies, episiotomies, and Caesareans in industrialised societies and criticises cosmetic surgery. The western public tends to barbarise and/or exoticise African practices of mutilation, but at the same time ignores those practices regularly carried out in industrialised societies. Up until now such practices have been taboo and rarely discussed in public. Hence, this book aims to make the public more aware of these operations and to encourage people to stand up against such practices.

  7. Rapid quantitative PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesvirus 6 DNA in blood and other clinical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmann, I.; Petzold, D. R.; Kosinska, A.; Hepkema, B. G.; Schulz, T. F.; Heim, A.

    Rapid diagnosis of human herpesvirus primary infections or reactivations is facilitated by quantitative PCRs. Quantitative PCR assays with a standard thermal cycling profile permitting simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV),

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  9. Low Prevalence of Oral and Nasal Human Papillomavirus in Employees Performing CO2-laser Evaporation of Genital Warts or Loop Electrode Excision Procedure of Cervical Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato......-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p = 0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts......, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal...

  10. β-Amyloid peptides display protective activity against the human Alzheimer's disease-associated herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgade, Karine; Garneau, Hugo; Giroux, Geneviève; Le Page, Aurélie Y; Bocti, Christian; Dupuis, Gilles; Frost, Eric H; Fülöp, Tamàs

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid plaques, the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), contain fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and found to co-localize within amyloid plaques. Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 display anti-bacterial, anti-yeast and anti-viral activities. Here, fibroblast, epithelial and neuronal cell lines were exposed to Aβ 1-40 or Aβ 1-42 and challenged with HSV-1. Quantitative analysis revealed that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 inhibited HSV-1 replication when added 2 h prior to or concomitantly with virus challenge, but not when added 2 or 6 h after virus addition. In contrast, Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 did not prevent replication of the non-enveloped human adenovirus. In comparison, antimicrobial peptide LL-37 prevented HSV-1 infection independently of its sequence of addition. Our findings showed also that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 acted directly on HSV-1 in a cell-free system and prevented viral entry into cells. The sequence homology between Aβ and a proximal transmembrane region of HSV-1 glycoprotein B suggested that Aβ interference with HSV-1 replication could involve its insertion into the HSV-1 envelope. Our data suggest that Aβ peptides represent a novel class of antimicrobial peptides that protect against neurotropic enveloped virus infections such as HSV-1. Overproduction of Aβ peptide to protect against latent herpes viruses and eventually against other infections, may contribute to amyloid plaque formation, and partially explain why brain infections play a pathogenic role in the progression of the sporadic form of AD.

  11. Genital ulcers disease among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, O I; Okesola, A O; Fawole, A O

    2000-03-01

    Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a risk factor in the transmission of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV). The goal of this study is to estimate proportion, identify risk factors, and improve prevention and control of GUD. This is a retrospective study of 211 cases of GUD seen between 1993 and 1997 in an urban public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Genital ulcers form 7.6% of all STDs seen. Overall, genital herpes was commonest (89 or 42.25%). It was the predominant infection (84 or 44.7%) in the males, while lymphogranuloma venereum (52 or 24.7%) was in females. The peak incidence in both sexes occurred in the 20-29 age group. Males out numbered females by a ratio of 8:1. Most of the patients were single 114 (68.3%) and most 70 or 33.3% were students. Risk markers identified were: casual sex (103 or 53.5%) and multiple sexual partners (77 or 36.5%). Both were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in single patients. Self-treatment, use of multiple drugs and incomplete course of antibiotics were also common. The need to intensify STDS education programmes to all occupational groups and to students in particular is highlighted. Commercial sex workers require periodic education, screening and treatment.

  12. Entry Pathways of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 into Human Keratinocytes Are Dynamin- and Cholesterol-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Ju; Rixon, Frazer J.; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can enter cells via endocytic pathways or direct fusion at the plasma membrane depending on the cell line and receptor(s). Most studies into virus entry have used cultured fibroblasts but since keratinocytes represent the primary entry site for HSV-1 infection in its human host, we initiated studies to characterize the entry pathway of HSV-1 into human keratinocytes. Electron microscopy studies visualized free capsids in the cytoplasm and enveloped virus particles in vesicles suggesting viral uptake both by direct fusion at the plasma membrane and by endocytic vesicles. The ratio of the two entry modes differed in primary human keratinocytes and in the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Inhibitor studies further support a role for endocytosis during HSV-1 entry. Infection was inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which demonstrates the requirement for host cholesterol during virus entry. Since the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore and overexpression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutant blocked infection, we conclude that the entry pathways into keratinocytes are dynamin-mediated. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that virus uptake is completely blocked when the GTPase activity of dynamin is inhibited. Ex vivo infection of murine epidermis that was treated with dynasore further supports the essential role of dynamin during entry into the epithelium. Thus, we conclude that HSV-1 can enter human keratinocytes by alternative entry pathways that require dynamin and host cholesterol. PMID:22022400

  13. Entry pathways of herpes simplex virus type 1 into human keratinocytes are dynamin- and cholesterol-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rahn

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 can enter cells via endocytic pathways or direct fusion at the plasma membrane depending on the cell line and receptor(s. Most studies into virus entry have used cultured fibroblasts but since keratinocytes represent the primary entry site for HSV-1 infection in its human host, we initiated studies to characterize the entry pathway of HSV-1 into human keratinocytes. Electron microscopy studies visualized free capsids in the cytoplasm and enveloped virus particles in vesicles suggesting viral uptake both by direct fusion at the plasma membrane and by endocytic vesicles. The ratio of the two entry modes differed in primary human keratinocytes and in the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Inhibitor studies further support a role for endocytosis during HSV-1 entry. Infection was inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which demonstrates the requirement for host cholesterol during virus entry. Since the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore and overexpression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutant blocked infection, we conclude that the entry pathways into keratinocytes are dynamin-mediated. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that virus uptake is completely blocked when the GTPase activity of dynamin is inhibited. Ex vivo infection of murine epidermis that was treated with dynasore further supports the essential role of dynamin during entry into the epithelium. Thus, we conclude that HSV-1 can enter human keratinocytes by alternative entry pathways that require dynamin and host cholesterol.

  14. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  15. Anal study in immunocompetent women with human papillomavirus related lower genital tract pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Concepción; Reillo, Marcos; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan C; López-Fernández, José A

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of anal dysplasia in immunocompetent women with cervical intraepithelial dysplasia. We did a prospective cohort study, in which we enrolled 166 women with gynecological pathology related to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. All patients underwent an anal cytology and HPV detection. Statistical analysis with a 95% confidence interval was used for prevalence calculations. A Χ2 test and Fisher's exact one were used to determine differences between groups of qualitative variables. Differences between normally distributed and non-normally distributed groups in quantitative variables were accounted for using Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U test, respectively. Out of the 166 patients studied, high risk HPV in the anal canal was detected in 107 (64.46%) cases. The most prevalent genotype observed was non 16/18 high risk HPV, present in 54 (50.47%) patients. There was no a significant association with smoking, use of condom, anal intercourse, or anal benign pathology. However, a significant correlation between the presence of high risk HPV in the anal canal and the antecedent of condylomas was observed (p=0.047) (CI95%: 1.00%-12.58%). Women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 had a significantly increased presence of high risk HPV in the anal canal (p=0.044). Out of the 166 women, 6 (3.61%) had abnormal anal cytology results, and were referred to high-resolution anoscopy. Anal biopsy was performed in these six cases. In 2 patients the biopsy reported low-grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: 1.20% (0.15%-4.28%). Women with cervical intraepithelial dysplasia have 1.20% prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, so that it does not seem necessary to screen this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  17. Association of interferon lambda-1 with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2, Epstein-Barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil; Jayanthi, D; Faizuddin, Mohamed; Noor Ahamadi, H M

    2017-05-01

    Periodontal tissues facilitate the homing of herpes viruses that elicit the immune-inflammatory response releasing the interferons (IFN). IFN lambda-1 (λ1) can suppress the replication of viruses, and induces the antiviral mechanism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between IFN-λ1 and periodontal herpes viruses in the immunoregulation of chronic periodontal disease. The cross-sectional study design included 30 chronic periodontitis patients with a mean age of 42.30 ± 8.63 years. Gingival crevicular fluid collected was assessed for IFN-λ1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and four herpes viruses were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique. IFN-λ1 levels were compared between virus-positive and -negative patients for individual and total viruses. Fifty per cent (n = 15) of patients were positive for the four herpes viruses together; 50% (n = 15), 30% (n = 9), 26.7% (n = 8), and 40% (n = 12) were positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, Epstein-Barr virus, HSV-2, and human cytomegalovirus, respectively. The mean concentrations of IFN-λ1 in virus-positive patients (14.38 ± 13.95) were lower than those of virus-negative patients (228.26 ± 215.35). INF-λ1 levels in individual virus groups were also lower in virus-positive patients compared to virus-negative patients, with P < 0.001. These results suggest that IFN-λ1 could have antiviral and therapeutic value against the viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. High Risk Human Papillomavirus genital infections in asymptomatic population: effectiveness of Micro-Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Addonisio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV is the primary cause for the development of various anogenital cancers in females and males. Most infections are either latent or subclinical and the majority occur as asymptomatic. HPV infections are not currently treatable by antiviral compounds. Micro-immunotherapy (MI medications using high dilutions of cytokines and specific nucleotide sequences have been developed to treat targeted viral infections and are currently prescribed in medical practice as immune regulators: 2L®PAPI (Labo’Life is indicated for HPV infection and may represent a new therapeutic approach. Aims: this exploratory study was to assess the effectiveness of 2L®PAPI on HPV infection eradication in HR-HPV infected asymptomatic patients attending an STD Centre in a long-term microbiological follow-up population survey. Methodology: adult patients of both genders, diagnosed with HR-HPV infection, with no evidence of symptomatic HPV or anogenital cancer, were followed during a 2 year-period (2009-2010. Selected patients had not previously been vaccinated for HPV or treated with medications having an impact on the immune system. HPV testing was performed on biological samples using PCR detection (Innogenetics, Italy. In addition, detection of E6/E7 mRNA of five carcinogenic HPV types was performed by EasyQ HPV (BioMerieux, Italy. HPV-positives were requested by their urology specialist to take 2L®PAPI (composition in table 1 during 4 months (1 caps/day by sublingual route. Globally 46 patients were followed: 23 treated with MI medication, and 23 not treated. Results: one third of selected patients were lost at the control visit (15/46. At the end of the study period, HR-HPV negativity was observed in 50% (8/16 of patients under MI medication in comparison with only 7% (1/15 of the non treated patients who were HPV-DNA negative at the follow

  19. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tropism for Human Sensory Ganglion Neurons in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Model of Neuropathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xibing; Reichelt, Mike; Qiao, Yanli; Gu, Haidong; Arvin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The tropism of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) for human sensory neurons infected in vivo was examined using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) xenografts maintained in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). In contrast to the HSV-1 lytic infectious cycle in vitro, replication of the HSV-1 F strain was restricted in human DRG neurons despite the absence of adaptive immune responses in SCID mice, allowing the establishment of neuronal latency. At 12 days after DRG inoculation, 26.2% of human neurons expressed HSV-1 protein and 13.1% expressed latency-associated transcripts (LAT). Some infected neurons showed cytopathic changes, but HSV-1, unlike varicella-zoster virus (VZV), only rarely infected satellite cells and did not induce fusion of neuronal and satellite cell plasma membranes. Cell-free enveloped HSV-1 virions were observed, indicating productive infection. A recombinant HSV-1-expressing luciferase exhibited less virulence than HSV-1 F in the SCID mouse host, enabling analysis of infection in human DRG xenografts for a 61-day interval. At 12 days after inoculation, 4.2% of neurons expressed HSV-1 proteins; frequencies increased to 32.1% at 33 days but declined to 20.8% by 61 days. Frequencies of LAT-positive neurons were 1.2% at 12 days and increased to 40.2% at 33 days. LAT expression remained at 37% at 61 days, in contrast to the decline in neurons expressing viral proteins. These observations show that the progression of HSV-1 infection is highly restricted in human DRG, and HSV-1 genome silencing occurs in human neurons infected in vivo as a consequence of virus-host cell interactions and does not require adaptive immune control. PMID:23269807

  1. Meet the Herps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  2. Herpes zoster and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Chawla, Aastha

    2016-08-01

    This review is a succinct description of the relationship between herpes zoster and diabetes. It makes a strong case for screening for diabetes in all patients of herpes zoster, and for using insulin to achieve optimal glycaemic control in persons with concomitant diabetes and herpes zoster. It highlights potential impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor therapy and statin usage on herpes zoster incidence.

  3. Evidence of human papillomavirus vaccine effectiveness in reducing genital warts: an analysis of California public family planning administrative claims data, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi M; Wright, Glenn; Chow, Joan

    2012-05-01

    Because of the rapid development of genital warts (GW) after infection, monitoring GW trends may provide early evidence of population-level human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness. Trends in GW diagnoses were assessed using public family planning administrative data. Between 2007 and 2010, among females younger than 21 years, these diagnoses decreased 35% from 0.94% to 0.61% (P(trend) < .001). Decreases were also observed among males younger than 21 years (19%); and among females and males ages 21-25 (10% and 11%, respectively). The diagnoses stabilized or increased among older age groups. HPV vaccine may be preventing GW among young people.

  4. Combination of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses Armed with Angiostatin and IL-12 Enhances Antitumor Efficacy in Human Glioblastoma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV can potentially spread throughout the tumor, reach isolated infiltrating cells, kill them, and deliver anticancer agents. However, the host responds to oHSV by inducing intratumoral infiltration of macrophages that can engulf the virus, limiting the potential of this therapeutic strategy. Hypervascularity is a pathognomonic feature of glioblastoma (GBM and is a promising therapeutic target. Antiangiogenic treatments have multiple benefits, including the capacity to increase oHSV efficacy by suppressing macrophage extravasation and infiltration into the tumor. Angiostatin is an antiangiogenic polypeptide, and interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an immunostimulatory cytokine with strong antiangiogenic effects. Clinical use of each has been limited by delivery issues and systemic toxicity.We tested a combination treatment strategy using oHSVs expressing angiostatin (G47Δ-mAngio and IL-12 (G47Δ-mIL12 in two orthotopic human GBMmodels. Intratumoral injection of G47Δ-mAngio and G47Δ-mIL12 in mice bearing intracranial U87 or tumors derived from glioblastoma stem cells significantly prolonged survival compared to each armed oHSV alone. This was associated with increased antiangiogenesis and virus spread and decreased macrophages. These data support the paradigm of using oHSV expressing different antiangiogenic agents and show for the first time that oHSVs expressing angiostatin and IL-12 can improve efficacy in human GBM models.

  5. Human gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L

    1989-03-01

    The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is not inhibited in either HeLa or HEp-2 cells treated with human alpha interferon (HuIFN-alpha), particularly when high multiplicities of infection are used. However, HuIFN-gamma partially inhibits HSV-1 translation in HEp-2 cells infected at low multiplicities. Under these conditions, the transcription of genes alpha 22, TK, and gamma 0 is greatly diminished. The combined addition of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and HuIFN-gamma to HEp-2 cells exerts a synergistic inhibition of HSV-1 translation. Cells treated with both cytokines continue synthesizing cellular proteins, even 20 h after HSV-1 infection. As little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml blocked HSV-1 DNA replication, provided that TNF was also present in the medium. Analyses of HSV-1 gene transcription suggest that the action of both TNF and IFN-gamma blocked a step that comes at or prior to early HSV-1 gene expression. This early step in HSV-1 replication inhibited by TNF and IFN-gamma occurs after virus attachment and entry into cells, since the internalization of radioactive HSV-1 virion particles was not blocked by the presence of the two cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that the synergistic action of TNF plus IFN-gamma affects a step in HSV-1 replication that comes after virus entry but before or at the transcription of immediate-early genes.

  6. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  7. The prevalence and genotype of human papillomavirus on cervical samples from an Irish female population with external genital warts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cremin, Suzanne M

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cervical genotype profile of females who presented to an STI Clinic with external genital warts (EGW); and to determine the potential vaccine coverage prior to the uptake of the HPV vaccines. Sixty-one cervical scrapings were taken from females aged 18-35 y who had external genital warts or a history of external genital warts. The resulting 50 samples that were positive for HPV-DNA were subjected to genotype identification. Forty-six of these samples had detectable genotypes by LIPA analysis and most (78%, 36\\/46) had multiple low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) genotypes on the cervix. Twenty-five of these samples (54%) had more than 1 HR genotype. Of the 36 patients who had any HR genotypes, 18 (50%) were identified to have the most oncogenic HPV genotypes, namely 16 and 18. Three of these samples had both 16 and 18 on the cervix. The presence of multiple HR genotypes on the majority of cervical samples from a self-referred population of females with EGW is presented. This study is of importance since persistent HR-HPV is the necessary risk factor in the development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Gardisil, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine would have been useful in the prevention of 28% (13\\/46) of these infections.

  8. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  9. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  10. Clinical efifcacy of foscarnet sodium combined with valacyclovir hydrochloride in the treatment of rec-urrent genital herpes%膦甲酸钠联合盐酸伐昔洛韦治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍小换; 余展国

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of foscarnet sodium combined with valacyclovir hydrochloride in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes.MethodSelected from September 2011 to July 2014 in our hospital clinic 90 cases of patients with recurrent genital herpes as the objects of this study. Through group study, observed the difference of curative effect of combination of the two drugs and simple drug use. Compared the three groups before and after treatment with skin lesion area, blister end time and crusting time, the incidence of adverse reactions and recurrence.ResultThree groups of patients after treatment of skin lesion area, blister end time and crusting time were significantly improved compared with before treatment (P0.05). The total effective rate in the observation group was 93.34% (28/30), compared with control group 1 [73.33% (22/30)], control group 2 [76.67% (23/30)] had no signiifcant differences (P>0.05). Three groups of patients with adverse reaction rates had no signiifcant difference (P>0.05). Observation group patients relapse in 2 cases (6.67%), compared with control group 1 [8 patients (26.67%), control group 2 [7 cases (23.33%)] had no signiifcant differences (P<0.05).ConclusionClinical effect of foscarnet sodium combined with valacyclovir hydrochloride in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes is outstanding, safe medication, and low recurrence rate, with obvious efifcacy in reduce stress and improve the quality of life, worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察膦甲酸钠联合盐酸伐昔洛韦治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床效果。方法选取2011年9月至2014年7月于本院门诊就诊的90例复发性生殖器疱疹患者为研究对象,通过分组研究,观察联用两种药物与单纯药物使用的疗效差异。比较三组患者治疗前后皮肤损伤面积、止疱时间、结痂时间,不良反应发生情况和复发情况。结果三组患者治疗后皮肤损伤面积、

  11. High seroprevalence of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8 antibodies among vertically HIV-infected pediatric patients living in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Feiterna-Sperling

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, a gamma herpes virus, is the etiological agent for Kaposi sarcoma (KS. HIV-infected adults with advanced immunodeficiency are at risk. Prevalence data of HHV-8 infection in HIV-infected children living in non-endemic areas are limited. Serologic studies indicate low seroprevalence rates of 3–4% for healthy children living in United States and Germany [1]. Purpose of the study: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of HHV-8 antibodies among vertically HIV-infected pediatric patients in Germany and to evaluate their association with age, gender, ethnicity, and other demographic factors. Methods: In 2012, a multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted in four University Hospitals in Germany. Stored frozen serum specimens obtained from vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens. Data on patients' demographic characteristics and medical history were recorded. Results: A total of 214 HIV-infected children and adolescents (105 males, 109 females were included. The median age was 10.2 years (range 1 months–22.6 years. A high proportion of these children (62% was born in Western Europe, whereas 65% (139/214 of their mothers were born in countries outside Western Europe. The majoritiy (91% of the children had been treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and 55.2% (116/210 had a HIV-viral load<50 copies/mL. The median CD4 cell count was 1000/L (range 3–4400. The overall seroprevalence of HHV-8 antibodies was 23.8% (51/214. Seroprevalence rates did not show significant differences between age or gender. In the group of young children aged 1 month to 35 months, 19.4% (46/31 had HHV-8 antibodies, compared to 25% (25/100 in children aged 36 months to 11 years, and 24.1% (20/83 children 12 years and older. In the study group, seroprevalence rates were significantly lower in children who were born in Western

  12. [Chronic genital ulcerations and HIV infection: 29 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbery, I P; Djeha, D; Kacou, D E; Aka, B R; Yoboue, P; Vagamon, B; Sangare, A; Kanga, J M

    1999-01-01

    Genital ulcers are common manifestations of infectious disease. The incidence of genital ulcers featuring a chronic course has increased since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. The purpose of this 18-month cross-sectional study was to determine the main infectious causes of chronic genital ulcers (CGU) and their correlation with HIV infection. A total of 29 patients with CGU defined as an ulcer showing no sign of healing after more than one month were studied. Mean age ranged from 24 to 54 years. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1:5. The etiology was herpes in 19 cases (65.5 p. 100), chancroid in 6 cases (20.6 p. 100), streptococcal infection in 2 cases (6.8 p. 100), Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in 1 case (3.4 p. 100) and cutaneous amibiasis in 1 case (3.4 p. 100). Twenty-two patients (75.8 p. 100) presented HIV infection including 16 with HIV1 and 6 with HIV1 and HIV2. All patients with herpes were HIV-positive. Eighteen of these patients were in stage C3 of HIV infection. Genital herpes was the main etiology of UGC in patients with HIV infection (p < 0.001). Conversely chancroid was the main etiology in patients without HIV infection (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that herpetic CGU is highly suggestive of AIDS whereas chancroid CGU is not. Although syphilis is widespread in Africa, it was not a cause of CGU in this study. Search for herpes simplex virus or Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with CGU is an important criteria for presumptive diagnosis of AIDS in Africa.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1 Entry into Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Heavily Dependent on Heparan Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells recipients remain susceptible to opportunistic viral infections including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze susceptibility of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs to HSV-1 infection and identify the major entry receptor. Productive virus infection in hMSCs was confirmed by replication and plaque formation assays using a syncytial HSV-1 KOS (804 virus. To examine the significance of entry receptors, RT-PCR and antibody-blocking assays were performed. RT-PCR data showed the expression of gD receptors: nectin-1, 3-O sulfotransferase-3 (3-OST-3, and HVEM. Antibody-blocking assay together with heparinase treatment suggested an important role for HS and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS, but not nectin-1 or HVEM, in mediating HSV-1 entry and spread in hMSCs. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence demonstrating that HSV-1 is capable of infecting hMSCs and HS and 3-OS HS serve as its entry receptors during this process.

  14. High seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in French human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréoletti, Laurent; Piednoir, Emmanuel; Legoff, Jérôme; Brodard, Véronique; Beguinot, Isabelle; Strady, Christophe; Rouger, Christine; Piketty, Christophe; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Kazatchkine, Michel Daniel; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Bélec, Laurent

    2005-08-01

    Using commercially available herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific serological diagnostic tests, HSV type 2 (HSV-2) antibody prevalence was assessed in two parallel prospective studies including 534 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected outpatients living in two areas of northern France. In the first cohort of 434 subjects, 223 (51%) individuals demonstrated a positive HSV-2 serological status while 66 (66%) of 100 subjects in the second cohort were seropositive for HSV-2 (51 versus 66%; P = 0.08). Among the 223 HSV-2-seropositive subjects identified in the first study cohort, only 22 (10%) had suffered from recurrent anogenital lesions during the past 12 months while 154 (69%) had no clinical history of herpesvirus infection. Our findings demonstrate high proportions of subclinical and undiagnosed HSV-2 infection in HIV-1-infected individuals and suggest that HSV type-specific serological testing in the French HIV-1-infected subpopulation could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections.

  15. Selective gene therapy for human lung adenocarcinoma by tumor-specific expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振强; 高志萍; 张涛; 刘喜富

    1997-01-01

    According to the fact that CEA gene expressed only in lung adenocarcinoma but not in normal lung cells, a retroviral expression vector (pCEATK) of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene regulated by CEA promoter was constructed and introduced into CEA-producing human lung adenocarcinoma cells GL and non-CEA-producing HeLa cells. The expression of pCEATK and Ganciclovir (GCV) sensitivity of the transfected cells were tested in vitro and in vivo . pCEATK expressed only in CEA-producing GL cells but not in non-CEA-producing HeLa cells. The sensitivity to GCV of pCEATK-transfected GL was 992 times higher compared with that of the parental cell line and there was obvious "bystander effect" in vitro. HeLa cells transfected wtih pCEATK were still resistant to GCV. Injection of GCV resulted in significant regression of pCEATK-transfected GL tumors in nude mice. In addition, all mice with any fraction of GL cells expressing HSV-TK exhibited a significant reduction in tumor growth, including mice

  16. The molecular fingerprint of human papillomavirus infection and its effect on the Langerhans cell population in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Rios-Yuil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, p53 protein (p53, retinoblastoma protein (pRb and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236. The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273. Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.

  17. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Rollison, Dana E; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C; Baggio, Maria L; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-09-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterization of neuronal populations in the human trigeminal ganglion and their association with latent herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Flowerdew

    Full Text Available Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases such as facial palsy, vestibular neuritis or encephalitis. Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been addressed in human tissue. In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG neurons expressing six neuronal marker proteins were characterized, based on staining with antibodies against the GDNF family ligand receptor Ret, the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, the antibody RT97 against 200 kDa neurofilament, calcitonin gene-related peptide and peripherin. The frequencies of marker-positive neurons and their average neuronal sizes were assessed, with TrkA-positive (61.82% neurons being the most abundant, and Ret-positive (26.93% the least prevalent. Neurons positive with the antibody RT97 (1253 µm(2 were the largest, and those stained against peripherin (884 µm(2 were the smallest. Dual immunofluorescence revealed at least a 4.5% overlap for every tested marker combination, with overlap for the combinations TrkA/Ret, TrkA/RT97 and Ret/nNOS lower, and the overlap between Ret/CGRP being higher than would be expected by chance. With respect to latent HSV-1 infection, latency associated transcripts (LAT were detected using in situ hybridization (ISH in neurons expressing each of the marker proteins. In contrast to the mouse model, co-localization with neuronal markers Ret or CGRP mirrored the magnitude of these neuron populations, whereas for the other four neuronal markers fewer marker-positive cells were also LAT-ISH+. Ret and CGRP are both known to label neurons related to pain signaling.

  19. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  20. Intravaginal TLR agonists increase local vaccine-specific CD8 T cells and human papillomavirus-associated genital-tumor regression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos-Pereira, S; Decrausaz, L; Derré, L; Bobst, M; Romero, P; Schiller, J T; Jichlinski, P; Nardelli-Haefliger, D

    2013-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV)-related cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Despite active development, HPV E6/E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines have had limited clinical efficacy to date. Here, we report that intravaginal (IVAG) instillation of CpG-ODN (TLR9 agonist) or poly-(I:C) (TLR3 agonist) after subcutaneous E7 vaccination increased ~fivefold the number of vaccine-specific interferon-γ-secreting CD8 T cells in the genital mucosa (GM) of mice, without affecting the E7-specific systemic response. The IVAG treatment locally increased both E7-specific and total CD8 T cells, but not CD4 T cells. This previously unreported selective recruitment of CD8 T cells from the periphery by IVAG CpG-ODN or poly-(I:C) was mediated by TLR9 and TLR3/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 signaling pathways, respectively. For CpG, this recruitment was associated with a higher proportion of GM-localized CD8 T cells expressing both CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors and E-selectin ligands. Most interestingly, IVAG CpG-ODN following vaccination led to complete regression of large genital HPV tumors in 75% of mice, instead of 20% with vaccination alone. These findings suggest that mucosal application of immunostimulatory molecules might substantially increase the effectiveness of parenterally administered vaccines.

  1. [Genital ulcers in French Guyana. Apropos of 231 cases screened in 2 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenn, Y; Zeller, H; Pradinaud, R; Sainte-Marie, D

    1988-01-01

    In fight against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), 231 cases of genital ulcers were observed, in 1985 and 1986, in Cayenne (French Guiana) according to a clinical and laboratory study protocol described by the authors. The diagnosis shown, in 146 cases, one STD agent, with a high frequency of chancroid, herpes genitalis and primary syphilis. In addition, 18 cases of mixed genital infections are described: emphasis is laid on the great diversity of these associated diseases. 67 genital ulcers had not been caused by a STD agent, however in each case a complete laboratory investigation was done, and each patient received a treatment according to the diagnosis.

  2. Female genital warts: global trends and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S A

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidity of the disease, and therefore successful treatment is crucial. Current treatments are patient-applied and provider-administered therapies. Imiquimod 5% cream, a patient-applied therapy, is an efficacious treatment with tolerable side-effects and a low recurrence rate, and has the potential to be an effective strategy for the management of genital warts.

  3. 阿昔洛韦口服治疗晚期妊娠生殖器疱疹的血药浓度和疗效评价%Plasma concentration and efficacy evaluation of oral acyclovir for genital herpes in late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红梅; 刘敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of oral acyclovir for genital herpes in third trimester pregnant women and plasma concentration in delivery .Methods Altogether 23 patients of recurrent genital herpes were selected from March 2010 to December 2015. They orally administered acyclovir tablets 0.4g (tid) from gestation 32 to 36 week to the end of delivery.Acyclovir plasma concentration was detected in umbilical venous blood , umbilical artery blood and maternal venous blood sampled after delivery .Results Twenty patients underwent vaginal delivery .One case of malposition and 2 cases of fetal distress were changed to cesarean section .None of pregnant women complained of herpes activity during delivery , and no neonate appeared HSV infection .Plasma concentration of acyclovir in umbilical venous blood, umbilical artery blood and maternal venous blood was 251.38ng/mL, 231.57ng/mL and 430.64ng/mL, respectively. Acyclovir plasma concentration in 60.87%(14/23) of umbilical venous blood , 47.83%(11/23) of umbilical artery blood and 17.39%(4/23) of maternal venous blood samples was less than acyclovir steady-state plasma concentration (180ng/mL).There were no significant correlation between maternal weight and plasma concentration in umbilical venous blood , umbilical artery blood and maternal venous blood (r value was -0.207, 0.130 and 0.164, respectively, P value was 0.381, 0.876 and 0.773, respectively, all P>0.05). There was no correlation between childbirth process and plasma concentration in umbilical venous blood , umbilical artery blood and maternal venous blood (r value was -0.382, 0.264 and 0.139, respectively, P value was 0.076, 0.533 and 0.413, respectively, all P>0.05).Last dose interval was negatively associated with plasma concentration in umbilical venous blood , umbilical artery blood and maternal venous blood (r value was -0.584, -0.624 and -0.613, respectively,P value was 0.003, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively, all P<0.05).Conclusion Oral

  4. Typical case: herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Cristianini Baldivia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary The varicella zoster virus is the causative agent of herpes zoster and varicella. In herpes zoster, the virus dormant within dorsal root ganglia is reactivated, resulting in painful vesicular lesions overlying an erythematous base.

  5. Molecular Umbrellas: a Novel Class of Candidate Topical Microbicides To Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Mesquita, Pedro M. M.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jing, Bingwen; Shende, Vikas; Guzman, Esmeralda; Heald, Taylor; Keller, Marla J.; Regen, Steven L.; Shattock, Robin J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular umbrella compounds may function as novel topical microbicides to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. In a preliminary structure-activity investigation, one umbrella compound, designated Spm8CHAS, was identified which inhibited both HIV and HSV infections with no cellular toxicity. The objectives of the current studies were to define its spectrum of antiviral activity, characterize its mechanism of action, and explore the possibility of combining Spm8CHAS with HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Spm8CHAS inhibited infections by laboratory and clinical R5 and X4 clade B and clade C HIV strains in cell culture. Ectocervical tissue explants exposed to HIV-1BaL in the presence of Spm8CHAS were completely protected (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 13.6 μg/ml), and transfer of virus to target T cells via migratory cells was abolished (IC50, 3.8 μg/ml). Spm8CHAS inhibited HSV-2 infection of epithelial cells 10,000-fold if present throughout the infection. Notably, adding Spm8CHAS to cultures following HSV entry significantly reduced viral infection, indicating that the drug also acts postentry. Subsequent studies indicated that Spm8CHAS blocks cell-to-cell spread of HSV. Confocal microscopy using a fluorescently labeled analog of Spm8CHAS demonstrated that this conjugate crosses the plasma cell membrane and is transported to the nucleus. Combinations of Spm8CHAS with UC-781 or 9-[R-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl] adenine monohydrate in vitro exhibited additive anti-HIV activity with preserved anti-HSV activity. The abilities of Spm8CHAS to inhibit primary isolates of HIV, block HSV infection postentry, and cross cell membranes support the development of a combination microbicide containing Spm8CHAS with an HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitor to prevent both HIV and HSV infections by multiple mechanisms. PMID:17494078

  6. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  8. Microgravity Analogues of Herpes Virus Pathogenicity: Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and Varicella Zoster (VZV) Infectivity in Human Tissue Like Assemblies (TLAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Albrecht, T.; Cohrs, R.

    2009-01-01

    The old adage we are our own worst enemies may perhaps be the most profound statement ever made when applied to man s desire for extraterrestrial exploration and habitation of Space. Consider the immune system protects the integrity of the entire human physiology and is comprised of two basic elements the adaptive or circulating and the innate immune system. Failure of the components of the adaptive system leads to venerability of the innate system from opportunistic microbes; viral, bacteria, and fungal, which surround us, are transported on our skin, and commonly inhabit the human physiology as normal and imunosuppressed parasites. The fine balance which is maintained for the preponderance of our normal lives, save immune disorders and disease, is deregulated in microgravity. Thus analogue systems to study these potential Risks are essential for our progress in conquering Space exploration and habitation. In this study we employed two known physiological target tissues in which the reactivation of hCMV and VZV occurs, human neural and lung systems created for the study and interaction of these herpes viruses independently and simultaneously on the innate immune system. Normal human neural and lung tissue analogues called tissue like assemblies (TLAs) were infected with low MOIs of approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) pfu hCMV or VZV and established active but prolonged low grade infections which spanned .7-1.5 months in length. These infections were characterized by the ability to continuously produce each of the viruses without expiration of the host cultures. Verification and quantification of viral replication was confirmed via RT_PCR, IHC, and confocal spectral analyses of the respective essential viral genomes. All host TLAs maintained the ability to actively proliferate throughout the entire duration of the experiments as is analogous to normal in vivo physiological conditions. These data represent a significant advance in the ability to study the triggering

  9. Microgravity Analogues of Herpes Virus Pathogenicity: Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and Varicella Zoster (VZV) Infectivity in Human Tissue Like Assemblies (TLAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Albrecht, T.; Cohrs, R.

    2009-01-01

    The old adage we are our own worst enemies may perhaps be the most profound statement ever made when applied to man s desire for extraterrestrial exploration and habitation of Space. Consider the immune system protects the integrity of the entire human physiology and is comprised of two basic elements the adaptive or circulating and the innate immune system. Failure of the components of the adaptive system leads to venerability of the innate system from opportunistic microbes; viral, bacteria, and fungal, which surround us, are transported on our skin, and commonly inhabit the human physiology as normal and imunosuppressed parasites. The fine balance which is maintained for the preponderance of our normal lives, save immune disorders and disease, is deregulated in microgravity. Thus analogue systems to study these potential Risks are essential for our progress in conquering Space exploration and habitation. In this study we employed two known physiological target tissues in which the reactivation of hCMV and VZV occurs, human neural and lung systems created for the study and interaction of these herpes viruses independently and simultaneously on the innate immune system. Normal human neural and lung tissue analogues called tissue like assemblies (TLAs) were infected with low MOIs of approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) pfu hCMV or VZV and established active but prolonged low grade infections which spanned .7-1.5 months in length. These infections were characterized by the ability to continuously produce each of the viruses without expiration of the host cultures. Verification and quantification of viral replication was confirmed via RT_PCR, IHC, and confocal spectral analyses of the respective essential viral genomes. All host TLAs maintained the ability to actively proliferate throughout the entire duration of the experiments as is analogous to normal in vivo physiological conditions. These data represent a significant advance in the ability to study the triggering

  10. Synthetic analogues of bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide reduce herpes simplex virus type 2 infectivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Shestakov, Andrey; Hancock, Robert E. W

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential of four synthetic peptides (denoted HH-2, 1002, 1006, 1018) with a distant relationship to the host defense peptide bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide for their ability to prevent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice. All four peptides...... infectious doses of HSV-2. These data show that peptides HH-2 and 1018 have antiviral properties and can be used to prevent genital herpes infection in mice. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum in patients with genital ulcer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Mali, T. van; Sturm, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in

  12. Recurrent zosteriform herpes simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar Arun

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man had recurrent zosteriform herpes simplex for past 6 years. The attacks were precipitated by prolonged exposure to sunlight. Pain was mild and lesions used to subside each time in about 7 days. Clinical features which help in differentiating recurrent herpes simplex from recurrent herpes zoster are summarized.

  13. Herpes Zoster Oticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page What research is being ... neurotropic viruses and development of neurological diseases including herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses. × What research is ...

  14. Salivary production of IgA and IgG to human herpes virus 8 latent and lytic antigens by patients in whom Kaposi's sarcoma has regressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Legoff, Jerome; Piketty, Christophe; Hocini, Hakim; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Inoue, Naoki; Scully, Crispian M; Porter, Stephen R; Teo, Chong-Gee; Belec, Laurent

    2004-01-23

    IgG and IgA antibodies with specificities to a latent and a lytic antigen of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) were detectable in the saliva and serum of eight patients whose Kaposi's sarcoma had regressed, seven of whom were HIV-1 infected. The measurement of antibody-specific activity and secretion rate, and the detection of secretory IgA all indicate anti-HHV-8 antibody activity in saliva. The specific humoral responses possibly influence mucosal replication of HHV-8, and in turn, that of HIV.

  15. Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2): use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by real time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Silva, Amanda Perse da; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2017-03-01

    The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated. The results show that synthetic curves can replace DNA standard curves in diagnostic herpes qPCR.

  16. Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2): use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by real time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; da Silva, Amanda Perse; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2017-01-01

    The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated. The results show that synthetic curves can replace DNA standard curves in diagnostic herpes qPCR. PMID:28225902

  17. [Viral infection of herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, varicela zoster, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus, or adenovirus are not related to sinonasal adenocarcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Escuredo, Jhudit; Llorente, José Luis; Melón, Santiago; de Oña, María; García Martínez, Jorge; Alvarez Marcos, César; Hermsen, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Several types of virus have been implicated in the development of head and neck tumors. However, until now sinonasal adenocarcinomas (ACN) have not been studied. The aim of this study is to screen a series of ACN for the presence of a number of viruses known to play a role in cancer. Viral DNA sequences of herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr, varicela zoster, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus were analysed by PCR in 37 primary ACN. Three tumors (8.1%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus and 1 case (2.7%) for cytomegalovirus. Viral infections do not seem to play a role in the etiology of ACN.

  18. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  19. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  20. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  1. Incidence of human herpes virus-6 and human cytomegalovirus infections in donated bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad-Behbahani A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the incidence of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections that are potentially transmitted to haematopoietic stem cells (HSC transplant recipients via bone marrow (BM or umbilical cord blood (UCB. Bone marrow progenitor cells were collected from 30 allogenic BM donors. UCB HSC were collected from 34 subjects. The extracted DNA was then processed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR technique. HCMV and HHV-6 serological status were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Nested PCR identified HCMV in 22 (73% of 30 samples of BM progenitor cells but in only eight (23.5% of 34 samples of UBC HSC ( P = 0.001. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 11 (36.6% of 30 BM progenitor cells and in only one (2.9% of 34 UBC cells ( P = 0.002. Both HHV-6 and HCMV infections were determined in nine (26.5% of 34 bone marrow samples. The results indicate that, the risk of HCMV and HHV-6 via BM progenitor cells is higher than transmission by UCB cells ( P= 0.04.

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  4. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  5. Warts (non-genital)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; cimetidine; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde; homeopathy; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; topical salicylic acid; and zinc sulphate. PMID:21726478

  6. The Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Rhesus Macaques and the Associated Pathological Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengtao; Cai, Hongzhi; Xu, Xingli; Feng, Min; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; He, Zhanlong; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Wenhai; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jumin; Li, Qihan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1. Interestingly, vesicular lesions recurred in oral skin or in mucosa associated with virus shedding in macaques within four to five months post-infection, and viral latency-associated transcript (LAT) mRNA was found in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) on day 365 post-infection. Neutralization testing and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) detection of specific T cell responses confirmed the specific immunity induced by HSV1 infection. Thus, rhesus macaques could serve as an infectious model for HSV1 due to their typical clinical symptoms and the pathological recurrence associated with viral latency in nervous tissues. PMID:28146109

  7. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and the immunocompromised: a clinical and autopsy study of HSE in the settings of cancer and human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, D; Rosenblum, M K

    1998-03-01

    Although herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is not regarded as an opportunistic infection, the occurrence of HSE in immunocompromised patients has been documented and the suggestion made that unusual clinical and neuropathologic features characterize the disorder in this population. To further characterize HSE as it affects the immunodeficient, the authors reviewed the clinical and pathological findings in three immunocompromised patients with autopsy-proven HSE. Two patients had cancer (one with lymphoma and another with glioblastoma multiforme), one was known to be human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive and a second was suspected of harboring underlying HIV-1 infection. Two were receiving dexamethasone at onset of HSE. All had fever, mental status changes and new, focal neurological deficits or worsening of established deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis was absent or minimal and head computerized tomographic (CT) scans, performed in all cases, were unrevealing. No patient was clinically suspected of having HSE, only one received acyclovir (for concurrent mucocutaneous herpes) and HSE played a major role in all deaths. Autopsy revealed an unusual form of HSE characterized by a noninflammatory, pseudoischemic histological presentation and the unexpected persistence of viral antigens in abundance despite survival beyond the clinical stage during which inflammatory responses usually peak and productive brain infection wanes. The incidence of HSE in the immunocompromised may be underestimated. Preexistent neurological disease, a noninflammatory CSF profile and negative CT scan may confound the diagnosis in this population, a typical clinical presentation notwithstanding. Increased clinical suspicion, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction analysis of CSF for herpes simplex virus nucleic acid sequences may permit more rapid diagnosis and treatment. The absence of inflammatory infiltrates in some fatal cases of

  8. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sapkota, Dipak; Ibrahim, Salah O; Larsson, Per-Anders; Sand, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in many parts of the world, and the major causative agents are thought to be the use of alcohol and tobacco. Oncogenic viruses have also been suggested to be involved in OSCC development. This study investigated the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 155 OSCC from eight different countries from different ethnic groups, continents and with different socioeconomic backgrounds. 41 A total of OSCCs were diagnosed in the tongue (26%) and 23 in the floor of the mouth (15%); the other 91 OSCCs were diagnosed in other locations (59%). The patients were also investigated regarding the use of alcohol and smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. Tissue samples were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of the OSCC. DNA was extracted and the viral genome was examined by single, nested and semi-nested PCR assays. Sequencing of double-stranded DNA from the PCR product was carried out. Following sequencing of the HPV-, HSV- and EBV-positive PCR products, 100% homology between the sampels was found. Of all the 155 OSCCs examined, 85 (55%) were positive for EBV, 54 (35%) for HPV and 24 (15%) for HSV. The highest prevalence of HPV was seen in Sudan (65%), while HSV (55%) and EBV (80%) were most prevalent in the UK. In 34% (52/155) of all the samples examined, co-infection by two (46/155=30%) or three (6/155=4%) virus specimens was detected. The most frequent double infection was HPV with EBV in 21% (32/155) of all OSCCs. There was a statistically significant higher proportion of samples with HSV (p=0.026) and EBV (p=0.015) in industrialized countries (Sweden, Norway, UK and USA) as compared to developing countries (Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and Yemen). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher co-infection of HSV and EBV in samples from industrialized countries (p=0.00031). No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus and Human herpes virus 6 Type A DNA Enhance IL-17 Production in Mice.

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    Rahal, Elias A; Hajjar, Helene; Rajeh, Mirna; Yamout, Bassem; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown a potential association between the Herpesviridae members, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), and an increased risk of autoimmune disease development. Because of the ability of these viruses to cause recurrent infections, various viral antigens, including viral DNA, are consistently shed. These antigens may then play a role in triggering autoimmune processes or contributing to autoimmune mechanisms. Therefore, this study examined whether the DNA of EBV or that of HHV-6A is capable of triggering IL-17, the autoimmune-associated cytokine, in mice. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with various copy numbers of either EBV or HHV-6A DNA. One group was injected with sterile water (the DNA solvent), and another was left uninjected. A mouse group that was administered DNA obtained from Staphylococcus epidermidis was included to ensure that any observed effects would pertain to the viral DNA tested. Mice were sacrificed and their sera were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-17 and IL-23, as pro-autoimmune cytokines, IL-10, as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and IFN-γ, as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, on days 3, 6, and 9 post-injection. All mouse groups injected with different copy numbers of EBV DNA or HHV-6A DNA displayed higher IL-17 levels than did the group injected with water on days 3, 6, and 9 post-injection. The highest IL-17 levels appeared to coincide with a marked increase in IL-23 and a decrease in IL-10 levels. Unlike the S. epidermidis DNA, which increased IFN-γ levels but not IL-17 or IL-23 levels, the viral DNA tested increased all three mediators, indicating that triggering Th17 responses is a specific property of EBV and HHV-6A DNA. In conclusion, EBV and HHV-6A viral DNA are capable of enhancing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17, which has been shown to play a role in autoimmune diseases.

  10. Interleukin 10 Mediated By Herpes Simplex Virus Vectors Suppresses Neuropathic Pain Induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120 in Rats

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    Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Wan; Liu, Shue; Levitt, Roy C.; Candiotti, Keith A.; Lubarsky, David A.; Hao, Shuanglin

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy is a common neurological complication of HIV infection affecting up to 30% of HIV-positive individuals. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments for HIV-neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of proinflammatory factors with overexpression of interleukin (IL)-10 reduces HIV-related NP in a rat model. Methods NP was induced by the application of recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 into the sciatic nerve. The hindpaws of rats were inoculated with nonreplicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors expressing antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 or control vector. Mechanical threshold was tested using von Frey filaments before and after treatments with the vectors. The mechanical threshold response was assessed over time using the area under curves (AUC). The expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated kinase, as tumor necrosis factor alpha, stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 in both the lumbar spinal cord and the L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was examined at 14 and 28 days after vector inoculation using Western blots. Results We found that in the gp120-induced NP model, IL-10 overexpression mediated by the HSV vector resulted in a significant elevation of the mechanical threshold that was apparent on day 3 after vector inoculation compared with the control vector (PIL-10 lasted more than 28 days. The AUC in the HSV vector expressing IL-10 was increased compared with that in the control vector (PIL-10 reversed the upregulation of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated kinase, as tumor necrosis factor alpha, stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 expression at 14 and/or 28 days in the DRG and/or the spinal dorsal horn. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that blocking the signaling of these

  11. [Human herpes virus type 6, etiology of an acute encephalitis in childhood: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenjar, A; Rodriguez, D; Rozenberg, F; Dorison, N; Guët, A; Mignot, C; Doummar, D; Billette de Villemeur, T; Ponsot, G

    2007-05-01

    Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) causes the classical roseola infantum. Otherwise the infection is clinically silent but it may sometimes be responsible for central nervous system involvement. In order to illustrate such a type of lesions, we report on a 16-month-old girl with acute leucoencephalitis. The disease started with pyrexia 40 degrees C, followed by an episode of seizure, erythematous rash on the trunk and then coma. Brain MRI showed wide lesions on white matter. HHV-6 DNA was detected by PCR in the CSF and serum at the acute stage, and tests for HHV-6 antibody showed a significant increase of IgG antibody titre between acute and convalescent sera. One month later complete clinical recovery was observed while the MRI showed a partial disappearance of the lesions. The sero-conversion associated with the detection of the viral DNA in the serum identified a primary HHV-6 infection and the detection of viral nucleic acid in CSF gives arguments for the responsibility of the virus in the pathogenesis. When facing an acute leuco-encephalitis in infants, it is important to perform exhaustive virology investigations to rule out the implication of HHV-6 as well as other commonly incriminated pathogens (EBV, CMV, mycoplasma, enterovirus) to avoid accusing wrongly the vaccines.

  12. Herpes simplex virus type 2: Seroprevalence in antenatal women

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    Rathore Shagufta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2 infection in pregnant females, assess the frequency of unrecognized infection and identify the demographic profile and risk factors associated with the seroprevalence. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected, asymptomatic pregnant females attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Outpatient Department for a routine antenatal check-up constituted the study group. Serum specimens were screened for HSV-2 infection by detecting IgG class antibodies against HSV-2-specific glycoprotein G-2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: A seroprevalence of 7.5% was found in our study. Seropositivity was maximum in the age group ≥30 years (22.20%, followed by 26-30 years (9.7%, 21-25 years (2.20% and ≤20 years (0%. HSV-2 seropositivity was found to be significantly associated with increasing age, parity, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity and history of abortions (P < 0.05. No statistically significant correlation was observed between seropositivity and other demographic variables such as place of residence, education, annual family income and occupation (P > 0.05. No statistically significant association of seropositivity with present or past history suggestive of other sexually transmitted infections was found. None of our cases tested positive for human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV. Conclusion: A relatively low prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was found in our study, with a high frequency of unrecognized and asymptomatic infections. Our findings suggest that type-specific serotesting could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections and, therefore, to reduce the risk of HSV-2 and HIV sexual transmission by prophylactic counseling against unprotected intercourse. It may also be a useful adjunct in detecting cases who present with symptoms not directly suggestive of genital herpes.

  13. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

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    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain.

  14. Unusual initial presentation of herpes simplex virus as inguinal lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sarah A; Strickler, John G

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  15. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

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    Sarah A. Fleming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  18. Genital injuries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  19. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  20. Herpes associated erythema multiforme

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    K A Kamala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme is an acute and a self-limiting mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction triggered by certain infections and medications. One of the most common predisposing factors for erythema multiforme is infection with herpes simplex virus. Herpes associated erythema multiforme (HAEM is an acute exudative dermatic and mucosal disease caused by the infecting herpes simplex virus. It has recurrence and idiorestriction, characterized by increasing of CD4+T leukomonocyte. This article reports a case of HAEM in a 9-year-old girl, with a review of relevant literature, and discusses the pathophysiology and treatment of erythema multiforme triggered by herpes simplex virus

  1. Genital/Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience genital itching, burning, and sometimes a "cottage cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Men with genital candidiasis may ... number of Candida organisms are present. A fungal culture may not always be useful because Candida species ...

  2. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  3. Female genital mutilation: medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2010-12-01

    The rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women still persists in South Africa. Both economically and socially the HIV/AIDS pandemic strikes women the hardest, with disadvantaged black women mainly at risk of higher infection. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the connection between HIV/AIDS, sexual inequalities and sexual violence, and more precisely, female genital mutilation, a cultural practice and custom which amplifies women's exposure to HIV. Pertinent to this focus is inescapably an analysis of apparent threats to precise essential human rights as a result of the continued use of the practice of female genital mutilation in South Africa.

  4. Genital Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLADDER INFECTION or URETHRITIS, an inflammation of the urethra.Self CareSee your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a YEAST INFECTION, HERPES or another type of infection. Sores on the penis may also be a symptom of CANCER.Self CareSee your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  5. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

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    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  6. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  7. [Follow-up serological study of herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus in Cuban patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resik, S; Santana, E; Rivero, J; Pérez, A B; Kourí, V; Larralde, O

    1997-01-01

    The evolution serological response against the herpes simplex virus and citomegalovirus in HIV infected patients grouped into different stages of the disease was studied. Fluctuations in the TPG of antibodies were observed in these values in a cyclical way through time. There was a greater significant difference among the TPG of antibodies against HSV in the group of asymptomatic patients compared with AIDS patients and with those who died. There is a marked decrease in the TPG of antibodies against HSV and CMV approximately one year before the death of patients.

  8. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH HERPES INFECTIONS OF VARYING SEVERITY

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    T. M. Lyuboshenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of clinical signs, immune and interferon status in 180 patients with laboratory confirmed infection of varying severity, caused by herpes simplex virus (VSHI have been studied. It was determined that frequency of bacterial infections is increased in patients with more severe clinical forms of VSHI. In patients with mild course furunculosis was more often detected than in other groups. In patients with moderate course of VSHI vaginal candidiasis was more common. In patients with severe VSHI course the combination of labial and genital herpes as well as infection caused by the human papilloma virus were more prevalent. In case of severe infection occurred an increased frequency of dysbiosis, fatigue, low grade temperature, iron deficiency anemia and malignancies. The highest frequency of allergic reactions is observed in patients with moderate course of VSHI. The autoimmune syndrome manifestations were not depend on the severity of VSHI. The degree of reduction of cell immunity and disorders in the system of interferon were closely related to severity of VSHI course.

  9. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  10. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  11. Genital lesions following bestiality

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    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  12. Establishment of a human herpes virus-8-negative malignant effusion lymphoma cell line (STR-428) carrying concurrent translocations of BCL2 and c-MYC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Tamiko; Nagasaki, Akitoshi; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Miyagi, Jun-ichi; Kakazu, Naoki; Makino, Shigeyoshi; Shinjyo, Tetsuharu; Taira, Naoya; Masuda, Masato; Takasu, Nobuyuki

    2007-09-01

    A new cell line, STR-428 was established from ascites tumor cells of a malignant effusion lymphoma patient without human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. STR-428 cells showed an immunophenotype of mature B-cells and produced few cytokines related to lymphomatous effusion. Karyotypic and genetic analysis revealed complex translocations including t(14;18)(q32;q21) effecting IgH/BCL2 and der(8)t(3;8)(q27;q24) involving c-MYC. STR-428 represents a unique, B-cell lymphoma cell line carrying concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and c-MYC genes with features distinct from those of HHV-8-related primary effusion lymphoma. This cell line may be a valuable tool, other than HHV-8, to investigate the pathogenesis of primary lymphomatous effusion.

  13. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  14. New approach to managing genital warts

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    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  15. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie L; Amzat, Rianot; Martin, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a commonly encountered disorder. It is estimated that there are approximately 1 million new cases of herpes zoster in the United States annually, with an incidence of 3.2 per 1000 person-years. Patients with HIV have the greatest risk of developing herpes zoster ophthalmicus compared with the general population. Other risk factors include advancing age, use of immunosuppressive medications, and primary infection in infancy or in utero. Vaccination against the virus is a primary prevention modality. Primary treatments include antivirals, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Management may require surgical intervention and comanagement with pain specialists, psychiatrists, and infectious disease specialists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Looker

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated.We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital.We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%, with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.

  17. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  20. Impact of human papillomavirus-related genital diseases on quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing: results of an observational, health-related quality of life study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine; Cohet, Catherine; Atrux-Tallau, Samantha; Gilet, Hélène; Tristram, Amanda; Fiander, Alison

    2013-11-12

    Data on the psychosocial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases other than cervical cancer are scarce. The objectives of this study were to measure and compare the psychosocial burden and the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HPV-related lower genital tract diseases and genital warts (GW) using several generic and disease-specific instruments. Overall, 842 individuals with normal cervical cytology (n = 241), borderline nuclear abnormalities and/or mild dyskaryosis (n = 23), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 (n = 84), CIN2/3 (n = 203), vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN)2/3 (n = 43), GW (n = 186) and a history of GW (non-current) (n = 62) were included. The generic European Quality of Life Index Version 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire was completed by patients with GW and VIN2/3. Sexual functioning was evaluated using the Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ). Psychosocial impact was measured in women using the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) questionnaire. HRQoL was assessed using a GW-specific questionnaire, the Cuestionario Especifico en Condilomas Acuminados (CECA) (completed by patients with GW and history of GW). For each instrument, scores were compared between groups using the Student's t-test. In addition, utility loss due to GW and VIN2/3 was evaluated by comparing mean EQ-5D scores weighted by age and sex with the UK general population normal values. A significant psychosocial impact was found in women diagnosed with HPV-related genital diseases, particularly in those with GW. The health state of younger adults with GW was significantly impaired compared with UK normal values (mean EQ-5D index score 0.86 vs 0.94, p HPV-related lower genital tract lesions and GW significantly impair psychosocial wellbeing and HRQoL. The psychosocial aspects of HPV-related diseases need to be considered when evaluating the potential benefit of HPV vaccination.

  1. Use of AffiProbe HPV test kit for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital scrapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranki, M; Leinonen, A W; Jalava, T. (Tiina); Nieminen, P.; Soares, V R; Paavonen, J; Kallio, A

    1990-01-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical and vaginal scrapes was analyzed by the AffiProbe HPV test kit (Orion Corp., Orion Pharmaceutica, Helsinki, Finland), which is a 1-day solution hybridization test for HPV type 6/11, 16, or 18. The AffiProbe test was compared with a commercially available dot blot test (ViraPap and ViraType tests; Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.). The study group consisted of 178 patients seen in a gynecological outpatient clinic. Altogether,...

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 virion host shutoff protein suppresses innate dsRNA antiviral pathways in human vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiao-Dan; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2011-09-01

    Viruses that establish persistent infections have evolved numerous strategies to evade host innate antiviral responses. We functionally assessed the role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) virion host shutoff (vhs) protein on innate immune sensing pathways in human vaginal epithelial cells (VK2 ECs). Infection of cells with wild-type (WT) HSV-2 significantly decreased expression of innate immune sensors of viral infection, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR3, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda-5), relative to cells infected with a mutant that lacks vhs (vhsB) or mock-infected cells. Transfection with HSV-2 vhs similarly decreased expression of TLR2, TLR3, RIG-I and Mda-5, which was also confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. vhsB infection of VK2 cells caused robust increases in the active form of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and its translocation to the nucleus compared with the WT. Additionally, IRF3 activation by Sendai virus and polyinosinic : polycytidylic acid-induced stimulation of beta interferon (IFN-β) was significantly inhibited in vhs-transfected cells. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that HSV-2 vhs plays roles in selectively inhibiting TLR3 and RIG-I/Mda-5, as well as TLR2-mediated antiviral pathways for sensing dsRNA and effectively suppresses IFN-β antiviral responses in human vaginal ECs.

  3. Pregnancy and herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill, treatment is often done in the hospital intensive care unit. Outlook (Prognosis) Infants with systemic herpes or ... 2016 Updated by: Daniel N. Sacks, MD, FACOG, obstetrics & gynecology in private practice, West Palm Beach, FL. ...

  4. Etiology of genital ulcer disease in a sexually transmitted infection reference center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gomes Naveca

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. METHODS: Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi. Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. RESULTS: Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8% and in 125 (30.3% of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

  5. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their

  6. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  7. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  8. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  9. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  10. Assessing genital human papillomavirus genoprevalence in young Australian women following the introduction of a national vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sarah L; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Brotherton, Julia M L; Cornall, Alyssa M; Wark, John D; Wrede, C David; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Gertig, Dorota M; Pitts, Marian K; Garland, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Following the implementation of Australia's National HPV Vaccination Program in April 2007, this study evaluated the prevalence of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst vaccine-eligible young women. Between September 2011 and August 2013, women from Victoria, Australia aged 18-25 were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire, and sexually active women were asked to provide a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and genotyping. Samples positive for HPV were genotyped using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics). Self-reported HPV vaccination details were verified with the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). Of 431 vaginal swabs, 24.8% were positive for HPV DNA. Vaccine-targeted HPV genotypes were detected in only seven (1.6%) samples; all HPV 16 (of the six HPV 16 positive vaccinated women, all had received the vaccine after sexual debut). There were no cases of HPV 6, 11 or 18 identified. HPV types 51, 59, 73, 84, and 89 were the most prevalent genotypes. Vaccination rates were high, with 77.3% of participants having received all three doses of the vaccine, and there was an 89.8% concordance between self-reported and registry-reported HPV vaccination status. Strong associations were observed between vaccination status, age, language spoken at home and country of birth, as well as between HPV detection and the number of male sexual partners. Preliminary data from this study demonstrate a very low prevalence of vaccine-related HPV genotypes amongst vaccine-eligible women from Victoria, Australia. We were able to use Facebook to effectively reach and recruit young women to participate in the assessment of the impact of Australia's HPV vaccination program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [{sup 11}C]FMAU and [{sup 18}F]FHPG as PET tracers for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase enzyme activity and human cytomegalovirus infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Erik F.J. de E-mail: e.f.j.de.vries@pet.azg.nl; Waarde, Aren van; Harmsen, Marco C.; Mulder, Nanno H.; Vaalburg, Willem; Hospers, Geke A.P

    2000-02-01

    [{sup 11}C]-2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([{sup 11}C]FMAU) and [{sup 18}F]-9-[(3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHPG), radiolabeled representatives of two classes of antiviral agents, were evaluated as tracers for measuring herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) enzyme activity after gene transfer and as tracers for localization of active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. In vitro accumulation experiments revealed that both [{sup 11}C]FMAU and [{sup 18}F]FHPG accumulated significantly more in HSV-tk expressing cells than they did in control cells. [{sup 18}F]FHPG uptake in HSV-tk expressing cells, however, was found to depend strongly on the cell line used, which might be due to cell type dependent membrane transport or cell type dependent substrate specific susceptibility of the enzyme. In vitro, both tracers exhibited a good selectivity for accumulation in HCMV-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells over uninfected cells. In contrast to [{sup 18}F]FHPG, [{sup 11}C]FMAU uptake in control cells was relatively high due to phosphorylation of the tracer by host kinases. Therefore, [{sup 18}F]FHPG appears to be the more selective tracer not only to predict HSV-tk gene therapy outcome, but also to localize active HCMV infections with PET.

  13. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  14. Intersexual stages. Ambiguous genitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador G. Carrillo Soriano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that every newborn that presents a confused aspect of external genitalia, that does not permit to define his phenotypic sex, has Ambiguous Genitals. It includes real cases of intersex abnormalities, or those with severe hypospadia and bilateral chryptorchidism. In spite of the large advances in genetic, hormonal regulation and molecular biology studies in intersex abnormalities, today continues being motive of confussion when a doctor found a newborn with ambiguous genitalia. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intersex and ambiguos genitalia, approved by consensus in the 4th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Las Tunas, Cuba, March, 2005.

  15. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Kadayakkara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection.

  18. Detección de la presencia de antígeno y ADN de virus herpes simple tipo 1 en ganglios trigeminales humanos / Viral DNA and Antigen Detection of Type 1 Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Cepeda, Lilia Jadith; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Ávila Adarme, Leidy Viviana; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Marín Gallón, Lina María; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Casas Martínez, Jorge Alfonso; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Bogotá, Colombia; Bohórquez Ávila, Sonia del Pilar; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Barrientos Sánchez, Silvia; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; Castellanos, Jaime E.; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: la infección por virus herpes simple tipo 1 (VHS-1) es una de las más frecuentes en la población humana; produce infecciones en mucosa oral, piel, ojos e incluso en el sistema nervioso, que causa encefalitis. Después de la infección en la región orofacial, este virus puede permanecer en estado de latencia en el ganglio trigémino y eventualmente reactivarse. Objetivo: determinar la presencia de VHS-1 en ganglios trigeminales humanos mediante pruebas paralelas de PCR, RT-PCR e inm...

  19. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an ‘end-less’ state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is

  20. Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M; Landay, Alan L; Veazey, Ronald S

    2010-02-01

    The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3-16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0-39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6-18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis.

  1. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

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    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  2. A CASE REPORT OF GIANT GENITAL WARTS

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    L. Grimaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant genital warts (GGW represent a rare form of sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, arising more frequently in the vulvar and perianal regions as large exophytic cauliflower-like mass. Estimated rate of recurrence is 60 to 66%, while malignant transformation is possible and it has been reported in 30 to 56% of cases. A 45- years-old woman was admitted to our Structure of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Siena, Italy with an extensive cauliflower- like masses diffused on vulvar and perianal region. The patient was treated in general anaesthesia, with a wide en bloc excision up to free clinical edges and immediate reconstruction of the vulvar continuity. Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant genital warts is a sporadic tumour with an elevate local recurrence rate. In some cases, surgery can be very difficult and it must be associated to other strategies. An accurate follow-up is always necessary

  3. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  4. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  5. The herpes simplex virus 2 UL21 protein is essential for virus propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sage, Valerie; Jung, Masany; Alter, Jake D; Wills, Elizabeth G; Johnston, Susan M; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Baines, Joel D; Banfield, Bruce W

    2013-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is an important human pathogen that is the major cause of genital herpes infections and a significant contributor to the epidemic spread of human immunodeficiency virus infections. The UL21 gene is conserved throughout the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily and encodes a tegument protein that is dispensable for HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus replication in cultured cells; however, its precise functions have not been determined. To investigate the role of UL21 in the HSV-2 replicative cycle, we constructed a UL21 deletion virus (HSV-2 ΔUL21) using an HSV-2 bacterial artificial chromosome, pYEbac373. HSV-2 ΔUL21 was unable to direct the production of infectious virus in noncomplementing cells, whereas the repaired HSV-2 ΔUL21 strain grew to wild-type (WT) titers, indicating that UL21 is essential for virus propagation. Cells infected with HSV-2 ΔUL21 demonstrated a 2-h delay in the kinetics of immediate early viral gene expression. However, this delay in gene expression was not responsible for the inability of cells infected with HSV-2 ΔUL21 to produce virus insofar as late viral gene products accumulated to WT levels by 24 h postinfection (hpi). Electron and fluorescence microscopy studies indicated that DNA-containing capsids formed in the nuclei of ΔUL21-infected cells, while significantly reduced numbers of capsids were located in the cytoplasm late in infection. Taken together, these data indicate that HSV-2 UL21 has an early function that facilitates viral gene expression as well as a late essential function that promotes the egress of capsids from the nucleus.

  6. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  7. Condiloma Acuminado (Verruga Genital

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    Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesión.

  8. Herpes zoster infection

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    Mohit Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be the mainstay of its management. This paper presents a case report of such an infection and its management.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Enters Human Keratinocytes by a Nectin-1-Dependent, Rapid Plasma Membrane Fusion Pathway That Functions at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Charlotte L; Elliott, Gillian

    2016-11-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects humans through stratified epithelia that are composed primarily of keratinocytes. The route of HSV-1 entry into keratinocytes has been the subject of limited investigation, but it is proposed to involve pH-dependent endocytosis, requiring the gD-binding receptor nectin-1. Here, we have utilized the nTERT human keratinocyte cell line as a new model for dissecting the mechanism of HSV-1 entry into the host. Although immortalized, these cells nonetheless retain normal growth and differentiation properties of primary cells. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies, we confirm that, despite nTERT cells expressing high levels of the alternative gD receptor HVEM, HSV-1 requires nectin-1, not HVEM, to enter these cells. Strikingly, virus entry into nTERT cells occurred with unusual rapidity, such that maximum penetration was achieved within 5 min. Moreover, HSV-1 was able to enter keratinocytes but not other cell types at temperatures as low as 7°C, conditions where endocytosis was shown to be completely inhibited. Transmission electron microscopy of early entry events at both 37°C and 7°C identified numerous examples of naked virus capsids located immediately beneath the plasma membrane, with no evidence of virions in cytoplasmic vesicles. Taken together, these results imply that HSV-1 uses the nectin-1 receptor to enter human keratinocyte cells via a previously uncharacterized rapid plasma membrane fusion pathway that functions at low temperature. These studies have important implications for current understanding of the relationship between HSV-1 and its relevant in vivo target cell. The gold standard of antiviral treatment for any human virus infection is the prevention of virus entry into the host cell. In the case of HSV-1, primary infection in the human begins in the epidermis of the skin or the oral mucosa, where the virus infects keratinocytes, and it is therefore important to understand the molecular events

  10. The Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Rhesus Macaques and the Associated Pathological Features

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    Shengtao Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1.Interestingly, vesicular lesions recurred in oral skin or in mucosa associated with virus shedding in macaques within four to five months post‐infection,and viral latency‐associated transcript (LAT mRNA was found in the trigeminal ganglia (TGon day 365 post‐infection. Neutralization testing and enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISpot detection of specific T cell responses confirmed the specific immunity induced by HSV1 infection. Thus, rhesus macaques could serve as an infectious model for HSV1 due to their typical clinical symptoms and the pathological recurrence associated with viral latency in nervous tissues.

  11. Herpes simplex-encefalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare disease, although it is the most common form of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Recently, studies have provided important new insight into the genetic and immunological basis of HSE. However, even in the presence of antiviral treatment, mortality...

  12. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S.

    2017-01-01

    viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. RESULTS: Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (...-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes...... RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. CONCLUSION: In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies...

  13. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  14. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  15. [Using the preparation "human immunoglobulin against herpes simplex virus type 1 for intramuscular injections" in the complex therapy of nervous system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, A O; Diachenko, N S; Nesterova, N V; Kurishchuk, K V; Berestova, T H; Zahorodnia, S D; Riads'ka, L S; Muravs'ka, L V; Andrieieva, O H; Baranova, H V

    2004-01-01

    The technology of obtaining of specific immunoglobulin for serotherapy of neuroinfection caused by virus herpes simplex 1 type was developed. The patients presented with the following diseases: arachnoencephalitis, encephalopolyradiculoneuritis, encephalomyelitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis, polyneuropathy, encephalomyelopolyradiculoneuritis, meningoencephalitis. The study showed good tolerance and safety of the medicine, no adverse effects registered during the study. The assessed median score of the efficacy was 2.8 from 3. The obtained results suggest using the liquid form preparation for intramuscular injection "Immunoglobulin for treatment of neuroinfection caused by virus herpes simplex type 1". The Close corporation "Biofarma" located in Kyiv produces this medicine.

  16. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals

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    Anuradha K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ′P′ was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ′P′ value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49% as compared to normal controls (22% was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.

  17. The Possibility of Using Serum Concentrations of the Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as a Biomarker in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated With the Human Herpes Virus Neuroinfections

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    Yaroslav Ya. Nedopako

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is shown to be associated with human herpes virus (HHV neuroinfections. We also demonstrate that the epileptic process is associated with an inflammatory reaction, and that the proinflammatory cytokine, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is able to potentiate the reproduction of the herpesviruses. The study group (SG included 43 patients between 16 and 60 years with MTLE and HHV neuroinfections, diagnosed according to the PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, serum or abnormal serum/CSF IgG ratio. The control group (CG included 20 patients of similar age with MTLE, but without the HHV neuroinfections. The concentration of TNF-α in the serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ("VektorBEST" RF; N=0-50 pg/ml. Patients of the SG had high concentrations of TNF-α in serum (288±44.7 pg/ml, that were significantly higher than in the CG (p<0.05;Z

  18. Presence of human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral biopsies from Sudanese patients with regard to toombak use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Ibrahim, Salah O; Sapkota, Dipak; Jalouli, Miranda M; Vasstrand, Endre N; Hirsch, Jan M; Larsson, Per-Anders

    2010-09-01

    Using PCR/DNA sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in brush biopsies obtained from 150 users of Sudanese snuff (toombak) and 25 non-users of toombak in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 31 patients with oral dysplasias (25 toombak users and 6 non-users), and from 217 patients with oral cancers (145 toombak users and 72 non-users). In the brush tissue samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 60 (40%), HSV in 44 (29%) and EBV in 97 (65%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the 25 samples from non-users were 17 (68%) positive for HPV, 6 (24%) positive for HSV and 21 (84%) for EBV. The formalin-fixed samples with oral dysplasias were all negative for HPV. In the 145 oral cancer samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 39 (27%), HSV in 15 (10%) and EBV in 53 (37%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the samples from non-users were 15 (21%) positive for HPV, 5 (7%) for HSV and 16 (22%) for EBV. These findings illustrate that prevalence of HSV, HPV and EBV infections are common and may influence oral health and cancer development. It is not obvious that cancer risk is increased in infected toombak users. These observations warrant further studies involving toombak-associated oral lesions, to uncover the possible mechanisms of these viral infections in the development of oral cancer, and the influence of toombak on these viruses.

  19. Apolipoprotein 4 may increase viral load and seizure frequency in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with positive human herpes virus 6B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Yan, Bo; Lei, Ding; Si, Yang; Li, He; Chen, Ming-Wan; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Zhou, Qiao; Zhou, Dong; Li, Jin-Mei

    2015-04-23

    This study investigated whether apolipoprotein 4 (ApoE4) was associated with the presence of human herpes virus (HHV)-6B in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine ApoE polymorphism in 46 patients with MTLE and 19 controls. Nested PCR and real-time PCR were applied to determine HHV-6B DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HHV-6B protein. Viral DNA load was significantly increased in MTLE patients with HHV-6B(+)/ApoE4 compared with those with HHV-6B(+)/non-ApoE4 (p=0.031). Semi-quantitative analysis of IHC showed significantly increased number of positive cells for HHV-6B proteins G116/64/54, P98 and U94 in patients with HHV-6B(+)/ApoE4 than HHV-6B(+)/non-ApoE4 (p=0.009, 0.035 and 0.009, respectively). Patients with HHV-6B(+)/ApoE4 showed higher seizure frequency than those with HHV-6B(+)/non-ApoE4 (p=0.005). There was no significant difference of ApoE alleles between MTLE with and without HHV-6B (p=0.115). ApoE4 was not associated with initial infection of HHV-6B in MTLE. However, ApoE4 may facilitate HHV-6B reactivation, DNA replication, virus protein expression and increase seizure frequency in MTLE. Further investigations are needed to understand the biomolecular mechanism underlying interaction between ApoE and HHV-6B.

  20. Oral herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy: what are the concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficarra, Giuseppe; Birek, Catalena

    2009-09-01

    Although epidemiologic data and the potentially serious effects of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant during birth have been widely reported, published reports on oral herpes disease in pregnancy remain scarce and no clear management guidelines exist. Thus, questions remain about acquisition, transmission and outcome of infection, especially with respect to acute gingivostomatitis in pregnancy. In response to these questions, we summarize previous reports on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) oral disease in pregnancy and, briefly, present 2 cases of primary gingivostomatitis in the first trimester of pregnancy, resulting in a favourable outcome for both mother and infant. We also point out the most recent data on rare, potentially severe in outcome, but treatable, primary central nervous system HSV-1 infection in later stages of pregnancy. Finally, we emphasize a multidisciplinary approach to oral HSV disease in pregnancy, with dentist participation in the diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  2. Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaveta Sood; Aneet Mahendra; Sanjeev Gupta; Shalu Chandna; Sarabjit Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery .Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report : We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-o...

  3. Multiplex PCR for identification of herpes virus infections in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzyńska, Julia; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Maria; Hanć, Tomasz; Durda, Magdalena; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for a rapid and simultaneous detection of herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in squamous oral cells obtained from adolescents. Accuracy of the method was tested in a group of 513 adolescents, almost 11% of subjects were positive for infection with herpes viruses. Correlations with gender, age, and place of residence were sought. A similar incidence of HSV-2 and HCMV was found (4.3% and 5.4%, respectively) and the incidence of HSV-1 was the lowest (1%) in the study group. Conversely to HSV-2, HCMV was detected mostly in the youngest individuals. The same occurrence of all viruses was observed in boys and girls. The mPCR method described is suggested as a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of active herpes infections.

  4. [Microbiological study of male genital ulcers. Apropos of 75 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casin, I; Bianchi, A; Ramel, F; Lajoie, C; Chastang, C; Scieux, C; Ferchal, F; Janier, M; Morel, P; Perol, Y

    1990-09-01

    Between November 1986 and June 1987, the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was assessed in 75 male patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic in Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. Evidence of Haemophilus ducreyi was found in 18 patients (24%), Herpes simplex virus in 19 (25.3%). Syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of dark field microscopy and/or positive serology test in 19 patients (25.3%). Lymphogranuloma venereum was not diagnosed in any patient. Primary pathogens were not identified from the remaining 19 (25.3%) men. Neisseria gonorrhoea was isolated in five patients, from the ulcer in three cases, from the urethra in two. Asymptomatic urethral carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis was culture proven in seven cases. The presence of IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis at a titre greater than 40 found in 17 patients was a indication of a current chlamydial infection. Three patients (4%) were discovered to be HIV-1 positive.

  5. Coinfection of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV patients in Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gonçalves Daumas Pinheiro Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevention of anal cancer is a goal of worldwide Aids support centers. Despite the efforts that have been made and progress in the antiretroviral therapy, effective disease control remains elusive. Difficulty in preventing anal cancer may result from the ineffectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the human papillomavirus (HPV since the coinfection with HIV and HPV appears to increase the risk of HPV-infected cells, becoming cancerous. METHODS: We evaluated 69 HIV-positive and 30 HIV-negative male patients who underwent cytological evaluation by RT-PCR for the presence of HPV, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes virus types (HSV 1 and 2, and histopathology analysis of the anal canal. RESULTS: The prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia was 35% and it was restricted to HIV-positive patients. Patients infected with high-risk HPV and with fewer than 50 TCD4 cells/µL showed an anal intraepithelial neoplasia rate of 85.7% compared to those with TCD4 cells >200 cells/µL (pOBJETIVO: A prevenção do câncer anal tem sido aplicada pelos centros de apoio a pacientes com Aids em todo o mundo. Apesar dos esforços empregados, o eficaz controle da doença permanece distante. A dificuldade na prevenção do câncer anal pode resultar, em parte, da ineficácia da ação da terapia antirretroviral sobre o papilomavírus humano (HPV, pois a coinfecção com HIV e HPV parece aumentar o risco das células infectadas pelo HPV em tornarem-se cancerosas. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 69 HIV-positivos e 30 pacientes HIV-negativos do sexo masculino, que foram submetidos à avaliação citológica anal por real time-PCR para a presença de HPV, vírus Epstein-Barr, citomegalovírus e herpes vírus tipos (HSV 1 e 2 além da análise histopatológica de fragmento de mucosa do canal anal. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de neoplasia intraepitelial anal foi de 35% e foi restrita a pacientes HIV-positivos. Os pacientes infectados com o

  6. [C-11]FMAU and [F-18]FHPG as PET tracers for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase enzyme activity and human cytomegalovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; van Waarde, A; Harmsen, MC; Mulder, NH; Vaalburg, W; Hospers, GAP

    [C-11]-2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([C-11]FMAU) and [F-18]-9-[(3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([F-18]FHPG), radiolabeled representatives of two classes of antiviral agents, were evaluated as tracers for measuring herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)

  7. Frequent genital HSV-2 shedding among women during labor in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perti, Tara; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; De Bruyn, Guy; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Huang, Meei-Li; Velaphi, Sithembiso; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite high herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) incidence and prevalence among women in Africa, we are unaware of published neonatal herpes reports. To assess neonatal HSV transmission potential in South Africa, we investigated the frequency of the strongest risk factors: HSV acquisition in late pregnancy and HSV shedding during labor. Women admitted in early labor to a hospital in Soweto underwent HSV serologic testing and genital swab collection for HSV PCR. HSV-2 seronegative women were assessed for seroconversion 4-6 weeks after delivery. Of 390 women enrolled, 229 (58.7%) were HSV-2 seropositive. Genital HSV-2 was detected in 17.2% of HSV-2 seropositive women, including 26 of 115 HIV-positive and 13 of 110 HIV-negative women (22.6% versus 11.8%; RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04-3.53; P = 0.038), but in none of 161 HSV-2 seronegative women. Among the 91 HSV-2 seronegative women followed after delivery, none seroconverted. HSV-2 reactivation is common among South African women during labor, especially those with HIV coinfection. To determine the epidemiology of neonatal herpes in South Africa and to investigate whether the lack of reported cases is due to alterations in immune control or HSV-2 virulence, studies evaluating acutely ill neonates for HSV and studies of maternal HSV-2 shedding patterns are needed.

  8. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  9. Detection of human papilloma virus in 249 cases of patients with genital warts%249例生殖器疣患者人乳头瘤病毒检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 邹先彪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes from outpatients with genital wart in Beijing.Method Flow cytometry HPV genotyping technique were used to detect and identify HPV genotypes from individual lesions. Result Among 249 cases of genital warts, 232 (93.17%) were DNA HPV positive. The positive rate of HPV single type was 63.86%, the positive rate of multiple type of HPV was 36.14%. The infection rate of low-risk HPV was 55.4%, in which HPV6 and HPV11 were the most popular genotypes. HPV16, HPV58, HPV18 were the most prevalent high-risk genotypes.Conclusion The peak of HPV infection concentrates in sexually active population younger than 40 years old. HPV6, HPV11 and HPV16 are the predominant genotypes for genital wart in Beijing.%目的:调查生殖器疣患者人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus,HPV)感染特点,为HPV感染的预防和诊治提供理论依据。方法采用流式荧光HPV基因分型技术检测249例生殖器疣患者皮损组织中HPV的型别。结果249例生殖器疣患者中,232例(93.17%)HPV DNA阳性。单一型感染率为63.86%,复合型感染率为36.14%。低危型HPV阳性率为55.4%,其中以HPV6、HPV11最多;高危型中以HPV16最多,其次为HPV58、HPV18型。结论本地区生殖器HPV感染集中于40岁以下性活跃期的人群。以单一型感染为主,最常见HPV6、HPV11和HPV16型感染。

  10. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Deleted for Glycoprotein D Enables Dendritic Cells to Activate CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angello R. Retamal-Díaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is highly prevalent in the human population producing significant morbidity, mainly because of the generation of genital ulcers and neonatal encephalitis. Additionally, HSV-2 infection significantly increases the susceptibility of the host to acquire HIV and promotes the shedding of the latter in the coinfected. Despite numerous efforts to create a vaccine against HSV-2, no licensed vaccines are currently available. A long-standing strategy, based on few viral glycoproteins combined with adjuvants, recently displayed poor results in a Phase III clinical study fueling exploration on the development of mutant HSV viruses that are attenuated in vivo and elicit protective adaptive immune components, such as antiviral antibodies and T cells. Importantly, such specialized antiviral immune components are likely induced and modulated by dendritic cells, professional antigen presenting cells that process viral antigens and present them to T cells. However, HSV interferes with several functions of DCs and ultimately induces their death. Here, we propose that for an attenuated mutant virus to confer protective immunity against HSV in vivo based on adaptive immune components, such virus should also be attenuated in dendritic cells to promote a robust and effective antiviral response. We provide a background framework for this idea, considerations, as well as the means to assess this hypothesis. Addressing this hypothesis may provide valuable insights for the development of novel, safe, and effective vaccines against herpes simplex viruses.

  11. Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Sood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery .Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report : We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-oral lesions resembling primary herpes labialis. There was no obvious cause of immunosupression. The patients were followed up with a normal outcome of pregnancy and no fetal abnormality. Conclusions : The reasons for such extensive perioral lesions are uncertain. Immunosupression of pregnancy may be a factor in a sub group of patients.

  12. Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Sood

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery. Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report: We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-oral lesions resembling primary herpes labialis. There was no obvious cause of immunosupression. The patients were followed up with a normal outcome of pregnancy and no fetal abnormality. Conclusions: The reasons for such extensive perioral lesions are uncertain. Immunosupression of pregnancy may be a factor in a sub group of patients.

  13. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

  14. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  15. Emollients on the genital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Male genital trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  17. The virion host shut-off (vhs protein blocks a TLR-independent pathway of herpes simplex virus type 1 recognition in human and mouse dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Cotter

    Full Text Available Molecular pathways underlying the activation of dendritic cells (DCs in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1 are poorly understood. Removal of the HSV virion host shut-off (vhs protein relieves a block to DC activation observed during wild-type infection. In this study, we utilized a potent DC stimulatory HSV-1 recombinant virus lacking vhs as a tool to investigate the mechanisms involved in the activation of DCs by HSV-1. We report that the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by conventional DC (cDC during HSV-1 infection is triggered by both virus replication-dependent and replication-independent pathways. Interestingly, while vhs is capable of inhibiting the release of cytokines during infection of human and mouse cDCs, the secretion of cytokines by plasmacytoid DC (pDC is not affected by vhs. These data prompted us to postulate that infection of cDCs by HSV triggers a TLR independent pathway for cDC activation that is susceptible to blockage by the vhs protein. Using cDCs isolated from mice deficient in both the TLR adaptor protein MyD88 and TLR3, we show that HSV-1 and the vhs-deleted virus can activate cDCs independently of TLR signaling. In addition, virion-associated vhs fails to block cDC activation in response to treatment with TLR agonists, but it efficiently blocked cDC activation triggered by the paramyxoviruses Sendai Virus (SeV and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV. This block to SeV- and NDV-induced activation of cDC resulted in elevated SeV and NDV viral gene expression indicating that infection with HSV-1 enhances the cell's susceptibility to other pathogens through the action of vhs. Our results demonstrate for the first time that a viral protein contained in the tegument of HSV-1 can block the induction of DC activation by TLR-independent pathways of viral recognition.

  18. Stimulation of the Replication of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and pp71-Deficient Human Cytomegalovirus by Epstein-Barr Virus Tegument Protein BNRF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxu; Orr, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is now well established that several cellular proteins that are components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs, also known as ND10) have restrictive effects on herpesvirus infections that are countered by viral proteins that are either present in the virion particle or are expressed during the earliest stages of infection. For example, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early (IE) protein ICP0 overcomes the restrictive effects of PML-NB components PML, Sp100, hDaxx, and ATRX while human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE protein IE1 targets PML and Sp100, and its tegument protein pp71 targets hDaxx and ATRX. The functions of these viral regulatory proteins are in part interchangeable; thus, both IE1 and pp71 stimulate the replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, while ICP0 increases plaque formation by pp71-deficient HCMV. Here, we extend these studies by examining proteins that are expressed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report that EBV tegument protein BNRF1, discovered by other investigators to target the hDaxx/ATRX complex, increases the replication of both ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 and pp71-deficient HCMV. In addition, EBV protein EBNA-LP, which targets Sp100, also augments ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 replication. The combination of these two EBV regulatory proteins had a greater effect than each one individually. These findings reinforce the concept that disruption of the functions of PML-NB proteins is important for efficient herpesvirus infections. IMPORTANCE Whether a herpesvirus initiates a lytic infection in a host cell or establishes quiescence or latency is influenced by events that occur soon after the viral genome has entered the host cell nucleus. Certain cellular proteins respond in a restrictive manner to the invading pathogen's DNA, while viral functions are expressed that counteract the cell-mediated repression. One aspect of cellular restriction of herpesvirus infections is mediated by components of nuclear structures known as

  19. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  20. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  1. Chronic herpes simplex virus encephalitis in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, W.G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Verbeek, M.M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although herpes simplex virus is a major cause of acute encephalitis in childhood, chronic herpes simplex virus encephalitis has only rarely been reported. This report presents a case of chronic herpes simplex virus encephalitis in a 6-year-old female. Diagnosis was based on the detection of herpes

  2. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Aylin Kantarci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus (BHV1 type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane (V-HAM, acyclovir (V-A, and amniotic membrane and acyclovir (V-HAM-A were applied to these subgroup cultures, respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48h for cytopathic effect positive (CPE+ with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE (+ samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures. CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold (Ct values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group (amniotic membrane group< acyclovir group< membrane and acyclovir group. This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated that membrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug,CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides, we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture. However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feride; Aylin; Kantarci; Ali; Reza; Faraji; Aykut; Ozkul; Fikret; Akata

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).·METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney(MDBK) cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus(BHV1) type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane(V-HAM),acyclovir(V-A), and amniotic membrane and acyclovir(V-HAM-A) were applied to these subgroup cultures,respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48 h for cytopathic effect positive(CPE +) with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE(+) samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.·RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures.CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold(Ct) values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group(amniotic membrane group < acyclovir group < membrane and acyclovir group). This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated thatmembrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug.·CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides,we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture.However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  4. Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain SC16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastrojo, Alberto; López-Muñoz, Alberto Domingo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), also known as Human herpesvirus 1, is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including lethal encephalitis. Here, we report the genome sequence of the HSV-1 strain SC16. PMID:28126930

  5. Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 educational assessment of young adults in rural southwest Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Shantal S; Bertke, Andrea S

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the U.S. HSV-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. Abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in Virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing STI risks. College students in southwest Virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding HSV-1 and HSV-2 and to identify students' preferred methods for STI education. To obtain data on knowledge of HSV, comprehensiveness of sexual health education in high school, and preferred learning methods, 237 college students participated in an online questionnaire and 28 students were interviewed using structured interviews. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that Family Life Education classes need to include more comprehensive information on prevention, viral transmission, and differences between HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of total respondents (both the questionnaire and interview) (65%) reported non-comprehensive high school sexual health education. The majority of interview (79%) and questionnaire (55%) respondents wished they had learned more about herpes and other STIs in high school. Education preferences of both interviewed and surveyed respondents included interactive internet programs or games, more realistic lectures, and learning about STIs later in high school when students reported greater sexual activity. Our results indicate that more comprehensive sexual health education is needed and wanted by students in southwest Virginia. More relevant educational programs should be implemented for VA high school students utilizing technology and interactive methods to improve student engagement in sexual health education. These studies provide information on knowledge of herpes simplex viruses among college students, comprehensiveness of sexual health education

  6. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  7. Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2 pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals are naturally “protected” exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation “asymptomatic” clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal “asymptomatic” prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity.

  8. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  9. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barucca Valentina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.

  10. PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INFECTION IN WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Thais Duquia Moraes Caldeira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HVS-2 is the most prevalent infection worldwide. It is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV. This study evaluated the prevalence of HSV-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and associated factors in patients treated at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG and Basic Health Units (BHU in Rio Grande, Brazil. The observed prevalence of HSV-2 was 15.6%. Among the 302 women studied, 158 had received assistance in BHU and 144 were treated at FURG. The prevalence of HSV-2 in these groups was 10.8% and 20.8%, respectively, RR 1.9 and p = 0.012. Knowledge about the Pap smear, and the presence of lesions showed no association with HSV-2 infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable that most influenced the risk of HSV-2 infection was the presence of HIV infection, with a relative risk of 1.9 and p = 0.04. Discussion: Genital ulcers are an important entry point for HIV, and condom use is an important strategy to reduce transmission of HIV and HSV-2.

  11. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  12. Simple algorithms for the management of genital ulcers: evaluation in a primary health care centre in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, J.; Vuylsteke, B.; Martinez Tello, W.; Mukantabana, V.; Akingeneye, J.; Laga, M.; Piot, P.

    1995-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 395 patients presenting with genital ulcers at a primary health care centre in Kigali, Rwanda. Using clinical data and the results of a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we simulated the diagnostic outcome of two simple WHO flowcharts for the management of genital ulcers. These outcomes and a clinical diagnosis were then compared with the laboratory diagnosis based on culture for genital herpes and Haemophilus ducreyi and serology for syphilis. The prevalence of HIV infection was high (73%) but there was no difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the clinical presentation and etiology of genital ulcer disease. The proportion of correctly managed chancroid and/or syphilis cases was 99% using a syndromic approach, 82.1% using a hierarchical algorithm including an RPR test, and 38.3% with a clinical diagnosis. In situations where no laboratory support is available, a simple syndromic approach is preferable to the clinical approach for the management of genital ulcer. If an RPR test can be included in the diagnostic strategy, patients with a reactive RPR test should be treated for both syphilis and chancroid infection. PMID:8907769

  13. Simple algorithms for the management of genital ulcers: evaluation in a primary health care centre in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, J; Vuylsteke, B; Martinez Tello, W; Mukantabana, V; Akingeneye, J; Laga, M; Piot, P

    1995-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 395 patients presenting with genital ulcers at a primary health care centre in Kigali, Rwanda. Using clinical data and the results of a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we simulated the diagnostic outcome of two simple WHO flowcharts for the management of genital ulcers. These outcomes and a clinical diagnosis were then compared with the laboratory diagnosis based on culture for genital herpes and Haemophilus ducreyi and serology for syphilis. The prevalence of HIV infection was high (73%) but there was no difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the clinical presentation and etiology of genital ulcer disease. The proportion of correctly managed chancroid and/or syphilis cases was 99% using a syndromic approach, 82.1% using a hierarchical algorithm including an RPR test, and 38.3% with a clinical diagnosis. In situations where no laboratory support is available, a simple syndromic approach is preferable to the clinical approach for the management of genital ulcer. If an RPR test can be included in the diagnostic strategy, patients with a reactive RPR test should be treated for both syphilis and chancroid infection.

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

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    Albero Ginesa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828. Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more

  15. Stability of glycoprotein gene sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 from primary to recurrent human infection, and diversity of the sequences among patients attending an STD clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. After primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory ganglia. Reactivation and production of new viral particles can cause asymptomatic viral shedding or new lesions. Establishment of latency, maintenance and reactivation involve silencing of genes, continuous suppression of gene activities and finally gene activation and synthesis of viral DNA. The purpose of the present work was to study the genetic stability of the virus during these events. Methods HSV-2 was collected from 5 patients with true primary and recurrent infections, and the genes encoding glycoproteins B,G,E and I were sequenced. Results No nucleotide substitution was observed in any patient, indicating genetic stability. However, since the total number of nucleotides in these genes is only a small part of the total genome, we cannot rule out variation in other regions. Conclusions Although infections of cell cultures and animal models are useful for studies of herpes simplex virus, it is important to know how the virus behaves in the natural host. We observed that several glycoprotein gene sequences are stable from primary to recurrent infection. However, the virus isolates from the different patients were genetically different. PMID:24502528

  16. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  17. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  18. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

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    Cole Peters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity.

  19. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  20. Identificação do papilomavírus humano por biologia molecular em mulheres assintomáticas Genital human papillomavirus infection identification by molecular biology among asymptomatic women

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    Bernadete Nonnenmacher

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre fatores epidemiológicos e infecção genital pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 975 mulheres atendidas em um serviço público de rastreamento para o câncer cervical, em Porto Alegre, Brasil. As mulheres foram consideradas infectadas pelo HPV quando apresentaram o teste de DNA positivo para esse vírus, tanto pelo método de captura híbrida II (CH II como pelo método de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Mulheres infectadas pelo HPV foram comparadas com mulheres não infectadas oriundas da mesma população. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 975 mulheres. A prevalência observada de HPV (pela combinação dos métodos de DNA foi de 27%. Quando a análise de cada método de DNA foi feito isoladamente, a prevalência de HPV-DNA foi de 15% para a CH II e de 16% para PCR. Regressão logística múltipla incondicional foi utilizada na identificação dos fatores associados à infecção pelo HPV. Foi encontrada associação positiva com as seguintes variáveis: anos de escolaridade (11 anos: OR=2,05; IC95%=1,31; 3,20; referência: até oito anos de escolaridade; ser casada (OR=1,69; IC95%=0,78; 2,00; referência: ser solteira; parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida (dois parceiros: OR=1,67; IC95%=1,01; 2,77; quatro ou mais: OR=2,18; IC95%=1,15; 4,13; referência: um parceiro; idade da primeira relação sexual (15-16 anos: OR=4,05; IC95%=0,89; 18,29; referência: > ou = 22 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Vários fatores parecem estar associados à presença de infecção genital pelo HPV, especialmente aqueles referentes ao comportamento sexual (idade da primeira relação sexual, número de parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida e estado marital e aqueles relacionados à situação socioeconômica (escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether epidemiological factors may be associated to genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among

  1. Peptide sequences of glycoprotein G-2 discriminate between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HSV-1 antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, M.; Rudén, U; Wahren, B.

    1996-01-01

    The complete herpes simplex virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein G was represented by overlapping synthetic peptides. Herpes simplex virus type 2-specific human seroreactivities were mainly seen against three peptides, peptides G2-64, G2-69, and G2-70, located in the C-terminal part of glycoprotein G. This is, interestingly, a region which has strong homology between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. G2-69 was the most herpes simplex virus type 2-specific peptide, reacting with 93% (13 of 14)...

  2. Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany; el-Sakka, Ahmed; Bella, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia. To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories. A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution. Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution. Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths. Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.

  3. Asymptomatic Herpes Simplex Virus Shedding in STI Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶兴东; 颜景兰; 朱慧兰; 张莉; 佟菊贞

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study examined Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV) subclinical shedding in the genital tract of patients withgenital herpes (GH) or non-gonoccal urethritis (NGU). Method: Swabs were collected after exposure to rash andgenital tract during GH relapse or remission on a weekly basisfor four to six weeks. NGU patients with negative chlamydiaand mycoplasma tests were also swabbed for a similarduration. All swabs underwent HSV DNA detection withquantitative PCR. Result: There was a significant difference in the rate ofasymptomatic HSV shedding in urinary tracts comparing GHand the control group and comparing NGU and the controlgroup (P<0.05). The rate of HSV shedding was 22%, 9.8%and 3.3% for GH, NGU and control groups respectively. Therate of HSV shedding was 21.7% (20/92) for patients withactive GH and 23% for those in remission. The HSV positiverate was significantly higher in the group with patients whohad more than six relapses within one year compared to thegroup of patients with less than six GH relapses. Conclusion: There is HSV subclinical shedding in theirgenital tract during active GH and remission. SubclinicalHSV shedding is more common in patients with more than sixGH relapses per year compared to GH patients with fewerrelapses. Approximately 9.9% of NGU patients with negativechlamydia, mycoplasma testing was found to have subclinicalHSV infection.

  4. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran

    2012-03-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  5. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Zawar; Kiran Godse

    2012-01-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  6. Naturally occurring antibodies against nerve growth factor in human and rabbit sera: comparison between control and herpes simplex virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicou, E; Nerrière, V; Labropoulou, V

    1991-11-01

    Antibodies against nerve growth factor (NGF) in sera were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), by their isolation after passage of sera through NGF immunoadsorbent columns and by their specificity to bind and immunoprecipitate mouse NGF as well as to stain by immunohistochemical methods cellular sites of NGF synthesis. Increased levels of anti-NGF antibodies were found in sera of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected patients but not in HSV-inoculated rabbits. As HSV latency is known to be promoted by NGF in vitro, these results may suggest that anti-NGF antibodies modulate the cytokine function of NGF and thus might play a role in HSV infection. The biological function of circulating antibodies against NGF, in general, is now open to future investigation.

  7. A Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) gD Mutant Impaired for Neural Tropism Is Superior to an HSV-2 gD Subunit Vaccine To Protect Animals from Challenge with HSV-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle N.; Li, Daniel Y.; Raffeld, Mark; Chavez, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    addition, genital herpes increases the frequency of HIV infection and transmission. HSV-2 maintains a latent infection in sensory neurons and cannot be cleared with antiviral drugs. The virus frequently reactivates, resulting in virus shedding in the genital area, which serves as a source for transmission. A prophylactic vaccine is needed to prevent disease and to control the spread of the virus. Previous human trials of subunit vaccines have been unsuccessful. Here we report the results of vaccinating mice with a new type of live attenuated HSV-2 vaccine that is impaired for infection of neurons and provides better protection of mice than that obtained with a subunit vaccine. The strategy of altering the cell tropism of a virus is a new approach for a live attenuated vaccine. PMID:26559846

  8. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Gottlieb, Sami L; Wald, Anna

    2016-06-03

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent global pathogens which commonly cause recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. Less common but more serious complications include meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal infection, and keratitis. HSV-2 infection is a significant driver of the HIV epidemic, increasing the risk of HIV acquisition 3 fold. As current control strategies for genital HSV-2 infection, including antiviral therapy and condom use, are only partially effective, vaccines will be required to reduce infection. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HSV-2 are being pursued and are in various stages of development. We will provide an overview of efforts to develop HSV-2 vaccines, including a discussion of the clinical need for an HSV vaccine, and status of research and development with an emphasis on recent insights from trials of vaccine candidates in clinical testing. In addition, we will touch upon aspects of HSV vaccine development relevant to low and middle income countries.

  9. Better neutralization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) than HSV-2 by antibody from recipients of GlaxoSmithKline HSV-2 glycoprotein D2 subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Belshe, Robert B; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-08-15

    The Herpevac Trial evaluated a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit vaccine to prevent genital herpes. Unexpectedly, the vaccine protected against genital HSV-1 infection but not genital HSV-2 infection. We evaluated sera from 30 women seronegative for HSV-1 and HSV-2 who were immunized with gD2 in the Herpevac Trial. Neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-1 were 3.5-fold higher than those to HSV-2 (P HSV-2 gC2 and gE2 on the virus blocked neutralization by gD2 antibody, while HSV-1 gC1 and gE1 did not block neutralization by gD2 antibody. The higher neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-1 offer an explanation for the Herpevac results, and shielding neutralizing domains provides a potential mechanism.

  10. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

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    CABELLO Ismery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

  11. Review of Genital Wart Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hongqing(田洪清); DU Donghong(杜东红)

    2002-01-01

    Although many traditional therapies areavailable for genital warts(GW), one of the major problemsin the treatment of GW is a high recurrenence rate. Inorder to resolve the problem of recurrence, new theraputicapproaches have been investigated. New approaches beingexplored include 5-fiuorouracil/epinephrine injectablecollagen gel, 5% imiguimod cream and humanpapillomavirus vaccine. Fluorouracil /epinephrine injectable collagen gel achieves high concentration of fiuorouracilat the site of injection. Imiguimod is a novelimmune-respones modifier, giving good clearance rates andtolerable side effects. Although the use of an HPV vaccine isfar away, preliminary studies show that it may be possibleto develop suitable prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines togenital warts.

  12. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

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    Larsen Helle K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV, are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged

  13. First estimates of the global and regional incidence of neonatal herpes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Katharine J; Magaret, Amalia S; May, Margaret T; Turner, Katherine M E; Vickerman, Peter; Newman, Lori M; Gottlieb, Sami L

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal herpes is a rare but potentially devastating condition with an estimated 60% fatality rate without treatment. Transmission usually occurs during delivery from mothers with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the global burden has never been quantified to our knowledge. We developed a novel methodology for burden estimation and present first WHO global and regional estimates of the annual number of neonatal herpes cases during 2010-15. We applied previous estimates of HSV-1 and HSV-2 prevalence and incidence in women aged 15-49 years to 2010-15 birth rates to estimate infections during pregnancy. We then applied published risks of neonatal HSV transmission according to whether maternal infection was incident or prevalent with HSV-1 or HSV-2 to generate annual numbers of incident neonatal infections. We estimated the number of incident neonatal infections by maternal age, and we generated separate estimates for each WHO region, which were then summed to obtain global estimates of the number of neonatal herpes infections. Globally the overall rate of neonatal herpes was estimated to be about ten cases per 100 000 livebirths, equivalent to a best-estimate of 14 000 cases annually roughly (4000 for HSV-1; 10 000 for HSV-2). We estimated that the most neonatal herpes cases occurred in Africa, due to high maternal HSV-2 infection and high birth rates. HSV-1 contributed more cases than HSV-2 in the Americas, Europe, and Western Pacific. High rates of genital HSV-1 infection and moderate HSV-2 prevalence meant the Americas had the highest overall rate. However, our estimates are highly sensitive to the core assumptions, and considerable uncertainty exists for many settings given sparse underlying data. These neonatal herpes estimates mark the first attempt to quantify the global burden of this rare but serious condition. Better collection of primary data for neonatal herpes is crucially needed to reduce

  14. Design and evaluation of a multi-epitope assembly Peptide (MEAP against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Mingjie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 and 2 causes oral, ocular, or genital infections, which remains a significant health problem worldwide. HSV-1 and -2 infections in humans range from localized skin infections of the oral, ocular, and genital regions to severe and often disseminated infections in immunocompromised hosts. Epitope based vaccination is a promising mean to achieve protective immunity and to avoid infections with Human herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. Methods The twelve selected epitopes, six B cell epitopes from different glycoprotein of HSV-2 (amino acid residues 466-473 (EQDRKPRN from envelope glycoprotein B, 216-223 (GRTDRPSA from C, 6-18 (DPSLKMADPNRFR from D, 483-491 (DPPERPDSP from E, 572-579 (EPPDDDDS from G and 286-295 (CRRRYRRPRG from I glycoprotein of HSV-2, four CD4+ T cell epitopes (amino acid residues 21-28 (NLPVLDQL from D, 162-177 (KDVTVSQVWFGHRYSQ from B, 205-224 (KAYQQGVTVDSIGMLPRFIP from D and 245-259 (KPPYTSTLLPPELSD from D and two CD8+ T cell epitopes (amino acid residues 10-20 (KMADPNRFRGK from D and 268-276 (ALLEDPAGT from D, are responsible for the elicitation of the neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs that impart protective immunity to the host. In this study, all above epitopes were inserted into the extracellular fragment (amino acid residues 1-290 of HSV-2 glycoprotein D to construct multi-epitope assembly peptides (MEAPs by replacing some non-epitope amino acid sequences. The epitope independency of the MEAPs was predicted by three-dimensional software algorithms. The gene of the selected MEAP was expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3, and its protective efficacy against HSV-2 infection was assessed in BALB/c mice. Results The MEAP, with each inserted epitopes independently displayed on the molecule surface, was selected as candidate proteins. The results showed that the MEAP was highly immunogenic and could elicit high titer neutralizing antibodies and cell

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Kostadinović

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 sorts of viruses are capable of causing diseases of the respiratory ways. The virus infections have become the cost to be paid for urbanization and industrialization. The acute virus infections jeopardize mankind by their complications with numerous consequences. They open up the way to super infections, they provoke endogenous infections and lead to insufficiency of the vital organs. The viruses penetrate the organism mainly through the respiratory ways, digestive and urinary-sexual organs and skin. Some viruses immediately at the place of their entrance into the organism find receptive cells in which they can multiply (herpes virus and etc.. Some viruses must get through the blood, through the lymph or the nerve fibers to the target organs that they have affinity for.The changes that primarily occur in the mouth with manifest lymphadenopathy of the surrounding area emerge with respect to the type of the acute infection dis-ease.The human herpes viruses are responsible for a great number of diseases in people; that is why it can be said that the infections they induce are a very frequent cause of people's diseases in the world. Man is natural and the only host for the types I and II of the herpes simplex virus (HSV; that is why the infected person is regarded as the source of infection. The infection transmission can be by direct contact or over the contaminated secretions during the sexual intercourse. The age and the socioeconomic status (living conditions, level of medical culture, habits, etc. affect to agreat extent epidemiology of the HSV infection. The HSV distribution in the region of Niš in the five-year period (from 1987 to 1992 was the highest in the early and late summer (June and September.

  16. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells.

  17. [Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U; Machetanz, J

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster develops by endogenous reactivation of varizella zoster virus (VZV). Incidence increases with age. Females are more frequently affected than males. The reactivation rate in seropositive individuals is about 20 %. After a short prodromal stage, herpetiform-grouped vesicles appear in segmental arrangement. Pain and paresthesia are typical zoster symptoms. Complications like bacterial superinfections, vasculopathy, paresis, and oculopathy may occur. During pregnancy herpes zoster is a threat for mother and child. Among elderly patients, cardiovascular risk is increased during the first week of herpes zoster infection. Postherpetic neuropathy is feared. Diagnosis can be made clinically and by the use of polymerase chain reaction. First-line treatment is systemic antiviral drug therapy with either acyclovir or brivudine. Adjuvant therapies consist of pain management and topical treatment.

  18. Genital Ulcer Disease: How Worrisome Is It Today? A Status Report from New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2% or homosexual (2.2%. There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%. Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis.

  19. Reactivity to human papillomavirus type 16 Ll virus-like particles in sera from patients with genital cancer and patients with carcinomas at five different extragenital sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); C.M. Korse (Catharina); J.C.G.M. Buning-Kager (J. C G M); J.M. Bonfrer (Hans); S. Horenblas (Simon); B. Taal (Babs); J. Dillner (Joakim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective seroepidemiologic study was performed to examine the association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 infection and carcinomas of the oropharynx, the oesophagus, penis and vagina. Sera were selected from the serum bank from the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (Netherla

  20. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions bas...

  1. Genital-tract infection and disease in nude and immunologically competent mice after inoculation of a human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was introduced into the uterus of progesterone-treated CBA mice and congenic CBA nude mice through the uterine wall or via the cervical canal. The numbers of inclusions produced by samples taken from the vagina of the nude mice were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those produced by samples from immunologically competent normal mice. However, the infection was self-limited, lasting about 60 days, and there was no statistical differenc...

  2. [Differential diagnosis of papillomas in the area of the genitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, I; Heinrich, J

    1993-01-01

    Infection of the genital organs by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease. Papillomaviruses lead to a contact infection of the epithelium and present with different clinical and histological signs. With the exception of the best known clinical manifestation Condylomata acuminata, subclinical infections can be only diagnosed from a stepwise examination. Physiological results from both men and women may be falsely explained as being caused by viruses, and can lead to an incorrect therapy. Genital papilla (Papillae coronae vulvae et glandis) present as atavistic cutaneous papilla a normal situation but with functional significance. Differences in clinical symptoms as well as the possibilities of further differentiation can be obtained by means of pictures taken during colposcopy.

  3. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (phomosexuality (p0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

  4. The prevalence of human herpes viruses in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to oral health providers and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Leon; Elimelech, Rina; Szwarcwort-Cohen, Moran; Kra-Oz, Zipi; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-06-01

    The causative agents in periodontal disease are periopathogenic bacteria; however, viruses have been implicated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different HHVs in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and to compare it to two groups of healthy controls. Three groups were included: chronic periodontitis patients (CP), periodontally healthy patients (NP) and oral health providers with a healthy periodontium (NPOHP). For each subject, 1 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and mixed with 2 ml lysis buffer. HHVs assays were performed using real-time PCR. Fifteen percent of the subjects in the CP group tested positive for CMV compared to none in the NP and NPOHP groups (p = 0.04). Recurrent herpes was more frequent in females (51.7 %) than in males (33.3 %), and this was statistically significant (p = 0.038). The higher prevalence of CMV in the unstimulated saliva of CP patients suggests that CMV may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis.

  5. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly i...

  6. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in hamadan, iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Sabouri Ghannad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis can cause a severe public health problem. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the medical laboratory results of patients with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV encephalitis.Diagnosis of encephalitis for these patients was firstly based on a clinical profile for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE, plus either a detected HSV1&2-DNA by PCR in CSF or brain neuro-imaging results.Molecular testing on CSF showed that 15 patients (15% had HSV infection, 5 patients (5% had Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV and one case was positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-RNA in CSF. The cause of encephalitis in 79 out of 100 patients (79% was unknown. The comparison of CSF analysis in HSV positives and negatives showed a significant increase of glucose and protein levels in HSV positives than negatives. The mortality rate was 46.6% (7/15 in patients with HSV encephalitis compared to 11.4% (10/85 in non-HSV encephalitis (P = 0.003.In the current study, 15% of cases were diagnosed as having HSV.

  7. External Use of Propolis for Oral, Skin, and Genital Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Nam-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this review is to provide the available evidence on the external use of propolis (EUP) for oral, skin, and genital diseases. Method. We searched twelve electronic databases for relevant studies up to June 2016. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included and analysed. Results. Of the 286 articles identified, twelve potentially relevant studies met our inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of two studies on recurrent oral aphthae (ROA) indicated that there were no significant differences in total effective rate (TER) for pain disappearance between EUP and placebo groups (RR = 1.96, 95% CI = 0.97–3.98, and P = 0.06). In two studies on skin diseases, the combined treatment of EUP with other interventions revealed significant effects on the duration of treatment or TER. In one study on genital diseases, EUP showed significant differences in genital herpes outcome measures compared to placebo. Conclusions. Our results on the effectiveness of EUP for treating oral, skin, and genital diseases are not conclusive because of the low methodological qualities and small sample sizes. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials, with high quality and large samples for specific disorders, must be conducted to obtain firm conclusions.

  8. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  9. Acupuncture Treatment of Herpes Zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2001-01-01

    @@Case History Song××, a male middle school teacher aged 58 years, paid his first visit on August 7, 2000, with the chief complaint of pain in the left hypochondrium for 20 days. The patient stated that he suddenly got a sharp burning pain in the left hypochondrium in mid July. The pain gradually radiated to the upper abdominal area, meanwhile red herpes appeared in the hypochondriac region. He had been diagnosed as having herpes zoster, and treated in several nearby hospitals with fluid infusion and medication. As a result, the herpes partly disappeared. But the sharp burning pain still remained, which could not be relieved by administration of analgetics. The patient was then recommended by his friends for treatment here. The patient used to be in a anxious state of mind, and had a wiry pulse and disorder of the liver-qi. The patients had been disturbed by problems of his students and worried about his aged mother's illness, and had poor sleep. Physical examination showed that the patient had a slightly fat figure and sickly complexion, but was in a clear mind. His blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg, and heart rate 75 times/min. No abnormal signs were found in the heart and lungs. Prominent dark red herpes with obvious local tenderness was found on the skin surface of the left hypochondrium and upper abdome.

  10. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV...... a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak......" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated...

  11. An update on short-course intermittent and prevention therapies for herpes labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Cunningham, Anthony; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard; Spruance, Spotswood

    2007-06-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has increased in prevalence worldwide over the past two decades, making it a major public health concern. Approximately 90% of recurrent HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infections manifest as non-genital disease, primarily as orofacial lesions known as herpes labialis. Improvements in our understanding of the natural history of herpes labialis support the rationale for early treatment (during the prodrome or erythema stages) with high doses of antiviral agents in order to maximize drug benefit. When evaluating the efficacy of different antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials, episode duration, lesion healing time, reduction in maximum lesion size and the proportion of aborted lesions should be used as the most reliable measures of therapeutic efficacy. There has also been considerable research into the most beneficial treatment for recurrent episodes of herpes labialis in immunocompetent individuals. Data from clinical studies confirm that short-course, high-dose oral antiviral therapy should be offered to patients with recurrent herpes labialis to accelerate healing, reduce pain and most likely increase treatment adherence. Optimal benefits may be obtained when these oral antiviral agents are combined with topical corticosteroids, but more research is needed with this combination. Patients undergoing facial cosmetic procedures (i.e.facial resurfacing) are at risk of HSV reactivation, but further data are required on the actual risk according to the specific procedure. Aciclovir, valaciclovir and famciclovir all provide effective prophylaxis against HSV-1 reactivation following ablative facial resurfacing. However, no definitive recommendations can be made regarding prophylactic therapy for minimally invasive procedures at present.

  12. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria M; Toft, Gunnar V; Jensen, Morten S

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce....

  13. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Tjalke A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV

  14. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  15. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.; Garcia, Maurice M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation i...

  16. Radiochemotherapy of hepatocarcinoma via lentivirus-mediated transfer of human sodium iodide symporter gene and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Libo, E-mail: libochen888@hotmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Guo Guoying [Xinyuan Institute of Medicine and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Liu Tianjing; Guo Lihe [Division of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Zhu Ruisen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene/ganciclovir (GCV) system has been widely used as a traditional gene therapy modality, and the sodium/iodide symporter gene (NIS) has been found to be a novel therapeutic gene. Since the therapeutic effects of radioiodine therapy or prodrug chemotherapy on cancers following NIS or HSV-TK gene transfer need to be enhanced, this study was designed to investigate the feasibility of radiochemotherapy for hepatocarcinoma via coexpression of NIS gene and HSV-TK gene. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with NIS, TK and GFP gene via recombinant lentiviral vector and named HepG2/NTG. Gene expression was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence imaging and iodide uptake. The therapeutic effects were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assay. Results: HepG2/NTG cells concentrated {sup 125}I{sup -} up to 76-fold higher than the wild-type cells within 20 min, and the efflux happened with a T{sub 1/2eff} of less than 10 min. The iodide uptake in HepG2/NTG cells was specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. Dose-dependent toxicity to HepG2/NTG cells by either GCV or {sup 131}I was revealed by clonogenic assay and MTT assay, respectively. The survival rate of HepG2/NTG cells decreased to 49.7%{+-}2.5%, 43.4%{+-}2.8% and 8.6%{+-}1.2% after exposure to {sup 131}I, GCV and combined therapy, respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrate that radiochemotherapy of hepatocarcinoma via lentiviral-mediated coexpression of NIS gene and HSV-TK gene leads to stronger killing effect than single treatment, and in vivo studies are needed to verify these findings.

  17. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  18. Neonatal genital prolapse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindu Saksono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal genital prolapse without congenital spinal abnormality is rare. Several treatment modalities are known to manage this condition. Our management consists of manually reducing the prolapsed mass and applying purse string suture technique.

  19. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

    2017-02-16

    Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

  20. Acyclovir Prophylaxis Reduces the Incidence of Herpes Zoster Among HIV-Infected Individuals: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, Ruanne V; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Thomas, Katherine K; Hughes, James P; Mugo, Nelly R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Gray, Glenda; Rees, Helen; Mujugira, Andrew; Ronald, Allan; Stevens, Wendy; Kapiga, Saidi; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2016-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than HIV-uninfected individuals. We assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2. During 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those assigned placebo (rates, 1.00 and 2.68/100 person-years, respectively), a relative decrease of 62% (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, .24-.67; P herpes zoster incidence among HIV-infected persons.