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Sample records for human gastrointestinal cancers

  1. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

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    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  2. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

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    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  3. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

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    Uchino, Keita, E-mail: uchino13@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirano, Gen [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirahashi, Minako [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  4. [Gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Although their sensitivity is not high, SCC, TPA and IAP are useful for esophageal cancer. The sensitivity of CEA, CA 19-9, is relatively high, especially in well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. AFP is specific to liver metastasis from gastric cancer, and CA 125 is also specific to peritoneal dissemination. CA 72-4 and NCC-ST-439 are useful markers for advanced staging. CEA, CA 19-9, is useful for colon cancer, especially for predicting preoperative staging. Half-life and doubling time of tumor markers is useful in some cases for the evaluation of operation and chemotherapy. We showed our data concerning postoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation for gastric cancer in 120 recurrent patients. Positivities of CEA and CA 19-9 for recurrence were 65.8% and 85.0%, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the preoperative sensitivities (28.3% and 45.0%, respectively). In most patients with high levels of preoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9, these tumor markers increased again at recurrence. Recurrent diseases were detected between 5 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 12 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean of 3.1+/-3.6 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) and between 10 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 13 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean 2.2+/-3.9 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) by CEA and CA 19-9 monitorings, respectively. These results suggest that CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation was useful to predict the recurrence of gastric cancer, especially in almost all the patients with high preoperative levels of these markers.

  5. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer in Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Omrani-Navai, Versa; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Yahyapour, Yousef; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Abediankenari, Saeid; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Toghani, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model. Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82). The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.

  6. Human development index is associated with mortality-to-incidence ratios of gastrointestinal cancers.

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    Hu, Qi-Da; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Bai, Xue-Li; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2013-08-28

    To identify the role of human development in the incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal cancers worldwide. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for gastrointestinal cancers, including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and colorectum, were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database and United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) report. The human development index (HDI) data were calculated according to the 2011 Human Development Report. We estimated the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at the regional and national levels, and explored the association of the MIR with development levels as measured by the HDI using a modified "drug dose to inhibition response" model. Furthermore, countries were divided into four groups according to the HDI distribution, and the MIRs of the four HDI groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. State-specific MIRs in the United States were predicted from the estimated HDI using the fitted non-linear model, and were compared with the actual MIRs calculated from data in the USCS report. The worldwide incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal cancers were as high as 39.4 and 54.9 cases per 100000 individuals, respectively. Linear and non-linear regression analyses revealed an inverse correlation between the MIR of gastrointestinal cancers and the HDI at the regional and national levels (β < 0; P = 0.0028 for regional level and < 0.0001 for national level, ANOVA). The MIR differed significantly among the four HDI areas (very high HDI, 0.620 ± 0.033; high HDI, 0.807 ± 0.018; medium HDI, 0.857 ± 0.021; low HDI, 0.953 ± 0.011; P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA). Prediction of the MIRs for individual United States states using best-fitted non-linear models showed little deviation from the actual MIRs in the United States. Except for 28 data points (9.93% of 282), the actual MIRs of all gastrointestinal cancers were mostly located in the prediction

  7. Human epididymis protein 4 immunostaining of malignant ascites differentiates cancer of Müllerian origin from gastrointestinal cancer.

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    Stiekema, Anna; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Boot, Henk; Broeks, Annegien; Korse, Catharina M; van Driel, Willemien J; Kenter, Gemma G; Lok, Christianne A R

    2017-03-01

    An accurate diagnosis of cancer of Müllerian origin is required before the initiation of treatment. An overlap in clinical presentation and cytological, histological, or imaging studies with other nongynecological tumors does occur. Therefore, immunocytochemistry markers are used to determine tumor origin. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is overexpressed in tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). It has shown to be a sensitive and specific serum marker for EOC and to be of value for the differentiation between EOC and ovarian metastases of gastrointestinal origin. The objective of the current study was to evaluate HE4 immunocytochemistry in malignant ascites for differentiation between cancer of Müllerian origin, including EOC, and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Cytological specimens of 115 different adenocarcinomas (45 EOCs, 46 cases of gastric cancer, and 24 cases of colorectal cancer) were stained for HE4, paired box 8 (PAX8), and other specific markers. 91% of the ascites samples from patients with EOC stained for both HE4 and PAX8. The 4 samples without HE4 staining were a clear cell carcinoma, a low-grade serous adenocarcinoma, an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, and a neuroendocrine carcinoma. All high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (n = 37, 100%) stained with HE4, compared with 94% that stained positively for PAX8. In cases of gastric or colorectal cancer, 25% and 21% of cases, respectively, stained positive for HE4. No PAX8 staining was observed in colorectal or gastric adenocarcinomas. HE4 staining in ascites is feasible and appears to have a high sensitivity for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. HE4 is a useful addition to the current panel of immunocytochemistry markers for the diagnosis of EOC and for differentiation with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:197-204. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Orthotopic transplantation model of human gastrointestinal cancer and detection of micrometastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hui Cui; Uwe Krueger; Doris Henne-Bruns; Bernd Kremer; Holger Kalthoff

    2001-01-01

    AIM To establish a relevant animal model ofhuman gastrointestinal cancer, which can beused for repetitive investigations, so as toimprove our understanding and management ofcarcinogenesis and cancer metastasis.METHODS Intact tissues of human colorectaland pancreatic cancers were transplanted innude mice. The biological characteristics of theoriginal and the corresponding transplantedtumors were investigated by HE staining, PASstaining and immunostaining. The metastases inthe livers and lungs of nude mice wereinvestigated by immunostaining withbiotinylated mab KL-1 and by RT-PCR using CK20specific primers.RESULTS There were totally 9 of 16 surgicalspecimens growing in nude mice subcutaneouslyand/.or orthotopically (4 of 6 colorectal and 5 of10 pancreatic cancer). Tumor cell content of thespecimens and freezing of tissue specimens areimportant factors influencing the growth oftransplanted tumor. In the group of fresh tumortissues with greater than 50% tumor cellcontent, the success rate of the transplantationwas 100% (3 cases of pancreatic cancer and 3cases of colorectal cancer). The orthotopicallytransplanted tumors resemble the original tumormorphologically and biologically, including TAAexpression such as CEA byimmunohistochemistry, and CEA level in theserum of mice. Ki-67 labeling index and theexpression of TAA especially K-ras, 17-lA andRA-96, are associated with the potential of tumorgrowth in nude mice. Micrometastases in thelungs and livers of tumor bearing mice can bedetected by immunostaining with biotinylatedmab KL-1 and CK20-specific RT-PCR.CONCLUSION An orthotopic transplantationmodel for human colon and pancreatic cancer innude mice has been set up. We have alsoestablished sensitive detection methods withCK-immunohistochemistry and CK20-RT-PCR tostudy xenotransplanted human cancer and itsmetastatic cancer cells in the liver and lung ofnude mice. This study may be helpful inunderstanding the mechanism of cancermetastasis and in developing new

  9. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

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    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

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    Sandoval, Manuel; Okuhama, Nataly N; Clark, Melinda; Angeles, Fausto M; Lao, Juan; Bustamante, Sergio; Miller, Mark J S

    2002-05-01

    Sangre de grado is an ethnomedicinal red tree sap obtained from Croton spp. that is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, cancer and to promote wound healing. To evaluate the potential role of sangre de grado (SdG) in cancer we examined its effects on human cancer cells, AGS (stomach), HT29 and T84 (colon). Viability of cells treated with SdG (10-200 microg/ml) decreased (P100 microg/ml). When cells in suspension were treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) cell adherence was severely compromised (>85%). Cells treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) underwent apoptosis as detected by nucleus condensation and DNA fragmentation determined by ELISA, and flow cytometry. Morphological changes as assessed by acridine orange. These effects were similar to that observed with Taxol (30 microM). A significant alteration of microtubular architecture was equally observed in both stomach and colon cancer cells exposed to SdG (100 microg/ml). The induction of apoptosis and microtubule damage in AGS, HT29 and T84 cells suggest that sangre de grado should be evaluated further as a potential source of anti-cancer agents.

  11. Transcriptional silencing of Dickkopf gene family by CpG island hypermethylation in human gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadateru Maehata; Fumio Itoh; Hiroaki Taniguchi; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Katsuhiko Nosho; Yasushi Adachi; Nobuki Miyamoto; Chic Miyamoto; Noriyuki Akutsu; Satoshi Yamaoka

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To clarify alterations of Dickkopfs (Dkks) and Kremen2 (Krm2) in gastrointestinal cancer.METHODS:We investigated the expression profiles and epigenetic alterations of Dkks and Krm2 genes in gastrointestinal cancer using RT-PCR,tissue microarray analysis,and methylation specific PCR (MSP).Cancer cells were treated with the demethylating agent and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor.WST-8 assays and in vitro invasion assays after treatment with specific siRNA for those genes were performed.RESULTS:Dkks and Krm2 expression levels were reduced in a certain subset of the gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and cancer tissues.This was correlated with promoter hypermethylation.There were significant correlations between Dkks over-expression levels and beta-catenin over-expression in colorectal cancer.In colorectal cancers with beta-catenin over-expression,Dkk-1 expression levels were significantly lower in those with lymph node metastases than in those without.Down-regulation of Dkks expression by siRNA resulted in a significant increase in cancer cell growth and invasiveness in vitro.CONCLUSION:Down-regulation of the Dkks associated to promoter hypermethylation appears to be frequently involved in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis.

  12. The role of KCNQ1 in mouse and human gastrointestinal cancers.

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    Than, B L N; Goos, J A C M; Sarver, A L; O'Sullivan, M G; Rod, A; Starr, T K; Fijneman, R J A; Meijer, G A; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Largaespada, D A; Scott, P M; Cormier, R T

    2014-07-17

    Kcnq1, which encodes for the pore-forming α-subunit of a voltage-gated potassium channel, was identified as a gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer susceptibility gene in multiple Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. To confirm that Kcnq1 has a functional role in GI tract cancer, we created Apc(Min) mice that carried a targeted deletion mutation in Kcnq1. Results demonstrated that Kcnq1 is a tumor suppressor gene as Kcnq1 mutant mice developed significantly more intestinal tumors, especially in the proximal small intestine and colon, and some of these tumors progressed to become aggressive adenocarcinomas. Gross tissue abnormalities were also observed in the rectum, pancreas and stomach. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Kcnq1 mutant mice compared with wild-type littermate controls, suggesting a role for Kcnq1 in the regulation of the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment. To identify gene expression changes due to loss of Kcnq1, we carried out microarray studies in the colon and proximal small intestine. We identified altered genes involved in innate immune responses, goblet and Paneth cell function, ion channels, intestinal stem cells, epidermal growth factor receptor and other growth regulatory signaling pathways. We also found genes implicated in inflammation and in cellular detoxification. Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed the importance of these gene clusters and further identified significant overlap with genes regulated by MUC2 and CFTR, two important regulators of intestinal homeostasis. To investigate the role of KCNQ1 in human colorectal cancer (CRC), we measured protein levels of KCNQ1 by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing samples from CRC patients with liver metastases who had undergone hepatic resection. Results showed that low expression of KCNQ1 expression was significantly associated with poor

  13. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  14. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  15. Neuropilin-2 mediated β-catenin signaling and survival in human gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines.

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    Shaija Samuel

    Full Text Available NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating downstream signals regulating the growth and survival of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. In human gastric cancer specimens, NRP-2 expression was detected in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal mucosa. In CNDT 2.5 cells, shRNA mediated knockdown NRP-2 expression led to decreased migration and invasion in vitro (p<0.01. Focused gene-array analysis demonstrated that loss of NRP-2 reduced the expression of a critical metastasis mediator gene, S100A4. Steady-state levels and function of β-catenin, a known regulator of S100A4, were also decreased in the shNRP-2 clones. Furthermore, knockdown of NRP-2 sensitized CNDT 2.5 cells in vitro to 5FU toxicity. This effect was associated with activation of caspases 3 and 7, cleavage of PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2. In vivo growth of CNDT 2.5 cells in the livers of nude mice was significantly decreased in the shNRP-2 group (p<0.05. Intraperitoneal administration of NRP-2 siRNA-DOPC decreased the tumor burden in mice (p = 0.01. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor cell-derived NRP-2 mediates critical survival signaling in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

  16. Hedgehog signaling and gastrointestinal cancer

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    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2017-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for embryonic development and in differentiation, proliferation, and maintenance of multiple adult tissues. De-regulation of the Hh pathway is associated with birth defects and cancer. In the gastrointestinal tract, Hh ligands Sonic (Shh) and Indian (Ihh), as well as the receptor Patched (Ptch1), and transcription factors of Glioblastoma family (Gli) are all expressed during development. In the adult, Shh expression is restricted to the stomach and colon, while Ihh expression occurs throughout the luminal gastrointestinal tract, its expression being highest in the proximal duodenum. Several studies have demonstrated a requirement for Hh signaling during gastrointestinal tract development. However to date, the specific role of the Hh pathway in the adult stomach and intestine is not completely understood. The current review will place into context the implications of recent published data related to the biochemistry and cell biology of Hh signaling on the luminal gastrointestinal tract during development, normal physiology and subsequently carcinogenesis. PMID:20307590

  17. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

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    Hye Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC and colorectal cancer (CRC. Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4. A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  18. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

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    Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Woo Ho; Kwak, Yoonjin; Koh, Jiwon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Chang, Mee Soo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Hwal Woong; Chang, Hee Kyung; Choi, Young Hee; Park, Ji Y.; Gu, Mi Jin; Lhee, Min Jin; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Hee Sung; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2017-01-01

    With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4). A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians. PMID:28219002

  19. Intracellular gold nanoparticles enhance non-invasive radiofrequency thermal destruction of human gastrointestinal cancer cells

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    Mukherjee Priyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel approaches to treat human cancer that are effective with minimal toxicity profiles are needed. We evaluated gold nanoparticles (GNPs in human hepatocellular and pancreatic cancer cells to determine: 1 absence of intrinsic cytotoxicity of the GNPs and 2 external radiofrequency (RF field-induced heating of intracellular GNPs to produce thermal destruction of malignant cells. GNPs (5 nm diameter were added to 2 human cancer cell lines (Panc-1, Hep3B. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and propidium iodide-fluorescence associated cell sorting (PI-FACS assessed cell proliferation and GNP-related cytotoxicity. Other GNP-treated cells were exposed to a 13.56 MHz RF field for 1, 2, or 5 minutes, and then incubated for 24 hours. PI-FACS measured RF-induced cytotoxicity. Results GNPs had no impact on cellular proliferation by MTT assay. PI-FACS confirmed that GNPs alone produced no cytotoxicity. A GNP dose-dependent RF-induced cytotoxicity was observed. For Hep3B cells treated with a 67 μM/L dose of GNPs, cytotoxicity at 1, 2 and 5 minutes of RF was 99.0%, 98.5%, and 99.8%. For Panc-1 cells treated at the 67 μM/L dose, cytotoxicity at 1, 2, and 5 minutes of RF was 98.5%, 98.7%, and 96.5%. Lower doses of GNPs were associated with significantly lower rates of RF-induced thermal cytotoxicity for each cell line (P Conclusion We demonstrate that GNPs 1 have no intrinsic cytotoxicity or anti-proliferative effects in two human cancer cell lines in vitro and 2 GNPs release heat in a focused external RF field. This RF-induced heat release is lethal to cancer cells bearing intracellular GNPs in vitro.

  20. Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in gastrointestinal cancer.

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    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valéria; Tóth, Ambrus; Szilasi, Zsuzsanna; Tihanyi, Balazs; Zaránd, Attila; Harsanyi, Laszlo; Szállási, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    It has been demonstrated recently in several solid tumors that thrombocytosis at diagnosis may correlate with tumor invasion, metastatic progression and worse outcome. Several details of the pathomechanism of the relationship of thrombocytosis and cancer have been elucidated; however, the complete process is not clearly understood. Several hypotheses have been proposed. Recently, it was suggested that in ovarian cancer elevated IL-6 production by the tumor may induce increased megakaryopoiesis via hepatic thrombopoietin production leading to thrombocytosis. The importance of the prognostic power of elevated platelet count is still debated in gastrointestinal cancer. The aims of this review were to evaluate the prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in gastrointestinal tumors, to see whether clinical practice confirmed the hypotheses and to reveal the causes of the inconsistent findings.

  1. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  2. Terpinen-4-ol: A Novel and Promising Therapeutic Agent for Human Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran Shapira

    Full Text Available Terpinen-4-ol, a naturally occurring monoterpene is the main bioactive component of tea-tree oil and has been shown to have many biological activities.To study the antitumor effects of terpinen-4-ol and its mechanism of action in prostate and GI malignancies, alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic and biological agents.Terpinen-4-ol was administrated alone or combined with standard chemotherapy (Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Tarceva and biological agent (Cetuximab. It was also combined with humanized anti-CD24 mAbs (was developed by us. Killing effects were measured qualitatively by light microscopy and quantitatively using the MTT and FACS analysis, following treatment of colorectal, pancreatic, gastric and prostate cancer cells. Terpinen-4-ol effect on tumor development was evaluated in xenograft model.Terpinen-4-ol induces a significant growth inhibition of colorectal, pancreatic, prostate and gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner (10-90% in 0.005-0.1%. Terpinen-4-ol and various anti-cancer agents (0.2μM oxaliplatin and 0.5μM fluorouracil demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect (83% and 91%, respectively on cancer cell proliferation. In KRAS mutated colorectal cancer cells, which are resistant to anti-EGFR therapy, combining of terpinen-4-ol with cetuximab (1 μM resulted in impressive efficacy of 80-90% growth inhibition. Sub-toxic concentrations of terpinen-4-ol potentiate anti-CD24 mAb (150μg/ml-induced growth inhibition (90%. Considerable reduction in tumor volume was seen following terpinen-4-ol (0.2% treatment alone and with cetuximab (10mg/kg (40% and 63%, respectively as compare to the control group.Terpinen-4-ol significantly enhances the effect of several chemotherapeutic and biological agents. The possible molecular mechanism for its activity involves induction of cell-death rendering this compound as a potential anti-cancer drug alone and in combination in the treatment of numerous malignancies

  3. Irisin immunohistochemistry in gastrointestinal system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S; Kuloglu, T; Ozercan, M R; Albayrak, S; Aydin, S; Bakal, U; Yilmaz, M; Kalayci, M; Yardim, M; Sarac, M; Kazez, A; Kocdor, H; Kanat, B; Ozercan, İ H; Gonen, M; Bilgen, M; Balgetir, F

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Some studies have shown that high heat kills cancer cells. Irisin is a protein involved in heat production by converting white into brown adipose tissue, but there is no information about how its expression changes in cancerous tissues. We used irisin antibody immunohistochemistry to investigate changes in irisin expression in gastrointestinal cancers compared to normal tissues. Irisin was found in human brain neuroglial cells, esophageal epithelial cells, esophageal epidermoid carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine esophageal carcinoma, gastric glands, gastric adenosquamous carcinoma, gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, gastric signet ring cell carcinoma, neutrophils in vascular tissues, intestinal glands of colon, colon adenocarcinoma, mucinous colon adenocarcinoma, hepatocytes, hepatocellular carcinoma, islets of Langerhans, exocrine pancreas, acinar cells and interlobular and interlobular ducts of normal pancreas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and intra- and interlobular ducts of cancerous pancreatic tissue. Histoscores (area × intensity) indicated that irisin was increased significantly in gastrointestinal cancer tissues, except liver cancers. Our findings suggest that the relation of irisin to cancer warrants further investigation.

  4. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  5. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  6. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  7. Targeted therapies in upper gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordes, S.

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, as esophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancer, are still highly lethal diseases, in spite of advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and specific targeted therapy. Especially when patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastasized disease, upper

  8. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  9. PPARs Signaling and Cancer in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Pazienza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy has gained a strong interest. From a biological point of view, the overall responsibility of PPARs in cancer development and progression is still controversial since several studies report both antiproliferative and tumor-promoting actions for these signaling molecules in human cancer cells and animal models. In this paper, we discuss PPARs functions in the context of different types of gastrointestinal cancer.

  10. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  11. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design.

  12. Emerging therapies in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyoti Nautiyal; Arun K Rishi; Adhip PN Majumdar

    2006-01-01

    Members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, that include EGFR, ErbB-2/HER-2, ErbB-3/HER-3 and ErbB-4/HER-4, are frequently implicated in experimental models of epithelial cell neoplasia as well as in human cancers.Therefore, interference with the activation of these growth factor receptors represents a promising strategy for development of novel and selective anticancer therapies.Indeed, a number of inhibitors that target either EGFR or HER-2, with the exception of a few that target both;have been developed for treatment of epithelial cancers.Since most solid tumors express different ErbB receptors and/or their ligands, identification of inhibitor(s), targeting multiple EGFR family members may provide a therapeutic benefit to a broader patient population. Here we describe the significance of an ErbB family of receptors in epithelial cancers, and summarize different available therapeutics targeting these receptors. It also emphasizes the need to develop pan-ErbB inhibitors and discusses EGF-Receptor Related Protein, a recently isolated negative regulator of EGFR as a potential pan-ErbB therapeutic for a wide variety of epithelial cancers.

  13. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Mi Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans have shown that 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  14. [GASTROINTESTINAL INVOLVEMENT IN HUMAN BARTONELLOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiña, Ciro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Carcelén, Amador; Salinas, César; Cok, Jaime; Recavarren, Sixto; Bussalleu, Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    We present a prospective study of 68 patients with the acute phase of human bartonellosis, admitted to Cayetano Heredia National Hospital.Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported as follows: abdominal pain 46,3%, coluria 44,4%, vomiting 40,3%, jaundice 38,5%, diarrhea 29,9%, constipation 8,9%. The more common signs were pallor 97%, hepatomegaly 82%, fever 79,1%, malnutrition 75,2%, systolic heart murmur 77,9%, jaundice 71,6%, lymph node enlargement 70,1%.Signs observed during the hospital course were 29,4% lower extremities edema, 22,6% myalgia, 16,4% pericardial effusion, 16,4% generalized edema. The more common gastrointestinal signs were hepatomegaly 82%(52/68), jaundice 71,6% (48/68) and splenomegaly 29,4%(20/68).The -lower liver border was found between 1 to 4 below the lower rib border in 71,6%(48/67) and below 5 cm b. l. r. b. in 11,9%(8/67).60% had abnormal liver function tests, 54,6% had mainly direct bilirrubin elevationand 45,4% mainly indirect.SGOT was elevated in 28,5% and SGPT in 25%, 28,3% had elevated alkaline phosphatase. The bilirrubin media was 3,5 mg/dI (range 0,6-21), the indirect bilirrubin media was 1,6 mg/dI (range 0,5-11,5), the direct bilirrubin media was 1,9 mg/dI (range 0,3-18), The SGOT media 73,9 U/L (range 9-1250), SGPT media 65,5U/L (range 6-1596). Alkaline phosphatase 5,9 mui/ml (range 3-497). Albumin media 3,09 (range 2-4,2).Patients with bacterial coinfection (salmonella, staphilococcus, enterobacter, shigella) had a higher increase in bilirrubin and transaminases.Three patients had liver biopsies, two revealed Küpffer cells hyperplasia (moderate to severe), one revealed intracellular hyperplasia, one patient coinfected with diseminated hystoplasmosis had granulomas in the liver.Mortality(8,8%) was associated to hepatocellular involvement (SGOT media 330U/L, SGPT media 207 U/L, alkaline phosphatase media 183 mui/ml), hypoalbuminemia media = 2,4 gr/1) and generalized edema.

  15. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Suresh Ghadyalpatil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC, colorectal cancer (CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, esophageal cancer (EC, and pancreatic cancer (PC. Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist , these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes.The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs need focussed

  16. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results

  17. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  18. Updates in Tumor Profiling in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kimberly; Safran, Howard P

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade there has been a focus on biomarkers that play a critical role in understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms which drive tumor initiation, maintenance and progression of cancers. Characterization of genomes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) has permitted significant advances in gastrointestinal cancer care. These discoveries have fueled the development of novel therapeutics and have laid the groundwork for the development of new treatment strategies. Work in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been in the forefront of these advances. With the continued development of NGS technology and the positive clinical experience in CRC, genome work has begun in esophagogastric, pancreatic, and hepatocellular carcinomas as well.

  19. E3B1/ABI-1 Isoforms Are Down-Regulated in Cancers of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia A. Baba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa. A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  20. Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Josa, Valéria; Toth, Ambrus;

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated recently in several solid tumors that thrombocytosis at diagnosis may correlate with tumor invasion, metastatic progression and worse outcome. Several details of the pathomechanism of the relationship of thrombocytosis and cancer have been elucidated; however, the complet...

  1. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  2. Impact of homeobox genes in gastrointestinal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-01-01

    Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett’s esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers. HOXD10 is upregulated in colorectal cancer while it is silenced epigenetically in gastric cancer. Thus, it is essential to examine the differential expression pattern of various homeobox genes in specific tumor types or cell lineages, and understand their underlying mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the available research on homeobox genes and present their potential value for the prediction of prognosis in GI cancers. PMID:27729732

  3. Impact of homeobox genes in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-10-07

    Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers. HOXD10 is upregulated in colorectal cancer while it is silenced epigenetically in gastric cancer. Thus, it is essential to examine the differential expression pattern of various homeobox genes in specific tumor types or cell lineages, and understand their underlying mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the available research on homeobox genes and present their potential value for the prediction of prognosis in GI cancers.

  4. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  5. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and mo

  6. [Gastrointestinal human myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, M; Kreiter, A; Semenas, L

    1998-08-01

    The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae) according to Hartley (1961) and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962). These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the first to be registered in Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina) and their characteristics were similar to those described for this species in other parts of the world. The lack of specific control measures in the domestic water supply system was the most probable cause of the infestation. This event extends the distribution of E. tenax and human gastrointestinal myiasis in South America to 41 degrees 03' S.

  7. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  8. Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harris Bernstein; Carol Bernstein; Claire M Payne; Katerina Dvorak

    2009-01-01

    Bile acids are implicated as etiologic agents in cancer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including cancer of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, biliary tract, pancreas and colon/rectum. Deleterious effects of bile acid exposure, likely related to carcinogenesis,include: induction of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species; induction of DNA damage; stimulation of mutation; induction of apoptosis in the short term,and selection for apoptosis resistance in the long term.These deleterious effects have, so far, been reported most consistently in relation to esophageal and colorectal cancer, but also to some extent in relation to cancer of other organs. In addition, evidence is reviewed for an association of increased bile acid exposure with cancer risk in human populations, in specific human genetic conditions, and in animal experiments. A model for the role of bile acids in GI carcinogenesis is presented from a Darwinian perspective that offers an explanation for how the observed effects of bile acids on cells contribute to cancer development.

  9. Thrombocytosis as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is an adverse prognostic factor in many types of cancer. These include breast cancer, ovarian and other gynecologic cancers, renal cell carcinoma and lung cancers. In gastrointestinal cancers of various locations and histologic types, thrombocytosis has been reported in general to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Platelet count measurement is well standardized and available in every clinical laboratory, making its use as a prognostic marker practical. This paper will discuss the data on the prognostic value of thrombocytosis in gastrointestinal cancers as well as pathogenic aspects of the association that strengthen the case for its use in clinical prognostication. PMID:24567794

  10. Wnt and the cancer niche: paracrine interactions with gastrointestinal cancer cells undergoing asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Ambe, Chenwi M; Ray, Satyajit; Kim, Bo-Kyu; Koizumi, Tomotake; Wiegand, Gordon W; Hari, Danielle; Mullinax, John E; Jaiswal, Kshama R; Garfield, Susan H; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Rudloff, Udo; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2013-01-01

    Stem-like cancer cells contribute to cancer initiation and maintenance. Stem cells can self-renew by asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD with non-random chromosomal cosegregation (ACD-NRCC) is one possible self-renewal mechanism. There is a paucity of evidence supporting ACD-NRCC in human cancer. Our aim was to investigate ACD-NRCC and its potential interactions with the cancer niche (microenvironment) in gastrointestinal cancers. We used DNA double and single labeling approaches with FACS to isolate live cells undergoing ACD-NRCC. Gastrointestinal cancers contain rare subpopulations of cells capable of ACD-NRCC. ACD-NRCC was detected preferentially in subpopulations of cells previously suggested to be stem-like/tumor-initiating cancer cells. ACD-NRCC was independent of cell-to-cell contact, and was regulated by the cancer niche in a heat-sensitive paracrine fashion. Wnt pathway genes and proteins are differentially expressed in cells undergoing ACD-NRCC vs. symmetric cell division. Blocking the Wnt pathway with IWP2 (WNT antagonist) or siRNA-TCF4 resulted in suppression of ACD-NRCC. However, using a Wnt-agonist did not increase the relative proportion of cells undergoing ACD-NRCC. Gastrointestinal cancers contain subpopulations of cells capable of ACD-NRCC. Here we show for the first time that ACD-NRCC can be regulated by the Wnt pathway, and by the cancer niche in a paracrine fashion. However, whether ACD-NRCC is exclusively associated with stem-like cancer cells remains to be determined. Further study of these findings might generate novel insights into stem cell and cancer biology. Targeting the mechanism of ACD-NRCC might engender novel approaches for cancer therapy.

  11. Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors targeting in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajani; Chandra, Vishal; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2012-12-01

    Cholecystokinin and Gastrin are amongst the first gastrointestinal hormone discovered. In addition to classical actions (contraction of gallbladder, growth and secretion in the stomach and pancreas), these also act as growth stimulants for gastrointestinal malignancies and cell lines. Growth of these tumours is inhibited by antagonists of the cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors. These receptors provides most promising approach in clinical oncology and several specific radiolabelled ligands have been synthesized for specific tumour targeting and therapy of tumours overexpressing these receptors. Therefore, definition of the molecular structure of the receptor involved in the autocrine/paracrine loop may contribute to novel therapies for gastrointestinal cancer. Hence, this review tries to focus on the role and distribution of these hormones and their receptors in gastrointestinal cancer with a brief talk about the clinical trial using available agonist and antagonist in gastrointestinal cancers.

  12. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  13. Targeting cancers in the gastrointestinal tract: role of capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif SaifYale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Capecitabine is currently the only novel, orally home-administered fluorouracil prodrug. It offers patients more freedom from hospital visits and less inconvenience and complications associated with infusion devices. The drug has been extensively studied in large clinical trials in many solid tumors, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and many others. Furthermore, the drug compares favorably with fluorouracil in patients with such cancers, with a safe toxicity profile, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects. Whereas gastrointestinal events and hand-foot syndrome occur often with capecitabine, the tolerability profile is comparatively favorable. Prompt recognition of severe adverse effects is the key to successful management of capecitabine. Ongoing and future clinical trials will continue to examine, and likely expand, the role of capecitabine as a single agent and/or in combination with other anticancer agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal as well as other solid tumors, both in the advanced palliative and adjuvant settings. The author summarizes the current data on the role of capecitabine in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Keywords: 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, chemotherapy, adjuvant, advanced, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, rectal cancer, anal cancer

  14. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Erika; Zoratto, Federica; Strudel, Martina; Papa, Anselmo; Rossi, Luigi; Minozzi, Marina; Caruso, Davide; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Verrico, Monica; Tomao, Silverio

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting.

  15. Immunotherapy of gastrointestinal cancer patients with levamisole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa,Hiroaki

    1979-02-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole was administered to 177 patients with gastrointestinal cancer (88 curative resection, 58 noncurative resection and 31 without resection. It was administered at a daily dose of 150 mg for three consecutive days every other week. The administration was started, as a rule, 3 days before operation. This medication was repeated as frequently as possible at least for one month. The cellular immunity and 18-month survival rate of treated and control groups were compared. Levamisole effectively improved peripheral lymphocyte blastformation against phytohemagglutinin and increased the numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Levamisole caused extremely high blastformation rates, in general, enhanced PPD reactions in non-curative resection cases 7 months after operation and showed no influence upon the number of peripheral blood lymphocyte. The effect of levamisole on the 6-month survival rate was most marked in patients without resection. Increased 12-month survival rate was marked in non-curative resection cases and, to a lesser extent, curative resection cases. Patients without resection had a slightly improved 12-month survival rate. Levamisole improved the 18-month survival rate in resectable cases; however, there were no significant differences in 18-month survival between levamisole and control groups of patients not undergoing resection. The results suggest that levamisole is effective in the patients whose tumor cells have been decreased by any method.

  16. [Gastrointestinal surgeons should master the adjuvant therapy of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jin; Chen, Pengju

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer is one of the main diseases of gastrointestinal surgeons. It is very important to master the adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer for gastrointestinal surgeons. In recent years, with the development of a number of clinical trials and the appearance of new drugs, fluorouracil combined with oxaliplatin had been established as the standard regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. In the current guidelines, stage III( colon cancer is the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy, while stage II( colon cancer should receive adjuvant chemotherapy is uncertain. Unlike colon cancer, adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer is not evidence-based. Especially, the indication and duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy remain controversial. Adjuvant therapy of colorectal cancer still needs further investigation.

  17. 2011 Update in Gastrointestinal Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Vaibhav; Nimeiri, Halla

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This discussion highlights key investigational findings of existing cytotoxic and novel biological therapeutics, combination regimens, and predictive and prognostic biomarkers in the field of gastrointestinal oncology during the past year. PMID:23077682

  18. Marine algae: natural product source for gastrointestinal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Karagozlu, Mustafa Zafer

    2011-01-01

    Among marine organisms, marine algae are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds with various biological activities. In order to survive in a highly competitive environment, freshwater or marine algae have to develop defense strategies that result in a tremendous diversity of compounds from different metabolic pathways. Recently, their importance as a source of novel bioactive substances is growing rapidly and many reports have been published about isolated compounds from algae with biological activities. Many researchers reported anticancer activity of the compounds isolated from marine algae. Gastrointestinal tract cancer is one of the most frequent death causes of cancer in men and women. Especially stomach cancer and colon cancer are the second and third common cancer type in the world after lung cancer. Hence investigation of bioactive compounds against gastrointestinal cancer cells has recently become an important field for researchers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early outcomes from the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busweiler, L A D; Wijnhoven, B P L; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Henneman, D; van Grieken, N C T; Wouters, M W J M; van Hillegersberg, R; van Sandick, J W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit (DUCA) group began nationwide registration of all patients undergoing surgery with the intention of resection for oesophageal or gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to describe the initiation and implementation of this process

  20. Gastrointestinal cancers: influence of gut microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Daniela Elena

    2014-04-10

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract continue to represent a major health problem, despite progress in therapy. Gut microbiota is a key element related to the genesis of GI cancers, countless papers addressing this burning issue across the world. We provide an updated knowledge of the involvement of gut microbiota in GI tumorigenesis, including its underlying mechanisms. We present also a comprehensive review of the evidence from animal and clinical studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics in the prevention and/or therapy of GI tumours, of GI cancer therapy-related toxicity and of post-operative complications. We summarize the anticarcinogenic mechanisms of these biotherapeutics from in vitro, animal and clinical interventions. More research is required to reveal the interactions of microflora with genetic, epigenetic and immunologic factors, diet and age, before any firm conclusion be drawn. Well-designed, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics, with adequate follow-up are necessary in order to formulate directions for prevention and therapy.

  1. Relative quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David S Y; Willicombe, Anita; Reid, Thomas D; Beaton, Ceri; Arnold, David; Ward, James; Davies, I Llion; Lewis, Wyn G

    2012-12-01

    Internet-derived health care information is increasingly accessed by patients, yet its quality and accuracy is variable and unregulated. The aim of this study was to assess the information available regarding common gastrointestinal cancers via three internet search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing). The top 30 websites for each of the terms: oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colon and rectal cancer were evaluated (University of Michigan Consumer Health Website Checklist) and scored [-80 (poor) to 90 (excellent)]. The median score was 53 (-7 to 81) and was significantly higher for oesophageal (61) and pancreatic (65) cancer websites, compared with gastric (49), colon (48) and rectal cancer (50) (p = 0.014). Median scores related to charitable organisations were significantly better than academic, commercial, news agency, care provider, layperson and medical information websites collectively (79 vs. 42, p internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information remains poor and patients and clinicians should be aware.

  2. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(Pgastric cancer(Pobesity degree, fat content, fat percentage, and arm circumference were lower in gastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(Pgastric cancer patients(Pgastric cancer and colon cancer(Pgastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.

  3. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  4. Raman spectra of single cell from gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-Ling Yan; Rui-Xin Dong; Lei Zhang; Xue-Jun Zhang; Zong-Wang Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the difference between cancer cells and normal cells, we investigated the Raman spectra of singlecells from gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS: All samples were obtained from 30 diagnosed as gastrointestinal cancer patients. The flesh tumor specimen is located in the center of tumor tissue, while the normal ones were 5 cm away from the outside tumor section. The imprint was put under the microscope and a single cell was chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (British Renishaw) with NIR 780 nm laser.RESULTS: We measured the Raman spectra of several cells from gastrointestinal cancer patients. The result shows that there exists the strong line at 1 002/cm with less half-width assigned to the phenylalanine in several cells. The Raman lines of white cell were lower and less, while those of red cell were not only higher in intensity and more abundant, but also had a parti cular C-N breathing stretching band of pyrrole ring at 1 620-1 540/cm. The line at 1 084/cm assigned to phosphate backbone of DNA became obviously weaker in cancer cell. The Raman spectra of stomach cancer cells were similar to those of normal cells, but the Raman intensity of cancer cells was much lower than that of normal cells, and even some lines disappear. The lines of enteric cancer cells became weaker than spectra above and many lines disappeared, and the cancer cells in different position had different fluorescence intensity.CONCLUSION: The Raman spectra of several cells from cancer patients show that the structural changes of cancer cells happen and many bonds rupture so that the biological function of cells are lost. The results indicate that Raman spectra can offer the experiment basis for the cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Clinical applications of DNA methylation in gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, Michiel Frank Gerard de

    2010-01-01

    Survival rates after surgical treatment of gastric, colon and rectal cancer can improve with preoperative and/or postoperative adjuvant treatment with chemo- and/or radiotherapy. The role of epigenetic aberrancies such as DNA methylation is established to play a pivotal role in gastrointestinal carc

  6. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  7. B4GALNT2 gene expression controls the biosynthesis of Sda and sialyl Lewis X antigens in healthy and cancer human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groux-Degroote, Sophie; Wavelet, Cindy; Krzewinski-Recchi, Marie-Ange; Portier, Lucie; Mortuaire, Marlène; Mihalache, Adriana; Trinchera, Marco; Delannoy, Philippe; Malagolini, Nadia; Chiricolo, Mariella; Dall'Olio, Fabio; Harduin-Lepers, Anne

    2014-08-01

    The histo blood group carbohydrate Sd(a) antigen and its cognate biosynthetic enzyme B4GALNT2 show the highest level of expression in normal colon. Their dramatic down regulation previously observed in colon cancer tissues could play a role in the concomitant elevation of the selectin ligand sLe(x), involved in metastasis. However, down regulation of sLe(x) expression by B4GALNT2 has been so far demonstrated in vitro, but not in tissues. The human B4GALNT2 gene specifies at least two transcripts, diverging in the first exon, never studied in normal and cancer tissues. The long form contains a 253 nt exon 1L; the short form contains a 38 nt exon 1S. Using qPCR, we showed that cell lines and normal or cancerous colon, expressed almost exclusively the short form, while the long form was mainly expressed by the embryonic colon fibroblast cell line CCD112CoN. Immunochemistry approaches using colon cancer cells permanently expressing either B4GALNT2 cDNAs as controls, led to the observation of several protein isoforms in human normal and cancerous colon, and cell lines. We showed that tissues expressing B4GALNT2 protein isoforms were able to induce Sd(a) and to inhibit sLe(x) expression; both of which are expressed mainly on PNGase F-insensitive carbohydrate chains. Concomitant expression of B4GALNT2 and siRNA-mediated inhibition of FUT6, the major fucosyltransferase involved in sLe(x) synthesis in colon, resulted in a cumulative inhibition of sLe(x). In normal colon samples a significant relationship between sLe(x) expression and the ratio between FUT6/B4GALNT2 activities exists, demonstrating for the first time a role for B4GALNT2 in sLe(x) inhibition in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and localization of soluble sulfotransferases in the human gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Teubner, Wera; Meinl, Walter; Florian, Simone; Kretzschmar, Michael; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soluble sulfotransferases (SULTs) are important in the regulation of messenger molecules and the elimination of xenobiotics. However, sulfo-conjugation of various substrates can also lead to the formation of reactive metabolites that may induce cancer and cause other damage. Our aim was to identify the SULT forms expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract, especially colon and rectum (common sites for cancer) and to determine their cellular localization. Normal colonic ...

  9. Matrix metalloproteinases and gastrointestinal cancers: Impacts of dietary antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sugreev; Verma; Kousik; Kesh; Nilanjan; Ganguly; Sayantan; Jana; Snehasikta; Swarnakar

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis is tightly regulated by antioxidant enzymes and matrix degrading enzymes, namely, matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs). Degradation of extracellular matrix(ECM) proteins like collagen, proteoglycan, laminin, elastin and fibronectin is considered to be the prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs can degrade essentially all of the ECM components and, most MMPs also substantially contribute to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth both at the primary site and in distant metastases; thus the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. The implications of MMPs in cancers are no longer mysterious; however, the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Herein, our major interest is to clarify how MMPs are tied up with gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer is a variety of cancer types, including the cancers of gastrointestinal tract and organs, i.e., esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The activity of MMPs is regulated by its endogenous inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metallopro-teinase(TIMP) which bind MMPs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In addition, RECK(reversion including cysteinerich protein with kazal motifs) is a membrane bound glycoprotein that inhibits MMP-2,-9 and-14. Moreover, α2-macroglobulin mediates the uptake of several MMPs thereby inhibit their activity. Cancerous conditions increase intrinsic reactive oxygen species(ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered protease/anti-protease balance. ROS, an index of oxidative stress is also involved in tumorigenesis by activation of different MAP kinase pathways including MMP induction. Oxidative stress is involved in cancer by changing the activity and expression of regulatory proteins especially MMPs. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits that rich in antioxidants is

  10. Stem cells in gastrointestinal cancers: The road less travelled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameh; Mikhail; Amer; Zeidan

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells(CSC) are thought to be malignant cells that have the capacity to initiate and maintain tumor growth and survival. Studies have described CSC in various gastrointestinal neoplasms such as colon, pancreas and liver and gastroesophageal tumors. The mechanism by which CSC develop remains unclear. Several studies have explored the role of dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin, transformation growth factor-beta and hedhog pathways in generation of CSC. In this review, we discuss the various molecular abnormalities that may be related to formation of CSC in gastrointestinal malignancies, strategies to identify CSC and therapeutic strategies that are based on these concepts. Identification and targeting CSC is an intriguing area and may provide a new therapeutic option for patients with cancer including gastrointestinal malignancies. Although great progress has been made, many issues need to be addressed. Precise targeting of CSC will require precise isolation and characterization of those cells. This field is also evolving but further research is needed to identify markers that are specific for CSC.Although the application of this field has not entered the clinic yet, there continues to be significant optimism about its potential utility in overcoming cancer resistance and curing patients with cancer.

  11. Understanding the association between diet and nutrition in upper gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Human vulnerability to cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The esophagus, in particular, is highly vulnerable to the combined effects of exposure to environmental carcinogens and malnutrition, particularly in certain extreme environments of the developing world. Even in high-income countries, dietary carcinogens and nutrition play a major role in the etiology of oropharyngeal, esophageal and, to a lesser extent, gastric cancers, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. A thorough understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the vulnerability of these organs to neoplasia would shed further light on the etiology of upper gastrointestinal cancers in all environments. In the meantime, the epidemiological evidence suggests that the risks can be minimized by dietary patterns that adhere closely to current public health recommendations, coupled with maintenance of body mass index within the healthy range.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Fujihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and is defined as the presence of three or more of the following factors: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Obesity, which is accompanied by metabolic dysregulation often manifested in the metabolic syndrome, is an established risk factor for many cancers. Adipose tissue, particularly visceral fat, is an important metabolic tissue as it secretes systemic factors that alter the immunologic, metabolic, and endocrine milieu and also promotes insulin resistance. Within the growth-promoting, proinflammatory environment of the obese state, cross-talk between macrophages, adipocytes, and epithelial cells occurs via obesity-associated hormones, adipocytokines, and other mediators that may enhance cancer risk and progression. This paper synthesizes the evidence on key molecular mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link.

  13. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for

  14. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex ecosystem in which host and microbial cells live in close contact with each other. The microbial community in the human GI tract has an important nutritional and protective function and mainly consists of anaerobic bacteria. After birth, the germ-fr

  15. Risk of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer among childhood cancer survivors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepen, Jop C.; de Vroom, Suzanne L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Tissing, Wim J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Ronckers, Cecile M.

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. We performed a systematic review to summarize all available literature on the risk of, risk factors for, and outcome after subsequent GI cancer

  16. Review article: anorexia and cachexia in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, J; Valentini, L

    2005-10-01

    In patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, i.e. cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, biliary tract or pancreas, progressive undernutrition can be regularly observed during the course of illness. Undernutrition significantly affects the patients' quality of life, morbidity and survival. Pathogenetically, two different causes are relevant in the development of undernutrition in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. One cause is reduced nutritional intake. This condition is referred to as anorexia and can be worsened by the side effects of cancer therapy. The other cause is the release of endogenous transmitters and/or other products of the tumour leading to the cachexia syndrome, which is characterized by loss of body weight, negative nitrogen balance and fatigue. Cancer anorexia and cancer cachexia may have synergistic negative effects in affecting the patients' status. In this review, current nutritional support strategies with respect to different clinically relevant situations are described. An algorithm of the treatment strategies, including dietetic counselling, oral supplements, enteral and parenteral nutritional support is given. One focus is the approach of nutrition-focused patient care, which shows promising results. In addition, the possibilities of pharmacological intervention are discussed.

  17. AXIN1 and AXIN2 Variants in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Serina M.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, which encodes a multi-functional protein with a well-defined role in the canonical Wnt pathway, underlie familial adenomatous polypsosis, a rare, inherited form of colorectal cancer (CRC) and contribute to the majority of sporadic CRCs. However, not all sporadic and familial CRCs can be explained by mutations in APC or other genes with well-established roles in CRC. The AXIN1 and AXIN2 proteins function in the canonical Wnt pathway, and AXIN1/2 alterations have been proposed as key defects in some cancers. Here, we review AXIN1 and AXIN2 sequence alterations reported in gastrointestinal cancers, with the goal of vetting the evidence that some of the variants may have key functional roles in cancer development. PMID:25236910

  18. Circulating carnosine dipeptidase 1 associates with weight loss and poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia (CC is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia.Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32 or without (n = 27 cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer.Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1 was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008. In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results.In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC.

  19. Transgastric pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography for staging of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Vilmann, Peter; Meisner, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has mainly been based on simultaneous laparoscopic assistance (hybrid NOTES), forgoing the theoretical benefits of the NOTES technique. This is due to a lack of NOTES-specific instruments and endoscopes, making pure......-NOTES procedures difficult and time consuming. An area where pure NOTES could be adopted at its present stage of development is minimally invasive staging of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of combining transgastric (TG) pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy...... peritoneal evaluation. The technique could have potential for minimally invasive staging of GI cancers....

  20. Prognosen efter kurativ resektion af øvre gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Kjærulf Pless, Torsten; Nielsen, Henning Overgaard;

    2008-01-01

    -term survival after curative resections for these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients referred for treatment of cancer of the oesophagus, stomach or pancreas were prospectively included. Data were registered with regard to pre-therapeutic examination and operative results. Deceased patients were found......INTRODUCTION: Cancer in the upper gastrointestinal tract has a poor prognosis and the best results are obtained by the few resectable patients. Earlier studies indicated that Danish survival might be inferior to that of other Scandinavian countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long...... by comparison with the Danish Central Personal Register in January 2007. RESULTS: A total of 398 patients were included, of whom 164 were found to be possibly resectable. In total 118 (30%) patients underwent complete surgical resection. The median survival period for patients with oesophageal cancer, stomach...

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan

    2013-03-14

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.

  2. Epigenetic therapy in gastrointestinal cancer: the right combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfatah, Eihab; Kerner, Zachary; Nanda, Nainika; Ahuja, Nita

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics is a relatively recent field of molecular biology that has arisen over the past 25 years. Cancer is now understood to be a disease of widespread epigenetic dysregulation that interacts extensively with underlying genetic mutations. The development of drugs targeting these processes has rapidly progressed; with several drugs already FDA approved as first-line therapy in hematological malignancies. Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers possess high degrees of epigenetic dysregulation, exemplified by subtypes such as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and the potential benefit of epigenetic therapy in these cancers is evident. The application of epigenetic drugs in solid tumors, including GI cancers, is just emerging, with increased understanding of the cancer epigenome. In this review, we provide a brief overview of cancer epigenetics and the epigenetic targets of therapy including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. We discuss the epigenetic drugs currently in use, with a focus on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and explain the pharmacokinetic and mechanistic challenges in their application. We present the strategies employed in incorporating these drugs into the treatment of GI cancers, and explain the concept of the cancer stem cell in epigenetic reprogramming and reversal of chemo resistance. We discuss the most promising combination strategies in GI cancers including: (1) epigenetic sensitization to radiotherapy, (2) epigenetic sensitization to cytotoxic chemotherapy, and (3) epigenetic immune modulation and priming for immune therapy. Finally, we present preclinical and clinical trial data employing these strategies thus far in various GI cancers including colorectal, esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer. PMID:27366224

  3. The expanding regulatory universe of p53 in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesler, Andrew; Zhang, Ning; Ju, Jingfang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppresser gene TP53 is one of the most frequently deleted or mutated genes in gastrointestinal cancers. As a transcription factor, p53 regulates a number of important protein coding genes to control cell cycle, cell death, DNA damage/repair, stemness, differentiation and other key cellular functions. In addition, p53 is also able to activate the expression of a number of small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) through direct binding to the promoter region of these miRNAs.  Many miRNAs have been identified to be potential tumor suppressors by regulating key effecter target mRNAs. Our understanding of the regulatory network of p53 has recently expanded to include long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Like miRNA, lncRNAs have been found to play important roles in cancer biology.  With our increased understanding of the important functions of these non-coding RNAs and their relationship with p53, we are gaining exciting new insights into the biology and function of cells in response to various growth environment changes. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the ever expanding involvement of non-coding RNAs in the p53 regulatory network and its implications for our understanding of gastrointestinal cancer.

  4. Perioperative artificial nutrition in malnourished gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hao Wu; Zhong-Hua Liu; Zhao-Han Wu; Zhao-Guang Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of perioperative nutrition in reducing complications and mortality in malnourished gastrointestinal cancer patients.METHODS:Four hundred and sixty-eight elective moderately or severely malnourished surgical patients with gastric or colorectal cancers defined by the subjective global assessment (SGA) were randomly assigned to 7 d preoperative and 7 d postoperative parenteral or enteral nutrition vs a simple control group.The nutrition regimen included 24.6±5.2 kcal /kg per d non-protein and 0.23±0.04 g nitrogen /kg per d.Control patients did not receive preoperative nutrition but received 600±100 kcal non-protein plus or not plus 62±16 g crystalline amino acids postoperatively.RESULTS: Complications occurred in 18.3% of the patients receiving nutrition and in 33.5% of the control patients (P= 0.012). Fourteen patients died in the control group and 5 in those receiving nutrition. There were significant differences in the mortality between the two groups (2.1% vs 6.0%, P=0.003). The total length of hospitalization and postoperative stay of control patients were significantly longer (29 vs 22 d, P=0.014) than those of the studied patients (23 vs 12 d, P= 0.000).CONCLUSION: Perioperative nutrition support is beneficial for moderately or severely malnourished gastrointestinal cancer patients and can reduce surgical complications and mortality.

  5. Perioperative nutritional status changes in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jae Gil; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (pcancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p60, pcancer (pcancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered.

  6. Glycomic Approaches for the Discovery of Targets in Gastrointestinal Cancer

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    Stefan eMereiter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancer is the most common group of malignancies and many of its types are among the most deadly. Various glycoconjugates have been used in clinical practice as serum biomarker for several GI tumors, however with limited diagnose application. Despite the good accessibility by endoscopy of many GI organs, the lack of reliable serum biomarkers often leads to late diagnosis of malignancy and consequently low 5-year survival rates. Recent advances in analytical techniques have provided novel glycoproteomic and glycomic data and generated functional information and putative biomarker targets in oncology. Glycosylation alterations have been demonstrated in a series of glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosphingolipids that are involved in cancer cell adhesion, signaling, invasion and metastasis formation. In this review, we present an overview on the major glycosylation alterations in GI cancer and the current serological biomarkers used in the clinical oncology setting. We further describe recent glycomic studies in GI cancer, namely gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, we discuss the role of glycosylation as a modulator of the function of several key players in cancer cell biology. Finally, we address several state-of-the-art techniques currently applied in this field, such as glycomic and glycoproteomic analyses, the application of glycoengineered cell line models, microarray and proximity ligation assay, as well as imaging mass spectrometry and provide an outlook to future perspectives and clinical applications.

  7. Gastrointestinal metabolization of human milk oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast feeding has a great impact on the growth of infants both physically and psychologically. Human breast milk is beneficial to infant health because it contains the necessary macro- and micro-nutrients for tissue accretion, repair and behavioural developments. The production of milk is a complex

  8. Heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) as a target of methylglyoxal in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masaki; Shima, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the posttranslational modification of proteins in gastrointestinal cancer are still unknown. Here, we investigated the role of methylglyoxal modifications in gastrointestinal tumors. Methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound produced from cellular glycolytic intermediates that reacts non-enzymatically with proteins. By using a monoclonal antibody to methylglyoxal-modified proteins, we found that murine heat-shock protein 25 and human heat-shock protein 27 were the major adducted proteins in rat gastric carcinoma mucosal cell line and human colon cancer cell line, respectively. Furthermore, we found that heat-shock protein 27 was modified by methylglyoxal in ascending colon and rectum of patients with cancer. However, methylglyoxal-modified heat-shock protein 25/heat-shock protein 27 was not detected in non cancerous cell lines or in normal subject. Matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of peptide fragments identified Arg-75, Arg-79, Arg-89, Arg-94, Arg-127, Arg-136, Arg-140, Arg-188, and Lys-123 as methylglyoxal modification sites in heat-shock protein 27 and in phosphorylated heat-shock protein 27. The transfer of methylglyoxal-modified heat-shock protein 27 into rat intestinal epithelial cell line RIE was even more effective in preventing apoptotic cell death than that of native control heat-shock protein 27. Furthermore, methylglyoxal modification of heat-shock protein 27 protected the cells against both the hydrogen peroxide- and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, and the hydrogen peroxide-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. The levels of lactate converted from methylglyoxal were increased in carcinoma mucosal cell lines. Our results suggest that posttranslational modification of heat-shock protein 27 by methylglyoxal may have important implications for epithelial cell injury in gastrointestinal cancer.

  9. Compact endoscopic fluorescence detection system for gastrointestinal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Padgett, Miles J.; Hewett, Jacqueline; Sibbett, Wilson; Hamdan, Khaled; Mohammed, Sami; Tait, Iain; Cushieri, Alfred

    2001-04-01

    We describe a compact endoscopic imaging system for the detection of gastro-intestinal cancers. This system is designed to image ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence and allows the clinician to perform fluorescence endoscopy and white light endoscopy simultaneously. The system comprises a filtered mercury arclamp for illumination and fluorescence excitation, a dual camera system coupled to an endoscope for detection and a desktop PC for processing and display of images. The result is a real-time colour image onto which fluorescence information is superimposed. Preliminary in vivo results indicate an increased fluorescence level within cancers in comparison with normal tissue. In addition, the system allows point spectroscopy to be carried out by the insertion of an optical fibre probe down the biopsy channel of the endoscope.

  10. Synergistic anti-proliferative effects of gambogic acid with docetaxel in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines

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    Zou Zhengyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Gambogic acid has a marked anti-tumor effect for gastric and colorectal cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, recent investigations on gambogic acid have focused mainly on mono-drug therapy, and its potential role in cancer therapy has not been comprehensively illustrated. This study aimed to assess the interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel on human gastrointestinal cancer cells and to investigate the mechanism of gambogic acid plus docetaxel treatment-induced apoptotic cell death. Methods MTT assay was used to determine IC50 values in BGC-823, MKN-28, LOVO and SW-116 cells after gambogic acid and docetaxel administration. Median effect analysis was applied for determination of synergism and antagonism. Synergistic interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel was evaluated using the combination index (CI method. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. Additionally, mRNA expression of drug-associated genes, i.e., β-tublin III and tau, and the apoptosis-related gene survivin, were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Gambogic acid provided a synergistic effect on the cytotoxicity induced by docetaxel in all four cell lines. The combined application of gambogic acid and docetaxel enhanced apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Moreover, gambogic acid markedly decreased the mRNA expression of docetaxel-related genes, including β-tubulin III, tau and survivin, in BGC-823 cells. Conclusions Gambogic acid plus docetaxel produced a synergistic anti-tumor effect in gastrointestinal cancer cells, suggesting that the drug combination may offer a novel treatment option for patients with gastric and colorectal cancers.

  11. Presidential address: Gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical survey of abdominal tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I

    1978-01-01

    The experience with gastrointestinal cancer at a single large hospital has been utilized as a "micro-model" of the experience for the country at large, and the reasons why such a comparison might be possible have been presented. The incidence of various lesions has been discussed in terms of sex, age, and race. The changing incidence of various lesions has been pointed out. Survival results have been determined for total series, for various types of operative procedures, and for various extents of disease. The comparability of survival results from this one institution and those collected from the literature have been discussed. The emergence of newer diagnostic and therapeutic measures has been highlighted. The importance of education of both patients and physicians is emphasized repeatedly by the late stage at which so many of the patients with any gastrointestinal cancer present to and are diagnosed by the physician. The educational task for all of medicine is apparent and must be faced in some effective fashion.

  12. Perioperative fasting time among cancer patients submitted to gastrointestinal surgeries

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    Nayara de Castro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the length of perioperative fasting among patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. METHOD Retrospective cohort study, developed by consulting the medical records of 128 patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. RESULTS The mean of total length of fasting was 107.6 hours. The total length of fasting was significantly associated with the number of symptoms presented before (p=0.000 and after the surgery (p=0.007, the length of hospital stay (p=0.000, blood transfusion (p=0.013, nasogastric tube (p=0.001 and nasojejunal tube (p=0,003, postoperative admission at ICU (p=0.002, postoperative death (p=0.000 and length of preoperative fasting (p=0.000. CONCLUSION The length of fasting is associated with complications that affect the quality of the patients’ postoperative recovery and nurses’ work. The nursing team should be alert to this aspect and being responsible for overseeing the patients’ interest, should not permit the unnecessary extension of fasting.

  13. Human breast milk and the gastrointestinal innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaitis, Brett M; Denning, Patricia W

    2014-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a large potential portal for multiple infectious agents to enter the human body. The GI system performs multiple functions as part of the neonate's innate immune system, providing critical defense during a vulnerable period. Multiple mechanisms and actions are enhanced by the presence of human breast milk. Bioactive factors found in human milk work together to create and maintain an optimal and healthy environment, allowing the intestines to deliver ideal nutrition to the host and afford protection by a variety of mechanisms.

  14. Effects of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on the risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Nikolic, M; Petrovic, B

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest group of water-soluble pigments in the plant kingdom. Anthocyanins are responsible for most of the red, blue, and purple colors of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and other plant tissues or products. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that anthocyanins display a wide range of biological activities. This review summarises recent literature evidence on the association of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts consumption with the risk for gastrointestinal tract cancer, concentrating on the results from in vivo animal model tumor systems, as well as data from human epidemiological studies. Potential cancer chemopreventive activities of anthocyanins were revealed from in vitro studies. In vivo animal model tumor systems showed that dietary anthocyanins inhibit cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Some epidemiological studies have revealed protective effects of anthocyanins consumption on gastrointestinal cancer risk in humans. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that absorption of anthocyanins into the bloodstream of rodents and humans is minimal, suggesting that they may have little efficacy in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract and skin. Future studies should be undertaken to determine if the anticancer effects of anthocyanins are due to the parent compounds and/or to their metabolites.

  15. Perioperative fasting time among cancer patients submitted to gastrointestinal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nayara de Castro; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2017-05-25

    To identify the length of perioperative fasting among patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. Retrospective cohort study, developed by consulting the medical records of 128 patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. The mean of total length of fasting was 107.6 hours. The total length of fasting was significantly associated with the number of symptoms presented before (p=0.000) and after the surgery (p=0.007), the length of hospital stay (p=0.000), blood transfusion (p=0.013), nasogastric tube (p=0.001) and nasojejunal tube (p=0,003), postoperative admission at ICU (p=0.002), postoperative death (p=0.000) and length of preoperative fasting (p=0.000). The length of fasting is associated with complications that affect the quality of the patients' postoperative recovery and nurses' work. The nursing team should be alert to this aspect and being responsible for overseeing the patients' interest, should not permit the unnecessary extension of fasting. Identificar la duración del ayuno perioperatorio entre los pacientes sometidos a cirugías de cáncer gastrointestinal. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, por consulta de los registros médicos de 128 pacientes sometidos a cirugías de cáncer gastrointestinal. La media de la duración total del ayuno fue de 107,6 horas. La duración total del ayuno se asoció significativamente con el número de síntomas presentados antes (p=0,000) y después de la cirugía (p=0,007), la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (p=0,000), transfusión de sangre (p=0,013),tubo nasogástrico (P=0,003), ingreso postoperatorio en la UCI (p=0,002), muerte postoperatoria (p=0,000) y duración del ayuno preoperatorio (p=0,000). La duración del ayuno se asocia con complicaciones que afectan la calidad de la recuperación postoperatoria de los pacientes y el trabajo de enfermería. El equipo de enfermería debe estar alerta en relación a este aspecto y ser responsable de supervisar el interés de los pacientes, no

  16. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed...... the randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were....... The antioxidant supplements were without a significant effect on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.06, I(2) = 54.0%). The heterogeneity seemed to be explained by bias risk (low-bias risk trials RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13 compared to high-bias risk trials RR 0.59, 95% CI 0...

  17. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax Gastrointestinal human myiasis for Eristalis tenax

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    Marcelo Kun

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.Foram caracterizadas as miasis registradas em Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina e estabelecidas as prováveis condições sob as quais são produzidas as infestações. As larvas obtidas a partir das fezes de dois pacientes foram identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphdae. Esses dois casos de miasis gastrointestinal humana foram os primeiros registrados em Bariloche, Argentina, e suas características respondem às registradas para esta espécie de Diptera em outras partes do mundo. A falta de controle específico no sistema domiciliário de abastecimento de água tem sido a causa mais provável de infestação. Este registro amplia a distribuição de E. tenax e das miasis gastrointestinais humanas em América do Sul até os 41º 03's.The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae according to Hartley (1961 and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962. These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the

  18. Application of alternative medicine in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ivan; Smiljenić, Dragana; Kukić, Biljana; Bogdanović, Bogdan; Petrović, Tomislav; Ivković-Kapicl, Tatjana; Kozarski, Dejan; Djan, Igor

    2012-11-01

    [corrected] Alternative medicine is a set of therapeutic procedures which are no part of official practice. At present, the use of alternative medicine among cancer patients is significant and the purpose of this study was to get more information on the methods and products of alternative medicine. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the frequency of the use of alternative medicine among gastrointestinal cancer patients. The research was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire in writing. We included 205 patients with the diagnosis of gastrointestinal malignancy in the study but the questionnaire was fulfilled by 193 patients and the presented data were based on their answers. The questions were about the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, the reasons for their use of alternative medicine, and their information sources about alternative medicine. We divided existing alternative therapies into 6 categories: herbal therapy, special diets, psychotherapy, body-mind therapy, spiritual therapy, and other supplements. A total of 48 (24.9%) patients did not use any type of alternative therapy; 145 (75.1%) patients used at least one product and 124 (64.25%) patients used herbal preparations (beetroot juice was consumed by 110 [56.99%] patients); 136 (70.5%) patients were informed about alternative therapies by other patients; 145 (75.1%) used alternative medicine to increase the chances for cure; 88 (45.6%) of interviewed patients would like to participate in future research in this field. The use of alternative medicine is evidently significant among cancer patients. Further research should be conducted in order to find out interactions of these products with other drugs and potential advantages and disadvantages of this form of treatment.

  19. Application of alternative medicine in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Alternative medicine is a set of therapeutic procedures which are no part of official practice. At present, the use of alternative medicine among cancer patients is significant and the purpose of this study was to get more information on the methods and products of alternative medicine. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the frequency of the use of alternative medicine among gastrointestinal cancer patients. Methods. The research was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire in writing. We included 205 patients with the diagnosis of gastrointestinal malignancy in the study but the questionnaire was fulfilled by 193 patients and the presented data were based on their answers. The questions were about the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, the reasons for their use of alternative medicine, and their information sources about alternative medicine. We divided existing alternative therapies into 6 categories: herbal therapy, special diets, psychotherapy, body-mind therapy, spiritual therapy, and other supplements. Results. A total of 48 (24.9% patients did not use any type of alternative therapy; 145 (75.1% patients used at least one product and 124 (64.25% patients used herbal preparations (beetroot juice was consumed by 110 [56.99%] patients; 136 (70.5% patients were informed about alternative therapies by other patients.; 145 (75.1% used alternative medicine to increase the chances for cure; 88 (45.6% of interviewed patients would like to participate in future research in this field. Conclusion. The use of alternative medicine is evidently significant among cancer patients. Further research should be conducted in order to find out interactions of these products with other drugs and potential advantages and disadvantages of this form of treatment.

  20. SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM COPPER AND ZINC LEVEL IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

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    Prathibha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of trace elements especially copper and zinc in carcinogenesis in relation to disease activity have shown useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumor in the digestive organ. Keeping this in consideration, the study was conducted on 140 subjects either sex out of which 35 normal adults and 105 gastrointestinal (GI cancer patients. The follow up study was further undertaken and values of serum Cu and Zn of the same patients before and after surgery were recorded. The study showed that there was significant elevation (p<0.01 of serum copper levels before surgery and serum copper levels were deceased significantly (p<0.05 after surgery. Serum Zn level was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in GI cancer patients while the Zn level was increased significantly (p<0.01 after surgery. There was significant increase (p<0.01 in Cu/ Zn ratio of GI cancer patients before surgery in contrast to the control. The serum copper level in patients of GI cancer decreased significantly after surgery resulting normalization of metabolic process. A significant increase in serum Zn levels have been observed after treatment of the patients. The Cu/ Zn ratio decreased significantly after the surgery. These observations clearly indicate that serum Cu, Zn and Cu/ Zn ratio are useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumors in digestive organs

  1. Photodynamic therapy in gastrointestinal cancer: a realistic option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, H

    2000-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is now a useful and practical option of the local treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. There is increasing screening and surveillance of patients at risk of oesophageal and gastric cancers. The early detection of disease is often unhelpful if an elderly or frail patient needs to be subjected to radical resectional surgery. Photodynamic therapy can eradicate and cure early mucosal disease following a single endoscopic treatment. If the disease is more advanced good local control and palliation is often possible. Overall, palliation can often be achieved using simpler methods which are highly effective and not associated with the problems of prolonged photosensitisation. It is rapidly becoming clear that the ideal indication is for the treatment of dysplastic lesions in the oesophagus associated with columnar-lined oesophagus (Barrett's oesophagus). In these circumstances a heterogeneous field change often with multifocal dysplasia or cancer can be widely eradicated. Similar areas of squamous dysplasia in the upper oesophagus can be treated. At present a major complication of stricture formation is associated with the use of some photosensitisers. The treatment of cancer at the ampulla of Vater and choriocarcinoma is also proving very effective. The treatment can be performed at endoscopy and is well tolerated and safe.

  2. Chemoprevention in gastrointestinal physiology and disease. Targeting the progression of cancer with natural products: a focus on gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoogar, Roxane; Kim, Byung-Chang; Morris, Jay; Wargovich, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The last decade has witnessed remarkable progress in the utilization of natural products for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Many agents now in the pipeline for clinical trial testing have evolved from our understanding of how human nutritional patterns account for widespread differences in cancer risk. In this review, we have focused on many of these promising agents arguing that they may provide a new strategy for cancer control: natural products once thought to be only preventive in their mode of action now are being explored for efficacy in tandem with cancer therapeutics. Natural products may reduce off-target toxicity of therapeutics while making cancers more amenable to therapy. On the horizon is the use of certain natural products, in their own right, as mitigants of late-stage cancer, a new frontier for small-molecule natural product drug discovery.

  3. HER3 over-expression and overall survival in gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Duan, Guangcai

    2015-12-15

    Published studies on the association between human epidermal factor receptor 3 (HER3) expression and overall survival (OS) in gastrointestinal cancers have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to explore the association of HER3 over-expression with OS in gastrointestinal cancers. A systematic search was performed through Medline/PubMed, Embase, Science Direct and Elsevier. The summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Overall, we observed that HER3 over-expression was associated with worse OS at five years (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.04-1.82); however, HER3 over-expression was not associated with worse OS at three years (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.97-1.84). The cumulative meta-analysis showed similar results. In subgroup analyses by tumor type, HER3 over-expression in gastric cancers was associated with worse OS at both three years (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.28-2.25) and five years (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.26-2.41). In conclusion, our results suggest that HER3 over-expression may be associated with worse overall survival in gastric cancers. Well-designed studies with a large sample size are required to further confirm our findings.

  4. Gastrointestinal Tumor Board: An Evolving Experience in Tehran Cancer Institute

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    Peiman Haddad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An

  5. Nutritional status and related factors of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Lu, Yuhan; Fang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    The scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is considered to be the most appropriate tool for detecting malnutrition in cancer patients. In particular, malignant tumours derived from the gastrointestinal tract may impair nutrient intake and absorption and cause malnutrition. We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status and related factors of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Nutritional status was determined using the scored PG-SGA in patients (n 498) with advanced gastrointestinal cancer admitted to the Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Unit at Beijing Cancer Hospital between 1 August 2012 and 28 February 2013. The possible related factors including age, sex, hospitalisation frequency and pathology were explored. We found that 98% of the patients required nutrition intervention and 54% of the patients required improved nutrition-related symptom management and/or urgent nutritional support (PG-SGA score ≥9). Factors related to malnutrition were age (r 0.103, Pcancer had a lower risk of malnutrition than patients with other types of gastrointestinal cancer (F=35.895, Pnutritional status of gastrointestinal patients, especially those at a higher risk of malnutrition, such as elderly patients, those hospitalised for the first time, male patients and those with other types of gastrointestinal cancer except rectal cancer. The nutritional status of these patients should be evaluated and they should be given proper nutrition education and nutritional support in a timely manner.

  6. Long-term risk of gastrointestinal cancers in persons with gastric or duodenal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Kirstine K; Farkas, Dóra K; Pedersen, Lars; Lund, Jennifer L; Thomsen, Reimar W; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-06-01

    Peptic ulcer predicts gastric cancer. It is controversial if peptic ulcers predict other gastrointestinal cancers, potentially related to Helicobacter pylori or shared lifestyle factors. We hypothesized that gastric and duodenal ulcers may have different impact on the risk of gastrointestinal cancers. In a nationwide cohort study using Danish medical databases 1994-2013, we quantified the risk of gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers among patients with duodenal ulcers (dominantly H. pylori-related) and gastric ulcers (dominantly lifestyle-related) compared with the general population. We started follow-up 1-year after ulcer diagnosis to avoid detection bias and calculated absolute risks of cancer and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We identified 54,565 patients with gastric ulcers and 38,576 patients with duodenal ulcers. Patient characteristics were similar in the two cohorts. The 1-5-year risk of any gastrointestinal cancer was slightly higher for gastric ulcers patients (2.1%) than for duodenal ulcers patients (2.0%), and SIRs were 1.38 (95% CI: 1.31-1.44) and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.23-1.37), respectively. The SIR of gastric cancer was higher among patients with gastric ulcer than duodenal ulcer (1.92 vs. 1.38), while the SIRs for other gastrointestinal cancers were similar (1.33 vs. 1.29). Compared with gastric ulcer patients, duodenal ulcer patients were at lower risk of smoking- and alcohol-related gastrointestinal cancers. The risk of nongastric gastrointestinal cancers is increased both for patients with gastric ulcers and with duodenal ulcers, but absolute risks are low. H. pylori may be less important for the development of nongastric gastrointestinal cancer than hypothesized.

  7. Emerging role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator- an epithelial chloride channel in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuning Hou; Xiaoqing Guan; Zhe Yang; Chunying Li

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR), a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids, has been well established as a chloride channel mainly expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues and organs such as lungs, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system, and reproductive organs. Although defective CFTR leads to cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, there is accumulating evidence that suggests a novel role of CFTR in various cancers, especially in gastroenterological cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging findings that link CFTR with various cancers, with focus on the association between CFTR defects and gastrointestinal cancers as well as the underlying mechanisms. Further study of CFTR in cancer biology may help pave a new way for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  8. Risk, diagnosis and treatment to postoperative delirium in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Rui-Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers have been undergoing surgery. As one of main postoperative complications, postoperative delirium (POD) is harmful and difficult to prevent and treat. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment to POD properly and ptomptly can promote the patient's overall recovery. However, health care providers still have many problems for POD to face in elderly,with gastrointestinal cancers during the clinical care. In this paper, Etiology, damages, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of POD in elderly with gastrointestinal cancer were reviewed, and the prospect of POD was also discussed.

  9. PCR Expression Analysis Of the Estrogeninducible Gene Bcei in Gastrointestinal and Other Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Wundrack

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed to test for tumor cell specific expression of the BCEI gene. This new marker gene, reported at first for human breast cancer, was found specifically active in various gastrointestinal carcinomas by previously applying immunohistochemistry and RNA (Northern blot analysis. Presently, by using reverse transcription -PCR analysis, a series of primary tumor tissues and established tumor cell lines were testcd for BCEI transcription. This approach was compared to immunostaining achieved by an antibody directed against the BCEI gene’s product. The result demonstrate the superior sensitivity of PCR by indicating the gene’ s expression in cases where immunohistochemical testing remained negative.

  10. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  11. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT IN CANCEROUS AND HEALTHY TISSUES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Głogowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning concentration of biogenic metals in tissues of digestive system are sparse and diversified. The objectives of this study were to determine the mean concentration of biogenic metals: Mg and Ca, in cancerous and normal tissues of digestive system. Research was conducted on samples taken from different segments of human digestive tract. Tissues were taken during biopsy, surgery, and post-mortem from Military Hospital and PROSMED Health Center Patients’ located in Cracow. Samples were mineralized by wet digestion. First, they were dried and after dry mass were obtained the samples were put into digestion flasks and 1cm3 of nitric acid 65% was added to each of them. The samples were heated for about 2 hours, at 105°C. Mineralized material was moved to tubes with a capacity of 10 cm3 and filled with distilled water up to this volume. The resulting solutions were used to analyze the content of selected elements by FAAS method. The results are expressed in micrograms per gram of dry weight of tissue (µg•g-1d.m.. Average calcium content is higher in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy women (15890,28 µg•g-1d.m. and men (13040,24 µg•g-1d.m. in comparison with tumor tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of women (5365,19 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (2459,42 µg•g-1d.m.. Average magnesium content is higher in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy women (2887,19 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (1112,69 µg•g-1 d.m., in comparison with gastrointestinal cancerous tissues of women (1146,77 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (621,42 µg•g-1 d.m.. It was shown that differences between calcium and magnesium contents in the digestive tract tissues depend on the state of health - significantly higher contents of Ca and Mg were present in the tissues of healthy men and women in comparison to the tissues of men and women with digestive tract cancer. Magnesium and calcium have protective properties (they prevent the

  12. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical imaging of breast tumors and of gastrointestinal cancer by laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Bernd; Grosenick, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging offers a high potential for noninvasive detection of cancer in humans. Recent advances in instrumentation for diffuse optical imaging have led to new capabilities for the detection of cancer in highly scattering tissue such as the female breast. We review recent developments in the detection of breast cancer in humans by fluorescent contrast agents. So far, the unspecific contrast agents indocyanine green (ICG) and omocyanine have been applied, whereas molecular probes for direct targeted imaging of this disease are still in preclinical research. We discuss recent improvements in the differentiation of malignant and benign lesions with ICG based on its enhanced extravasation in breast cancer. Whereas fluorescence imaging in thick tissue layers is hampered by strong light scattering, tissue surfaces can be investigated with high spatial resolution. As an example for superficial tumors, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) are discussed. In these investigations, protoporphyrin IX is used as a tumor-specific (due to its strong enhancement in tumor cells) target for spectroscopic identification and imaging. We present a time-gated method for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy with strong suppression of tissue autofluorescence and show results on patients with Barrett's esophagus and with colitis ulcerosa.

  14. Sapovirus as a gastrointestinal pathogen in febrile pediatric patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Olga; Lück, Sabrina; Dilloo, Dagmar; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria; Simon, Arne

    2011-12-01

    Human caliciviruses are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. Unlike norovirus, sapovirus infection is less well characterized and defined in the clinical setting of gastrointestinal disease, and there are no reports of sapovirus infections in pediatric oncology patients receiving chemotherapy treatment. Stool samples from all pediatric oncology patients presenting with fever and diarrhea at one pediatric oncology unit were tested prospectively for sapovirus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR sapovirus genogrouping was performed by nested PCR. Sapovirus was detected in 2 of 100 stool specimens prospectively sampled from 58 symptomatic pediatric oncology inpatients between December 2008 and September 2009. Both patients received low-dose chemotherapy for their underlying conditions at the time of infection with sapovirus. Genogrouping of the viruses showed the presence of a GI.1 strain and GII.3 strain, unlike the most common GI.2 strain responsible for outbreaks in different European countries. The contribution of sapovirus infection to the morbidity of pediatric cancer patients and its potential for nosocomial spread is discussed. Sapovirus, an often unrecognized pathogen, should be considered along with other viruses in pediatric cancer patients suffering from gastrointestinal disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal cancers in Iran: A Sub site analysis of 76t cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To define the sub site distribution of upper gastrointestinal cancers in three provinces of Tran. METHODS: The study was carried out in three provinces in Tran: Ardabil, Golestan, and Tehran. Tn Arbabil and Golestan, the data was collected from the sole referral center for gastrointestinal cancers and the local cancer registry. For Tehran province, data from two major private hospitals were used. All gastric and esophageal cancer patients diagnosed during the period from September 2000 and April 2002 were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 761 patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers were identified, 314 from Ardabil, 261 from Golestan, and 186 from Tehran. In Tehran, the relative rate of cancer increased from the upper esophagus to the distal stomach. In Golestan, the reverse pattern was observed. In Ardabil, the mid portion (distal esophagus and proximal stomach) was involved most frequently. CONCLUSION: There were considerable variations in the sub site of upper gastrointestinal cancers in the three provinces studied. We cannot provide any explanation for this variation. Further research aimed at explaining the discrepancies in sub site distribution of upper gastrointestinal cancers may help identify important risk factors.

  16. Hepatic metabolism of toluene after gastrointestinal uptake in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Honoré Hansen, S

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of toluene and the influence of small doses of ethanol were measured in eight male volunteers after gastrointestinal uptake, the toluene concentration in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol being used as the measures of metabolism. During toluene...... exposure to 2 mg.min-1 for 3 h the alveolar toluene concentration was 0.07 (range 0-0.11) mg.m-3; exposure to 6 mg.min-1 for 30 min increased the alveolar concentration to 0.9 (range 0.03-2.6) mg.m-3. Ingestion of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 g of ethanol per kilogram of body weight during toluene exposure of 2 mg...... doses of ethanol inhibit toluene metabolism, and the procedure is sensitive enough to measure metabolic interactions between solvents and other xenobiotics in humans....

  17. ABO blood type, diabetes and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Gong; Yun-Sheng Yang; Xiao-Mei Zhang; Ming Su; Jean Wang; Jin-Dong Han; Ming-Zhou Guo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the potential risk factors related to gastrointestinal cancer in northern China.METHODS: A total of 3314 cases of gastrointestinal cancer (esophageal, gastric, pancreatic and biliary) and 2223 controls (including healthy individuals, glioma and thyroid cancer) were analyzed by case-control study. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the association between different cancers and hepatitis B surface antigen, sex, age, blood type, diabetes, or family history of cancer.RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with gastric, biliary and pancreatic cancer with an OR of 2.0-3.0. Blood type B was significantly associated with esophageal cancer [odd ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-2.14] and biliary cancer (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.09-2.05). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was significantly higher in gastric, biliary and pancreatic cancers compared with other groups, with ORs ranging between 2.0 and 3.0. Family history of cancer was strongly associated with gastrointestinal compared with other cancers.CONCLUSION: Blood type B individuals are susceptible to esophageal and biliary cancer. Type 2 diabetes is significantly associated with gastric, biliary and especially pancreatic cancer.

  18. The fingerprint of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota: a hypothesis of molecular mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, G; Mazzola, M; Jurjus, A; Cappello, F; Carini, F; Damiani, P; Gerges Geagea, A; Zeenny, M N; Leone, A

    2017-01-01

    The precise etiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IDB) remains unclear and several factors are believed to play a role in its development and progression, including the composition of microbial communities resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Human intestinal microbiota are extensive with at least 15,000-36,000 bacterial species. However, thanks to the new development in sequencing and molecular taxonomic methodologies, our understanding of the microbiota population composition, dynamics, and ecology has greatly increased. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the maintenance of the host intestinal barrier homeostasis, while dysbiosis, which involves reduction in the microbiome diversity, can lead to progression of inflammatory disorders, such as IBD and colorectal cancer. It is hypothesized that fingerprinting characterization of the microbiota community composition is the first step in the study of this complex bacterial ecosystem and a crucial step in the targeted therapy. Molecular fingerprinting of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota could be performed by different techniques including the semi quantitation, 16SrRNA, the DNA- microarray as well as other relatively new methods which were developed to study many complex bacterial ecosystems. These techniques provide individual data and profiles, using fast and sensitive tools for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota and provide estimation of the relative presence of the microbial target groups within each individual. Such personalized information serves as a remarkable and unprecedented opportunity to improve targeted medical treatment and probably develop strategies to prevent disease.

  19. Influence of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on RNA Integrity of Gastrointestinal Cancer and Matched Adjacent Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Han, Haibo; Wang, Yixue; Song, Lijie; Cheng, Xiaojing; Xing, Xiaofang; Dong, Bin; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu

    2017-06-01

    Comparative analysis of RNA expression profiles between cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues is an important part of cancer research. High-quality RNA is essential for consistent, reliable results, especially for identification of cancer biomarkers. However, the impact of freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of RNA both in gastrointestinal cancer and paired adjacent tissues is still unclear. To investigate the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on RNA integrity and overall histomorphology of gastrointestinal cancer and paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. Gastrointestinal cancer and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues were frozen and thawed twice before extracting RNA. Total RNA in each sample was extracted with TRIzol reagents and the RNA integrity was assessed by RNA integrity number (RIN) on an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Light microscopy was then used to assess tissue composition and morphology. RIN values for all samples tended to decrease in correlation with the frequency of freeze-thawing. With an RIN cutoff value of 6, RNA extracted from pancreatic cancer tissues was not qualified after the first freeze-thaw cycle. Moreover, all RNA extracted from adjacent noncancerous tissues had nonqualifying RIN scores after the first freeze-thaw cycle, except for liver tissues. Microscopically, all samples displayed qualified tissue morphology regardless of freeze-thaw cycle frequency. Freeze-thawing affects the RNA integrity, but not the tissue morphology of gastrointestinal cancer and paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. Furthermore, the RNA extracted from adjacent noncancerous tissues is more easily degraded than that in cancer tissues.

  20. Report from the 13th annual Western canadian gastrointestinal cancer consensus conference; calgary, alberta; september 8-10, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M M; Pasieka, J; Dixon, E; McEwan, S; McKay, A; Renouf, D; Schellenberg, D; Ruether, D

    2012-12-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8-10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  1. Alarm symptoms of upper gastrointestinal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival of upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer depends on early stage diagnosis. Symptom-based guidelines and fast-track referral systems have been implemented for use in general practice. To improve diagnosis of upper GI cancer, knowledge on prevalence of alarm symptoms...

  2. Biomarkers in tissue from patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer Staal; Pappot, Helle; Lassen, Ulrik;

    2011-01-01

    Malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are amongst the most aggressive cancers and only few treatment options exist. We have recently analysed data from a phase II trial where patients with UGI cancers were treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab. The combination therapy could...

  3. Molecular targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer%胃肠癌分子靶向治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Xiang; Ximing Xu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer is one of the highly prevalent malignant diseases worldwide which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world and its management,especially in advanced stages, has evolved relatively little [1]. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide [2]. The surgical treatment is still the most effective therapy for the gastrointestinal cancer. However, the majority of the patients had lost the opporunity of surgical therapy when it was detected at advanced stage, so to seek means other than surgical treatment of gastrointestinal cancer metastasis and recurrence also has an important significance. With the deeping research of the molecular biology, molecular targeted therapy has become the hotspot and focus of comprehensive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer which is proposed against the molecular biological targets such as tumor cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion and angiogenesis. Molecular targeted therapy can be grouped into six main areas: the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, anti-angiogenic factors, cell cycle inhibitors, apoptosis promoters and matrix metalloproteinase innhibitors, cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The review of the progress are as follows.

  4. CD74 in antigen presentation, inflammation, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen J Beswick; Victor E Reyes

    2009-01-01

    CD74 is a protein whose initial role in antigen presentation was recognized two decades ago. Recent studies have revealed that it has additional functions as a receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and as a receptor for an important human pathogen, Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori). The role of CD74 as a receptor is important because after binding of migration inhibitory factor or H pylori, NF-kB and Erk1/2 activation occurs, along with the induction of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. This review provides an up-to-date account of the functions of CD74 and how it might be involved in inflammation and cancer within the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Metastatic breast cancer to the gastrointestinal tract: A case series and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Nazareno; Donald Taves; Harold G Preiksaitis

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer involving the hepatobiliary tract or ascites secondary to peritoneal carcinomatosis has been well described. Luminal gastrointestinal tract involvement is less common and recognition of the range of possible presentations is important for early and accurate diagnosis and treatment. We report 6 patients with a variety of presentations of metastatic breast cancer of the luminal gastrointestinal tract. These include oropharyngeal and esophageal involvement presenting as dysphagia with one case of pseudoachalasia, a linitis plastica-like picture with gastric narrowing and thickened folds, small bowel obstruction and multiple strictures mimicking Crohn's disease, and a colonic neoplasm presenting with obstruction. Lobular carcinoma,representing only 10% of breast cancers is more likely to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract. These patients presented with gastrointestinal manifestations after an average of 9.5 years and as long as 20 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer. Given the increased survival of breast cancer patients with current therapeutic regimes, more unusual presentations of metastatic disease, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract can be anticipated.

  6. Study of orthotopic transplantation model of human gastrointestinal cancerand detection of micrometastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hui Cui; Uwe Krueger; Doris Henne-Bruns; Bernd Kremer; Holger Kalthoff

    2000-01-01

    AIM To establish a relevant animal model of human gastrointestinal cancer, which can be used forrepetitive investigations and may improve our understanding of carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis.METHODS Intact tissue of human colorectal and pancreatic cancers was transplanted in nude mice. Thebiological characteristics of the original and corresponding transplanted tumors were investigated by HEstaining, PAS staining and immunostaining. The metastases in livers and lungs of the nude mice wereinvestigated by immunostaining with biotinylated mab KL-1 and by RT-PCR using CK20 specific primers.RESULTS Nine of 16 surgical specimens grew in the nude mice subcutaneously and/or orthotopically (4 of6 colorectal and 5 of 10 pancreatic cancer). Tumor cell content of the specimens and freezing of tissuespecimens are important factors influencing the growth of transplanted tumor. In the group of fresh tumortissues with greater than 50% tumor cell content, transplantation rate was 100% (3 cases of pancreatic cancerand 3 cases of colorectal cancer). The orthotopically transplanted tumors resembled the original tumormorphologically and biologically, including TAA expression such as CEA by immunohistochemistry, andCEA level in the serum of mice. Ki-67 labeling index and the expression of TAA especially K-ras, 17-1A and RA-96, were associated with the potential of tumor growth in nude mice. Micrometastases in the lungs andlivers of tumor bearing mice could be detected by immunostaining with biotinylated mab KL-1 and CK20-sepcific RT-PCR.CONCLUSION An orthotopic transplantation model for human colon and pancreatic cancer in nude micehas been established. The sensitive detection methods with CK-immunohistochemistry and CK20-RT-PCRwere also established to study xenotransplanted human cancer and its metastatic cancer cells in the liver andlung of nude mice. This study may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of cancer metastasis and indeveloping new diagnostic methods and

  7. EFFECTS OF PERIOPERATIVE CIMETIDINE ADMINISTRATION ON NATURAL KILLER CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; BAI De-jiao; WANG Kun; YANG Guo-liang; YUAN Hong-yin; SHAO Hua

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of perioperative use of cimetidine on natural killer (NK) cells in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients. Methods: 49 GI cancer patients were randomized into treatment group which took cimetidine in the perioperative period, and control group which did not take the drug. NK cells were measured by immunocytochemical method, using mouse-anti-human CD57 monoclonal antibody as the primary antibody. Blood samples from 20 healthy volunteers were treated in the same way as normal control. Comparisons were made within and between groups. Results: The NK cell percentage of normal control was 18.50±2.31. Both groups of patients had significantly lower than normal NK percentages before treatment (P<0.05). NK cell percentages at admission,before operation, on the 2nd and the 10th postoperative days were 14.60±3.91, 15.64±3.61, 17.40±3.28, 20.68±4.13, respectively, for the treatment group, and 14.88±2.76, 13.17±2.93, 14.50±2.77, 15.67±2.55, respectively,for control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Perioperative cimetidine application can help restore NK cells. The drug may be useful to reverse postoperative immuno-depression in GI cancer patients.

  8. Autophagy in 5-Fluorouracil Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Trends and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Cheng Tang; Yi-Li Feng; Xiao Liang; Xiu-Jun Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combination therapies are standard treatments for gastrointestinal cancer, where the modulation of autophagy is becoming increasingly important in offering effective treatment for patients in clinical practice.This review focuses on the role of autophagy in 5-FU-induced tumor suppression and cancer therapy in the digestive system.Data Sources: All articles published in English from 1996 to date those assess the synergistic effect ofautophagy and 5-FU in gastrointestinal cancer therapy were identified through a systematic online search by use of PubMed.The search terms were "autophagy" and "5-FU" and ("colorectal cancer" or"hepatocellular carcinoma" or"pancreatic adenocarcinoma" or"esophageal cancer" or"gallbladder carcinoma" or "gastric cancer").Study Selection: Critical reviews on relevant aspects and original articles reporting in vitro and/or in vivo results regarding the efficiency ofautophagy and 5-FU in gastrointestinal cancer therapy were reviewed, analyzed, and summarized.The exclusion criteria for the articles were as follows: (1) new materials (e.g., nanomaterial)-induced autophagy;(2) clinical and experimental studies on diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in digestive system cancers;and (3) immunogenic cell death for anticancer chemotherapy.Results: Most cell and animal experiments showed inhibition ofautophagy by either pharmacological approaches or via genetic silencing of autophagy regulatory gene, resulting in a promotion of 5-FU-induced cancer cells death.Meanwhile, autophagy also plays a pro-death role and may mediate cell death in certain cancer cells where apoptosis is defective or difficult to induce.The dual role of autophagy complicates the use of autophagy inhibitor or inducer in cancer chemotherapy and generates inconsistency to an extent in clinic trials.Conclusion: Autophagy might be a therapeutic target that sensitizes the 5-FU treatment in gastrointestinal cancer.

  9. MicroRNA-Based Therapy in Animal Models of Selected Gastrointestinal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer accounts for the 20 most frequent cancer diseases worldwide and there is a constant urge to bring new therapeutics with new mechanism of action into the clinical practice. Quantity of in vitro and in vivo evidences indicate, that exogenous change in pathologically imbalanced microRNAs (miRNAs) is capable of transforming the cancer cell phenotype. This review analyzed preclinical miRNA-based therapy attempts in animal models of gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and colo...

  10. The perioperative changes in physical function and physique of patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to observe the long-term change in physical function and physique from perioperative to discharge of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 47 perioperative patients with gastrointestinal cancer [25 men and 22 women aged 61.3 ± 11.0 years (mean ± SD)]. Six-minute walk distance was measured for physical function and body mass index and calf circumference were measured for physique. These items were evaluated at three time points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. [Results] Significant declines in physical function and physique were observed temporarily after surgery. Physical function improved equally before surgery in after discharge. On the other hand, postoperative physique was significantly lower than that observed pre-operatively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the perioperative changes in physical function and physique follow different courses in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  11. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  12. Reactivating effect of levamisole on cell-mediated immunity in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa,Hiroaki

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated immunity was studied in 23 cases of advanced gastrointestinal cancer. The patients received levamisole at 150 mg/day for three consecutive days each week for four weeks. In cases at the terminal stage of gastrointestinal cancer, the blastformation rate of peripheral blood lymphocytes against phytohemagglutinin (PHA after the administration of levamisole showed a slight increase, but cases with blastformation rates over 40% increased markedly three or four weeks after the initial administration of levamisole. The peripheral blood lymphocyte count showed little change in these cases.

  13. Meta-analysis of SIRT1 expression as a prognostic marker for overall survival in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuangjie; Jiang, Jinghui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xinhai; Gan, Yu; Tang, Yifan

    2017-09-22

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a well-characterized NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, is generally up-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers. However, the prognostic value of SIRT1 in gastrointestinal cancer remains inconclusive. Therefore, we report a meta-analysis of the association of SIRT1 expression with overall survival (OS) in gastrointestinal cancer. PubMed was systematically searched for studies evaluating the expression of SIRT1 and OS in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Fifteen studies (six evaluating colorectal cancer, three evaluating hepatocellular carcinoma, three evaluating gastric cancer, and one each evaluating pancreatic cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and gastroesophageal junction cancer) with 3,024 patients were finally included. The median percentage of gastrointestinal cancers with high SIRT1 expression was 52.5%. Overall analysis showed an association between high SIRT1 expression and worse OS [summary hazard ratio (sHR) 1.54, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.21-1.96] in gastrointestinal cancer. However, heterogeneity was observed across studies, which was mainly attributed to cancer type. Subgroup analysis revealed that SIRT1 was significantly associated with worse OS in non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer (sHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.50-2.21), in particular in gastric cancer (sHR 3.19, 95% CI 1.97-5.16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (sHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16-2.01), with no evidence of heterogeneity or bias. However, no association was observed in colorectal cancer (sHR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81-1.62). In conclusion, high SIRT1 expression is a potential marker for poor survival in non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer, but not in colorectal cancer.

  14. Micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with of the gastrointestinal cancer

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    Bahareh Abbasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Micronuclei has been discussed as an indicator of chromosomal damage in radiotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the changes of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with of the gastrointestinal cancers pre- and post-chemo-radiation. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with gastrointestinal cancers who referred to oncology ward of Rasool Akram Hospital in Tehran from January to March, 2016. After obtaining informed consent from all patients, 3 cc of peripheral blood samples was obtained for cytogenetic assessment in two stages, before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. The frequency of micronuclei was examined per 1,000 lymphocytes with two nuclei. Results: Sixty-one patients were evaluated and 11 patients were excluded at the end of study. Fifty patients (34 males, 16 females with a 59.74±13.34 years old were evaluated. 24 (48% and 26 patients (52% were in the less than 60 years’ age group and more than one, respectively. 37 cases (74% with gastric cancer and 13 cases (26% with esophageal cancer enrolled in the study. The significant differences were meaningful pre- and post-treatment (44.88 vs. 364.4 /1000 cells (P=0.005. Also, there were no significant differences of the mean number of micronuclei between pre- and post-treatment according the type of cancer, sex and age groups. Further analysis according by age, sex and cancer of the esophagus or stomach showed no statistically significant differences between the groups in micronuclei number. In other words, chemotherapy and radiation in patients, regardless of age, sex and type of gastrointestinal cancer is very significant impact on the micronuclei production in peripheral blood of patients. Conclusion: The number of micronuclei in peripheral blood increased significantly in patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer (esophagus and stomach under the chemo-radiation therapy. It seems that this increase was not

  15. Lung cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal system: An enigmatic occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badipatla, Kanthi Rekha; Yadavalli, Niharika; Vakde, Trupti; Niazi, Masooma; Patel, Harish K

    2017-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung infrequently metastasizes to the gastrointestinal tract. We report a rare case of a 65-year-old male with no respiratory symptoms diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung by histopathological examination of metastatic sites which included an ulcer in the gastric body and a mass in the rectum. Metastatic disease also involved the liver as well. Patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy but unfortunately expired five months after the diagnosis was made. PMID:28344748

  16. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  17. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  18. Associations between nutritional status, weight loss, radiotherapy treatment toxicity and treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Amanda; Kiss, Nicole; Hodgson, Belinda; Crowe, Timothy C; Walsh, Adam D

    2011-02-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancers are susceptible to nutritional deterioration which may be compounded by radiotherapy treatment toxicities. This study aimed to determine whether nutritional status at radiotherapy commencement or changes in nutritional status throughout radiotherapy were associated with treatment toxicity and outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Seventy-three gastrointestinal cancer patients receiving curative radiotherapy underwent medical record audits assessing body weight, radiotherapy toxicity, unplanned treatment breaks or hospital admissions and completion of prescribed treatment/s. Nutritional status was assessed in a subset of patients (n = 11) using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool. Seventy-five percent of patients lost weight throughout radiotherapy. Weight loss was significantly greater in patients experiencing unplanned radiotherapy breaks (-3.1% vs -1.6%, p nutritional status during radiotherapy (as measured by weight loss) may be associated with poorer short-term treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Patient numbers were too small to definitively determine the effect of nutritional status at radiotherapy commencement or changes in nutritional status throughout radiotherapy (defined by PG-SGA) on treatment outcomes. Further research is required to investigate this in larger, longer-term studies. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor axis are associated with gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, J.; Salomon, J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Witteman, B.J.; Dura, P.; Lacko, M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Numerous factors influence the development of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a role in embryonic and postnatal growth and tissue repair. Elevated levels of IGFs, low levels of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and over-expression of IGF recept

  20. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) on surgical decision-making in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau; Edwin, B; Hünerbein, M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an integrated part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. Whether the clinical impact of EUS differs between surgeons from different countries is unknown. The same applies to the potential...

  1. Phase II trial of erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer Staal; Olesen, René K; Pfeiffer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers have a poor prognosis and only few treatment options. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are valid targets in many solid tumours, and they have synergistic effects in preclinical studies....

  2. Photodynamic Therapy for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers during Past 25 Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the status of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for upper gastrointestinal cancers, and then discuss how to solve the problems that hinder the development of PDT. Methods: A total of 30 pertinent literatures about PDT for upper gastrointestinal cancers during past 25 years were collected through the retrieval of several related medical databases (Chinese Medical Current Contents, China Bio-Medical Bibliographic Database, China Journal Fulltext Database). The data, including the gender, age of patients, tumor position, pathologic findings, treatment efficacy, adverse effects and the applied laser and photosensitizer, were statistically analyzed.Results: For all the 1687 cases with upper gastrointestinal cancers, the excellent-effective rate (complete remission or prominent remission) and effective rate (complete remission or prominent remission or minor remission) were 53.2% and 87%, respectively. The therapeutic effect of combined treatment(PDT with other methods) was superior to that of PDT (u=4.456, P<0.01). All the involved pathological types were sensitive to PDT. Different photosensitizers and lasers were used by different authors, but all of them were effective without any serious side effect. Conclusion: PDT shows a radical effect on the tumors of early stage and a favorable palliative effect on the tumors of advanced stage, so it is one of the optional strategies for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal cancers.

  3. Comparing upper gastrointestinal X-ray and endoscopy for gastric cancer diagnosis in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoo-Yeon; Lee; Eun-Cheol; Park; Jae; Kwan; Jun; Kui; Son; Choi; Myung-Il; Hahm

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the cost and accuracy of upper gastrointestinal(GI)X-ray and upper endoscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer using data from the 2002-2004 Korean National Cancer Screening Program(NCSP). METHODS:The study population included 1 503 646 participants in the 2002-2004 stomach cancer screening program who underwent upper GI X-ray or endoscopy.The accuracy of screening was defined as the probability of detecting gastric cancer.We calculated the probability by merging data from the NCSP and the Kore...

  4. Autophagy in 5-Fluorouracil Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Cheng Tang; Yi-Li Feng; Xiao Liang; Xiu-Jun Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combination therapies are standard treatments for gastrointestinal cancer, where the modulation of autophagy is becoming increasingly important in offering effective treatment for patients in clinical practice. This review focuses on the role of autophagy in 5-FU-induced tumor suppression and cancer therapy in the digestive system. Data Sources: All articles published in English from 1996 to date those assess the synergistic effect of autophagy and 5-...

  5. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H;

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered......-angiotensin system....

  6. Rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding owing to hepatic cancer invasion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Ding; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hong-Guo; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Zhao, Da-Jian; Hu, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-21

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to bleeding that arises from the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The primary reason for gastrointestinal bleeding associated with hepatocellular carcinoma is rupture of a varicose vein owing to pericardial hypotension. We report a rare case of gastrointestinal bleeding with hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient who presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. The initial diagnosis was gastric cancer with metastasis to the multiple lymph nodes of the lesser curvature. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, which identified two lesions in the gastric wall. Total gastrectomy and hepatic local excision was then performed. Pathological results indicated that the hepatocellular carcinoma had invaded the stomach directly, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. The patient is alive with a disease-free survival of 1 year since the surgery. Hepatocellular carcinoma with gastric invasion should be considered as a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, especially with lesions located in the left lateral hepatic lobe. Surgery is the best solution.

  7. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  8. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes ... in “ How are gastrointestinal stromal tumors diagnosed? ” Other gastrointestinal tract cancers It is important to understand that GISTs ...

  9. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    of their functional significance. Alterations of ICC reported in achalasia of cardia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction, Hirschsprung's disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, slow transit constipation, and some other disorders of GI motility as well as in gastrointestinal...... stromal tumors are reviewed, with emphasis on the place of ICC in the pathophysiology of disease....

  10. The human gastrointestinal microbiota - An unexplored frontier for pharmaceutical discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.; Bouwman, J.; Venema, K.; Montijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbors microorganisms (the microbiota) of vast phylogentic, genomic, and metabolic diversity, and recent years have seen a rapid development in the techniques for studying these complex microbial ecosystems. It is increasingly apparent that the GIT microbi

  11. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  12. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morales-Sánchez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  13. Human papillomaviruses and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedicke, Juliane; Iftner, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small oncogenic DNA viruses of which more than 200 types have been identified to date. A small subset of these is etiologically linked to the development of anogenital malignancies such as cervical cancer. In addition, recent studies established a causative relationship between these high-risk HPV types and tonsillar and oropharyngeal cancer. Clinical management of cervical cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is largely standardized and involves surgical removal of the tumor tissue as well as adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Notably, the response to therapeutic intervention of HPV-positive HNSCCs has been found to be better as compared to HPV-negative tumors. Although the existing HPV vaccine is solely licensed for the prevention of cervical cancer, it might also have prophylactic potential for the development of high-risk HPV-associated HNSCCs. Another group of viruses, which belongs to the beta-HPV subgroup, has been implicated in nonmelanoma skin cancer, however, the etiology remains to be established. Treatment of HPV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer is based on local excision. However, topically applied immune-modulating substances represent non-surgical alternatives for the management of smaller cutaneous tumors. In this review we present the current knowledge of the role of HPV in cancer development and discuss clinical management options as well as targets for the development of future intervention therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship of colorectal cancer with familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps in Khorramabad(2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh Ghanadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps with colorectal cancer incidence in khorramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients with definite diagnosis of colon cancer based on colonoscopy and pathology in 2012. The control group included 56 persons from outpatients without a history of gastrointestinal diseases admitted to the skin and eye clinics of shohada ashayer hospital, who were matched with the patients for age and gender. The two groups were studied in terms of familial history of gastrointestinal diseases in immediate relatives and personal history of colorectal polyps using a self-constructed questionnaire. Fisher exact test and odds ratio estimate was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 52.8±15.5 years old, and 56% were male. A significant relationship was found between familial history of gastric and colon cancers in immediate relatives and colorectal cancer incidence in the patients (p<0.05. The odds ratio estimate of colorectal cancer incidence in the individuals with a positive history of gastric cancer and colon cancers in immediate relatives were respectively 3.96(CI=1.44-6.61 and 6.75 (CI=2.4-11.1 times of the estimate in the control individuals. No significant relationship was found between a history of esophageal cancers in immediate relatives with colon cancer incidence in the patients (p=0.61. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between a history of colon polyps and colorectal cancer incidence (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results of the present study should be confirmed in the further studies with larger sample sizes, so that serious measures to control the cancer can be taken through developing comprehensive prevention programs based on screening.

  15. The role of chronic inflammation in the development of gastrointestinal cancers: reviewing cancer prevention with natural anti-inflammatory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Gil, Hong Kwon; Kim, Jinhyung; Chang, Ji Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators alter the local environment of tumors, known as the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, chronic inflammation induces DNA damage, but understanding this hazard may help in the search for new chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer which attenuate inflammation. In the clinic, GI cancer still remains a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, chemoprevention with anti-inflammatory agents is thought to be a realistic approach to reduce GI cancer. Proton pump inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-sense targeted smad7 and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been investigated for their potential to prevent inflammation-based GI cancer. Besides these, a wide variety of natural products have also shown potential for the prevention of GI cancer. In this review, the authors will provide insights to explain the mechanistic connection between inflammation and GI cancer, as well as describe a feasible cancer prevention strategy based on anti-inflammatory treatments.

  16. Excitation-emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Ts; Borisova, E.; Penkov, N.; Vladimirov, B.; Zhelyazkova, A.; Avramov, L.

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an improved fluorescence technique for cancer diagnostics in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigate the fluorescence of ex vivo colorectal (cancerous and healthy) tissue samples using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) steady-state approaches. The obtained results are processed for revealing characteristic fluorescence spectral features with a valuable diagnostic meaning. The main tissue fluorophores, contributing to the observed fluorescence, are tyrosine, tryptophan, NADH, FAD, collagen and elastin. Based on the results of the Mann-Whitney test as useful parameters for differentiation of gastrointestinal cancer from normal mucosa, we suggest using excitation wavelengths in the range 300 - 360 nm for fluorescence spectroscopy and wavelengths intervals of 60 nm and 90 nm for SFS.

  17. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  18. Relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalina, A Z; Lee, V C; Kandiah, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among gastrointestinal cancer survivors attending the oncology outpatient clinic in Hospital Selayang, Malaysia. A total of 70 gastrointestinal cancer survivors with a mean age of 52.54 +/- 14.59 years (95% CI: 47.48 - 57.60) were included in this study. Results showed that 40% of the patients were classified as having low physical activity. The mean Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA) score was 10.27 +/- 7.36 (95% CI: 8.23-12.31) and nearly half the patients (48.6%) were identified as severely malnourished (Stage C). Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GQLFI) score was 103.57 +/- 23.85 (95% CI: 92.94-114.20), and about 24.3% of the patients were classified as having a low quality of life. Pearson's correlation test showed a highly significant negative relationship between nutritional status and quality of life (r = -0.661, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA), the better the quality of life of the survivors (high total mean score of GQLFI). There was a significant negative relationship between physical activity level and nutritional status score (r = -0.309, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA). This study shows a significant relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. Those low in nutritional status have a low quality of life while survivors with higher nutritional status have a better quality of life.

  19. Specific expression of human intelectin-1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma and gastrointestinal goblet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Washimi

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a fatal tumor. It is often hard to discriminate MPM from metastatic tumors of other types because currently, there are no reliable immunopathological markers for MPM. MPM is differentially diagnosed by some immunohistochemical tests on pathology specimens. In the present study, we investigated the expression of intelectin-1, a new mesothelioma marker, in normal tissues in the whole body and in many cancers, including MPM, by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that in normal tissues, human intelectin-1 was mainly secreted from gastrointestinal goblet cells along with mucus into the intestinal lumen, and it was also expressed, to a lesser extent, in mesothelial cells and urinary epithelial cells. Eighty-eight percent of epithelioid-type MPMs expressed intelectin-1, whereas sarcomatoid-type MPMs, biphasic MPMs, and poorly differentiated MPMs were rarely positive for intelectin-1. Intelectin-1 was not expressed in other cancers, except in mucus-producing adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that intelectin-1 is a better marker for epithelioid-type MPM than other mesothelioma markers because of its specificity and the simplicity of pathological assessment. Pleural intelectin-1 could be a useful diagnostic marker for MPM with applications in histopathological identification of MPM.

  20. Decrease of serum carnitine levels in patients with or without gastrointestinal cancer cachexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariano Malaguarnera; Corrado Risino; Maria Pia Gargante; Giovanni Oreste; Gloria Barone; Anna Veronica Tomasello; Mario Costanzo; Matteo Angelo Cannizzaro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the levels of serum carnitine in patients with cancer in digestive organs and to compare them with other cancers in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms of cachexia.METHODS: Fifthy-five cachectic patients with or without gastrointestinal cancer were enrolled in the present study. They underwent routine laboratory investigations,including examination of the levels of various forms of carnitine present in serum (i.e., long-chain acylcarnitine,short-chain acylcarnitine, free carnitine, and total carnitine). These values were compared with those found in 60 cancer patients in good nutritional status as well as with those of 30 healthy control subjects.RESULTS: When the cachectic patients with gastrointestinal cancer were compared with the cachectic patients without gastrointestinal cancer, the difference was -6.8 μmol/L in free carnitine (P<0.005), 0.04 μmol/L in long chain acylcarnitine (P<0.05), 8.7 μmol/L in total carnitine (P<0.001). In the cachectic patients with or without gastrointestinal cancer, the difference was 12.2μmol/L in free carnitine (P<0.001), 4.60 μmol/L in short chain acylcarnitine (P<0.001), and 0.60 μmol/L in long-chain acylcarnitine (P<0.005) and 17.4 μmol/L in total carnitine (P<0.001). In the cachectic patients with gastrointestinal cancer and the healthy control subjects, the difference was 15.5 μmol/L in free carnitine (P<0.001), 5.2 μmol/L in short-chain acylcarnitine (P< 0.001), 1.0 μmol/L in long chain acylcarnitine (P <0.001), and 21.8μmol/L in total carnitine (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of carnitine in terminal neoplastic patients are decreased greatly due to the decreased dietary intake and impaired endogenous synthesis of this substance. These low serum carnitine levels also contribute to the progression of cachexia in cancer patients.

  1. Gastrointestinal permeability in ovarian cancer and breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichá Alena

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination of platinum derivatives with paclitaxel is currently the standard front line regimen for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma, and represents also an active regimen in patients with metastatic breast or unknown primary carcinomas. Measurement of intestinal permeability represents one of the potential methods of noninvasive laboratory assessment of gastrointestinal mucositis induced by chemotherapy, but little is known about intestinal permeability in patients treated with paclitaxel or platinum. Methods Intestinal permeability was assessed in 36 breast and ovarian cancer patients treated with paclitaxel/platinum combination by measuring, using capillary gas chromatography, urinary sucrose, lactulose, xylose and mannitol after oral challenge. The significance of differences during the therapy compared to pre-treatment values was studied by Wilcoxon paired test. The differences between groups of patient were studied by Mann-Whitney U test. Fisher exact test was used to compare the frequency in different subgroups. Results After administration of the first dose, a significant (p Conclusion A transient significant increase in lactulose/monosaccharide and sucrose/monosaccharide ratios was observed in ovarian and breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and platinum. Increased lactulose absorption, lactulose/mannitol, sucrose/mannitol and lactulose/xylose ratios were evident in patients with grade 3 or 4 toxicity, and increased baseline lactulose/mannitol ratio predicted serious toxicity.

  2. Kallikrein-related peptidases in cancers of gastrointestinal tract: an inside view of their role and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardoutsos, Dimitrios; Gazouli, Maria; Machairas, Anastasios; Bramis, Ioannis; Zografos, Georgios C

    2014-01-01

    Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) and is related peptidases (KLK2-KLK15) are a family of 15 homologous serine proteases, participating in numerous processes of normal physiology. Considering the irreversible impact of proteases on substrates, the tissue-dependent regulation of KLKs activity becomes crucial for their beneficial role in normal homeostasis. Moreover, KLKs expression is strongly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level by steroid hormones and miRNAs, respectively. Deregulation of KLKs expression, secretion and/or activation has been observed in most human malignancies and there is a trend to identify their role in the multi-complex process of cancer development. The identification of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, cell-surface receptors, cell-surface adhesion molecules and growth factors among substrates, clearly support the driving role of KLK abnormal expression and function during tumorigenesis and cancer progression. KLKs have also clinical utility in cancer diagnosis and monitoring like KLK 3 (PSA) in prostate cancer. In this review, we tried to summarize the existing literature about the role of KLKs in gastrointestinal cancers as well as to emphasize their clinical significance for patients' prognosis.

  3. Validation of EORTC IN-PATSAT32 for Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishui; Xie, Shumin; Liu, Jiahao; Sun, Weilin; Guo, Hui; Hu, Yingbin; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    To test the psychometric properties and applicability of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer In-patient Satisfaction with Care Questionnaire 32 (EORTC IN-PATSAT32) for Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer. A total of 106 inpatients with gastrointestinal cancer at Cangzhou Center Hospital were enrolled in this study. All were treated at Cangzhou Center Hospital from July 2013-March 2014. All participants self-administered the EORTC IN-PATSAT32 and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). The Cronbach's α coefficients were >0.70 for all scales of the EORTC IN-PATSAT32. Multitrait scaling analysis showed that all-item scale correlation coefficients met the standard of convergent validity, while only 50.0% met the standard of discriminant validity. A weak correlation was found between the scales and single items of the EORTC IN-PATSAT32 and EORTC QLQ-C30. The EORTC IN-PATSAT32 appears to be a reliable, valid, and acceptable instrument for measuring patient satisfaction among Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  4. NOTCH receptors in gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers: oncogenes or tumor suppressors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tingting; Zhou, Yuhang; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; To, Ka Fai; Kang, Wei

    2016-12-09

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks the most common cancer types and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Due to delayed diagnosis and high metastatic frequency, 5-year survival rate of GC is rather low. It is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and host genetic alterations that deregulate multiple signaling pathways. The Notch signaling pathway, a highly conserved system in the regulation of the fate in several cell types, plays a pivotal role in cell differentiation, survival and proliferation. Notch is also one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in tumors and its aberrant activation plays a key role in cancer advancement. Whether Notch cascade exerts oncogenic or tumor suppressive function in different cancer types depends on the cellular context. Mammals have four NOTCH receptors that modulate Notch pathway activity. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary on the functional role of NOTCH receptors in gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers. Increasing knowledge of NOTCH receptors in gastrointestinal cancers will help us recognize the underlying mechanisms of Notch signaling and develop novel therapeutic strategies for GC.

  5. Serglycin in human cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Jian Li; Chao-Nan Qian

    2011-01-01

    Serglycin belongs to a family of small proteoglycans with Ser-Gly dipeptide repeats,and it is modified with different types of glycosaminoglycan side chains.Intracellular serglycin affects the retention and secretion of proteases,chemokines,or other cytokines by physically binding to these factors in secretory granules.Extracellular serglycin has been found to be released by several types of human cancer cells,and it is able to promote the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.Serglycin can bind to CD44,which is another glycoprotein located in cellular membrane.Serglycin's function of promoting cancer cell metastasis depends on glycosylation of its core protein,which can be achieved by autocrine as well as paracrine secretion mechanisms.Further investigations are warranted to elucidate serglycin signaling mechanisms with the goal of targeting them to prevent cancer cell metastasis.

  6. Breast cancer metastases to the stomach and colon mimicking primary gastrointestinal cancer: Four cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Uskent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intraluminal gastric and colonic metastases of the breast cancer are very rare and may sometimes prove a  diagnostic dilemma to distinguish from primary gastric and colonic cancers. It is important to make the distinction in order to navigate the proper treatment approach, which is a systemic treatment rather than surgery if the disease is me- tastatic. The spread to the gastrointestinal (GI tract is more frequent in lobular histology and according to a number of investigators, it is related to a particular tropism of lobular cells toward gastrointestinal mucosa. Any region of GI tract may be involved, from the tongue to the anus. Over the last decade, among the 1,100 breast cancer cases registered at our institutions, we diagnosed four patients with breast cancer who had metastases to the stomach and/or colon and presented symptoms that simulated primary gastrointestinal cancer. A total of 84 out of the 1,100 patients experienced invasive lobular histology. Among the four patients with GI tract metastases, three were diagnosed with lobular histology – two of whom had the signet ring cell subtype. The remaining patient was diagnosed with triple negative invasive ductal carcinoma; however, it clinically resembled invasive lobular carcinoma. Clinical and pathological features of these cases, as well as the review of related literature are discussed in this report.

  7. Measuring, comparing and improving clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Henneman, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, hospital variation concerning various surgical outcomes is illustrated, thereby exploring the usability of these outcomes for hospital comparisons, both from a clinical and methodological point of view. Moreover, the studies provide insight in risk factors for adverse events in colorectal and oesophageal cancer surgery, focusing on the mechanism behind postoperative complications leading to mortality or not.

  8. Variations in serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in advanced gastrointestinal cancer treated with polychemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanni, A; Tomirotti, M; Licciardello, L; Annibali, E; Biraghi, M; Trovato, M; Fittipaldi, M; Adamoli, P; Curtarelli, G

    1979-06-30

    Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels (SCL, SCeL) in 57 patients with advanced cancer of the stomach (35 cases) or large intestine (22 cases) treated with polychemotherapy were studies. In gastroenteric cancer, SCL, which are already high in untreated patients, have a tendency to increase further in cases of progression of the disease, while they seem to significantly decrease in cases of remission. SCeL during the trial appeared to be correlated to the clinical evolution of the disease only in the case of stomach cancer. In large intestine cancer, SCeL did not show any significant variation in relation to the normal range. These observations, in particular on the behavior of SCL in the neoplasms of the digestive tract, are in accordance with the results of other studies. The authors are inclined to attach a diagnostic and prognostic value to the variation in SCL and SCeL in gastrointestinal cancer.

  9. ACG clinical guideline: Genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngal, Sapna; Brand, Randall E; Church, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Hampel, Heather L; Burt, Randall W

    2015-02-01

    This guideline presents recommendations for the management of patients with hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes. The initial assessment is the collection of a family history of cancers and premalignant gastrointestinal conditions and should provide enough information to develop a preliminary determination of the risk of a familial predisposition to cancer. Age at diagnosis and lineage (maternal and/or paternal) should be documented for all diagnoses, especially in first- and second-degree relatives. When indicated, genetic testing for a germline mutation should be done on the most informative candidate(s) identified through the family history evaluation and/or tumor analysis to confirm a diagnosis and allow for predictive testing of at-risk relatives. Genetic testing should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling to ensure the patient's informed decision making. Patients who meet clinical criteria for a syndrome as well as those with identified pathogenic germline mutations should receive appropriate surveillance measures in order to minimize their overall risk of developing syndrome-specific cancers. This guideline specifically discusses genetic testing and management of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Cowden syndrome, serrated (hyperplastic) polyposis syndrome, hereditary pancreatic cancer, and hereditary gastric cancer.

  10. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index: assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Alberici Pastore; Silvana Paiva Orlandi; Maria Cristina Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the Inflammatory-Nutritional Index (INI) in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients. Methods: Longitudinal study, including patients from a chemotherapy service in Brazil, between July 2008 and May 2010. INI (Albumin/CRP) and nutritional status (by Subjective Global Assessment - SGA) were evaluated. Risk INI was defined as lower than 0.35. The mean follow-up of survival was 1.6 year. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.1™. Res...

  11. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients' physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer.

  12. Relationship between physical activity and function in elderly patients discharged after surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in physical activity (PA) from before surgery to after discharge among elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer and to examine the relationships between PA, function, and physique after discharge in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 18 elderly patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer [10 males and 8 females, aged 71.4 ± 4.2 years (mean ± SD)]. We evaluated patients’ PA, function, and physique before surgery and after discharge. Calorie consumption as calculated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short version was measured for PA. Isometric knee extension force (IKEF), the timed up and go test (TUGT), and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were measured for function. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for physique. [Results] Significant declines in PA and BMI were observed after discharge among the study participants. In addition, a significant correlation between PA and IKEF was observed in the discharge phase. [Conclusion] These results suggest that PA after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and related to the functioning of the lower extremities in the same period in elderly patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:26504327

  13. Application of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: review of recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Jose; Melguizo, Consolacion; Perazzoli, Gloria; Cabeza, Laura; Carrasco, Esther; Oliver, Jaime; Jiménez-Luna, Cristina; Leiva, Maria C; Ortiz, Raúl; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers remain one of the main causes of death in developed countries. The main obstacles to combating these diseases are the limitations of current diagnostic techniques and the low stability, availability, and/or specificity of pharmacological treatment. In recent years, nanotechnology has revolutionized many fields of medicine, including oncology. The association of chemotherapeutic agents with nanoparticles offers improvement in the solubility and stability of antitumor agents, avoidance of drug degradation, and reductions in therapeutic dose and toxicity, increasing drug levels in tumor tissue and decreasing them in healthy tissue. The use of specific molecules that drive nanoparticles to the tumor tissue represents a major advance in therapeutic specificity. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in contrast agents has yielded improvements in the diagnosis and the follow-up of tumors. These nanotechnologies have all been applied in gastrointestinal cancer treatment, first in vitro, and subsequently in vivo, with promising results reported in some clinical trials. A large number of patents have been generated by nanotechnology research over recent years. The objective of this paper is to review patents on the clinical use of nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and therapy and to offer an overview of the impact of nanotechnology on the management of this disease.

  14. Cancer sniffer dogs: how can we translate this peculiarity in laboratory medicine? Results of a pilot study on gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Concetta; Kelman, Edgar; Vene, Kristel; Gioffreda, Domenica; Tavano, Francesca; Vilu, Raivo; Terracciano, Fulvia; Pata, Illar; Adamberg, Kaarel; Andriulli, Angelo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-06-07

    Identification of cancer biomarkers to allow early diagnosis is an urgent need for many types of tumors, whose prognosis strongly depends on the stage of the disease. Canine olfactory testing for detecting cancer is an emerging field of investigation. As an alternative, here we propose to use GC-Olfactometry (GC/O), which enables the speeding up of targeted biomarker identification and analysis. A pilot study was conducted in order to determine odor-active compounds in urine that discriminate patients with gastrointestinal cancers from control samples (healthy people). Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC/MS and GC-olfactometry (GC/O) analysis were performed on urine samples obtained from gastrointestinal cancer patients and healthy controls. In total, 91 key odor-active compounds were found in the urine samples. Although no odor-active biomarkers present were found in cancer carrier's urine, significant differences were discovered in the odor activities of 11 compounds in the urine of healthy and diseased people. Seven of above mentioned compounds were identified: thiophene, 2-methoxythiophene, dimethyl disulphide, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-(or 5-)methyl-3-hexanone, 4-ethyl guaiacol and phenylacetic acid. The other four compounds remained unknown. GC/O has a big potential to identify compounds not detectable using untargeted GC/MS approach. This paves the way for further research aimed at improving and validating the performance of this technique so that the identified cancer-associated compounds may be introduced as biomarkers in clinical practice to support early cancer diagnosis.

  15. Advantages and Some Remaining Challenges in Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Panel Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Tara; Balay, Lara; Jung, Barbara

    2017-05-11

    Colorectal cancer affects 1 in 20 men and women in their lifetime. About 30% of these cases have been shown to be familial while only about 5% are associated with a highly penetrant hereditary colon cancer syndrome. In many familial cases, however, no mutation in the commonly implicated CRC genes is found. With the development of next-generation sequencing, testing laboratories are now able to offer hereditary gastrointestinal panel testing, which allows for the simultaneous sequencing of a much broader set of genes associated with CRC. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such testing to inform best clinical practice.

  16. Perioperative ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying-Jie; Liu, Lian; Xiao, Jing;

    2016-01-01

    This study was a systematic evaluation of the beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in abdominal cancer surgical patients. A literature search of the databases PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE was conducted for studies published up to November 2014 in English language...... journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of n-3 PUFA intake relative to conventional nutrition in surgical patients were included. The main outcomes were the duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), length of hospital stay (LOS), serum C-reactive protein (CRP...... the postoperative infectious complication rate, and shortens hospitalization and SIRS duration, particularly in malnourished gastrointestinal cancer patients....

  17. Synchronous Orbital and Gastrointestinal Metastases from Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramawad Soobrah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the advent of improved imaging techniques and screening programmes, only a small proportion of women present with metastatic disease. Metastases involving the gastrointestinal (GI tract and orbit are rare occurrences. We describe the case of a woman with simultaneous GI and orbital metastases from breast cancer who initially presented with abdominal pain and blurred vision and also summarise a review of the literature.

  18. The effect of folic acid on the development of stomach and other gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the roles of folic acid and β-carotene in the chemoprevention of gastric and other gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Results A total of 7 new cases of gastrointestinal cancers were diagnosed with 3 stomach, 1 colon and 1 esophageal cancers occurring in the placebo group; 1 stomach cancer in both of the N-βC and S-βC groups, and no cancer occurring in FA group. In terms of GI cancers, there was a significant reduction in the FA group, compared with the placebo group (P=0.04). A similar trend was observed in both N-βC and S-βC groups (P=0.07-0.08). Taken together, the three intervention groups displayed a highly significant decrease in occurrence (P=0.004, vs placebo), and a lower risk for GI cancers (OR=0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.51). For development of gastric cancer, any one of the three active-treated groups did not reach statistically significant reduction. The FA group showed obvious improvement of the gastric mucosal lesions with more patients displaying lesions reversed or stable atrophy and inflammation (P=0.04), reversed intestinal metaplasia (P=0.06) at the end of follow-up, and reversed displasia (P=0.017) at 12 months. Two cases of false jaundice were found in β-carotene groups with no influence on administration, and no side-effects were reported in FA group. Conclusions This trial revealed the interventional effect of folic acid on the development of GI cancers, a similar effect of β-carotene was also detected. Also, folic acid may be of use to treat atrophic gastritis by preventing or reversing the precancerous lesions.

  19. C-kit gene mutation in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Yong Hou; Ai-Hua Zheng; Tai-Ming Zhang; Wen-Zhong Hou; Jian Wang; Xiang Du; Xiong-Zeng Zhu; Yun-Shan Tan; Meng-Hong Sun; Yong-Kun Wei; Jian-Fang Xu; Shao-Hua Lu; Su-Jie A-Ke-Su; Yan-Nan Zhou; Feng Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of c-kit gene mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).METHODS: Fifty two cases of GIST and 28 cases of other tumors were examined. DNA samples were extracted from paraffin sections and fresh blocks. Exons 11, 9 and 13 of the c-kit gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced.RESULTS: Mutations of exon 11 were found in 14 of 25 malignant GISTs (56%), mutations of exon 11 of the c-kit gene were revealed in 2 of 19 borderline GISTs (10.5%),and no mutation was found in benign tumors. The mutation rate showed significant difference (X2=14.39, P<0.01)between malignant and benign GISTs. Most of mutations consisted of the in-frame deletion or replication from 3 to 48 bp in heterozygous and homozygous fashions, None of the mutations disrupted the downstream reading frame of the gene. Point mutations and frame deletions were most frequently observed at codons 550-560, but duplications were most concentrated at codons 570-585. No mutations of exons 9 and 13 were revealed in GISTs, Neither c-kit gene expression nor gene mutations were found in 3 leiomyomas, 8 leiomyosarcomas, 2 schwannomas, 2malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 2 intraabdominal fibromatoses, 2 malignant fibrous histiocytomas and 9 adenocarcinomas.CONCLUSION: C-kit gene mutations occur preferentially in malignant GISTs and might be a clinically useful adjunct marker in the evaluation of GISTs and can help to differentiate GISTs from other mesenchymal tumors of gastrointestinal tract, such as smooth muscle tumors,schwannomas, etc.

  20. Nutritional support of patients with cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J M; Redmond, H P; Lieberman, M D; Jardines, L

    1991-06-01

    Malnutrition is extremely common in patients with malignant disease. Whereas the causes are multifactorial, the predominant factor is the imbalance between nutrient intake and host nutrient requirements. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that cachexia is related to abnormal changes in host intermediary metabolism induced by host-tumor interactions, and endogenous peptides such as TNF may be important mediators. The role of nutritional therapy in cancer patients remains to be defined. Clearly, patients with severe malnutrition benefit from nutritional intervention. However, the benefit of nutritional therapy in less severe cases of malnutrition as an adjuvant to oncologic therapy has yet to be established.

  1. Primary prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolic events in patients with gastrointestinal cancers- Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanno Riess; Piet Habbel; Anja Jühling; Marianne Sinn; Uwe Pelzer

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism event(VTE) is a common and morbid complication in cancer patients. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers often suffer from symptomatic or incidental splanchnic vein thrombosis, impaired liver function and/or thrombocytopenia. These characteristics require a thorough risk/benefit evaluation for individual patients. Considering the risk factors for the development of VTE and bleeding events in addition to recent study results may be helpful for correct initiation of primary pharmacological prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis(CAT), preferably with low molecular weight heparins(LMWH). Whereas thromboprophylaxis is most often recommended in hospitalized surgical and non-surgical patients with malignancy, there is less agreement as to its duration. With regard to ambulatory cancer patients, the lack of robust data results in low grade recommendations against routine use of anticoagulant drugs. Anticoagulation with LMWH for the first months is the evidence-based treatment for acute CAT, but duration of secondary prevention and the drug of choice are unclear. Based on published guidelines and literature, this review will focus on prevention and treatment strategies of VTE in patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

  2. Assessment of TPS tumor marker with ELISA for early detection and monitoring of gastrointestinal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi Nodeh A.R

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: TPS is one of the tumor markers which has specially been considered due to its exclusive physiological characteristics like its easy measurement in serum of cancer patients. This study has been due to evaluate the efficiency of this tumor marker in the prognosis, treatment control and follow up of patients with gastrointestinal cancers including esophagus, stomach and colorectal. Methods: TPS has been measured in 109 persons including 28 healthy people and 81 patients with different gastrointestinal malignancies which were composed of 38 patients with esophageal cancer, 20 ones with stomach cancer and 23 ones with colorectal cancer. Sampling has been done in three times depending on treatment methods. TPS has been measured with ELISA in samples which contend of 2 to 3 ml of serum from patients and the health. Results: The obtained results, demonstrate the obvious changes in TPS serum level in patients underwent various treatment procedures. Conclusion: The results have revealed that the serum TPS is not only as a measure of prognosis but also would be helpful in follow up and treatment control of the disease. Moreover the results has shown that serological analysis can be settled in the diagnosis and follow up with production of polyclonal antibody against TPS gene family and planning appropriate pattern.

  3. Trefoil factors: Gastrointestinal-specific proteins associated with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping; Ling, Hui; Lan, Gang; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Haobin; Yang, Ruirui

    2015-10-23

    Trefoil factor family (TFF), composed of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, is a cluster of secreted peptides characterized by trefoil domain (s) and C-terminal dimerization domain. TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor, is a single trefoil peptide originally detected in breast cancer cell lines but expressed mainly in the stomach; TFF2, a candidate of gastric cancer suppressor with two trefoil domains, is abundant in the stomach and duodenal Brunner's glands; and TFF3 is another single trefoil peptide expressed throughout the intestine which can promote the development of gastric carcinoma. According to multiple studies, TFFs play a regulatory function in the mammals' digestive system, namely in mucosal protection and epithelial cell reconstruction, tumor suppression or promotion, signal transduction and the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Action mechanisms of TFFs remain unresolved, but the recent demonstration of a GKN (gastrokine) 2-TFF1 heterodimer implicates structural and functional interplay with gastrokines. This review aims to encapsulate the structural and biological characteristics of TFF.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanzari Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with gastric cancer is gastrectomy. Typically, nasogastric intubation is used after this type of surgery to feed patients; however, there seems to be no unanimity of opinion on this topic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was conducted on gastric cancer patients, admitted to the general ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2015. In total, 68 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into two intervention and control groups of 34 individuals. Nasogastric tube insertion was applied for the intervention group after the surgery. Patients of the study groups were fasted for three days after the surgery, which was followed by the removal of nasogastric tubes and initiation of oral feeding. Gastrointestinal function of all the participants was evaluated six hours after transferring to the ward up to seven days after the surgery on a daily basis using nausea and vomiting assessment tools and researcher-made questionnaire of gastrointestinal function. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: In this study, the severity of nausea and vomiting, the first time of passing gas and severity of flatulence Intensity were less observed in the control group, compared to the intervention group. Moreover, postoperative food tolerance was higher in the patients of the control group, compared to the other study group (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, nasogastric intubation can delay normal gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy. Therefore, it is not recommended to use this method after gastrectomy.

  5. Gastrointestinal perforation during regorafenib administration in a case with hepatic metastases of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kenichi; Takamori, Hiroshi; Umezaki, Naoki; Yagi, Taisuke; Ogawa, Katsuhiro; Ozaki, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Ikuta, Yoshiaki; Doi, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    Although common side effects of regorafenib include hand-and-foot syndrome and diarrhoea, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforation is reportedly unknown. We describe our experience with the case of a 65-year-old woman treated with regorafenib as a third-line therapy for progressive caecal cancer with multiple hepatic metastases after 4 and 6 courses of systemic mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab (BV) and FOLFIRI + BV chemotherapy, respectively. The patient used regorafenib for 32 days but visited our hospital with abdominal pain during the second course. She was diagnosed with acute appendicitis and treated conservatively with antibiotics. The abdominal findings did not improve, and a computed tomography evaluation on day 4 of hospitalization revealed free air lateral to the caecal tumour, liver surface, and epigastric region. The patient underwent same-day emergency surgery based on a diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. Upon observing digestive fluid leakage into the peri-ileocaecal area and a 5-mm perforation in the appendix, the patient was diagnosed with peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation. Ileocaecal resection with D2 debridement was performed, and a colostomy was opened into the ileum and ascending colon. We conclude that our patient developed gastrointestinal perforation during regorafenib therapy and note that clinicians should be aware of this possible complication in patients with a history of prior treatment with BV.

  6. Temporal trends and regional variations in gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Peru, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Azañedo, Diego; Huarez, Bertha; Rodríguez-Lema, Belén

    2016-01-01

    To estimate and analyze the evolution of mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Peru and its regions between 2005-2014. We performed a nationwide secondary analysis of Peru's Health Ministry registry of deaths during the period 2005-2014, with a focus on regional differences. Deaths registered with codes C15 to C25 (malignant neoplasms of digestive organs) from the ICD-10 were included. Calculation of age-standarized mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) due to GI cancer per 100,000 habitants were also performed. Data of 67,527 deaths from GI cancers was analyzed, 35,055 (51.91%) were women. In 2005, the number of GI cancer deaths was 6,484, for 2014, 7,532 cases were recorded. The GI cancer age-standarized mortality rates at the country level showed a decrease of 12.70% between 2005-2014. Stomach cancer presented the highest age-standarized mortality rate despite showing a downward trend in the last years, equal for gallbladder, liver and biliary tract, and esophagus cancer. Colorectal, small intestine and anus cancer show a progressive increase. In 2014, Callao (48.8), Huancavelica (48.5), La Libertad (39.6), Lambayeque (40.5) and Huanuco (38.9) had the highest rates. The three types of GI cancers with the highest rates of YLL in 2014 were stomach cancer (118.51), followed by liver and biliary tract cancer (58.68) and colorectal (44.86). GI cancer mortality in Peru is high and a priority issue in regions like Huancavelica, Huanuco, Callao, La Libertad and Lambayeque. Stomach cancer remains the most frequent GI cancer, but with a downward trend in the study period.

  7. A prospective study of vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja P Dawsey

    Full Text Available We examined the association of use of multivitamins or single vitamin/mineral supplements with risk of four upper gastrointestinal cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort with 11 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 490,593 persons were included in our analytic cohort and 1780 upper gastrointestinal cancers were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using Cox models with adjustment for potential confounders. We observed no significant associations between multivitamin use and risk for the four cancer outcomes in crude or adjusted models. Among individual vitamin or mineral supplements, use of iron supplements was associated with significantly lower risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.94 and a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.05. For gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, we saw associations with zinc use (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.62 and vitamin C use (HR = 0.79 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.96. Calcium use, some of which was reported as antacids and used to treat reflux disease, was associated with higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.52 and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.56 cancers. We saw no evidence that multivitamin use was associated with reduced risk of four highly fatal upper gastrointestinal cancers, but there were some differences in risk with reported use of individual supplements.

  8. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for premalignant lesions and noninvasive early gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadettin Hulagu; Ali Erkan Duman; Neslihan Bozkurt; Gokhan Dindar; Tan Attila; Yesim Gurbuz; Orhan Tarcin; Cem Kalayci; Omer Senturk; Cem Aygun; Orhan Kocaman; Altay Celebi; Tolga Konduk; Deniz Koc; Goktug Sirin; Ugur Korkmaz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the indication, feasibility, safety,and clinical utility of endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) in the management of various gastrointestinalpathologies.METHODS: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients(34 female, 26 male) who underwent ESD at the gastroenterology department of Kocaeli University from2006-2010 were examined. Patients selected for ESDhad premalignant lesions or non-invasive early cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and had endoscopic andhistological diagnoses. Early cancers were considered to be confined to the submucosa, with no lymph node involvement by means of computed tomography andendosonography.RESULTS: Sixty ESD procedures were performed. The indications were epithelial lesions (n = 39) (33/39 adenoma with high grade dysplasia, 6/39 adenoma with low grade dysplasia), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 7),cancer (n = 7) (5/7 early colorectal cancer, 2/7 early gastric cancer), granular cell tumor (n = 3), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 2), and leiomyoma (n = 2). En bloc and piecemeal resection rates were 91.6% (55/60) and 8.3% (5/60), respectively. Complete and incomplete resection rates were 96.6% (58/60) and 3.3%(2/60), respectively. Complications were major bleeding[n = 3 (5%)] and perforations [n = 5 (8.3%)] (4colon, 1 stomach). Two patients with colonic perforations and two patients with submucosal lymphatic and microvasculature invasion (1 gastric carcinoid tumor,1 colonic adenocarcinoma) were referred to surgery.During a mean follow-up of 12 mo, 1 patient with adenoma with high grade dysplasia underwent a second ESD procedure to resect a local recurrence.CONCLUSION: ESD is a feasible and safe method for treatment of premalignant lesions and early malignant gastrointestinal epithelial and subepithelial lesions. Successful en bloc and complete resection of lesions yield high cure rates with low recurrence.

  9. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-09-09

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it.

  10. Trends in upper gastro-intestinal cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønnemann, Katrine R; Mortensen, Michael B; Krogh, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Background Upper gastro-intestinal cancer (UGIC) includes malignancies in esophagus, stomach and small intestine, and represents some of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. The aim of the present analysis was to describe incidence, mortality and survival in UGIC patients in Denmark from 1980...... to 2012 according to differences in age and time periods.Material and methods UGIC was defined as ICD-10 codes C15-C17. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered...... from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013.Results The proportion of male patients over the age of 70 years diagnosed with esophageal cancer was constant over time (around 42%) but increased in females to 49...

  11. Viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Under Human Gastrointestinal Conditions Simulated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina C. Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a lactic bacteria mostly used in the production of yoghurt and it has an important probiotic activity that brings benefits to the human body. However, the gastrointestinal tract has aggressive conditions, such as the acid pH in the stomach and the bile in the duodenum, that reduce the viability of this bacteria. Approach: In order to evaluate the effect of the human gastrointestinal conditions on Lactobacillus delbrueckiis viability, a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal system was designed, which consisted of two reactors where stomach and human small intestine conditions were simulated. Results: Lactobacillus delbrueckii cells were treated in human gastric conditions simulated in vitro (gastric juice adjusted to pH 2, 37°C, 90 min and 50 rpm and in intestinal conditions simulated in vitro (pancreatic juice adjusted to pH 6.8, 37°C, 150 min and 50 rpm and in presence of a sample of food or beverages. A sample of typical Mexican food was added and at the end of the treatment 73% of the cells remained viable. This means 36.5 times more viability with respect to the cells treated under the same conditions in presence of a sample of milk with 8% starch. At the end of the treatment, the viability of cells treated in simulated in vitro gastrointestinal juices without sample of food or beverage (blank was 1%. Conclusion: The results indicated that the in vitro simulated human gastrointestinal conditions were aggressive to the Lactobacillus delbrueckiis viability. To minimize this negative effect it is suggested that probiotics be consumed with some food because this could increase the probability that the bacteria reach the human colon in a large number and carry out their probiotic effect.

  12. Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in he

  13. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.P.; Fokkink, R.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Tromp, P.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO3) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were

  14. Measurement of Gastrointestinal and Colonic Motor Functions in Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Michael; Linden, David R

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring the complex motor behaviors of the gastrointestinal tract has tremendous value for the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of digestive diseases. This review synthesizes the literature regarding current tests that are used in both humans and animals. There remains further opportunity to enhance such tests, especially when such tests are able to provide value in both the preclinical and the clinical settings.

  15. Isolation of DNA from bacterial samples of the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Booijink, C.C.G.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex microbial community that develops in time and space. The most widely used approaches to study microbial diversity and activity are all based on the analysis of nucleic acids, DNA, rRNA and mRNA. Here, we present a DNA isolation protocol that i

  16. Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in he

  17. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  18. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists as antitumor drugs in gastrointestinal cancer: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancer is the term for a group of cancers affecting the digestive system. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor, the undecapeptide substance P (SP regulates GI cancer cell proliferation and migration for invasion and metastasis, and controls endothelial cell proliferation for angiogenesis. SP also exerts an antiapoptotic effect. Both SP and the NK-1 receptor are located in GI tumor cells, the NK-1 receptor being overexpressed. By contrast, after binding to the NK-1 receptor, NK-1 receptor antagonists elicit the inhibition (epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition of the proliferation of GI cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner, induce the death of GI cancer cells by apoptosis, counteract the Warburg effect, inhibit cancer cell migration (counteracting invasion and metastasis, and inhibit angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition. NK-1 receptor antagonists are safe and well tolerated. Thus, the NK-1 receptor could be considered as a new target in GI cancer and NK-1 receptor antagonists (eg, aprepitant could be a new promising approach for the treatment of GI cancer.

  19. Obesity: an epidemiological perspective from Asia and its relationship to gastrointestinal and liver cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Li-Yen; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is major health problem in the Asia-Pacific region. The proportion of people who are overweight and obese in the region has increased dramatically and is closely linked to the increasing affluence in the region. While the body mass index has been used as a yardstick in many published studies, it has been noted that Asian patients have a greater percentage body fat for a given body mass index and especially abdominal or visceral obesity. The association of obesity and cancers is intriguing and worrisome at the same time, as obesity is rising exponentially throughout the world especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Evidence of its association with gastrointestinal cancers is well documented and is reported with cardioesophageal, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, and gallbladder cancers. The strength of association varies between individual cancers but is of particular concern with colorectal cancer, which is perhaps the fastest emerging cancer in this region. Biological mechanisms for obesity-related carcinogenesis have been described, which includes insulin resistance and secretion of adipokines and chronic inflammation. A "dose-response" relationship between severity of excess body weight and risks of cancer has been reported. However, there is a paucity of data looking at a decrease in incidence of these cancers with a decrease in body weight with treatment, for example, bariatric surgery. Such studies will be difficult to perform and which would require a long period of longitudinal follow-up. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Coping in Patients With Incurable Lung and Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Validation Study of the Brief COPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Teresa L; Fishbein, Joel N; Nipp, Ryan D; Jacobs, Jamie M; Traeger, Lara; Irwin, Kelly E; Pirl, William F; Greer, Joseph A; Park, Elyse R; Jackson, Vicki A; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    Patients with incurable cancer engage in several coping styles to manage the impact of cancer and its treatment. The Brief COPE is a widely used measure intended to capture multiple and distinct types of coping. The Brief COPE has not been validated among patients with incurable cancer. We sought to validate seven subscales of the Brief COPE in a large sample of patients newly diagnosed with incurable lung and noncolorectal gastrointestinal cancers (N = 350). Participants completed the Brief COPE and measures assessing quality of life (QOL) (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) within eight weeks of diagnosis of incurable cancer. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Brief COPE using a confirmatory factor analysis and tests of correlation with the QOL and distress scales. The Brief COPE factors were consistent with the original subscales, although the Behavioral Disengagement Scale had low internal consistency. Factors showed anticipated relationships with QOL and distress measures, except emotional support coping, which was correlated with increased depression and anxiety. We also conducted an exploratory high-order factor analysis to determine if subscales' score variances grouped together. The high-order factor analysis resulted in two factors, with active, emotional support, positive reframing, and acceptance loading onto one factor and denial and self-blame loading onto the second. The selected subscales of the Brief COPE are appropriate measures of coping among individuals newly diagnosed with incurable lung and gastrointestinal cancers. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A population based case-control study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qilong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer, such as gastric, colon and rectal cancer, is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of gastrointestinal cancer development still remains unclear. RAS genes have been elucidated as major participants in the development and progression of a series of human tumours and the single nucleotide polymorphism at H-RAS cDNA position 81 was demonstrated to contribute to the risks of bladder, oral and thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that this polymorphisms in H-RAS could influence susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Chinese population. Methods A population based case-control study, including 296 cases with gastrointestinal cancer and 448 healthy controls selected from a Chinese population was conducted. H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. Results In the healthy controls, the TT, TC and CC genotypes frequencies of H-RAS T81C polymorphism, were 79.24%, 19.87% and 0.89%, respectively, and the C allele frequency was 10.83%. Compared with TT genotype, the TC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 2.21–6.08, while the CC genotype showed an increased risk as well (adjusted OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 0.54–19.86, but it was not statistically significant. In contrast, the frequency of TC genotype was not significantly increased in colon cancer and rectal cancer patients. Further analysis was performed by combining TC and CC genotypes compared against TT genotype. As a result, a statistically significant risk with adjusted OR of 3.65 (95%CI, 2.22–6.00 was found in gastric cancer, while no significant association of H-RAS T81C polymorphism with colon cancer and rectal cancer was observed. Conclusion These findings indicate, for the first time, that there

  2. Prognostic Value of Expression of Cyclin E in Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanshan; Ren, Fanghui; Tang, Ruixue; Feng, Zhenbo; Chen, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin E is a critical regulator in cell cycle and promotes the initiation of DNA replication and centrosome duplication in late G1. The overexpression of cyclin E is common in cancers of the digestive system. However, whether cyclin E represents a prognostic biomarker in gastrointestinal cancer remains controversial. We reviewed the published literatures to clarify the association between cyclin E determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and survival in gastrointestinal cancer. Literatures were searched in PubMed and Cochrane Library published up to December 1, 2014. A total of 282 articles were initially identified, and 14 articles were included in this study. Meta-analysis was performed for 10 studies with a total of 1300 patients. Combined hazard risk (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by random-effect model due to the heterogeneity. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). We found that high level of cyclin E was a predicator of poor prognosis among patients with gastrointestinal cancer (HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.06-2.63, P = .028). In summary, overexpression of cyclin E is associated with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer and expression of cyclin E determined by IHC might be a prognostic marker for gastrointestinal cancer in clinical practice.

  3. Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract: a review of somatic mutation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Hainaut, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract (UGIT) comprise esophageal, esophago-gastric junction, stomach and duodenal cancers. Together, these cancers represent over 1.5 million cases and are the cause of about 1.25 million deaths annually. This group of cancers encompasses diseases with marked disparities in etiology, geographic distribution, histopathological features and frequency. Based on histological origin, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), which arises through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence within the squamous mucosa, is a completely different cancer than junction, stomach and duodenal cancers, which develop within glandular epithelia through cascades involving inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. At the frontline between these two histological domains, cancers of the esophago-gastric junction constitute a mixed group of glandular tumors including distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and cancers arising within the most proximal part of the stomach - the cardia. Most of UGIT cancers are sporadic, although familial susceptibility genes have been identified for stomach and rare cases of ESCC. We have used the COSMIC database (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/) to identify genes commonly mutated in UGIT cancers. Regardless of etiology and histopathology, three genes are mutated in at least 5% of UGIT cancers: TP53, CDKN2a and PIK3CA. Another three genes, NFE2L2, PTCH1 and NOTCH1, are mutated in ESCC only. Conversely, genes of the RAS family and of the CDH1/APC/CTNNB1 pathway are mutated only in non-squamous cancers, with differences in mutated genes according to topography. We review the potential functional significance of these observations for understanding mechanisms of UGIT carcinogenesis.

  4. Nestin in gastrointestinal and other cancers: Effects on cells and tumor angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiyuki Ishiwata; Yoko Matsuda; Zenya Naito

    2011-01-01

    Nestin is a class Ⅵ intermediate filament protein that was originally described as a neuronal stem cell marker during central nervous system (CNS) development, and is currently widely used in that capacity. Nestin is also expressed in non-neuronal immature or progenitor cells in normal tissues. Under pathological conditions, nestin is expressed in repair processes in the CNS, muscle, liver, and infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, increased nestin expression has been reported in various tumor cells, including CNS tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberances, and thyroid tumors. Nestin is reported to correlate with aggressive growth, metastasis, and poor prognosis in some tumors; however, the roles of nestin in cancer cells have not been well characterized. Furthermore, nestin is more specifically expressed in proliferating small-sized tumor vessels in glioblastoma and gastric, colorectal, and prostate cancers than are other tumor vessel markers. These findings indicate that nestin may be a marker for newly synthesized tumor vessels and a therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. It has received a lot of attention recently as a cancer stem cell marker in various cancer cells including brain tumors, malignant rhabdoid tumors, and uterine, cervical, prostate, bladder, head and neck, ovarian, testicular, and pancreatic cancers. The purpose of this review is to clarify the roles of nestin in cancer cells and in tumor angiogenesis, and to examine the association between nestin and cancer stem cells. Nestin has the potential to serve as a molecular target for cancers with nestin-positive cancer cells and nestin-positive tumor vasculature.

  5. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; David A. Mills

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific “healthy” microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a...

  6. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-08-02

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial experience with a new laparoscopic ultrasound probe for guided biopsy in the staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hazem; Vilmann, Peter; Sharma, Vijay;

    2009-01-01

    with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer. METHODS: Patients referred with confirmed UGI cancer from June 2003 to December 2006 were included in the study. After a standard workup including computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, and ultrasound of the neck, operable patients underwent LUS with or without...

  8. Determination of lipid peroxide and superoxide dismutase in blood and tissueof patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xing Zhou; Jian Sheng Li; Lu Wei Xing; Shu Heng You

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the relationship between the lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thepathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers.METHODS We investigated the SOD activity and LPO levels in blood and mucosa of patients withesophageal (EC), gastric (GC) and colorectal cancer (CC), gastric ulcer (GU) and compared with normalesophagus (NE), stomach (NS) and colon (NC). respectively, 287 patients who underwent endoscopy werestudied. SOD activity of the tissue and blood was determined using SUN's adrenaline auto oxidation method.LPO levels were determined according to YU's method.RESULTS The SOD activity and LPO level in blood and mucosa are shown in the Table 1 (x±Sx). Table 1 SOD and LPO in blood and tissues of patients with gastrointestinal cancers SOD(U/mg protein) LPO(U/mg) Groups n Tissue blood Tissue Blood Normal stomach Gastric ulcer Gastric cancer Normal esophagus Esophageal cancer Normal colon Colon cancer 60 42 43 32 52 28 30 1.90±0.18 0.64±0.40a 0.37±0.24a 1.17±0.70 0.39±0.30a 0.81±0.36 0.31±0.17b 33.70±1.73 25.50±0.67b 27.86±1.02b 30.80±3.78 28.23±10.63 20.97±4.77 19.35±7.32 0.01±0.004 0.05±0.010b 0.06±0.021b 0.014±0.005 0.061±0.033b 0.012±0.003 0.069±0.015b 0.83±0.01 0.11±0.02 0.12±0.03 0.08±0.02 0.11±0.02 0.08±0.03 0.11±0.02 aP<0.001, bp<0.01 vs corresponding normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSION SOD activity of the tissue is significantly decreased in EC. GC and CC. LPO levels weresignificantly higher than those of corresponding normal tissue. These results suggest that mucosal SOD andLPO levels are closely related to the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal cancers.

  9. Nutritional status, nutrition practices and post-operative complications in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, A K; Newsome, C M; Simmance, N; Crowe, T C

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition and its associated complications are a considerable issue for surgical patients with upper gastrointestinal and colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether specific perioperative nutritional practices and protocols are associated with improved patient outcomes in this group. Patients admitted for elective upper gastrointestinal or colorectal cancer surgery (n = 95) over a 19-month period underwent a medical history audit assessing weight changes, nutritional intake, biochemistry, post-operative complications and length of stay. A subset of patients (n = 25) underwent nutritional assessment by subjective global assessment prior to surgery in addition to assessment of post-operative medical outcomes, nutritional intake and timing of dietetic intervention. Mean (SD) length of stay for patients was 14.0 (12.2) days, with complication rates at 35%. Length of stay was significantly longer in patients who experienced significant preoperative weight loss compared to those who did not [17.0 (15.8) days versus 10.0 (6.8) days, respectively; P nutritional assessment, 32% were classified as mild-moderately malnourished and 16% severely malnourished. Malnourished patients were hospitalised twice as long as well-nourished patients [15.8 (12.8) days versus 7.6 (3.5) days; P nutrition post surgery was a factor in post-operative outcomes, with a positive correlation with length of stay (r = 0.493; P cancer. Poor nutritional status coupled with delayed and inadequate post-operative nutrition practices are associated with worse clinical outcomes.

  10. Management of adverse events during treatment of gastrointestinal cancers with epidermal growth factor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Segaert, Siegfried; Safont, María José; Demonty, Gaston; Prenen, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in development and progression of some gastrointestinal cancers, and is targeted by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat these conditions. Targeted agents are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy, but have characteristic toxicities that can affect adherence, dosing, and outcomes. Skin conditions are the most common toxicities associated with EGFR inhibitors, particularly papulopustular rash. Other common toxicities include mucosal toxicity, electrolyte imbalances (notably hypomagnesaemia), and diarrhoea, while the chimaeric mAb cetuximab is also associated with increased risk of infusion reactions. With appropriate prophylaxis, the incidence and severity of these events can be reduced, while management strategies tailored to the patient and the degree of toxicity can help to ensure continuation of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the main toxicities associated with EGFR-inhibiting mAbs and TKIs in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, and provide recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumor concomitant with early gastric cancer: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Lung Lin; Jeh-En Tzeng; Chang-Kou Wei; Chih-Wen Lin

    2006-01-01

    The term gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)is defined diagnostically as the main group of mesenchymal tumors with spindle or epithelioid cells arising from the wall of the gastrointestinal tract with immunohistochemical reactivity for CD117 antibody.Previous studies revealed that cells in GISTs express a growth factor receptor with tyrosine kinase activity (termed c-kit), which is the product of the c-kit protooncogene. The most specific and practical diagnostic criteria for GISTs are: immunohistochemically determined c-kit (CD117) expression; mitotic score; and tumor size.A small GIST concomitant with early gastric cancer is rarely encountered clinically. Herein we have reported a case of a 1.1-cm GIST detected by esophagogastroduo denoscopy concomitant with a Ⅱc type of early gastric cancer (signet ring cell type). It was detected during a routine physical health examination. To our knowledge,this is the first report of a small GIST concomitant with a signet ring cell type of early gastric cancer.

  12. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Plasminogen Binding Activity in the Human Gastrointestinal Microenvironment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21821753

  13. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis plasminogen binding activity in the human gastrointestinal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  15. Human cancer genetics*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  16. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably.

  17. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Promoter hypermethylation of p16 and APC in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Beril; Küçükyıldırım, Sibel; Sağlar, Emel; Polat, Zülfikar; Mergen, Hatice

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a consequence of the disruption of cellular regulation. Epigenetic is one of the reasons of this disruption. Epigenetic factors play a role in the carcinogenesis by affecting proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and it is one of the most popular research areas in recent years. DNA methylation, which is an epigenetic mechanism, occurs in the early stages of tumorigenesis. Promoter methylation which causes the silence of tumor suppressor genes have been studied extensively in various tumor types. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of certain tumor suppressor genes, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16) and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), which take part in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. To detect the promoter methylation of p16 and APC genes, tissue samples from 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients and peripheral blood samples from 15 healthy individuals were collected for Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP) analysis. According to the statistical analysis, in tumor tissue, positive methylation ratio of p16 and APC genes was found respectively 30% (6/20) and 50% (10/20). The difference of promoter methylation of these genes between tumor tissues and control group was significantly observed (p=0.02 and 0.001, respectively). An alteration of promoter methylation of APC gene according to tumor localization was found (p=0.007), but there was no significant difference observed in p16. In our study, promoter methylation which was considered to be occurred as an early event in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis was observed in p16 and APC genes.

  19. Gastrointestinal stem cells in health and disease: from flies to humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract of complex metazoans is highly compartmentalized. It is lined by a series of specialized epithelia that are regenerated by specific populations of stem cells. To maintain tissue homeostasis, the proliferative activity of stem and/or progenitor cells has to be carefully controlled and coordinated with regionally distinct programs of differentiation. Metaplasias and dysplasias, precancerous lesions that commonly occur in the human gastrointestinal tract, are often associated with the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. The increasingly sophisticated characterization of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and of the fruit fly Drosophila has provided important new insights into these processes and into the mechanisms that drive epithelial dysfunction. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the establishment, maintenance and regulation of diverse intestinal stem cell lineages in the gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila and mice. We also discuss the field's current understanding of the pathogenesis of epithelial dysfunctions.

  20. Gastrointestinal stem cells in health and disease: from flies to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gastrointestinal tract of complex metazoans is highly compartmentalized. It is lined by a series of specialized epithelia that are regenerated by specific populations of stem cells. To maintain tissue homeostasis, the proliferative activity of stem and/or progenitor cells has to be carefully controlled and coordinated with regionally distinct programs of differentiation. Metaplasias and dysplasias, precancerous lesions that commonly occur in the human gastrointestinal tract, are often associated with the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. The increasingly sophisticated characterization of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and of the fruit fly Drosophila has provided important new insights into these processes and into the mechanisms that drive epithelial dysfunction. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the establishment, maintenance and regulation of diverse intestinal stem cell lineages in the gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila and mice. We also discuss the field's current understanding of the pathogenesis of epithelial dysfunctions. PMID:27112333

  1. The effect of acupuncture on chemotherapy-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Fang, L.; Wu, W.Y.; He, F.; Zhang, X.L.; Zhou, X.; Xiong, Z.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (gi) symptoms are the most notable side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs; such symptoms are currently treated with drugs. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on gi symptoms induced by chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Methods A cohort of 56 patients was randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. All patients received combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin–paclitaxel. Patients in the experimental group received 30 minutes of acupuncture therapy daily for 2 weeks. The frequency and duration of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, the average days and costs of hospitalization, and quality-of-life scores were compared between the groups. Results Nausea was sustained for 32 ± 5 minutes and 11 ± 3 minutes daily in the control and experimental groups respectively (p acupuncture. Conclusions Acupuncture, a safe technique, could significantly reduce gi symptoms induced by chemotherapy and enhance quality of life in patients with advanced gastric cancer. PMID:28270726

  2. CD34 immunoreactivity and interstitial cells of Cajal in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J; De Laet, M H;

    2000-01-01

    Immunoreactivity for the tyrosine kinase receptor Kit (Kit-ir) is an established marker for the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of the gut. Recently, the presence of CD34 immunoreactivity (CD34-ir) has been reported in Kit-ir ICC around the myenteric plexus in human small intestine. Conversely,......-localization. The ontogeny and function of CD34-ir cells in the gut, as well as the origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, remain unclear....

  3. Effects of nutritional and psychological status in gastrointestinal cancer patients on tolerance of treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Zhen-Chun Chen; Li-Fang Hang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of poor nutritional and psychological status on tolerance of cancer treatment and the recovery of physical performance status in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.METHODS: An epidemiological survey with respect to nutritional and psychological status in patients with gastrointestinal cancer was conducted among 182 operated patients in four provincial-level hospitals from December 2005 to June 2006. The food frequency survey method, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) and depression status inventory (DSI) were used to obtain information about the diet and psychological status in the patients. Nutritional status in the participants was reflected by serum albumin (Alb), hemoglobin (HB) and body mass index (BMI).RESULTS: Alb, protein intake and anxiety were associated with the severity of side effects of treatment.The adjusted relative risk (RR) for Alb, protein intake and anxiety was 3.30 (95% CI: 1.08, 10.10, P = 0.03), 3.25(95% CI: 1.06, 9.90, P = 0.04) and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.29,1.70, P < 0.0001), respectively. Moreover, calorie intake,HB and depression were associated with the recovery of physical performance status in the patients. Adjusted relative risk was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.03, P = 0.028),2.05 (95% CI: 1.08, 3.88, P =0.026) and 1.07 (95% CI:1.02, 1.12, P = 0.007), respectively.CONCLUSION: Both poor nutrition status and psychological status are independent risk factors for severe side effects of cancer treatment, and have impact on the recovery of physical performance status in patients after treatment.

  4. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth......, an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...... identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  5. [A case of pseudomembranous colitis associated with rifampicin therapy in a patient with rectal cancer and gastrointestinal tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyung Gil; Choi, Yun Ah; Joo, Woo Chul; Son, Dong Wook; Kim, Chul Hyun; Shin, Yong Woon; Kim, Young Soo

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is known to be associated with the administration of antibiotics which alter normal gastrointestinal flora and allow overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Most cases of rifampicin-induced PMC are seen in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, but not with gastrointestinal tuberculosis. We report a case of PMC associated with rifampicin therapy in a patient with gastrointestinal tuberculosis. A 65-year-old female patient with rectal cancer and gastrointestinal tuberculosis was admitted due to abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was treated with anti-tuberculosis agents containing rifampicin. On colonoscopic examination, mucoid exudates and yellowish plaque lesions were observed. Anti-tuberculosis agents were stopped, and the patient was treated with metronidazole. Symptoms were relieved and did not recur when all the anti-tuberculosis agents except rifampicin were started again. When a patient complains of abdominal pain or diarrhea while taking rifampicin, the physician should consider the possibility of rifampicin-associated PMC.

  6. Role of nuclear receptor NR4A2 in gastrointestinal inflammation and cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Fang Han; Guang-Wen Cao

    2012-01-01

    NR4A2 is a transcription factor belonging to the steroid orphan nuclear receptor superfamily.It was originally considered to be essential in the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons,and associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease.Recently,NR4A2 has been found to play a critical role in some inflammatory diseases and cancer.NR4A2 can be efficiently trans-activated by some proinflammatory cytokines,such as tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-1β,and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).The nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway serves as a principal regulator of inducible NR4A expression in immune cells.NR4A2 can trans-activate Foxp3,a hallmark specifically expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells,and plays a critical role in the differentiation,maintenance,and function of Treg cells.NR4A2 in T lymphocytes is pivotal for Treg cell induction and suppression of aberrant induction of Th1 under physiological and pathological conditions.High density of Foxp3+ Treg cells is significantly associated with gastrointestinal inflammation,tumor immune escape,and disease progression.NR4A2 is produced at high levels in CD133+ colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells and significantly upregulated by cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 in a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner in CRC cells.The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is the common pathway of NR4A2-related inflammation and cancer.NR4A2 trans-activates osteopontin,a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway associated with CRC invasion,metastasis,and poor prognosis.Knockdown of endogenous NR4A2 expression attenuates VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation,migration and in vivo angiogenesis.Taken together,NR4A2 emerges as an important nuclear factor linking gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer,especially CRC,and should serve as a candidate therapeutic target for inflammation-related gastrointestinal cancer.

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Risk of gastrointestinal cancer in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a Danish 10-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Estrid Muff; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Unexplained chest/epigastric pain is a common symptom in the general population. However, it has not previously been studied whether such pain could be a marker of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer. We aimed to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a Danish 10-year follow-up study among...... patients with chest/epigastric pain, normal upper endoscopy, and no prior discharge diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (N = 386), compared with population controls (N = 3860). The overall 10-year risk of gastrointestinal cancer (stomach, colorectal, liver, and pancreas) was 2.9% for patients...... of gastrointestinal cancer within the first year after upper endoscopy. Consequently, unexplained chest/epigastric pain might be an early gastrointestinal cancer symptom....

  9. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pdiagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  10. Identification of calgranulin B interacting proteins and network analysis in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Calgranulin B is known to be involved in tumor development, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. To gain insight into possible roles of calgranulin B, we screened for calgranulin B-interacting molecules in the SNU-484 gastric cancer and the SNU-81 colon cancer cells. Calgranulin B-interacting partners were identified by yeast two-hybrid and functional information was obtained by computational analysis. Most of the calgranulin B-interacting partners were involved in metabolic and cellular processes, and found to have molecular function of binding and catalytic activities. Interestingly, 46 molecules in the network of the calgranulin B-interacting proteins are known to be associated with cancer and FKBP2 was found to interact with calgranulin B in both SNU-484 and SNU-81 cells. Polyubiquitin-C encoded by UBC, which exhibited an interaction with calgranulin B, has been associated with various molecules of the extracellular space and plasma membrane identified in our screening, including Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 and dystonin in SNU-484 cells, and ATPase subunit beta-1 in SNU-81 cells. Our data provide novel insight into the roles of calgranulin B of gastrointestinal cancer cells, and offer new clues suggesting calgranulin B acts as an effector molecule through which the cell can communicate with the tumor microenvironment via polyubiquitin-C. PMID:28152021

  11. BRAF-activated lncRNA predicts gastrointestinal cancer patient prognosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Wu, Miao-Jing; Lu, Shi-Gang; Zhu, Xin-Gen

    2017-01-01

    BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) is often dysregulated in cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify its functions as a prognostic indicator in malignant tumors. We searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify BANCR-related studies. Nine original studies and 898 total patients were included in the meta-analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted from the included studies to determine the relationship between BANCR expression and patient overall survival (OS). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using RevMan 5.3 software to assess associations between BANCR expression and pathological parameters. High BANCR expression correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.82–6.37, P = 0.0001), distant metastasis (DM) (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.76–5.07, P < 0.0001), tumor stage (OR = 3.11, 95% CI: 1.89–5.12, Z = 3.25, P < 0.0001), and poor OS (pooled HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.20–3.27, P = 0.008) in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients, but not in non-GI cancer patients. Our results support the notion that BANCR as a promising prognostic biomarker in Chinese patients with GI cancer. PMID:28009984

  12. MicroRNA-based Therapy in Animal Models of Selected Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Merhautova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancer accounts for the 20 most frequent cancer diseases worldwide and there is a constant urge to bring new therapeutics with new mechanism of action into the clinical practice. Quantity of in vitro and in vivo evidences indicate, that exogenous change in pathologically imbalanced microRNAs (miRNAs is capable of transforming the cancer cell phenotype. This review analyzed preclinical miRNA-based therapy attempts in animal models of gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and colorectal cancer. From more than 400 original articles, 26 was found to assess the effect of miRNA mimics, precursors, expression vectors, or inhibitors administered locally or systemically being an approach with relatively high translational potential. We have focused on mapping available information on animal model used (animal strain, cell line, xenograft method, pharmacological aspects (oligonucleotide chemistry, delivery system, posology, route of administration and toxicology assessments. We also summarize findings in the field pharmacokinetics and toxicity of miRNA-based therapy.□

  13. Gastrointestinal Fibroblasts Have Specialized, Diverse Transcriptional Phenotypes: A Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Human Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Higuchi

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the principal stromal cells that exist in whole organs and play vital roles in many biological processes. Although the functional diversity of fibroblasts has been estimated, a comprehensive analysis of fibroblasts from the whole body has not been performed and their transcriptional diversity has not been sufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional diversity of human fibroblasts within the whole body.Global gene expression analysis was performed on 63 human primary fibroblasts from 13 organs. Of these, 32 fibroblasts from gastrointestinal organs (gastrointestinal fibroblasts: GIFs were obtained from a pair of 2 anatomical sites: the submucosal layer (submucosal fibroblasts: SMFs and the subperitoneal layer (subperitoneal fibroblasts: SPFs. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, we elucidated identifiable subgroups of fibroblasts and analyzed the transcriptional character of each subgroup.In unsupervised clustering, 2 major clusters that separate GIFs and non-GIFs were observed. Organ- and anatomical site-dependent clusters within GIFs were also observed. The signature genes that discriminated GIFs from non-GIFs, SMFs from SPFs, and the fibroblasts of one organ from another organ consisted of genes associated with transcriptional regulation, signaling ligands, and extracellular matrix remodeling.GIFs are characteristic fibroblasts with specific gene expressions from transcriptional regulation, signaling ligands, and extracellular matrix remodeling related genes. In addition, the anatomical site- and organ-dependent diversity of GIFs was also discovered. These features of GIFs contribute to their specific physiological function and homeostatic maintenance, and create a functional diversity of the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Clinical application of subjective global assessment in Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei-Wen Wu; Tao Yin; Wei-Xin Cao; Zhi-Dong Gu; Xiao-Jin Wang; Min Yan; Bing-Ya Liu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of subjective global assessment (SGA) in nutritional assessment and outcome prediction of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: A total of 751 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer between August 2004 and August 2006 were enrolled in this study. Within 72 h after admission, SGA, anthropometric parameters, and laboratory tests were used to assess the nutritional status of each patient. The outcome variables including hospital stay, complications, and in-hospital medical expenditure were also obtained. RESULTS: Based on the results of SGA, 389 (51.8%), 332 (44.2%), and 30 (4.0%) patients were classified into well nourished group (SGA-A), mildly to moderately malnourished group (SGA-B), and severely malnourished group (SGA-C), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition classified by SGA, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and body mass index (BMI) was 48.2%, 39.4%, 37.7%, 31.3%, 21.7%, and 9.6%, respectively. In addition, ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in body mass index (BMI), TSF, PA, and ALB of patients in different SGA groups. The more severely malnourished the patient was, the lower the levels of BMI, TSF, PA, and ALB were ( P < 0.05). c2 tests showed a significant difference in SGA classification between patients receiving different types of treatment (surgery vs chemotherapy/radiotherapy). As the nutritional status classified by SGA deteriorated, the patients stayed longer in hospital and their medical expenditures increased significantly. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that SGA and serum ALB could help predict the medical expenditures and hospital stay of patients undergoing surgery. The occurrence of complications increased in parallel with the increasing grade of SGA, and was the highest in the SGA-C group (23.3%) and the lowest in the SGA-A group (16.8%). CONCLUSION: SGA is a reliable

  15. Interrelationship between microsatellite instability and microRNA in gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Yasushi Adachi; Hiroaki Taniguchi; Hiroaki Kunimoto; Katsuhiko Nosho; Hiromu Suzuki; Yasuhisa Shinomura

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing understanding of the roles that microsatellite instability (MSI) plays in Lynch syndrome (by mutations) and sporadic (by mainly epigenetic changes) gastrointestinal (GI) and other cancers.Deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in the strong mutator phenotype known as MSI,which is the hallmark of cancers arising within Lynch syndrome.MSI is characterized by length alterations within simple repeated sequences called microsatellites.Lynch syndrome occurs primarily because of germline mutations in one of the MMR genes,mainly MLH1 or MSH2,less frequently MSH6,and rarely PMS2.MSI is also observed in about 15% of sporadic colorectal,gastric,and endometrial cancers and in lower frequencies in a minority of other cancers where it is often associated with the hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene.miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are critical in many biological processes and cellular pathways.There is accumulating evidence to support the notion that theinterrelationship between MSI and miRNA plays a key role in the pathogenesis of GI cancer.As a possible new mechanism underlying MSI,overexpression of miR-155 has been shown to downregulate expression of MLH1,MSH2,and MSH6.Thus,a subset of MSI-positive (MSI+)cancers without known MMR defects may result from miR-155 overexpression.Target genes of frameshift mutation for MSI are involved in various cellular functions,such as DNA repair,cell signaling,and apoptosis.A novel class of target genes that included not only epigenetic modifier genes,such as HDAC2,but also miRNA processing machinery genes,including TARBP2 and XPO5,were found to be mutated in MSI+ GI cancers.Thus,a subset of MSI+ colorectal cancers (CRCs) has been proposed to exhibit a mutated miRNA machinery phenotype.Genetic,epigenetic,and transcriptomic differences exist between MSI+ and MSI-cancers.Molecular signatures of miRNA expression apparently have the potential to

  16. Malnutrition at the Time of Surgery Affects Negatively the Clinical Outcome of Critically Ill Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Malnutrition is a frequent concomitant of surgical illness, especially in gastrointestinal cancer surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in the GI cancer patients and its relation with clinical outcome. We also examined associations between the energy balance and clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods: Prospective study on 694 surgical patients treated in the ICU of the UHC of Tirana. Patients were divided into well-nourished and malnour...

  17. Exophytic Colon Cancer: Resemblance to a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Hi; Kim, Ha Na; Byun, Sung Su; Ha, Seung Yeon [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    An exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon is very rare with only a few reports to date. To the best of our knowledge, the CT appearance of colon cancer, which simulated the classic appearance of a GIST has only been reported once in the world's literature. We recently evaluated a patient with a large lobulated mass involving the stomach, pancreas and colon. The CT appearance of the case was consistent with the diagnosis of an exophytic gastric GIST. However, at surgery, the patient was found to have a large ulcerated carcinoma of the colon near the splenic flexure that had invaded the stomach and pancreas. We report a case of an exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon that resembled the classic appearance of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

  18. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  19. Investigation of a common gene expression signature in gastrointestinal cancers using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Kaveh; Hosseinkhan, Nazanin; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Zali, M R

    2017-09-04

    According to GLOBOCAN 2012, the incidence and the mortality rate of colorectal, stomach and liver cancers are the highest among the total gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Here we aimed to find the common genes and pathways that are simultaneously deregulated in these three malignancies using systems biology approaches. Here we conducted a differential expression analysis on high-quality gene expression datasets of gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To address the inter gene correlations that were neglected in differential expression studies, we also applied differential co-expression analysis on the understudied datasets. The common significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the three cancers were used for further regulatory and PPI network construction. In parallel the regulatory roles of miRNAs and lncRNAs in the common DEGs were investigated. 23 common DEGs were detected between GC, CRC and HCC. Two cases of potential feed forward loops were identified in the constructed TF-target regulatory network, indicating the probable cross-talk between biological pathways. The result of a vulnerability test on the common PPI network resulted in the finding of three candidates, the simultaneous targeting of which will disintegrate the main parts of the network. The results of the differential co-expression study led to the identification of respectively 7 and 1 common differentially co-expressed pairs of genes between GC and CRC and between CRC and HCC. The results of the differential expression study introduced new common players in CRC, GC and HCC and provided better insights into the molecular characteristics of these GI malignancies. Moreover, we concluded that differential co-expression studies are an essential complement for differential expression studies that just take single differentially expressed genes into account.

  20. The Role of Evidence Based Nursing in Prevention of Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Children with Cancer

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    Z Pouresmail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, due to the broad spectrum of pediatric cancers are treated by the chemotherapy drugs, but these drugs have side effects and gastrointestinal toxicity is the most prevalent. One of the main roles of nurses is to better health through patient education and care for him. Evidence-based nursing is a process during which the nurse can use the available research evidence, their clinical expertise and the patient has to take appropriate decisions. This study reviews the role of evidence-based nursing in the prevention of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy in children with cancer was conducted.   Materials and Methods: Seeking information was performing through databases PubMed, SID, Since Direct, magiran, Ovid and etc. Within the years 2014-2002, the key issues in terms of evidence-based nursing, gastrointestinal side effect, chemotherapy was performed and 20 were studied English equivalents.   Results: The most common gastrointestinal side effects in children undergoing chemotherapy are oral ulcers, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia. Different strategies for prevention studies suggest that these effects need to perform their roles in teaching and nursing care. Nurses can use the results of studies such as music, ginger, semi sitting positions during chemotherapy, use of ice and etc. To prevent vomiting, the use of  Persica for oral wound healing, hygiene perform especially hand washing for preventing diarrhea. The most important roles of nursing are recommended, Education on prevention of chemotherapy complications, adverse effects of proper nutrition and etc.   Conclusion: Nurses can play an effective role in the education and care to relieve symptoms and prevent progression of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy.   Key words: Evidence-based nursing, Gastrointestinal side effects, Chemotherapy, Cancer  

  1. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

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    Huddleston JR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer R HuddlestonBiology Department, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, USAAbstract: Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed.Keywords: gut microbiome, conjugation, natural transformation, transduction

  2. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2011-03-15

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific "healthy" microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a genus commonly observed in the feces of breast-fed infants. Isolated culture studies indeed show selective growth of infant-borne bifidobacteria on milk oligosaccharides or core components therein. Parallel glycoprofiling documented that numerous Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides that are abundant early in the lactation cycle. Genome sequencing of numerous B. longum subsp. infantis strains shows a bias toward genes required to use mammalian-derived carbohydrates by comparison with adult-borne bifidobacteria. This intriguing strategy of mammalian lactation to selectively nourish genetically compatible bacteria in infants with a complex array of free oligosaccharides serves as a model of how to influence the human supraorganismal system, which includes the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  3. C-Met as a potential target for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afsane; Shahidsales, Soodabeh; Khazaei, Majid; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Maftouh, Mina; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Avan, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Aberrant activation of the HGF/c-Met signalling pathways is shown to be related with cell proliferation, progression, metastasis, and worse prognosis in several tumor types, including gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting its value as a stimulating-target for cancer-therapy. Several approaches have been developed for targeting HGF and/or c-Met, and one of them, crizotinib (dual c-Met/ALK inhibitor), is recently been approved by FDA for lung-cancers with ALK-rearrangement. The main aim of current review is to give an overview on the role of c-Met/HGF pathway in gastrointestinal cancer, in preclinical and clinical trials. Although several important matters is still remained to be elucidated on the molecular pathways underlying the antitumor effects of this therapy in gastrointestinal-cancers. Further investigations are warranted to recognize the main determinants of the activity of c-Met inhibitors, for parallel targeting signalling pathway associated/activated via MET/HGF pathway or in response to the cell resistance to anti-c-Met agents. Additionally, identification of patients that might benefit from therapy could help to increase the selectivity and efficacy of the therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The use of BLT humanized mice to investigate the immune reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Angela; Victor Garcia, J

    2014-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ has its own well-developed and fully functional immune organization that is similar and yet different in many important ways to the rest of the immune system. Both a compromised and an overactive immune system in the gut can have dire and severe consequences to human health. It has therefore been of great interest to develop animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the human condition to better understand the interplay of the host immune system with its friends and its foes. However, reconstitution of the GI tract in humanized mice has been difficult and highly variable in different systems. A better molecular understanding of the development of the gut immune system in mice has provided critical cues that have been recently used to develop novel humanized mouse models that fully recapitulate the genesis and key functions of the gut immune system of humans. Of particular interest is the presence of human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) aggregates in the gut of NOD/SCID BLT humanized mice that demonstrate the faithful development of bona fide human plasma cells capable of migrating to the lamina propria and producing human IgA1 and IgA2.

  5. Oncogenes and human cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C.P. Heisterkamp (Nora); J.H.C. Groffen (John)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe first demonstrations that cancer could have an infectious nature was by Ellerman and Bang (1) ~ who showed that leukemia in chickens was transmissible with cell-free extracts and by Rous (2), who found in a similar fashion that naturally occurring chicken sarcomas were transmissible.

  6. The mTOR pathway in obesity driven gastrointestinal cancers: Potential targets and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Cian O; Pidgeon, Graham P

    2016-06-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial point of convergence between growth factor signalling, metabolism, nutrient status and cellular proliferation. The mTOR pathway is heavily implicated in the progression of many cancers and is emerging as an important driver of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Due to its central role in adapting metabolism to environmental conditions, mTOR signalling is also believed to be critical in the development of obesity. Recent research has delineated that excessive nutrient intake can promote signalling through the mTOR pathway and possibly evoke changes to cellular metabolism that could accelerate obesity related cancers. Acting through its two effector complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR dictates the transcription of genes important in glycolysis, lipogenesis, protein translation and synthesis and has recently been defined as a central mediator of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Activation of the mTOR pathway is involved in both the pathogenesis of GI malignancies and development of resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The use of mTOR inhibitors is a promising therapeutic option in many GI malignancies, with greatest clinical efficacy seen in combination regimens. Recent research has also provided insight into crosstalk between mTOR and other pathways which could potentially expand the list of therapeutic targets in the mTOR pathway. Here we review the available strategies for targeting the mTOR pathway in GI cancers. We discuss current clinical trials of both established and novel mTOR inhibitors, with particular focus on combinations of these drugs with conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies.

  7. Ecologic study of serum selenium and upper gastrointestinal cancers in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Nouarie; Christian C. Abnet; Philip R. Taylor; Reza Malekzadeh; Sanford M. Dawsey; Akram Pourshams; Farin Kamangar; Masood Sotoudeh; Mohammad Hossein Derakhshan; Mohammad Reza Akbari; Hafez Fakheri; Mohammad Javad Zahedi; Kathleen Caldwell

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Both observational and experimental studies have shown that higher selenium status reduces the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in selenium deficient populations.Recent cancer registry data have shown very different rates of esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) in four Provinces of Iran, namely Ardabil, Mazandaran, Golestan,and Kerman. The aim of this study was to have a preliminary assessment of the hypothesis that high rates of EC in Golestan and high rates of GC in Ardabil may be partly attributable to selenium deficiency.METHODS: We measured serum selenium in 300 healthy adults from Ardabil (n = 100), Mazandaran (n = 50), Golestan (n = 100), and Kerman (n = 50), using inductively coupled plasma, with dynamic reaction cell, mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) at the US Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta,Georgia).RESULTS: The median serum selenium concentrations were very different in the four Provinces. The medians (IQR) for selenium in Ardabil, Mazandarn, Golestan, and Kerman were 82 (75-94), 123 (111-132), 155 (141-173), and 119 (110-128) μg/L, respectively (P<0.001). The results of linear regression showed that the Province variable, by itself,explained 76% of the variance in log selenium (r2 = 0.76).The proportion of the populations with a serum selenium more than 90 μg/L (the concentration at which serum selenoproteins are saturated) was 100% in Golestan,Kerman, and Mazandaran but only 29% in Ardabil.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that selenium deficiency is not a major contributor to the high incidence of EC seen in northeastern Iran, but it may play a role in the high incidence of GC in Ardabil Province.

  8. Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health

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    Christopher I. Ogbaje

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are of the global problem particularly in the developing countries. Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and have been reported to be hosts of many intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance globally. In Nigeria, gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs is currently endemic in 20 of the 36 states. Aim: In general, dogs are the closest animals to humans and for that reason we decided to carry out a survey study to check the incidence of these parasites in dogs and to ascertain the level of environmental contamination in the study area. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dog patients presented to small animal clinic of Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, dog’s fecal droppings from the streets, and residential Quarters of the University and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT of dogs from dogs slaughtering house at Basawa Barrack, Zaria. Three methods were used in the analysis of the samples; simple flotation, sedimentation, and GIT processing methods within 48 h of collection. Results: Out of 224 samples analyzed 76(33.9% were positive of at least one of the parasites. Of the 101 samples from streets and residential quarters of ABU, Zaria, Isospora spp. 12(11.9% recorded the highest prevalence rate followed by Taenia spp. 6(5.9%, then Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, and Dipylidium caninum were 5.0%, 4.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. Isospora spp. (19.0% recorded the highest prevalence rate for the 100 samples collected from small animal clinic. Other parasites encountered were T. canis (8.0%, A. caninum (8.0% and Taenia spp. (5.0%. Parasites observed from the 23 gastrointestinal contents from “dog slaughtered houses” were T. canis (17.3%, Isospora spp.(13.1% and A. caninum (4.3. Conclusion: The study revealed that zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are endemic in Zaria and the general public in the

  9. Human in vivo and in vitro studies on gastrointestinal absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate; Morton, Jackie; Smith, Ian; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Harding, Anne-Helen; Evans, Gareth

    2015-03-04

    The study was designed to conduct human in vivo and in vitro studies on the gastrointestinal absorption of nanoparticles, using titanium dioxide as a model compound, and to compare nanoparticle behaviour with that of larger particles. A supplier's characterisation data may not fully describe a particle formulation. Most particles tested agreed with their supplied characterisation when assessed by particle number but significant proportions of 'nanoparticle formulations' were particles >100nm when assessed by particle weight. Oral doses are measured by weight and it is therefore important that the weight characterisation is taken into consideration. The human volunteer studies demonstrated that very little titanium dioxide is absorbed gastrointestinally after an oral challenge. There was no demonstrable difference in absorption for any of the three particle sizes tested. All tested formulations were shown to agglomerate in simulated gastric fluid, particularly in the smaller particle formulations. Further agglomeration was observed when dispersing formulations in polymeric or elemental foods. Virtually no translocation of titanium dioxide particles across the cell layer was demonstrated. This study found no evidence that nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is more likely to be absorbed in the gut than micron-sized particles.

  10. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  11. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  12. Determining risk of severe gastrointestinal toxicity based on pretreatment gut microbial community in patients receiving cancer treatment : a new predictive strategy in the quest for personalized cancer medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardill, Hannah R.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    Purpose of review Currently, our ability to accurately predict a patient's risk of developing severe gastrointestinal toxicity from their cancer treatment is limited. Risk stratification continues to rely on traditional patient-related and treatment-related factors including age, ethnicity, sex,

  13. Family history of the cancer on the survival of the patients with gastrointestinal cancer in northern Iran, using frailty models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Mahboobeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal (GI tract cancer is one of the common causes of the mortality due to cancer in most developing countries such as Iran. The digestive tract is the major organ involved in the cancer. The northern part of the country, surrounded the Caspian Sea coast, is well known and the region with highest regional incidence of the GI tract cancer. In this paper our aim is to study the most common risk factors affecting the survival of the patients suffering from GI tract cancer using parametric models with frailty. Methods This research was a prospective study. Information of 484 cases with GI cancer was collected from Babol Cancer Registration Center during 1990-1991. The risk factors we studied are age, sex, family history of cancer, marital status, smoking status, occupation, race, medication status, education, residence (urban, rural, type of cancer, migration status (indigenous, non-native. The studied cases were followed up until 2006 for 15 years. Hazard ratio was used to interpret the death risk. The effect of the factors in the study on the patients survival are studied under a family of parametric models including Weibull, Exponential, Log-normal, and the Log-logistic model. The models are fitted using with and without frailty. The Akaike information criterion (AIC was considered to compare between competing models. Results Out of 484 patients in the study, 321 (66.3% were males and 163 (33.7% were females. The average age of the patient at the time of the diagnosis was 59 yr and 55 yr for the males and females respectively. Furthermore, 359 (74.2% patients suffered from esophageal, 110 (22.7% patients recognized with gastric, and 15 (3.1% patients with colon cancer. Survival rates after 1, 3, and 5 years of the diagnosis were 24%, 16%, and 15%, respectively. We found that the family history of the cancer is a significant factor on the death risk under all statistical models in the study. The comparison of AIC

  14. Risk of cancer onset in sub-Saharan Africans affected with chronic gastrointestinal parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waku, M; Napolitano, L; Clementini, E; Staniscia, T; Spagnolli, C; Andama, A; Kasiriye, P; Innocenti, P

    2005-01-01

    Gastrointestinal Schistosomiasis and Amebiasis are uncommon in the western world, while such infections are frequent in the African community. In addition to the problems associated with the clinical symptoms of these parasitic infections, it is important to stress the increase in cancer of the Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract. In this study we evaluate the prevalence of cancer in patients affected by chronic inflammatory diseases caused by the above named parasites. In three years, from January 2000 to December 2003, we observed a total of 1199 subject. Of these, 950 presented with complaints of diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, melena, hematemesis, rectal discharges and alteration of bowel habits. A total of 818 patients were evaluated in Uganda (Mulago and Arua hospitals) and 381 at Luisa Guidotti Hospital in Zimbabwe. An exhaustive clinical history was collected for each patient and then physical and laboratory examinations were performed. The clinical files of all patients previously admitted to the respective hospitals were obtained and the information taken from these files was then integrated with our clinical findings. Subjects who were found free of gastro-intestinal disease after examinations and did not have a clinical history of infective GI disease but presented with other pathologies, were regarded as control group. The control group was composed of 249 subjects. The subjects who were positive on examination underwent further investigations. The number of patients affected by schistosomiasis and amebiasis were 221 and 224 respectively. The number of patients who suffered from aspecific enterocolitis was 454, intestinal tuberculosis was present in 21 patients and we found 30 patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients who had the above mentioned GI diseases were then divided into 3 groups. First group was composed of patients who had a clinical history of infective GI diseases and were re-admitted for similar symptoms, and on examination were

  15. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  16. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Isolated Gallbladder Varices in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer Complicated by Portal Biliopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Gachabayov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal biliopathy is the complex of abnormalities of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, cystic duct, and gallbladder, arising as a result of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and noncirrhotic portal fibrosis, which can be caused by coagulopathies, tumors, inflammation, postoperative complications, dehydration, and neonatal umbilical vein catheterization. We report a case of a 55-year-old male patient with the history of pancreatic cancer and cholecystoenteric anastomosis presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding from gallbladder varices via the anastomosis.

  17. Septin mutations in human cancers

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    Elias T Spiliotis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Septins are GTP-binding proteins that are evolutionarily and structurally related to the RAS oncogenes. Septin expression levels are altered in many cancers and new advances point to how abnormal septin expression may contribute to the progression of cancer. In contrast to the RAS GTPases, which are frequently mutated and actively promote tumorigenesis, little is known about the occurrence and role of septin mutations in human cancers. Here, we review septin missense mutations that are currently in the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC database. The majority of septin mutations occur in tumors of the large intestine, skin, endometrium and stomach. Over 25% of the annotated mutations in SEPT2, SEPT4 and SEPT9 belong to large intestine tumors. From all septins, SEPT9 and SEPT14 exhibit the highest mutation frequencies in skin, stomach and large intestine cancers. While septin mutations occur with frequencies lower than 3%, recurring mutations in several invariant and highly conserved amino acids are found across different septin paralogs and tumor types. Interestingly, a significant number of these mutations occur in the GTP-binding pocket and septin dimerization interfaces. Future studies may determine how these somatic mutations affect septin structure and function, whether they contribute to the progression of specific cancers and if they could serve as tumor-specific biomarkers.

  18. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  19. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans.

  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST coexisting with pancreatic cancer and hepatic hemangioma

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    M. A. Beltrán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST associated to pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been reported in 0.2% pancreatic cancers. There are no published reports on distal pancreatic adenocarcinoma associated to gastric antral GIST. Herein, we discuss a 75 years-old female patient who was admitted to our institution with upper digestive hemorrhage. The endoscopy showed large, superficial erosions over the cardias and, on the posterior wall of the antrum, a rounded sub-mucosal non-eroded lesion suspected of gastric GIST. An abdominal computed tomography scan found a hepatic hemangioma on the left hepatic lobe. In the pancreatic distal body and tail a solid exophytic lesion was identified. The surgical findings confirmed the radiologic diagnostic. The biopsy reported a hepatic hemangioma. The pancreatic tail and the proximal part of the body harbored a well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma measuring 3.4 cm x 3 cm x 2.5 cm with negative margins. The gastric tumor measured 4 cm x 2.5 cm x 1 cm, was positive for CD117, CD34, and DOG-1; it had a positive Ki67 in less than 2%, and 2 or less mitoses per 50 high-power fields. This uncommon case illustrates the occurrence of synchronous tumors of different cellular origins in the same patient, which were diagnosed during the study for another unrelated condition. The individual incidence of these tumors is low and if associated they probably will continue to be found incidentally.

  1. On attitudes about colorectal cancer screening among gastrointestinal specialists and general practitioners in the Netherlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JS Terhaar sive Droste; GDN Heine; ME Craanen; H Boot; CJJ Mulder

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To find out whether there are differences in attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among gastrointestinal (GI) specialists and general practitioners (GPs) and which method is preferred in a national screening programMETHODS: Four hundred and twenty Dutch GI specialists in the Netherlands and 400 GPs in Amsterdam were questioned in 2004. Questions included demographics, affiliation, attitude towards screening both for the general population and themselves, methods of screening, family history and individual risk.RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of the GI specialists returned the questionnaire in comparison to 32% of the GPs (P < 0.001). Among the GI specialists, 92% favoured population screening whereas 51% of GPs supported population screening (P < 0.001). Of the GI specialists 95% planned to be screened themselves, while 30%of GPs intended to do so (P < 0.001). Regarding the general population, 72% of the GI specialists preferred colonoscopy as the screening method compared to 27% of the GPs (P < 0.001). The method preferred for personal screening was colonoscopy in 97% of the GI specialists, while 29% of the GPs favoured colonoscopy (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Screening for CRC is strongly supported by Dutch GI specialists and less by GPs. The major health issue is possibly misjudged by GPs. Since GPs play a crucial role in a successful national screening program, CRC awareness should be realized by increasing knowledge about the incidence and mortality, thus increasing awareness of the need for screening among GPs.

  2. Implications of occult metastatic cells for systemic cancer treatment in patients with breast or gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Rosenberg, R; Thorban, S; Harbeck, N

    2001-06-01

    The early and clinically occult spread of viable tumour cells to the organism is becoming acknowledged as a hallmark in cancer progression, since abundant clinical and experimental data suggest that these cells are precursors of subsequent distant relapse. Using monoclonal antibodies against epithelial cytokeratins or tumour-associated cell membrane glycoproteins, individual carcinoma cells can be detected in cytological bone marrow preparations at frequencies of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Prospective clinical studies have shown that the presence of such immunostained cells in bone marrow is prognostically relevant with regard to relapse-free and overall survival, even in malignancies that do not preferentially metastasise to bone. As current treatment strategies have resulted in a substantial improvement of cancer mortality rates, it is noteworthy to consider the intriguing options of immunocytochemical screening of bone marrow aspirates for occult metastatic cells. Besides improved tumour staging, such screening offers opportunities for guiding patient stratification for adjuvant therapy trials, monitoring response to adjuvant therapies (which, at present, can only be assessed retrospectively after an extended period of clinical follow-up), and specifically targeting tumour-biological therapies against disseminated tumour cells. The present review summarises the current data on the clinical significance of occult metastatic cancer cells in bone marrow.

  3. Extracellular vesicles in gastrointestinal cancer in conjunction with microbiota: On the border of Kingdoms

    KAUST Repository

    Barteneva, Natasha S.

    2017-06-29

    Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicls). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations.This review focuses on research evaluating the role of EV production in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development in conjunction with GI microbiota and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss recent studies on the promising role of EVs and their content as biomarkers for early diagnosis of GI cancers. The bMVs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of GI chronic inflammatory diseases, however, possible role of bMVs in tumorigenesis remains underestimated. We propose that EVs from eukaryotic cells as well as from different microbial, fungi, parasitic species and edible plants in GI tract act as mediators of intracellular and inter-species communication, particularly facilitating tumour cell survival and multi-drug resistance. In conclusion, we suggest that matching sequences from EV proteomes (available from public databases) with known protein sequences of microbiome gut bacteria will be useful in identification of antigen mimicry between evolutionary conservative protein sequences. Using this approach we identified Bacteroides spp. pseudokinase with activation loop and homology to PDGFRα, providing a proof-of-concept strategy. We speculate that existence of microbial pseudokinase that ‘mimic” PDGFRα may be related to PDGFRα and Bacteroides spp. roles in colorectal carcinogenesis that require further investigation.

  4. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and vomiting induced by gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiwei; Ji, Chushu; He, Yifu; Pan, Yueyin

    2017-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most common adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To discuss the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A total of 112 patients with malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract was selected. Based on the 14C-urea breath test results, the patients were divided into H. pylori-positive (n = 59) and H. pylori-negative (n = 53) groups. Both groups received prophylactic antiemetic treatment during chemotherapy. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and their effects on the patients' life functions was recorded using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) Antiemetic Tool (MAT) and the Functional Living Index Emesis (FLIE) from 0-120 h after chemotherapy. Records of the H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups were compared. The rates of nausea and vomiting remission were higher in the H. pylori -negative group than in the H. pylori -positive group. The proportions of no effect in daily life (NIDL) patients in the nausea and vomiting section were 73.4 and 75.5% in the H. pylori -negative group respectively. There was a higher proportion of NIDL patients in the H. pylori -negative group than in the H. pylori -positive group (P pylori infection was a factor affecting the nausea scores on the FLIE (odds ratio = 0.757, 95% confidence interval 0.597-0.960, P = 0.021). H. pylori infection in patients with cancer may be a factor that increases CINV. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Predictors of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity During Pelvic Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. Jonathan; Oh, Jung Hun; Son, Christina H.; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O.; Wu, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity during pelvic chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 177 patients with rectal cancer treated from 2007 through 2010. Clinical information, including weekly diarrhea and proctitis toxicity grade during PCRT, was recorded. GI structures including bowel and anal canal were contoured. The associations between toxicity and clinical and dosimetric predictors were tested. RESULTS: The median age was 60; 76 patients were women; 98 were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 79 with 3D conformal RT (3DCRT). A higher rate of grade 2+ diarrhea was observed in the women, starting at week 4 (24% women vs. 11% men, P = .01; week 5: 33% vs. 12%, P = .002), as well as in all the patients treated with 3DCRT (22% vs. 12% IMRT, P = .03; week 5: 32% vs. 11%, P = .001). On multivariate analysis, the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model including bowel V45 (bowel volume receiving ≥45 Gy) showed that being female, and use of 3DCRT, was most predictive of grade 2+ diarrhea (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.76; RS = 0.35; P < .001). A higher rate of grade 2+ proctitis was seen in patients <60 years of age starting at week 3 (21% vs. 9%, P = .02; week 4: 35% vs. 16%, P = .003). The NTCP model including anal canal V15 and younger age was most predictive of grade 2+ proctitis (AUC = 0.67; RS = 0.25; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Women and all patients who were treated with 3DCRT had higher rates of grade 2+ diarrhea, and the younger patients had a higher rate of grade 2+ proctitis during PCRT. The use of more stringent dosimetric constraints in higher risk patients is a strategy for minimizing toxicity. PMID:24312686

  6. Risk analysis, diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal mucositis in pediatric cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Mucositis is a complex inflammatory reaction of the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract upon chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment in oncology patients. Mucositis can be subdivided in oral and gastrointestinal mucositis (GI mucositis). The damage to the gastrointestinal tract compromises the

  7. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  8. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  9. Chemokine receptor CXCR4-prognostic factor for gastrointestinal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carl C Schimanski; Peter R Galle; Markus Moehler

    2008-01-01

    To review the implication of CXCR4 for gastrointestinal cancer,a "Pubmed" analysis was performed in order to evaluate the relevance of CXCR4 and its ligands for gastrointestinal cancers.Search terms applied were "cancer,malignoma,esophageal,gastric,colon,colorectal,hepatic,pancreatic,CXCR4,SDF-1α,and SDF-1β"; CXCR4 expression correlated with dissemination of diverse gastrointestinal malignomas.The CXCR4 ligand SDF-1α might act as "chemorepellent"while SDF-1β might act as "chemorepellent" for CTLs,inducing tumor rejection.The paracrine expression of SDF-1α was furthermore closely associated with neoangiogenesis.CXCR4 and its ligands influence the dissemination,immune rejection,and neoangiogenesis of human gastrointestinal cancers.Inhibition of CXCR4 might be an interesting therapeutic option.

  10. Effects of breast cancer resistance protein inhibitors and pharmaceutical excipients on decreasing gastrointestinal toxicity of camptothecin analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-xin ZHANG; Wei-san PAN; Li GAN; Chun-liu ZHU; Yong GAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors and pharmaceutical excipients on reducing the biliary excretion of camptothecins (CPT), ameliorating delayed-type diarrhea and intestinal mucosa damage induced by CPT. Methods: The cumulative biliary excretion of irinotecan (CPT-11) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) with or without BCRP inhibitors and excipients was investigated in rats. The gastrointestinal toxicity, assessed as the diarrheal score, body weight change and microscopic pathological damage was also determined in rats. Results: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) exhibited important effects on the biliary excretion of CPT. Coadministration of BCRP inhibitors such as GF120918 and cyclosporin A reduced the biliary excretion of CPT-11 and HCPT. Pharmaceutical excipients such as Pluronic F68 and PEG 2000 stearate also showed inhibitory effects on BCRP and similarly reduced CPT biliary excretion. The observed gastrointestinal toxicity was ameliorated by coadministration of BCRP inhibitors and excipients compared with injection of CPT-11 and HCPT alone. Conclusion:The use of excipients as inhibitors of BCRP is safe and relatively non-toxic, and may lead to important pharmacotherapeutic benefits by decreasing the gastrointestinal toxicity of CPT.

  11. The use of formulation technology to assess regional gastrointestinal drug absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Abdul W; Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Waddington, Wendy A; Ell, Peter J; Lacey, Larry F

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using oral modified-release formulations for the purposes of site-specific targeting and regional drug absorption assessment in man. An immediate release pellet formulation containing ranitidine as the model drug of choice for the study was fabricated by extrusion-spheronisation, and then film coated with either the enteric polymer polyvinyl acetate phthalate or the bacteria-degradable polymer amylose, in combination with ethylcellulose, to effect drug release within the small intestine and colon, respectively. Optimised formulations were evaluated in vivo in ten healthy volunteers, who each received, on four separate occasions, the immediate release, small intestinal release and colonic release formulations (each equivalent to 150mg ranitidine), and an intravenous injection of ranitidine (equivalent to 50mg ranitidine). Blood samples were collected and assessed for ranitidine concentration, and radiolabelled placebo pellets were co-administered with the coated ranitidine pellets to monitor their gastrointestinal transit using a gamma camera. Ranitidine was rapidly released and absorbed from the immediate release formulation, whereas the enteric formulation (10% coat weight gain) delayed drug release until some or all of the pellets had emptied into the small intestine. The amylose-ethylcellulose coated formulation (coat ratio 1:3, coat weight gain 25%) retarded ranitidine release until the pellets had reached the colon. The mean absolute bioavailability of ranitidine from the immediate release, small intestinal release and colonic release formulations were 50.6, 46.1 and 5.5%, respectively. These data are in general agreement to those obtained from a previous regional intubation study. The present study therefore demonstrates the practical potential of utilising a non-invasive, formulation-based approach to assess drug absorption from different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract.

  12. [A case-control study on the relationship of crocidolite pollution in drinking water with the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Dayao County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jing; Peng, Wenjia; Jia, Xianjie; Wei, Binggan; Yang, Linsheng; Hu, Liming; Lu, Rong'an

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship of crocidolite pollution in drinking water with the risk of gastrointestinal cancer's death in Dayao County. A 1:2 matched case-control study involving 54 death cases of gastrointestinal cancer from a population-based cohort of twenty-seven years and 108 controls matched by age, gender, death time, etc was conducted to analyze the effect of local water condition on the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Dayao County. Results from logistic regression analysis suggested the longer of asbestos furnace use over time, the higher the mortality risk of gastrointestinal cancer (6 - 10 years: OR = 2.920, 95% CI 1.501 - 5.604. 11 - 15 years: OR = 3.966, 95% CI 2.156 -7.950. Over 15 years: OR = 4.122, 95% CI 1.211 - 7. 584). Drinking unboiled water leaded to an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 - 1.88). Type of drinking water was associated with gastrointestinal cancer. When compared with drinking tap water, OR for drinking well water was 1.770 (95% CI 1.001 - 2.444), 2.442 for drinking river water (95% CI 0.956 - 3.950), 2.554 for drinking house and field ditch water (95% CI 1.961 - 6.584), and 3.121 for drinking pond water (95% CI 1.872 - 6.566). Related factors of drinking water in crocidolite-contaminated area in Dayao County were significantly associated with the mortality of gastrointestinal cancer.

  13. High adhesion of tumor cells to mesothelial monolayers derived from peritoneal wash of disseminated gastrointestinal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ranieri

    Full Text Available The role of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneal spreading of cancer cells is only partially clarified. Here we attempted to better define the mesothelial contribution to the tumor cell adhesion using a direct adhesion test applied to human primary cultures of mesothelial cells (HPMCs derived from the peritoneal washes of patients with gastric and colorectal cancers. Gastric and colon carcinoma cells were seeded on different mesothelial monolayers and quantitative fluorescence analysis was performed to analyze their growth and adhesive properties. The adhesion of the cancer cells was not affected by the origin of the HPMCs when derived from patients with different cancers or with benign disease. In contrast, the high levels of ICAM1 expression and ROS production, which characterize these senescent mesothelial cells, enhanced the tumor cell adhesion. These results suggest that the mesothelial adhesive properties are dependent on the cell senescence, while are not affected by the tumor environment. The use of peritoneal washes as a source to isolate HPMCs provides a practical and reliable tool for the in vitro analysis of the mesothelial conditions affecting the peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  14. The impact of PET/CT on the management of hepatic and extra hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Erdal, E-mail: erdal066@yahoo.com [Kartal Kosuyolu High Specialty Training and Research Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Bostanci, Erdal Birol [Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Sakarya (Turkey); Aksoy, Erol [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Teaching and Research Hospital, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Ankara (Turkey); Karaman, Kerem [Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Sakarya (Turkey); Poyraz, Nilufer Yildirim [Ataturk Teaching and Research Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Duman, Ugur [Sevket Yilmaz Training and Research Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Bursa (Turkey); Gencturk, Zeynep Biyikli [Ankara University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey); Yol, Sinan [Medeniyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CT is more sensitive than PET/CT in detecting hepatic metastases. • PET/CT is more specific in detecting hepatic metastases. • CT and PET/CT have equal sensitivity in detecting extra hepatic metastases. • PET/CT is more specific in detecting extra hepatic metastases. • PET/CT has an impact of about 40% on changing the management strategies. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in detection and management of hepatic and extrahepatic metastases from gastrointestinal cancers. Materials and methods: Between February 2008 and July 2010, patients histopathologically diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer and showing suspected metastasis on CT screening were subsequently evaluated with PET/CT. All patients were subgrouped according to histopathological origin and localization of the primary tumor. Localization of gastrointestinal cancers was further specified as lower gastrointestinal system (GIS), upper GIS, or hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB). Both accuracy and impact of CT and PET/CT on patient management were retrospectively evaluated. Results: One hundred and thirteen patients diagnosed histopathologically with gastrointestinal cancers were retrospectively evaluated. Seventy-nine patients had adenocarcinoma and 34 patients other gastrointestinal tumors. Forty-one patients were in the upper GIS group, 30 patients in the HPB group, and 42 patients in the lower GIS group. Evaluation the diagnostic performance of PET/CT for suspected metastasis according to histopathological origin of the tumor, revealed that the sensitivity of PET/CT – although statistically not different – was higher in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinomas (90% (95% CI, 0.78–0.96) vs. 71.4% (95% CI, 0.45–0.88), P = 0.86). The specificity was not significantly different (85.7% (95% CI, 0.70–0.93) vs. 85% (95% CI, 0.63–0.94), P = 1.00). In the overall patient group; CT was significantly more

  15. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  17. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  18. Gastrointestinal function and metabolic control after construction of an orthotopic ileal neobladder in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Andreas; Jacobsson, Hans; Onelöv, Erik

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ileum resection in orthotopic neobladder construction on gastrointestinal function and metabolic control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 28 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and construction of an orthotopic neobladder or continent ileal reservoir...... were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Using the distal ileum for orthotopic neobladder construction causes bowel disorders in a quarter of cystectomy patients. Diarrhoea and faecal urgency are probably caused by decreased reabsorption of bile and are not due to changes in gastrointestinal hormones. A sizeable...

  19. The effect of forced expression of mutated K-RAS gene on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and the IGF-1R targeting therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Adachi, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Koide, Hideyuki; Motoya, Masayo; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Hideyasu; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Tokino, Takashi; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2017-02-01

    Mutation in K-RAS (K-RAS-MT) plays important roles in both cancer progression and resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in gastrointestinal tumors. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and progression of many tumors as well. We have previously shown successful therapy for gastrointestinal cancer cell lines bearing a K-RAS mutation using an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody. In this study, we sought to evaluate effects of forced K-RAS-MT expression on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines representing a possible second resistance mechanism for anti-EGFR therapy and IGF-1R-targeted therapy for these transfectants. We made stable transfectants of K-RAS-MT in two gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, colorectal RKO and pancreatic BxPC-3. We assessed the effect of forced expression of K-RAS-MT on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Then we assessed anti-tumor effects of dominant negative IGF-1R (IGF-1R/dn) and an IGF-1R inhibitor, picropodophyllin, on the K-RAS-MT transfectants. Overexpression of K-RAS-MT in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines led to more aggressive phenotypes, with increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and increased motility and invasion. IGF-1R blockade suppressed cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion, and up-regulated chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of gastrointestinal cancer cells, even when K-RAS-MT was over-expressed. IGF-1R blockade inhibited the Akt pathway more than the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the K-RAS-MT transfectants. IGF-1R/dn, moreover, inhibited the growth of murine xenografts expressing K-RAS-MT. Thus, K-RAS-MT might be important for progressive phonotype observed in gastrointestinal cancers. IGF-1R decoy is a candidate molecular therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal cancers even if K-RAS is mutated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  20. The beneficial effect of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hui-Lin; Miao, Shang-Jun; Liu, Pei-Fen; Lee, Henry Hsin-Chung; Chen, Ying-Miao; Yao, Chung-Tay; Chou, Hsiu-Ling

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on recovery of postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer. A longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial design. An urban medical center in Taiwan. 60 patients with colorectal cancer who had undergone abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, the ST-36 acupressure group (n = 30) and a sham acupressure group (n = 30). Patients in the ST-36 group received an acupressure procedure in a three-minute cycle performed three times per day during the five days after surgery. Patients in the control group received routine postoperative care and sham acupressure. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to gauge longitudinal effects of the two groups of patients. Frequency of bowel sounds, the time to first flatus passage, first liquid intake, solid intake, and defecation. Patients who received acupressure had significantly earlier flatus passage and time to liquid intake as compared to patients in the control group. Other main variables, including the first time to solid intake and defecation, did not show significant difference between the two groups. The GEE method revealed that all patients had increasing bowel sounds over time, and the experimental group had greater improvement of bowel motility than the control group within the period of 2-3 days postoperatively. ST-36 acupressure was able to shorten the time to first flatus passage, oral liquid intake, and improve gastrointestinal function in patients after abdominal surgery. ST-36 acupressure can be integrated into postoperative adjunct nursing care to assist patients' postoperative gastrointestinal function. Few studies have explored the effectiveness of acupressure techniques on promoting bowel sounds. Evidence from this study suggests stimulation of the ST-36 acupressure point can increase bowel sound frequency for patients with colorectal cancer in the first three days after surgery

  1. HCSD: the human cancer secretome database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Banaei-Esfahani, Amir; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The human cancer secretome database (HCSD) is a comprehensive database for human cancer secretome data. The cancer secretome describes proteins secreted by cancer cells and structuring information about the cancer secretome will enable further analysis of how this is related with tumor biology. The secreted proteins from cancer cells are believed to play a deterministic role in cancer progression and therefore may be the key to find novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for many cancers. Consequently, huge data on cancer secretome have been generated in recent years and the lack of a coherent database is limiting the ability to query the increasing community knowledge. We therefore developed the Human Cancer Secretome Database (HCSD) to fulfil this gap. HCSD contains >80 000 measurements for about 7000 nonredundant human proteins collected from up to 35 high-throughput studies on 17 cancer types. It has a simple and user friendly query system for basic and advanced search based on gene name, cancer type and data type as the three main query options. The results are visualized in an explicit and interactive manner. An example of a result page includes annotations, cross references, cancer secretome data and secretory features for each identified protein. Database URL: www.cancersecretome.org. PMID:26078477

  2. Human Cancer Models Initiative | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Cancer Models Initiative (HCMI) is an international consortium that is generating novel human tumor-derived culture models, which are annotated with genomic and clinical data. In an effort to advance cancer research and more fully understand how in vitro findings are related to clinical biology, HCMI-developed models and related data will be available as a community resource for cancer research.

  3. [Gastrointestinal bezoars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza González, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. This material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. During a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. We report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. This magic conception was introduced in South America by Spanish conquerors. In Chile, bezoars are commonly found in a camelid named guanaco (Lama guanicoe). People at Central Chile and the Patagonia believed that bezoar stones had magical properties and they were traded at very high prices. In Santiago, during the eighteenth century the Jesuit apothecary sold preparations of bezoar stones. The human bezoars may be formed by non-digestible material like cellulose (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), conglomerations of medications or his vehicles (pharmacobezoar or medication bezoar), milk and mucus component (lactobezoar) or other varieties of substances. This condition may be asymptomatic or can produce abdominal pain, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation and mechanical intestinal obstruction. We report their classification, diagnostic modalities and treatment.

  4. Deciphering the Colon Cancer Genes-Report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio; Aretz, Stefan; Bapat, Bharati; Bernstein, Inge T.; Burn, John; Cotton, Richard G. H.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Frebourg, Thierry; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Hofstra, Robert; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Lappalainen, Ilkka; Lindblom, Annika; Maglott, Donna; Moller, Pal; Morreau, Hans; Moeslein, Gabriela; Sijmons, Rolf; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Tavtigian, Sean; Tops, Carli M. J.; Weber, Thomas K.; de Wind, Niels; Woods, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) has established a pilot program with the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) to compile all inherited variation affecting colon cancer susceptibility genes. An HVP-InSiGHT Workshop was held on May 10, 2010, prior to the HVP Integrat

  5. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, JS; Freedman, ND; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, SM; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, CC

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric noncardia cancer, 123 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of ≥1 cup/day was 0.37 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last three years of follow-up (compared to drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  6. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3 on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health.

  7. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Fokkink, Remco; Peters, Ruud; Tromp, Peter; Herrera Rivera, Zahira E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO₃) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were analysed with SP-ICPMS, DLS and SEM-EDX. In presence of proteins, after gastric digestion the number of particles dropped significantly, to rise back to original values after the intestinal digestion. SEM-EDX revealed that reduction in number of particles was caused by their clustering. These clusters were composed of AgNPs and chlorine. During intestinal digestion, these clusters disintegrated back into single 60 nm AgNPs. The authors conclude that these AgNPs under physiological conditions can reach the intestinal wall in their initial size and composition. Importantly, intestinal digestion of AgNO₃ in presence of proteins resulted in particle formation. These nanoparticles (of 20-30 nm) were composed of silver, sulphur and chlorine.

  8. A New High-Throughput Approach to Genotype Ancient Human Gastrointestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Nathalie M L; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Mélanie; Bennett, E Andrew; Gorgé, Olivier; Guimaraes, Silvia; Capelli, Nicolas; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Human gastrointestinal parasites are good indicators for hygienic conditions and health status of past and present individuals and communities. While microscopic analysis of eggs in sediments of archeological sites often allows their taxonomic identification, this method is rarely effective at the species level, and requires both the survival of intact eggs and their proper identification. Genotyping via PCR-based approaches has the potential to achieve a precise species-level taxonomic determination. However, so far it has mostly been applied to individual eggs isolated from archeological samples. To increase the throughput and taxonomic accuracy, as well as reduce costs of genotyping methods, we adapted a PCR-based approach coupled with next-generation sequencing to perform precise taxonomic identification of parasitic helminths directly from archeological sediments. Our study of twenty-five 100 to 7,200 year-old archeological samples proved this to be a powerful, reliable and efficient approach for species determination even in the absence of preserved eggs, either as a stand-alone method or as a complement to microscopic studies.

  9. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  10. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  11. 胃癌切除术后胃肠道瘘的治疗%Gastrointestinal leakage after gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐云; 李荣; 陈凛; 卫勃; 武现生

    2010-01-01

    Objective To summarize the treatment experiences in gastrointestinal leaJcage atter gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Mehods From January 1997 to December 2006 the clinical data of 37 cases of gastrointestinal leakage including anastomotic leakage in 19 cases and duodenal stump leakage in 18 after gastrectomy for gastric cancer in People's Liberation Army General Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results All of the Cases were treated with abdominal drainage,continuous gastrointinal decomnression and parenteral nutrition combined with enteral nutrition.There were 32 cases receiving glutamine enrichment nutrition support,31 ases used somatostatin,13 cases received supplemented recombinarlt human growth hormone.Fistula healed in 21~30 d in 9 cases after gastrectomy,in the other 24 cases fistula healed in 30-60 d,while it healed in 60~81 d in the remaining 2 cases.Two died of leakage associated complications after gastrectomy for gastric cancer including anastomotlc leakage follwing esophagojejunostomy complicated by severe thoracic and lung infection in one and duodenal stump leakage complicated by severe abdominal cavity sepsis and hemorrhage in the other. Conclusion Patent and effective abdominal cavity drainage,continuous gastrointestinal decompression,parenteral nutrition combined with enteral nutrition,glutarnine,somatostafin and recombinant human growth hormone are the'mportant factors for the healing of gastrointestinal leakage after gastrectomy tor gastric cancer.%目的 总结胃癌切除术后胃肠道瘘的治疗经验,以提高对胃癌切除术后胃肠道瘘的治疗水平.方法 对1997年1月至2006年12月在北京解放军总医院治疗的胃癌切除术后19例吻合El瘘和18例十二指肠残端瘘共37例胃肠道瘘患者进行回顾性分析.结果 本组37例均加强了瘘口附近的腹腔引流,采用了持续胃肠减压,先给予肠外营养支持、然后从肠外营养支持逐步过渡到肠内营养支持的治疗手段.32

  12. Modulation of postoperative immune and inflammatory response by immune-enhancing enteral diet in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo HaG Wu; Yan Wei Zhang; Zhao Han Wu

    2001-01-01

    AIM To evaluate if the administration of anenteral diet supplemented with glutamine,arginine and ω-3-fatty acids modulatesinflammatory and immune responses aftersurgery.METHODS A prospective randomized double-blind, clinical trial was performed. Forty-eightpatients with gastrointestinal cancer wererandomized into two groups, one group wasgiven an isocaloric and isonitrogenous standarddiet and the other was fed with the supplementeddiet with glutamine, arginine and ωo-3-fattyacids. Feedings were started within 48 hoursafter operation, and continued until day 8. Allvariables were measured before operation andon postoperative day 1 and 8. Immune responseswere determined by phagocytosis ability,respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear cells,total lymphocytes lymphocyte subsets, nitricoxide, cytokines concentration, andinflammatory responses by plasma levels of C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2 level.RESULTS Tolerance of both formula diets wasexcellent. There were siagnificant differences inthe immunological and inflammatory responsesbetween the two groups. In supplementedgroup, phagocytosis and respiratory burst aftersurgery was higher and C-reactive protein levelwas lower (P<0.01) than in the standard group.The supplemented group had higher levels ofnitric oxide, total Iymphocytes, T lymphocytes,T-helper cells, and NK cells. Postoperativelevels of IL-6 and TNF-α were lower in thesupplemented group ( P < 0.05).CONCLUSION It was clearly established in thistrial that early postoperative enteral feeding issafe in patients who have undergone majoroperations for gastrointestinal cancer.Supplementation of enteral nutrition withglutamine, arginine, and ω-3 fatty acidspositively modulated postsurgicalimmunosuppressive and inflammatoryresponses.

  13. Methods and Rationale for the Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bussom

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer often presents at an advanced stage that result in a very dismal five-year survival rates. Novel methods to detect tumors as early as possible are desperately needed. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommends against routine screening for pancreatic cancer in asymptomatic adults using abdominal palpation, ultrasonography, or serologic markers. The evidence for diet-based prevention of pancreatic cancer is limited and conflicting. Recommendations about lifestyle changes, such as stopping the use of tobacco products, moderating alcohol intake, and eating a balanced diet with sufficient fruit and vegetables is generally made. However, screening for persons with hereditary predisposition to develop pancreatic cancer has not been included in this review. Biomarkers represent one tool for the early detection of small, surgically resectable cancers in both the general and high risk populations. Some of the currently utilized biomarkers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CA 19-9, SPan-1, and DUPAN-2 unfortunately have yet to show the sensitivity and specificity needed to be used for screening asymptomatic patients in the general population for pancreatic cancer. Herein, the authors report some updated information from the 2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium in detecting early stage pancreatic cancer.

  14. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  15. Taurolidine reduces the tumor stimulating cytokine interleukin-1beta in patients with resectable gastrointestinal cancer: a multicentre prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Joachim M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of additional treatment strategies with antineoplastic agents on intraperitoneal tumor stimulating interleukin levels are unclear. Taurolidine and Povidone-iodine have been mainly used for abdominal lavage in Germany and Europe. Methods In the settings of a multicentre (three University Hospitals prospective randomized controlled trial 120 patients were randomly allocated to receive either 0.5% taurolidine/2,500 IU heparin (TRD or 0.25% povidone-iodine (control intraperitoneally for resectable colorectal, gastric or pancreatic cancers. Due to the fact that IL-1beta (produced by macrophages is preoperatively indifferent in various gastrointestinal cancer types our major outcome criterion was the perioperative (overall level of IL-1beta in peritoneal fluid. Results Cytokine values were significantly lower after TRD lavage for IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10. Perioperative complications did not differ. The median follow-up was 50.0 months. The overall mortality rate (28 vs. 25, p = 0.36, the cancer-related death rate (17 vs. 19, p = .2, the local recurrence rate (7 vs. 12, p = .16, the distant metastasis rate (13 vs. 18, p = 0.2 as well as the time to relapse were not statistically significant different. Conclusion Reduced cytokine levels might explain a short term antitumorigenic intraperitoneal effect of TRD. But, this study analyzed different types of cancer. Therefore, we set up a multicentre randomized trial in patients undergoing curative colorectal cancer resection. Trial registration ISRCTN66478538

  16. Taurolidine reduces the tumor stimulating cytokine interleukin-1beta in patients with resectable gastrointestinal cancer: a multicentre prospective randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Chris; Gutt, Carsten N; Scheele, Johannes; Menenakos, Charalambos; Willems, Wilhelm; Mueller, Joachim M; Jacobi, Christoph A

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of additional treatment strategies with antineoplastic agents on intraperitoneal tumor stimulating interleukin levels are unclear. Taurolidine and Povidone-iodine have been mainly used for abdominal lavage in Germany and Europe. Methods In the settings of a multicentre (three University Hospitals) prospective randomized controlled trial 120 patients were randomly allocated to receive either 0.5% taurolidine/2,500 IU heparin (TRD) or 0.25% povidone-iodine (control) intraperitoneally for resectable colorectal, gastric or pancreatic cancers. Due to the fact that IL-1beta (produced by macrophages) is preoperatively indifferent in various gastrointestinal cancer types our major outcome criterion was the perioperative (overall) level of IL-1beta in peritoneal fluid. Results Cytokine values were significantly lower after TRD lavage for IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10. Perioperative complications did not differ. The median follow-up was 50.0 months. The overall mortality rate (28 vs. 25, p = 0.36), the cancer-related death rate (17 vs. 19, p = .2), the local recurrence rate (7 vs. 12, p = .16), the distant metastasis rate (13 vs. 18, p = 0.2) as well as the time to relapse were not statistically significant different. Conclusion Reduced cytokine levels might explain a short term antitumorigenic intraperitoneal effect of TRD. But, this study analyzed different types of cancer. Therefore, we set up a multicentre randomized trial in patients undergoing curative colorectal cancer resection. Trial registration ISRCTN66478538 PMID:19309495

  17. Chemoprevention in gastrointestinal physiology and disease. Anti-inflammatory approaches for colorectal cancer chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human malignancies and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries. Identifying effective preventive strategies aimed at inhibiting the development and progression of CRC is critical for reducing the incidence and mortality of this malignancy. The prevention of carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory agents including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, and natural products is an area of considerable interest and research. Numerous anti-inflammatory agents have been identified as potential CRC chemopreventive agents but vary in their mechanism of action. This review will discuss the molecular mechanisms being studied for the CRC chemopreventive activity of NSAIDs (i.e., aspirin, sulindac, and ibuprofen), COX-2 inhibitors (i.e., celecoxib), natural products (i.e., curcumin, resveratrol, EGCG, genistein, and baicalein), and metformin. A deeper understanding of how these anti-inflammatory agents inhibit CRC will provide insight into the development of potentially safer and more effective chemopreventive drugs. PMID:26021807

  18. Feasibility of Exercise Training in Cancer Patients Scheduled for Elective Gastrointestinal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenet, Karin; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; Schippers, Carlo C; Wanders, Lisa; Lemmens, Lidwien; Backx, Frank J G; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study examines the feasibility of a preoperative exercise program to improve the physical fitness of a patient before gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: An outpatient exercise program was developed to increase preoperative aerobic capacity, peripheral muscle endurance and respi

  19. Feasibility of Exercise Training in Cancer Patients Scheduled for Elective Gastrointestinal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenet, Karin; Trappenburg, Jaap C.A.; Schippers, Carlo C.; Wanders, Lisa; Lemmens, Lidwien; Backx, Frank J.G.; Hillegersberg, van Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examines the feasibility of a preoperative exercise program to improve the physical fitness of a patient before gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: An outpatient exercise program was developed to increase preoperative aerobic capacity, peripheral muscle endurance and re

  20. Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Rachel J.; Keefe, Dorothy M. K.; Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bateman, Emma; Blijlevens, Nicole; Fijlstra, Margot; King, Emily E.; Stringer, Andrea M.; van der Velden, Walter J. F. M.; Yazbeck, Roger; Elad, Sharon; Bowen, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of agents for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Car

  1. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akira [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko, E-mail: kei@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm{sup 3} of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10-50 Gy [V{sub 10-50}]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4-37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V{sub 50} <16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach vs. those with V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V{sub 50} of {>=}33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V{sub 50} <33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo vs. those with V{sub 50} {>=}33 cm{sup 3} was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel

  2. Optimization of human cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, George W

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical models in this book are concerned with a variety of approaches to the manner in which the clinical radiologic treatment of human neoplasms can be improved. These improvements comprise ways of delivering radiation to the malignan­ cies so as to create considerable damage to tumor cells while sparing neighboring normal tissues. There is no unique way of dealing with these improvements. Accord­ ingly, in this book a number of different presentations are given. Each presentation has as its goal some aspect of the improvement, or optimization, of radiotherapy. This book is a collection of current ideas concerned with the optimization of human cancer radiotherapy. It is hoped that readers will build on this collection and develop superior approaches for the understanding of the ways to improve therapy. The author owes a special debt of thanks to Kathy Prindle who breezed through the typing of this book with considerable dexterity. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Introduction 1...

  3. Gene therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats by gastrointestinal administration of chitosan nanoparticles containing human insulin gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of human insulin gene in gastrointestinal tracts of diabetic rats. METHODS: pCHV.Ins, an expression plasmid of the human insulin gene, wrapped with chitosan nanoparticles, was transfected to the diabetic rats through lavage and coloclysis, respectively. Fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured for 7 d. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and Western blot analysis were performed to confirm the expression of human insulin gene. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the fasting blood glucose levels in the lavage and coloclysis groups were decreased significantly in 4 d (5.63 ± 0.48 mmol/L and 5.07 ± 0.37 mmol/L vs 22.12± 1.31 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01), while the plasma insulin levels were much higher (32.26±1.81 μIU/mL and 32.79 ± 1.84 μIU/mL vs 14.23 ± 1.38 μIU/mL, respectively, P<0.01). The human insulin gene mRNA and human insulin were only detected in the lavage and coloclysis groups. CONCLUSION: Human insulin gene wrapped with chitosan nanoparticles can be successfully transfected to rats through gastrointestinal tract, indicating that chitosan is a promising non-viral vector.

  4. Cruciferous vegetables, mushrooms, and gastrointestinal cancer risks in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Otani, Tetsuya; Adachi, Helena Yukari; Montani, Ai; Natsukawa, Syusuke; Shaura, Kozo; Koizumi, Yoichi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Matsuzawa, Tsunetomo; Ikekawa, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the possible association of gastrointestinal cancers with cruciferous vegetables and mushrooms in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in an agricultural area of Japan. One hundred forty-nine cases and 287 controls for stomach cancer and 115 cases and 230 controls for colorectal cancer were matched by age, sex, and residential area. In stomach cancer, the protective effect of vegetables (consumption of total vegetable) was obscure, but it became clearer when we examined specific kinds of vegetables. Marginal associations were observed in the group of the highest consumption of Chinese cabbage (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.07), broccoli (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.34-1.08), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.31-1.04) and Pholita nameko (Nameko) (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.30-1.06). In colorectal cancer, we observed decreased risks from the highest tertile of total vegetables (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.08-0.66) and low-carotene-containing vegetables (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.08-0.77), and inverse associations were observed in the group of the highest consumption of broccoli (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.06-0.58). Although the sample size was limited, subgroup analyses showed that the associations differed with the histopathological subtype. These findings suggest that cruciferous vegetables decrease the risk of both stomach and colorectal cancer, and that mushrooms are associated with a decreased risk of stomach cancer.

  5. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  6. HCSD: the human cancer secretome database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Banaei-Esfahani, Amir; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    database is limiting the ability to query the increasing community knowledge. We therefore developed the Human Cancer Secretome Database (HCSD) to fulfil this gap. HCSD contains >80 000 measurements for about 7000 nonredundant human proteins collected from up to 35 high-throughput studies on 17 cancer...... types. It has a simple and user friendly query system for basic and advanced search based on gene name, cancer type and data type as the three main query options. The results are visualized in an explicit and interactive manner. An example of a result page includes annotations, cross references, cancer...

  7. GASTROINTESTINAL EOSINOPHILIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Gastrointestinal eosinophilia, as a broad term for abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the GI tract, involves many different disease identities. These diseases include primary eosinophil associated gastrointestinal diseases, gastrointestinal eosinophilia in HES and all gastrointestinal eosinophilic states associated with known causes. Each of these diseases has its unique features but there is no absolute boundary between them. All three groups of GI eosinophila are described in this chapter although the focus is on primary gastrointestinal eosinophilia, i.e. EGID. PMID:17868858

  8. Cytotoxic effects of bromelain in human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines (MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, and HT29-5M21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Afshin Amini, Anahid Ehteda, Samar Masoumi Moghaddam, Javed Akhter, Krishna Pillai, David Lawson Morris Department of Surgery, St George Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract with a variety of therapeutic benefits arising from interaction with a number of different biological processes. Several preclinical studies and anecdotal clinical observations have reported the anticancer properties of bromelain. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of bromelain in four human cancer cell lines of gastrointestinal origin and the mechanisms involved. Methods: The gastric carcinoma cell lines (KATO-III and MKN45 and two chemoresistant subpopulations of the HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29-5M21 and HT29-5F12 were treated with a range of concentrations of bromelain, as well as with cisplatin as a positive control. The effect of bromelain on the growth and proliferation of cancer cells was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay after 72 hours of treatment. Expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in MKN45 cells treated with bromelain was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: Data from our sulforhodamine B assay showed that bromelain inhibited proliferation of HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21, MKN45, and KATO-III cells, with respective half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 29, 34, 94, and 142 µg/mL. Analyzing the expression of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in bromelain-treated MKN45 cells, we observed activation of the caspase system, cleavage of PARP and p53, overexpression of cytochrome C, attenuation of phospho-Akt and Bcl2, and removal of MUC1. Apart from the caspase-dependent apoptosis observed, emergence of cleaved p53 supports a direct, extranuclear apoptotic function of p53. Moreover, interrupted Akt signaling and attenuation of Bcl2 and MUC1 oncoproteins suggest impaired survival of cancer cells. Conclusion: Our findings

  9. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics

  10. Role of cytopathology in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal tract cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Rachel; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Cytology of gastro-intestinal (GI) tract lesions can be used successfully to diagnose neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, especially when combined with biopsies. Cytologic evaluation is widely accepted as a cost-effective method that allows rapid interpretation and triaging of material. Technical advances over the years have allowed simultaneous visualization of abnormal tissue and procurement of needle aspirates, brushings and biopsies from mucosal and deeper seated lesions. Successful...

  11. Proton therapy with concomitant capecitabine for pancreatic and ampullary cancers is associated with a low incidence of gastrointestinal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R. Charles Jr.; Huh, Soon; Ho, Meng Wei; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Morris, Christopher G.; Hoppe, Bradford S. [Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville (United States)], e-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org; George, Thomas J.; Zaiden, Robert A. Jr. [Dept. of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville and Jacksonville (United States); Awad, Ziad T. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Florida, Jacksonville (United States); Asbun, Horacio J. [Dept. of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Background: To review treatment toxicity for patients with pancreatic and ampullary cancer treated with proton therapy at our institution. Material and methods: From March 2009 through April 2012, 22 patients were treated with proton therapy and concomitant capecitabine (1000 mg PO twice daily) for resected (n = 5); marginally resectable (n = 5); and unresectable/inoperable (n = 12) biopsy-proven pancreatic and ampullary adenocarcinoma. Two patients with unresectable disease were excluded from the analysis for reasons unrelated to treatment. Proton doses ranged from 50.40 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) to 59.40 CGE. Results: Median follow-up for all patients was 11 (range 5-36) months. No patient demonstrated any grade 3 toxicity during treatment or during the follow-up period. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities occurred in three patients, consisting of vomiting (n = 3); and diarrhea (n = 2). Median weight loss during treatment was 1.3 kg (1.75% of body weight). Chemotherapy was well-tolerated with a median 99% of the prescribed doses delivered. Percentage weight loss was reduced (p = 0.0390) and grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity was eliminated (p = 0.0009) in patients treated with plans that avoided anterior and left lateral fields which were associated with reduced small bowel and gastric exposure. Discussion: Proton therapy may allow for significant sparing of the small bowel and stomach and is associated with a low rate of gastrointestinal toxicity. Although long-term follow-up will be needed to assess efficacy, we believe that the favorable toxicity profile associated with proton therapy may allow for radiotherapy dose escalation, chemotherapy intensification, and possibly increased acceptance of preoperative radiotherapy for patients with resectable or marginally resectable disease.

  12. Secreted Human Adipose Leptin Decreases Mitochondrial Respiration in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Nimri, Lili; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kirshtein, Boris; Rudich, Assaf; Schwartz, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis) were examined vis-à-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese) subjects decreased basal (40%, prespiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24073224

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 ..mu..g CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  14. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Alyea, K; Husserl, F E

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. We examined a commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation, and compared results with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 micrograms CEA/l plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. We conclude that the heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  15. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  16. Novel intervention with acupuncture for anorexia and cachexia in patients with gastrointestinal tract cancers: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Saunjoo L; Grundmann, Oliver; Williams, Joseph J; Carriere, Gwen

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using acupuncture as a complementary intervention to existing treatments and to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture in improving appetite and slowing weight loss with patients with gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers. 
 One-group pre- and postintervention feasibility study. 
 Outpatient clinic for patients with cancer and a community setting, both in Florida. 
 A convenience sample of seven adults with GI cancer.
 Eight acupuncture sessions were provided during eight weeks. Data were collected using the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite, Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), Karnofsky Performance Status, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. 
 Appetite, weight, attrition rate.
 Seven patients with a mean age of 61 years completed the intervention. Acupuncture was well accepted, feasible, and safe without any reported side effects. Appetite showed improvement, with an average score of 3.04 on the VAS and 4.14 on SNAQ compared to the preintervention scores. The average weight loss was 1.32% compared to the baseline during an eight-week period. 
 The acupuncture intervention was feasible and indicated positive outcomes. Because of the small sample size and lack of a control group, statistical significance of effectiveness was not determined. Acupuncture seemed to improve appetite and slow weight loss in patients with GI cancers, so additional studies with a larger sample size and a variety of cancers are warranted. 
 Oncology nurses are uniquely able to equip patients with information about complementary therapy modalities, such as acupuncture, which is a promising way to improve appetite and slow weight loss in patients with GI cancers.


  17. Expression of polarity genes in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Hsin; Asmann, Yan W; Anastasiadis, Panos Z

    2015-01-01

    Polarity protein complexes are crucial for epithelial apical-basal polarity and directed cell migration. Since alterations of these processes are common in cancer, polarity proteins have been proposed to function as tumor suppressors or oncogenic promoters. Here, we review the current understanding of polarity protein functions in epithelial homeostasis, as well as tumor formation and progression. As most previous studies focused on the function of single polarity proteins in simplified model systems, we used a genomics approach to systematically examine and identify the expression profiles of polarity genes in human cancer. The expression profiles of polarity genes were distinct in different human tissues and classified cancer types. Additionally, polarity expression profiles correlated with disease progression and aggressiveness, as well as with identified cancer types, where specific polarity genes were commonly altered. In the case of Scribble, gene expression analysis indicated its common amplification and upregulation in human cancer, suggesting a tumor promoting function.

  18. In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Ra, Hyejun; Qiu, Zhen; Friedland, Shai; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Loewke, Kevin; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Wang, Thomas D.; Mandella, Michael J.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2012-02-01

    Near-infrared confocal microendoscopy is a promising technique for deep in vivo imaging of tissues and can generate high-resolution cross-sectional images at the micron-scale. We demonstrate the use of a dual-axis confocal (DAC) near-infrared fluorescence microendoscope with a 5.5-mm outer diameter for obtaining clinical images of human colorectal mucosa. High-speed two-dimensional en face scanning was achieved through a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner while a micromotor was used for adjusting the axial focus. In vivo images of human patients are collected at 5 frames/sec with a field of view of 362×212 μm2 and a maximum imaging depth of 140 μm. During routine endoscopy, indocyanine green (ICG) was topically applied a nonspecific optical contrasting agent to regions of the human colon. The DAC microendoscope was then used to obtain microanatomic images of the mucosa by detecting near-infrared fluorescence from ICG. These results suggest that DAC microendoscopy may have utility for visualizing the anatomical and, perhaps, functional changes associated with colorectal pathology for the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  19. Nurse-Led Follow-Up at Home vs. Conventional Medical Outpatient Clinic Follow-Up in Patients With Incurable Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Randomized Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Uitdehaag (Madeleen); P.G. van Putten (Paul); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); E.M.L. Verschuur (Els); A. van der Gaast (Ate); C.J. Pek (Chulja); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin); R.A. de Man (Robert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); C. Laheij (Claudia); P.D. Siersema (Peter); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: Upper gastrointestinal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. The multidimensional problems of incurable patients require close monitoring and frequent support, which cannot sufficiently be provided during conventional one to two month follow-up visits to the outpatient cli

  20. EFFECTS OF PERIOPERATIVE CIMETIDINE ADMINISTRATION ON TUMOR CELL NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY AND DNA CONTENT IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of perioperative cimetidine administration on tumor cell nuclear morphometric parameters and DNA content in patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Methods: 49 patients with pathologically confirmed gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma were randomized into test group (n=25) and control group (n=24). The test group started oral cimetidine intake 400 mg, tid, 7-10d before operation, followed by standard curative operation. The control group did not receive cimetidine. Tumor specimens were paraffin embedded for microsection and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Feulgen stain. Morphometric studies and DNA content of tumor nuclei were performed on IBAS Image Analyzer. Results: The tumor cell nuclear area (m m2), nuclear perimeter (m m), maximal nuclear diameter (m m) for test group/control group were 23.54 ± 5.08/34.69± 10.08 (Pquintuple ploidy tumor cells for test group/control group were 16.64± 2.58/5.33± 2.14 (P0.50), 12.42± 5.00/14.48± 0.74 (P>0.20), 31.11± 6.86/ 45.97± 3.82 (P<0.005), respectively. Conclusion: Perioperative administration of cimetidine in gasgtrointestinal cancer patients could decrease the nuclear size and raise the percentage of diploid tumor cells, and convert high aneuploid tumor cells into low-aneuploid tumor cells, which might help reduce the invasiveness of tumor cells.

  1. Antiangiogenic Steroids in Human Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high. The treatment of cancer may benefit from the introduction of novel therapies derived from natural products. Natural products have served to provide a basis for many of the pharmaceutical agents in current use in cancer therapy. Emerging research indicates that progressive growth and spread of ...

  2. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to ca

  3. Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Cindy K.; Melmed, Raun D.; Barstow, Leon E.; Enriquez, F. Javier; Ranger-Moore, James; Ostrem, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin secretion onto mucosal surfaces is a major component of the mucosal immune system. We hypothesized that chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances associated with autistic disorder (AD) may be due to an underlying deficiency in mucosal immunity, and that orally administered immunoglobulin would be effective in alleviating chronic GI…

  4. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to

  5. Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M; Sanger, G J

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and stimulates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers and patients with gastroparesis in short-term studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis...

  6. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  7. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  8. Human papillomavirus infections in laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, M.C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Haigentz Jr., M.; Dikkers, F.G.; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Olofsson, J.; Ferlito, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  9. Human papillomavirus infections in laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, M.C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Haigentz Jr., M.; Dikkers, F.G.; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Olofsson, J.; Ferlito, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we

  10. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we

  11. Surgical perspectives in gastrointestinal disease: A study of quality of life outcomes in esophageal, pancreatic, colon, and rectal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate V Viola; Charlotte Ariyan; Julie Ann Sosa

    2006-01-01

    Outcomes assessment in surgery traditionally has included data regarding peri-operative mortality and morbidity, as well as long-term survival and recurrence in surgical oncology. However, quality of life (QOL) is another important patient-related outcome measure.QOL data can be used to tailor treatment and improve clinical outcomes by detecting physical or psychological problems in patients that otherwise might be overlooked,but which have profound implications for the effective delivery of care. We review several well-validated QOL instruments developed specifically for use in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal,pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and conclude that QOL assessment routinely should be included in clinical trials of novel treatments.

  12. Down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects in region of high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-mian; LI Ying-jie; GUAN Xiao; YANG Xiao-yun; GAO Xi-mei; YANG Xiao-jing; WANG Li-shui; ZOU Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Many types of human tumors can suppress the immune system to enhance their survival. Loss or down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I on tumors is considered to be a major mechanism of tumor immune escape. Our previous studies found that HLA class I on peripheral-blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. The present study made an analysis of HLA class I expression on peripheral-blood T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects of Lijiadian village, a village with high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor. Methods A total of 181 villagers from Lijiadian village and 153 normal controls from the Department of Health Examination Center were enrolled in this study. Using a multi-tumor markers detection system, these villagers were divided into two groups: high-risk group (tumor markers positive group) and low-risk group (tumor markers negative group). The percentage of T lymphocytes and NK cells and levels of HLA class I on their surface were determined in these subjects by flow cytometry.Results Percentages of T lymphocytes and NK cells in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells did not vary with age. The expression level of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells was not affected by age or gender, but was significantly down-regulated in Lijiadian villagers (P<0.05), especially on the surface of NK cells (P<0.01). Compared with the low-risk group, there was a significant reduction of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes (P <0.05) and NK cells (P <0.05) in the high-risk group.Conclusions HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells may be involved in tumorigenesis and development of gastrointestinal tumor, and understanding their changes in expression may provide new insights into the mechanism of tumor immunity.

  13. Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Prostate 35: 185-192, 1998 osteoblasts on prostate carcinoma proliferation and chemo- 32. Trikha M, Cai Y, Grignon D, Honn KV: Identification taxis ...Markers for Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce R. Zetter, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital Boston, Massachusetts...March 2001 Final (1 Sep 98 - 28 Feb 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer DAMD17-98-1

  14. Postoperative complications and clinical outcomes among patients undergoing thoracic and gastrointestinal cancer surgery: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Benítez, Frank Daniel; Gutiérrez-Noyola, Anarelys; Echevarría-Víctores, Adisbel

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the influence of postoperative complications on the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent thoracic and gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted regarding 179 consecutive patients who received thorax or digestive tract surgery due to cancer and were admitted to an oncological intensive care unit. The Postoperative Morbidity Survey was used to evaluate the incidence of postoperative complications. The influence of postoperative complications on both mortality and length of hospital stay were also assessed. Results Postoperative complications were found for 54 patients (30.2%); the most common complications were respiratory problems (14.5%), pain (12.9%), cardiovascular problems (11.7%), infectious disease (11.2%), and surgical wounds (10.1%). A multivariate logistic regression found that respiratory complications (OR = 18.68; 95%CI = 5.59 - 62.39; p < 0.0001), cardiovascular problems (OR = 5.06, 95%CI = 1.49 - 17.13; p = 0.009), gastrointestinal problems (OR = 26.09; 95%CI = 6.80 - 100.16; p < 0.0001), infectious diseases (OR = 20.55; 95%CI = 5.99 - 70.56; p < 0.0001) and renal complications (OR = 18.27; 95%CI = 3.88 - 83.35; p < 0.0001) were independently associated with hospital mortality. The occurrence of at least one complication increased the likelihood of remaining hospitalized (log-rank test, p = 0.002). Conclusions Postoperative complications are frequent disorders that are associated with poor clinical outcomes; thus, structural and procedural changes should be implemented to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:27096675

  15. Comparison of the prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis in head and neck, gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients by three classification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Mary E.; Popp KPf, Johann V.; Possinger, Candi S.; DeNysschen, Carol A.; Horvath, Peter; Brown, Jean K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is prevalent among patients within certain cancer types. There is lack of universal standard of care for nutrition screening, lack of agreement on an operational definition and on validity of malnutrition indicators. Objective In a secondary data analysis, we investigated prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis by three classification methods using data from medical records of a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center. Interventions/Methods Records of 227 patients hospitalized during 1998 with head and neck, gastrointestinal or lung cancer were reviewed for malnutrition based on three methods: 1) physician diagnosed malnutrition related ICD-9 codes; 2) in-hospital nutritional assessment summary conducted by Registered Dietitians; and 3) body mass index (BMI). For patients with multiple admissions, only data from the first hospitalization was included. Results Prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis ranged from 8.8% based on BMI to approximately 26% of all cases based on dietitian assessment. Kappa coefficients between any methods indicated a weak (kappa=0.23, BMI and Dietitians and kappa=0.28, Dietitians and Physicians) to fair strength of agreement (kappa=0.38, BMI and Physicians). Conclusions Available methods to identify patients with malnutrition in an NCI designated comprehensive cancer center resulted in varied prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis. Universal standard of care for nutrition screening that utilizes validated tools is needed. Implications for Practice The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires nutritional screening of patients within 24 hours of admission. For this purpose, implementation of a validated tool that can be used by various healthcare practitioners, including nurses, needs to be considered. PMID:21242767

  16. Novel endoscopic imaging techniques toward in vivo observation of living cancer cells in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Haruhiro; Kudo, Shin-ei; Shiokawa, Akira

    2005-07-01

    It is now possible to perform microscopic imaging of living cells from both normal mucosa and malignant tissue in the gastrointestinal tract. Endocytoscopy is a catheter-type contact endoscope that has more than 1000-fold magnifying power and can pass through the working channel of the straight-view endoscope. In esophageal cells, the nucleus, cell body, and even the nucleolus were clearly distinguished with high-resolution images comparable with those of conventional cytology. This novel technology has the potential to provide histologic diagnoses during endoscopic examinations, similar to those obtained currently by conventional histology techniques.

  17. Biological stoichiometry in human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing tumor in the body can be considered a complex ecological and evolutionary system. A new eco-evolutionary hypothesis (the "Growth Rate Hypothesis", GRH proposes that tumors have elevated phosphorus (P demands due to increased allocation to P-rich nucleic acids, especially ribosomal RNA, to meet the protein synthesis demands of accelerated proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the elemental (C, N, P and nucleic acid contents of paired malignant and normal tissues from colon, lung, liver, or kidney for 121 patients. Consistent with the GRH, lung and colon tumors were significantly higher (by approximately two-fold in P content (fraction of dry weight and RNA content and lower in nitrogen (N:P ratio than paired normal tissue, and P in RNA contributed a significantly larger fraction of total biomass P in malignant relative to normal tissues. Furthermore, patient-specific differences for %P between malignant and normal tissues were positively correlated with such differences for %RNA, both for the overall data and within three of the four organ sites. However, significant differences in %P and %RNA between malignant and normal tissues were not seen in liver and kidney and, overall, RNA contributed only approximately 11% of total tissue P content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data for lung and colon tumors provide support for the GRH in human cancer. The two-fold amplification of P content in colon and lung tumors may set the stage for potential P-limitation of their proliferation, as such differences often do for rapidly growing biota in ecosystems. However, data for kidney and liver do not support the GRH. To account for these conflicting observations, we suggest that local environments in some organs select for neoplastic cells bearing mutations increasing cell division rate ("r-selected," as in colon and lung while conditions elsewhere may select for reduced mortality rate ("K-selected," as in liver and

  18. Gastrointestinal fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include: Blockage in the intestine Infection Crohn disease Radiation to the abdomen (most ...

  19. 自噬在胃肠道肿瘤的研究%Autophagy in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎倩

    2010-01-01

    自噬是由溶酶体介导的细胞降解程序,参与维持细胞稳定.在胃肠道肿瘤早期阶段,自噬清除毒性损伤以对抗肿瘤进展;而肿瘤进展期则呈现细胞杀伤与细胞保护的两面性.在自噬与细胞凋亡之间亦存在拮抗与协同的双重作用.合理调控自噬有可能成为胃肠道肿瘤预防或治疗的一种新手段.%Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated degradation process that takes part in maintaining cell stability. In the early stage of gastrointestinal tumors, autophagy removes toxic injuries to protect against tumor progression, while in the progressive stage, autophagy also exhibits a cytotoxic effect. Autophagy and apoptosis act in both antagonistic and synergistic fashion. Manipulation of autophagy may be a new method to prevent or treat gastrointestinal tumors.

  20. Exploring the Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal Cancer Development Using Deep Sequencing Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomonori; Shimizu, Takahiro; Takai, Atsushi; Marusawa, Hiroyuki, E-mail: maru@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized cancer genomics due to their high throughput sequencing capacity. Reports of the gene mutation profiles of various cancers by many researchers, including international cancer genome research consortia, have increased over recent years. In addition to detecting somatic mutations in tumor cells, NGS technologies enable us to approach the subject of carcinogenic mechanisms from new perspectives. Deep sequencing, a method of optimizing the high throughput capacity of NGS technologies, allows for the detection of genetic aberrations in small subsets of premalignant and/or tumor cells in noncancerous chronically inflamed tissues. Genome-wide NGS data also make it possible to clarify the mutational signatures of each cancer tissue by identifying the precise pattern of nucleotide alterations in the cancer genome, providing new information regarding the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. In this review, we highlight these new methods taking advantage of NGS technologies, and discuss our current understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms elucidated from such approaches.

  1. Modulation of Ingestive Behavior and Gastrointestinal Motility by Ghrelin in Diabetic Animals and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yen Chen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Acyl ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, is the endogenous cognate ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is involved in stimulating growth hormone release, eliciting feeding behavior, inducing adiposity and stimulating gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin is unique for its post-translational modification of O-n-octanoylation at serine 3 through ghrelin O-acyltransferase, and is the only peripheral signal to enhance food intake. Plasma ghrelin levels manifest “biphasic changes” in diabetes mellitus (DM. In the early stage of DM, the stomach significantly increases the secretion of ghrelin into the plasma, and elevated plasma ghrelin levels are correlated with diabetic hyperphagic feeding and accelerated gastrointestinal motility. In the late stage of DM, plasma ghrelin levels may be lower, which might be linked with anorexia/muscle wasting, delayed gastrointestinal transit, and even gastroparesis. Therefore, the unique ghrelin system may be the most important player compared to the other hindgut hormones participating in the “entero-insular axis”. Further studies using either knockdown or knockout of ghrelin gene products and ghrelin O-acyltransferase may unravel the pathogenesis of DM, and show benefits in combating this disease and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Michael, E-mail: mng@radoncvic.com.au [Radiation Oncology Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Carroll, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Wiltshire, Kirsty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Kachnic, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  3. Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technology capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with cancer transformation. This study aimed to characterize in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of tissues belonging to different anatomical regions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and explore the implications for early detection of neoplastic lesions during clinical gastroscopy. A novel fiber-optic Raman endoscopy technique was utilized for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements of normal esophageal (distal, middle, and proximal), gastric (antrum, body, and cardia) as well as cancerous esophagous and gastric tissues from 107 patients who underwent endoscopic examinations. The non-negativity-constrained least squares minimization coupled with a reference database of Raman active biochemicals (i.e., actin, histones, collagen, DNA, and triolein) was employed for semiquantitative biomolecular modeling of tissue constituents in the upper GI. A total of 1189 in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from different locations in the upper GI. The Raman spectra among the distal, middle, and proximal sites of the esophagus showed no significant interanatomical variability. The interanatomical variability of Raman spectra among normal gastric tissue (antrum, body, and cardia) was subtle compared to cancerous tissue transformation, whereas biomolecular modeling revealed significant differences between the two organs, particularly in the gastroesophageal junction associated with proteins, DNA, and lipids. Cancerous tissues can be identified across interanatomical regions with accuracies of 89.3% [sensitivity of 92.6% (162/175) specificity of 88.6% (665/751)], and of 94.7% [sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) specificity of 93.9% (216/230)] in the gastric and esophagus, respectively, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation. This work demonstrates that Raman endoscopy technique has

  4. Nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer receiving care in a public hospital; 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias do Prado, Corina; Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar el estado nutricional de los pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal y verificar su asociación con características demográficas y clínicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, con un diseño de muestreo no probabilístico. Los participantes fueron 143 pacientes adultos con cáncer gastrointestinal, que reciben atención en el Hospital Amaral Carvalho (Jaú-SP, Brasil) entre noviembre de 2010 y octubre de 2011. Se realizó una encuesta para recoger información con el fin de caracterización demográfica y clínica. Para identificar el estado nutricional se aplico la Valoración Subjetiva Global - Generada por el Paciente Score (VSGGP score). La razón de prevalencia (RP) fue estimada. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue de 5%. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 57,45 (DE = 9,62) AÑOs, con los estadíos III y IV de la enfermedad es la más frecuente (39,2% y 35,0%). Había 44,8% de prevalencia de la malnutrición. La persona desnutrida tenía problemas más frecuentes para comer. La estadística descriptiva y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (< 0,001), presentaron menor deseo de comer (p < 0,001), más náuseas (p = 0,001), vómitos (p = 0,006), estreñimiento (p < 0,001) y dolor (p < 0,001) que los pacientes eutróficos y se declararon enfermos por el olor de los alimentos (p = 0,012), dificultad para tragar (p = 0,002) y la saciedad precoz (p = 0,020) com más frecuencia. En cuanto a la proporción de prevalencia, se observó una probabilidad mayor de individuos desnutridos expuestos a una porción más grande de los síntomas relacionados en la puntuación VSG-GP score. Conclusión: La alta prevalencia de desnutrición se observó en pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal, con asociación significativa con los síntomas clínicos directamente relacionados con el proceso de alimentación.

  5. Updates on surgical management of advanced gastric cancer: new evidence and trends. Insights from the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery--Varese (Italy), December 2, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Sano, Takeshi; Sasako, Mitsuru; Biondi, Alberto; Morgagni, Paolo; Garofalo, Alfredo; Boni, Luigi; Frattini, Francesco; D'Ugo, Domenico; Preston, Shaun; Marrelli, Daniele; Degiuli, Maurizio; Capella, Carlo; Sacco, Rosario; Ruspi, Laura; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Roviello, Franco; Pinotti, Graziella; Rovera, Francesca; Noh, Sung Hoon; Coit, Daniel; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-11-01

    Between the Ninth International Gastric Cancer Congress (IGCC) in South-Korea (Seoul, 2011) and the Tenth IGCC in Italy (Verona, 2013), the Insubria University organized the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (Varese, December 2, 2011), with the patronage of Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer (IRGGC) and the International Gastric Cancer Association (IGCA). The Course was intended to be a comprehensive update and review on advanced gastric cancer (GC) staging and treatment from well-known international experts. Clinical, research, and educational aspects of the surgeon's role in the era of stage-adapted therapy were discussed. As highlighted in the meeting, in this final document we summarize and thoroughly analyze (with references only for well-acquired randomized control trials) the new and old open problems in surgical management of advanced GC. Between the Ninth (Seoul, 2011) and the Tenth (Verona,2013) International Gastric Cancer Congress, the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (Varese, December 2, 2011) was organized by the University of Insubria. This congress received the patronage of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer. The aim was to discuss open issues in surgical management of advanced gastric malignancies. We considered the opinions of several recognized experts in the field from both the Eastern and Western world, focused on definition problems and oncological and technical issues to define the current principles of advanced gastric cancer (GC) surgery.

  6. Practice guidance on the management of acute and chronic gastrointestinal problems arising as a result of treatment for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan E; Gillespie, Catherine; Allum, William H; Swarbrick, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Backgound The number of patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms after cancer therapies which have a moderate or severe impact on quality of life is similar to the number diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease annually. However, in contrast to patients with inflammatory bowel disease, most of these patients are not referred for gastroenterological assessment. Clinicians who do see these patients are often unaware of the benefits of targeted investigation (which differ from those required to exclude recurrent cancer), the range of available treatments and how the pathological processes underlying side effects of cancer treatment differ from those in benign GI disorders. This paper aims to help clinicians become aware of the problem and suggests ways in which the panoply of syndromes can be managed. Methods A multidisciplinary literature review was performed to develop guidance to facilitate clinical management of GI side effects of cancer treatments. Results Different pathological processes within the GI tract may produce identical symptoms. Optimal management requires appropriate investigations and coordinated multidisciplinary working. Lactose intolerance, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and bile acid malabsorption frequently develop during or after chemotherapy. Toxin-negative Clostridium difficile and cytomegalovirus infection may be fulminant in immunosuppressed patients and require rapid diagnosis and treatment. Hepatic side effects include reactivation of viral hepatitis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, steatosis and steatohepatitis. Anticancer biological agents have multiple interactions with conventional drugs. Colonoscopy is contraindicated in neutropenic enterocolitis but endoscopy may be life-saving in other patients with GI bleeding. After cancer treatment, simple questions can identify patients who need referral for specialist management of GI symptoms. Other troublesome pelvic problems (eg, urinary, sexual, nutritional) are frequent

  7. Ontario-wide Cancer TArgeted Nucleic Acid Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Breast Cancer; Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Melanoma; Gynecological Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Rare Cancer; Unknown Primary Cancer

  8. Role of cytopathology in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2012-09-01

    Cytology of gastro-intestinal (GI) tract lesions can be used successfully to diagnose neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, especially when combined with biopsies. Cytologic evaluation is widely accepted as a cost-effective method that allows rapid interpretation and triaging of material. Technical advances over the years have allowed simultaneous visualization of abnormal tissue and procurement of needle aspirates, brushings and biopsies from mucosal and deeper seated lesions. Successful cytologic examination of the GI tract is highly dependent on the skill of the endoscopist, specimen preparation, the expertise of the pathologist, and the recognition of the limitations of cytology. This article reviews the key cytologic features of important GI tract lesions, differential diagnoses, and pitfalls, and addresses the advantages and limitations of different collection techniques.

  9. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  10. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index; assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carla Alberici; Orlandi, Silvana Paiva; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad pronostica del Índice Inflamatorio-Nutricional (INI) en pacientes con cáncer del tracto gastrointestinal y pulmón. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, con pacientes de un servicio de quimioterapia en Brasil, entre Julio de 2008 y Mayo de 2010. INI (Albúmina/CRP) y el estadio nutricional (Valoración Global Subjetiva-SGA) fueran evaluados. INI de riesgo fue definido como menor que 0.35. El tiempo medio de acompañamiento fue 1.6 año. Analices estadísticas fueran realizadas con el programa Stata 11.1™. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 74 pacientes, con edad media de 63.4 años, la mayoría hombres (58%) e con cáncer gastrointestinal (71%). Desnutrición fue identificada en 87% de los pacientes (22% con desnutrición grave). El INI medio fue 2.67 y 54% de los individuos presentaban INI de riesgo. Durante el acompañamiento hubieran 49 óbitos (66%). El tiempo mediano de sobrevida de los pacientes con INI de riesgo fue significantemente más corto que de los pacientes con INI normal (p = 0.002). El grupo con INI de riesgo llevó 0.78 año para decaer 50%, en cuanto el grupo con INI normal llevó 2.78 año (p = 0.001). INI de riesgo y desnutrición grave fueron factores independientes de peor sobrevida. Conclusión: El INI demostró capacidad pronostica en esta amuestra y puede ser una herramienta útil, basada testes rutineros y disponibles, para evaluar pacientes con cáncer.

  11. [Autopsy case of von Recklinghausen's disease associated with lung cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Miki; Wakabayashi, Osamu; Araya, Yoshikazu; Jinushi, Eisei; Yoshida, Fumiaki

    2009-09-01

    A 58-year-old man with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted for further investigation of right chest pain. Chest X-ray revealed multiple emphysematous bullae in both lungs and a tumor shadow in the right upper lobe. Bronchofiberscopy was performed, but an adequate specimen was not obtained. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-small-cell lung cancer with direct invasion to the adjacent rib. Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in decrease in tumor size, the tumor subsequently increased in size and the patient died 14 months after the first admission. Autopsy revealed multiple emphysematous bullae, poorly differentiated adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor. This case suggests the possibility that von Recklinghausen's disease associated with emphysematous bullae is a risk factor for lung cancer. It has also been suggested that the genetic abnormality responsible for von Recklinghausen's disease increases the risk for various types of malignancy. Although von Recklinghausen's disease is reportedly associated with various malignant tumors, it is quite rare for von Recklinghausen's disease to be associated with triple non-neurogenic tumors. Careful observation is mandatory for patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.

  12. Body mass index: different nutritional status according to WHO, OPAS and Lipschitz classifications in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Barao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The body mass index (BMI is the most common marker used on diagnoses of the nutritional status. The great advantage of this index is the easy way to measure, the low cost, the good correlation with the fat mass and the association to morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To compare the BMI differences according to the WHO, OPAS and Lipschitz classification. METHODS: A prospective study on 352 patients with esophageal, gastric or colorectal cancer was done. The BMI was calculated and analyzed by the classification of WHO, Lipschitz and OPAS. RESULTS: The mean age was 62.1 ± 12.4 years and 59% of them had more than 59 years. The BMI had not difference between the genders in patients <59 years (P = 0.75, but over 59 years the BMI was higher in women (P<0.01. The percentage of undernourished was 7%, 18% and 21% (P<0.01 by WHO, Lipschitz and OPAS, respectively. The overweight/obesity was also different among the various classifications (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients with gastrointestinal cancer had more than 65 years. A different cut off must be used for this patients, because undernourished patients may be wrongly considered well nourished.

  13. PD-1/PD-L blockade in gastrointestinal cancers: lessons learned and the road toward precision immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junyu; Lin, Jianzhen; Wang, Anqiang; Wu, Liangcai; Zheng, Yongchang; Yang, Xiaobo; Wan, Xueshuai; Xu, Haifeng; Chen, Shuguang; Zhao, Haitao

    2017-08-03

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most prevalent tumors worldwide, with increasing incidence and mortality. Although surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy have led to significant advances in the treatment of GI cancer patients, overall survival is still low. Therefore, alternative strategies must be identified to improve patient outcomes. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells can escape the host immune response through the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L, which inhibits the function of T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes while increasing the function of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells. The use of an anti-PD-1/PD-L blockade enables reprogramming of the immune system to efficiently identify and kill tumor cells. In recent years, the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L blockade has been demonstrated in many tumors, and this treatment is expected to be a pan-immunotherapy for tumors. Here, we review the signaling pathway underlying the dysregulation of PD-1/PD-L in tumors, summarize the current clinical data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors in GI malignancies, and discuss road toward precision immunotherapy in relation to PD-1/PD-L blockade. The preliminary data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors are encouraging, and the precision immunotherapy of PD-1/PD-L inhibitors will be a viable and pivotal clinical strategy for GI cancer therapy.

  14. A new pharmacological approach to gastrointestinal cancer at high risk of relapse based on maintenance of the cytostatic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Andrea; Conte, Massimo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Paola; Carpi, Angelo; Miccoli, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    In metastatic colorectal and other locally advanced gastrointestinal cancers, the mechanisms of tumor growth and/or immune escape by residual cancer cells after curative resection often provoke tumor recurrence. Current adjuvant therapy is based on pharmacological administration up to 6-8 months after surgery. We hypothesized that the long-term, cytostatic action from repeated post-adjuvant administration of 5-fluorouracil (FU)-leucovorin (LV) cycles, as a result of the downregulation of the above-mentioned cellular mechanisms, could halt tumor progression. An active prospective cohort, including 19 patients (study group) at high risk of relapse, was considered. All patients received repeated post-adjuvant administration of 5-FU-LV cycles for up to 52-60 months following curative surgery (total cumulative dose of about 90 g and mean follow-up of 70.6 ± 49.7 months). The 5-year disease-free interval (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 80.4 ± 10.2% and 87.1 ± 8.6%, respectively, which is very different from the recent literature that has reported 5-year DFS and OS values of 31.8% and 40.1%, respectively. These findings suggest that this new pharmacological approach based on the long-term maintenance of a cytostatic effect with 5-FU-LV can produce a relevant improvement in the outcome of this population.

  15. Toxicity profiling of water contextual zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human oral and gastrointestinal cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni, Marcella; Tay, Chor Yong; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Fan, Rongli; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Leong, David Tai

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in water supply due to environmental release of ENPs as the by-products contained within the effluent of domestic and industrial run-off. The partial recycling of water laden with ENPs, albeit at ultra-low concentrations, may pose an uncharacterized threat to human health. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of three prevalent ENPs: zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide over a wide range of concentrations that encompasses drinking water-relevant concentrations, to cellular systems representing oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Based on published in silico-predicted water-relevant ENPs concentration range from 100 pg/L to 100 µg/L, we detected no cytotoxicity to all the cellular systems. Significant cytotoxicity due to the NPs set in around 100 mg/L with decreasing extent of toxicity from zinc oxide to silver to titanium dioxide NPs. We also found that noncytotoxic zinc oxide NPs level of 10 mg/L could elevate the intracellular oxidative stress. The threshold concentrations of NPs that induced cytotoxic effect are at least two to five orders of magnitude higher than the permissible concentrations of the respective metals and metal oxides in drinking water. Based on these findings, the current estimated levels of NPs in potable water pose little cytotoxic threat to the human oral and gastrointestinal systems within our experimental boundaries.

  16. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    ón de morbilidades gastrointestinales. FUENTES DE DATOS: Revisión no sistemática de la literatura utilizando como estrategia de búsqueda investigación bibliográfica en bases de datos, que incluyeron SciELO, Lilacs y MedLine entre 1990 y 2011. Los descriptores utilizados fueron: lactoferrina, leche materna/humana, gastrointestinal e inmunidad, en los idiomas portugués e inglés. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: La lactoferrina es la segunda proteína predominante en la leche humana, con concentraciones más elevadas en el calostro (5,0 a 6,7mg/mL respecto a la leche madura (0,2 a 2,6mg/mL. En contraste, la leche de vaca contiene tenores inferiores, 0,83mg/mL en el calostro y 0,09mg/mL en la leche madura. La lactoferrina desempeña diversas funciones fisiológicas en la protección del sistema gastrointestinal. La actividad antimicrobiana está relacionada a la capacidad de secuestrar hierro de los fluidos biológicos y/o de desestructurar la membrana de microorganismos. La lactoferrina posee además la capacidad de estimular la proliferación celular. La acción antiinflamatoria desempeñada por la lactoferrina está asociada a la capacidad de penetrar en el núcleo del leucocito y bloquear la transcripción del nuclear factor Kappa B. Frente a la importancia de la lactoferrina en la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas en niños amamantados al pecho, la industria viene, por medio de ingeniería genética, desarrollando tecnologías para expresar esta proteína recombinante humana en plantas y animales en el intento de adecuar la composición de las fórmulas infantiles a aquella de la leche humana. CONCLUSIONES: La lactoferrina humana es un péptido con potencial para prevenir morbilidades, especialmente las gastrointestinales. Evidencias científicas de los efectos protectores de la lactoferrina humana fortalecen todavía más la recomendación para la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To describe mechanisms of action of human lactoferrin to protect

  17. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CD147 PROTEIN IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER%CD147在胃肠道癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鑫; 郑华川; 赵恩宏; 肖丽君; 赵爽; 杨宗伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expresion and significance of CD147 in gastrointestinal cancer. Methods:Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of CD147 in 996 cases gastrointestinal cancer and 110 cases para-carcinoma normal mucosa, and analyzed the relationships between CD147 expression and clinicopathologic features and prognosis of gastrointestinal cancer.Results:The expression of CD147 in gastrointestinal cancer was obviously higher than that in normal mucosa (P0.05); but was associated with age, tumor size, venous invasion and lymphatic vessel invasion (P0.05).Conclusions: CD147 participates the development of gastrointestinal cancer, and can be acted as effective molecular marker to reveal the biological behavior of gastrointestinal cancer.%目的:探讨CD147在胃肠道癌中的表达情况和意义。方法:应用免疫组化法检测胃肠道癌(n=996)和癌旁正常黏膜(n=110)中CD147的表达情况,并分析CD147表达与胃肠道癌临床病理特征和预后的关系。结果:胃肠道癌CD147的阳性表达率明显高于正常黏膜(P<0.01)。胃肠道癌CD147的表达与年龄、肿瘤大小、静脉侵袭和淋巴管侵袭有关(P<0.05);与性别、淋巴结转移及UICC分期无关(P>0.05)。Kaplan-Meier曲线显示CD147表达与患者的预后无明显相关性(P>0.05)。结论:CD147参与胃肠道癌的发生和局部浸润,可作为反应胃肠道癌病理生物学行为的有效分子标志。

  18. Arcobacter in Lake Erie beach waters: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen linked with human-associated fecal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-08-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches.

  19. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  20. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio;

    2011-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) has established a pilot program with the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) to compile all inherited variation affecting colon cancer susceptibility genes. An HVP-InSiGHT Workshop was held on May 10, 2010, prior to the HVP...... Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer...

  1. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-12-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, number/size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Anti-cancer: We examined the effects of NOSH-sulindac on the growth properties of 12 human cancer cell lines of six different tissue origins. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NOSH-sulindac did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas sulindac caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by sulindac was higher than that from NOSH-sulindac. SOD activity was significantly lowered by sulindac but increased by NOSH-sulindac. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Sulindac increased plasma TNFα whereas this rise was lower in the NOSH-sulindac-treated animals. NOSH-sulindac inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 1000- to 9000-fold greater than that of sulindac. NOSH-sulindac inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G2/M cell

  2. Prevalence of Telomerase Activity in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hau Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity has been measured in a wide variety of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue types, and the vast majority of clinical studies have shown a direct correlation between it and the presence of cancerous cells. Telomerase plays a key role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Telomerase is activated in 80–90% of human carcinomas, but not in normal somatic cells, therefore, its detection holds promise as a diagnostic marker for cancer. Measurable levels of telomerase have been detected in malignant cells from various samples: tissue from gestational trophoblastic neoplasms; squamous carcinoma cells from oral rinses; lung carcinoma cells from bronchial washings; colorectal carcinoma cells from colonic luminal washings; bladder carcinoma cells from urine or bladder washings; and breast carcinoma or thyroid cancer cells from fine needle aspirations. Such clinical tests for telomerase can be useful as non-invasive and cost-effective methods for early detection and monitoring of cancer. In addition, telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with poor clinical outcome in late-stage diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. In such cases, testing for telomerase activity can be used to identify patients with a poor prognosis and to select those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. Our review of the latest medical advances in this field reveals that telomerase holds great promise as a biomarker for early cancer detection and monitoring, and has considerable potential as the basis for developing new anticancer therapies.

  3. Cancer Metabolomics and the Human Metabolome Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Wishart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of metabolomics towards cancer research has led to a renewed appreciation of metabolism in cancer development and progression. It has also led to the discovery of metabolite cancer biomarkers and the identification of a number of novel cancer causing metabolites. The rapid growth of metabolomics in cancer research is also leading to challenges. In particular, with so many cancer-associate metabolites being identified, it is often difficult to keep track of which compounds are associated with which cancers. It is also challenging to track down information on the specific pathways that particular metabolites, drugs or drug metabolites may be affecting. Even more frustrating are the difficulties associated with identifying metabolites from NMR or MS spectra. Fortunately, a number of metabolomics databases are emerging that are designed to address these challenges. One such database is the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB. The HMDB is currently the world’s largest and most comprehensive, organism-specific metabolomics database. It contains more than 40,000 metabolite entries, thousands of metabolite concentrations, >700 metabolic and disease-associated pathways, as well as information on dozens of cancer biomarkers. This review is intended to provide a brief summary of the HMDB and to offer some guidance on how it can be used in metabolomic studies of cancer.

  4. EUS-guided mucosectomy for gastrointestinal cancer Mucosectomía guiada por USE en el cáncer digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Miquel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the only way of improving prognosis and survival in gastrointestinal cancer is early diagnosis, with intramucosal localization as confirmed by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS or 20-MHz miniprobes (MPs (T1 being most appropriate. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR has proven effective in the treatment of this sort of lesions. Patients and method: in a group (18 cases with 15 cases of superficial gastrointestinal cancer and 3 cases of severe gastric dysplasia, 9 cases (3 esophageal, 4 gastric, 2 rectal underwent a classic EMR following EUS or a 7.5- and 20-MHz miniprobe exploration. Results: ultrasonographic studies showed a T1 in all but one esophageal case (Tis, and in both gastric dysplasias, with no changed layer structure being demonstrated in the latter (T0. No complications arose with classic EMR, and all 9 patients are alive and free from local or metastatic recurrence, except for one esophageal case, which recurred distally to the esophageal lesion (metachronous. Conclusions: echoendoscopically-assisted EMR is a safe, effective technique in the endoscopic management of superficial gastrointestinal (esophageal, gastric, colorectal cancer. Recurrence most likely depends upon cancer multiplicity.

  5. Correlation of thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase with sensitivity of gastrointestinal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ma; Zheng-Gang Zhu; Yu-Bao Ji; Yi Zhang; Ying-Yan Yu; Bing-Ya Liu; Hao-Ran Yin; Yan-Zhen Lin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression levels of three metabolic enzymes of fluoropyrimidines: thymidylate synthase (TS),thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in seven human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, and to compare the enzyme levels with the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd).METHODS: TS, TP and DPD mRNA levels were assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, TP and DPD protein contents were measured by ELISA. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of growth (IC50), representing the sensitivityto drugs, were determined by MTT assay.RESULTS: IC50 values ranged from 1.28 to 12.26 uM for 5-FU, and from 5.02 to 24.21 uM for FdUrd, respectively.Cell lines with lower DPD mRNA and protein levels tended to be more sensitive to 5-FU (P<0.05), but neither TS nor TP correlated with 5-FU IC50 (P>0.05). Only TS mRNA level was sharply related with FdUrd sensitivity (P<0.05), but TP and DPD were not (P>0.05). A correlation was found between mRNA and protein levels of DPD (P<0.05), but not TP (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: DPD and TS enzyme levels may be useful indicators in predicting the antitumor activity of 5-FU or FdUrd, respectively.

  6. Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosa Garbuglia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is currently considered to be a major etiologic factor, in addition to tobacco and alcohol, for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC development. HPV positive OPCs are epidemiologically distinct from HPV negative ones, and are characterized by younger age at onset, male predominance, and strong association with sexual behaviors. HPV16 is the most prevalent types in oral cavity cancer (OCC, moreover the prevalence of beta, and gamma HPV types is higher than that of alpha HPV in oral cavity.

  7. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus is the key determinant of cervical cancer, but other risk factors interact with it to define individual risk. Among these, there is oral contraceptive (OC) use. A quantitative review of the link between OCs and cervical cancer was performed. Long-term (>5 year) current or recent OC use has been related to an about two-fold excess risk of cervical cancer. Such an excess risk, however, levels off after stopping use, and approaches unity 10 or more years after stopping. The public health implications of OC use for cervical cancer are limited. In any case, such implications are greater in middle-income and low-income countries, as well as in central and eastern Europe and Latin America, where cervical cancer screening and control remain inadequate.

  8. MALNUTRITION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER: EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT DIAGNOSTIC METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias do Prado, Corina; Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: estimar la efectividad de los diferentes métodos para la identificación y/o presencia de desnutrición en las personas con riesgo de cáncer gastrointestinal. Métodos: los participantes fueron 143 pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal, atendidos en la sala del Hospital Clínico de Oncología Amaral Carvalho (Jau-SP). No se excluyeron los pacientes ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, con enfermedad terminal o con miembros amputados que recibieron transfusiones de sangre en el último mes, con hemorragias clínicamente relevantes, que recibieron albúmina intravenosa y aquellos con infección no controlada. El estado nutricional de los participantes se clasificó de acuerdo a la relación Peso Real y Peso Habitual (PR/PH), Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), Índice de Riesgo Nutricional (IRN) y porcentaje de ajuste (% score). Como método estándar de oro se utilizó la Evaluación Global Subjetiva. Fue evaluada la eficacia de los métodos para detectar el riesgo de desnutrición o la presencia de desnutrición. La curva ROC fue construido y su área (AUROC) se estimó. Las áreas se compararon mendiante z estadística. Para cada método resuelto el mejor punto de corte. Resultados: de los pacientes, el 74,1% había avanzado en el estado de la enfermedad y el 83,2% fueron sometidos a métodos quimioterápicos. Todos los métodos de tratamiento mostraron una adecuada capacidad discriminatoria para detectar el riesgo de desnutrición y la presencia de la misma. El IMC fue significativamente mejor para la detección de la desnutrición que para el riesgo de desnutrición. El riesgo PR/PH fue significativamente mejor para detectar el riesgo de desnutrición que otros métodos. Los puntos de corte fueron inferiores a los puntos de corte recomendados para población normativa con los métodos PR/PH, NRI y porcentaje de ajuste (% score). Para el punto de corte del IMC fue mayor que el recomendado para la población normativa. Conclusión: los m

  9. Radiobiology of human cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has systematically collected and collated the scientific literature correlating the basic and clinical sciences in this field in order to produce a definitive treatise. The book thoroughly reviews the biology and biochemistry relevant to radiobiology and describes the critical locus for the extinction of cell reproductive capacity. Extensive coverage is given to oxygen effect, hyperthermia, high linear energy transfer, cell populations, and similar topics. Separate sections cover time, dose, and fractionation; radiation hematology; cancer chemotherapy; and cancer immunology. The book also contains invaluable discussions of techniques for optimizing radiotherapy alone and in combination with other therapies.

  10. Water pipe smoking and human oral cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Li, Fu-Min; Fouad, Fouad M; Al Kamal, Haysam M; Akil, Nizar; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin

    2010-03-01

    While cigarette smoking is recognized as an important risk factor in human oral cancers, the effect of water pipe smoking (WPS) on these cancers is not known. WPS is very common in the young adult population, especially in the Middle East, and has been associated with several respiratory problems. However, to date, there have been no studies examining the association between WPS and the progression of human oral cancers. Currently, the role of WPS in human oral cancers remains uncertain because of the limited number of investigations. This raises the question of whether WPS plays a significant role in the development of human oral carcinomas. In this paper, we propose the hypothesis that human oral normal epithelial cells are vulnerable to persistent WPS; moreover, WPS could play an important role in the initiation of a neoplastic transformation of human normal oral epithelial cells. Therefore, we believe that an international collaboration of epidemiological and clinical studies as well as cellular and molecular biology investigations is necessary to answer this important question.

  11. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding after low anterior resection for middle rectal cancer -case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mircea Beuran; Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Valentina Negoita; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To emphasize the value of emergency diagnostic angiography and angioembolization in massive postoperative bleeding. Methods:A case report was presented and electronic search of U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, to identify original articles and reviews about the subject. Results: A 55 year-old male patient was addmited for rectal bleeding. ECOG index=2, digital rectal examination revealed the inferior pole of a middle rectal tumor. Colonoscopy exam validated the presence of a middle rectal tumor, 8 cm from the anal verge. CT scan showed rectal wall thickening up to 3 cm, that extends 9 cm proximally, whit infiltration of the perirectal fatty tissue and multiple enlarged lymph nodes up to 12 mm in dimension. There was a laparoscopic converted to open approach, with low anterior resection of the rectum and total mesorectal excision, an end to end stapled colorectal anastomosis and protective loop ileostomy. In the 5th postoperative day a massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding occured, with hypovolemic shock and a decrease in hemoglobin. Emergency angiography was performed. This revealed active bleeding from an internal iliac branch that was successfully angioembolized. Conclusions: Angiography with angioembolization is an effective tool in emergency setting, avoiding the morbidity and associated mortality of a surgical reinervention. In early postoperative hemorrhages, only a rapid clinical recognition, a personalized diagnostic workup and an agressive intervention may offer the patient the best chances for cure.

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors as an incidental finding in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mario; Ramirez, Pedro T; Echeverri, Carolina; Alvarez, Luis Guillermo; Palomino, Maria Alejandra; Pareja, Luis René

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation and oncologic outcomes of a series of patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Data were obtained on all patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass between September 2007 and June 2010 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. All six patients had a tumor in the intestinal tract arising from the small bowel. The mean tumor size was 12 cm (range, 6 to 22 cm). A complete resection was achieved in five of the six patients. There were no intraoperative complications; one patient had a postoperative complication. Two patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 32 months (range, 0.3 to 40 months). At the last follow-up, five of the six patients were without any evidence of disease. One patient died of an unrelated hepatic encephalopathy. The incidence in our institution is 3%. GISTs are uncommon; however, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass.

  13. Dissemination and clinical impact of minimal metastatic disease in gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, Fania Shahanaaz

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we assess whether gastric and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with minimal metastatic disease at the time of surgery who are at risk for disease recurrence, can be identified by detection of occult tumor cells (OTC) in lymph nodes or bone marrow or by analyzing the primary tumor for

  14. Biomarkers in tissue from patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer Staal; Pappot, Helle; Lassen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    not be recommended in an unselected population of patients with chemo-refractory UGI cancer. However, a subpopulation of patients did benefit from the therapy. In this prospectively planned biomarker study we investigated vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and epidermal growth...

  15. 树突细胞肿瘤疫苗用于治疗胃肠管恶性肿瘤的研究进展%Research progress of dendritic cells based cancer vaccines against gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健卫; 牛伟新

    2008-01-01

    胃肠管恶性肿瘤是人类最常见的恶性肿瘤.在目前以手术切除为主的综合治疗中,传统放、化疗由于其治疗模式的非特异性特点,常难以达到理想的结果.树突状细胞(dendritic cell,DC)肿瘤疫苗作为近年来兴起的一个免疫治疗新方法,被越来越多地应用到临床试验中,在用于治疗胃肠管恶性肿瘤中也取得了一些效果.虽然目前疫苗的设计尚无公认的标准,且其免疫学效果和临床预后也未能取得正相关的联系,但对DC免疫机制的深入了解和相应新方法的研究有可能在治疗恶性肿瘤方面发挥更大的作用.%Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common types of malignant tumors in Human Beings.The main treatment remains surgery resection,in addition to which,adjunctive therapies are far not satisfactory for the target of which are not specific.Dendritic cells cancer vaccine is one of the most promising immunotherapy ways developed in the decades and some results have showed that the vaccines may help in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.Till now,there is no recognized standard in the design of the vaccine and no positive correlations between the immunologic effect and clinical prognosis are showed,but we believe that with the further research in the immunological mechanism and the use of new designed methods,dendritic cells cancer vaccines will play a greater role in the treatment of malignant tumors.

  16. [Lymph node staging in gastrointestinal cancer. Combination of methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection and ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, B; Arnholdt, H

    2012-11-01

    The histopathological lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in gastrointestinal cancer. However, the recommended numbers of lymph nodes that should be evaluated are often not reached in routine practice. Methylene blue assisted lymph node dissection was introduced as a new, simple and efficient technique to improve lymph node harvest in gastrointestinal cancer. This method is inexpensive, causes no delay and needs no toxic substances. All studies performed revealed a highly significantly improved lymph node harvest in comparison to the conventional technique. Moreover, this technique can be combined with a new ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping that for the first time is based on histological sentinel lymph node detection. The success rate of this method is similar to conventional techniques and it enables an efficient application of extended investigation methods, such as immunohistochemistry or the polymerase chain reaction.

  17. A Comparison of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 Tool With the Subjective Global Assessment Tool to Detect Nutritional Status in Chinese Patients Undergoing Surgery With Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Juntao; Yin, Shaohua; Zhu, Yongjian; Gao, Fengli; Song, Xinna; Song, Zhenlan; Lv, Junying; Li, Miaomiao

    The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery and to compare the ease of use, diversity, and concordance of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 with the Subjective Global Assessment in the same patients. A total of 280 gastrointestinal cancer patients admitted for elective surgery were evaluated by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tools within 48 hours of admission from April to October 2012. Related opinions about ease of using the tools were obtained from 10 nurses. The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk with the SGA and NRS 2002 was 33.9% and 53.2% on admission. In the total group, ≤70 age group, and >70 age group, respectively, consistency was observed in 214 (76.4%), 175 (91.1%), and 39 (44.3%); and kappa values were 0.54 (p 70 age group (p nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery, but it appeared to detect more patients at nutritional risk in the >70 age group.

  18. Efficacy of intraperitoneal thermochemotherapy and immunotherapy in intraperitoneal recurrence after gastrointestinal cancer resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Guo Fu; Fan-Dong Meng; Xiao-Dong Shen; Ren-Xuan Guo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of intraperitoneal IL-2 immunotherapy following intraperitoneal thermochemotherapy in the metastasis and recurrence of gastric and colorectal cancer after operation.METHODS: Forty-two gastric cancer patients at T3Ⅱ-T4 ⅢB stages and 96 patients with colorectal cancer at B to D stages admitted from January1996 to October 1998 were randomly divided into control group (group Ⅰ, 65 cases) receiving intraperitoneal thermochemotherapy, and group Ⅱ (73cases) receiving both intraperitoneal thermochemotherapy andintraperitoneal IL-2 immunotherapy. Distilled water at 43-45℃ containing 5-Fu 0.5 g/L and MMC 8 mg/L was perfused into peritoneal cavity before closure at the end of operation for 1 h, and from the third day, IL-2 10 million IU in 500 ml 0.9 % sodium chloride was intraperitoneallyadministrated daily for 10 times. One month after operation, all the patients underwent regular intravenous chemotherapy. Before and after the IL-2 immunotherapy, some Th1 type cytokines in the peripheral blood of the patients in the two groups were detected by ELISA, and the intraperitoneal recurrence and liver metastasis rates and the 3-year survival rate were statistically evaluated after intensive follow-up. RESULTS: IL-2 intraperitoneal immunotherapy significantly elevated the level of some Th1 type cytokines (P<0.01compared with that of control group), and the 3-year survival rate of group Ⅱ was 18.1% higher and the rates of intraperitoneal recurrence and liver metastasis were 16.9 % and 6.0 % lower than those of group I significantly (P<0.05-0.01).CONCLUSION: The combination of intraperitoneal IL-2 immunotherapy and thermochemotherapy could promote Th1 immune paradigm and enforce anti-tumor activity of bodies, which plays a positive role in preventing gastric and colorectal cancer from intraperitoneal recurrence and development.

  19. Plasma levels of OLFM4 in normals and patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Stine N; Glenthøj, Anders J; Heebøll, Sara;

    2015-01-01

    levels in plasma, the majority with OLFM4 in plasma between 0 and 0.1 μg/ml, mean 0.028 μg/ml while 10% of both normals and patients with cancers had OLFM4 between 4 and 60 μg/ml, mean 15 μg/ml. The levels were constant over time. The background for this high plasma level is not known, but must be taken...

  20. Detection of gastrointestinal cancer by elastic scattering and absorption spectroscopies with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Bigio, I.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Mellow, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma Medical School, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1995-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. In proceedings of earlier SPIE conferences we reported on clinical measurements in the bladder, and we report here on recent results of clinical tests in the gastrointestinal tract. With the OBS, tissue pathologies are detected/diagnosed using spectral measurements of the elastic optical transport properties (scattering and absorption) of the tissue over a wide range of wavelengths. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, exhibit significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes m an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. Additionally, the optical geometry of the OBS beneficially enhances its sensitivity for measuring absorption bands. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination, as well as interstitial needle insertion. Data acquistion/display time is <1 second.

  1. Dose-Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Killoran, Joseph H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Crowley, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose-volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman's correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU-based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  2. Isolation of Cancer Stem Cells From Human Prostate Cancer Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Samuel J.; Quinn, S. Aidan; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Bonal, Dennis M.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. We recently reported the isolation of prostate CSCs directly from human tissues by virtue of their HLA class I (HLAI)-negative phenotype. Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. Subpopulations of HLAI-negative cells are finally isolated using a flow cytometer. The principal limitation of this protocol is the frequently microscopic and multifocal nature of primary cancer in prostatectomy specimens. Nonetheless, isolated live prostate CSCs are suitable for molecular characterization and functional validation by transplantation in immunodeficient mice. PMID:24686446

  3. Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal

  4. Results of screening for cancer in Japanese in the prime of life--an analysis of nationwide MHTS and human dry dock statistics--Preventive Medicine Committee of the Japan Hospital Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamori, N; Hinohara, S; Tamura, M; Kiyose, H; Amakawa, T; Tsuchiya, A; Nara, M

    1999-07-01

    The nationwide survey of institutions with MHTS and human dry dock capabilities was analyzed and the following results have been obtained. 1) The relative rates of cancer detection by sex and organ were the stomach > colon > rectum > lung > kidney > esophagus for men and the stomach > breast > uterus > colon > thyroid > lung for women. 2) Gastric cancer takes first place in the ranking of rates of cancer detection in the population of both sexes, followed by colon cancer. The difference in rate of detection between these cancers has been narrowed from year to year. In 1997, the ratio of gastric to colon cancers was 10:7. 3) Early cancers account for 74% of gastric cancer patients and 75% of colon cancer patients. 4) Since gastric and colon cancers are detected early, the proportions of persons with gastrointestinal symptoms are as low as 28% for gastric cancer patients and 26% for colon cancer patients. 5) The relative rates of cancer detection by the degree obesity are normal > obese > lean person. The rates of gastric and colon cancers are 2- and 3-fold higher for obese persons than for lean persons, respectively. Gastric and colon cancers are detected with higher frequency in well-nourished persons. The present review of the national MHTS and human dry dock statistics has confirmed the efficacy of MHTS and human dry dock, especially in the examination for gastrointestinal cancers.

  5. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  6. Early impairment of gut function and gut flora supporting a role for alteration of gastrointestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario

    Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the

  7. Early impairment of gut function and gut flora supporting a role for alteration of gastrointestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the h

  8. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Small Fibre Neuropathy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer and Nerve Regeneration in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ferdousi

    Full Text Available There are multiple neurological complications of cancer and its treatment. This study assessed the utility of the novel non-invasive ophthalmic technique of corneal confocal microscopy in identifying neuropathy in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer before and after platinum based chemotherapy. In this study, 21 subjects with upper gastrointestinal (oesophageal or gastric cancer and 21 healthy control subjects underwent assessment of neuropathy using the neuropathy disability score, quantitative sensory testing for vibration perception threshold, warm and cold sensation thresholds, cold and heat induced pain thresholds, nerve conduction studies and corneal confocal microscopy. Patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer had higher heat induced pain (P = 0.04 and warm sensation (P = 0.03 thresholds with a significantly reduced sural sensory (P<0.01 and peroneal motor (P<0.01 nerve conduction velocity, corneal nerve fibre density (CNFD, nerve branch density (CNBD and nerve fibre length (CNFL (P<0.0001. Furthermore, CNFD correlated significantly with the time from presentation with symptoms to commencing chemotherapy (r = -0.54, P = 0.02, and CNFL (r = -0.8, P<0.0001 and CNBD (r = 0.63, P = 0.003 were related to the severity of lymph node involvement. After the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy, there was no change in any measure of neuropathy, except for a significant increase in CNFL (P = 0.003. Corneal confocal microscopy detects a small fibre neuropathy in this cohort of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer, which was related to disease severity. Furthermore, the increase in CNFL after the chemotherapy may indicate nerve regeneration.

  9. Dose and volume effects of gastrointestinal toxicity during neoadjuvant IMRT for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, A. L.; Vogelius, I. R.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . Materials and Methods: We explored dose metrics correlating with acute diarrhea and chemotherapy compliance for a single-institution cohort of rectal cancer patients (n=115) treated with IMRT. Acute diarrhea during treatment was scored prospectively by trained RT nurses (CTCAE v3.0). The highest toxicity......-point. Clinical factors (see Table 1) were included one by one in both models to examine their association with toxicity. Significance levels were estimated using likelihood ratio tests. Results: V32Gy correlated with acute diarrhea (p=0.0001), see Fig 1a; females had an increased risk of toxicity (OR=2.13, 95.......03) and patients with diabetes (OR=7.29, 1.21-43.8, p=0.03). Age, brachytherapy boost, prior abdominal surgery, smoking history, or domestic status had no influence on any of the two endpoints, nor had concurrent chemotherapy on the risk of acute diarrhea. Conclusions: We found that dose to the intestinal cavity...

  10. Comparison of the gastrointestinal absorption and bioavailability of fenofibrate and fenofibric acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Ansquer, Jean-Claude; Kelly, Maureen T; Sleep, Darryl J; Pradhan, Rajendra S

    2010-08-01

    This study compared the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption characteristics and absolute bioavailability of fenofibric acid and fenofibrate (which is converted to fenofibric acid in vivo) in healthy volunteers. Treatments were delivered to the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel, and colon using a site-specific delivery system (Enterion capsule) and to the stomach by oral administration of equimolar doses. Serial blood samples were collected for 120 hours postdose and assayed for plasma fenofibric acid concentrations. The absolute bioavailability of each treatment was determined relative to 50 mg of fenofibric acid administered intravenously. Plasma exposure to fenofibric acid following fenofibric acid administration was approximately 1.5 times higher than that following fenofibrate administration for delivery to the proximal and distal small bowel and following oral administration, and it was approximately 5 times higher following colon delivery. The absolute bioavailability in the stomach, proximal small bowel, distal small bowel, and colon was approximately 81%, 88%, 84%, and 78%, respectively, for fenofibric acid and 69%, 73%, 66%, and 22%, respectively, for fenofibrate (P fenofibric acid vs fenofibrate in the colon and distal small bowel, respectively). In conclusion, fenofibric acid is well absorbed throughout the GI tract and has greater bioavailability than fenofibrate in all GI regions.

  11. Regulatory T Cells in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple layers of suppressive components including regulatory T (TReg cells, suppressive antigen-presenting cells, and inhibitory cytokines form suppressive networks in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. It has been demonstrated that as a major suppressive element, TReg cells infiltrate tumor, interact with several types of immune cells, and mediate immune suppression through different molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on human ovarian cancer and will discuss the nature of TReg cells including their subsets, trafficking, expansion, and function. We will briefly review the development of manipulation of TReg cells in preclinical and clinical settings.

  12. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  13. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The holistic management of consequences of cancer treatment by a gastrointestinal and nutrition team: a financially viable approach to an enormous problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muls, Ann C; Lalji, Amyn; Marshall, Christopher; Butler, Lewis; Shaw, Clare; Vyoral, Susan; Mohammed, Kabir; Andreyev, H Jervoise N

    2016-06-01

    There is no national NHS tariff to fund services for patients experiencing long-term bowel and nutritional problems after cancer treatment. In this paper, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients referred to our service and the estimated cost of a completed episode of care. Patient characteristics, symptom severity, investigations, diagnoses, number of clinic visits and referrals elsewhere were recorded in a prospective cohort study. During 2013-14, 325 patients completed assessment and treatment. The majority of original cancer diagnoses were urological (43%) and gynaecological (21%). A median of six investigations were requested. 62% were found to have three or more new diagnoses including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (46%), vitamin D deficiency (38%), bile acid malabsorption (28%), gastritis (22%), radiation-induced bleeding (20%), vitamin B12 deficiency (17%), pelvic floor weakness (17%), colorectal polyps (13%) and pancreatic insufficiency (5%). A median of three visits were required and all commonly reported gastrointestinal symptoms improved by discharge. The mean episode of care per patient was costed at £1,563. Effective amelioration of chronic gastrointestinal toxicity after cancer treatment costs substantially less than treating the cancer in the first place and requires an NHS tariff.

  15. In-situ visualization and evaluation of neoplastic lesions of the human gastrointestinal tract using endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Andrew M.; Westphal, Volker; Das, Ananya; Pfau, Patrick; Chak, Amitabh; Wong, Richard C. K.; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2001-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel biomedical imaging technique that uses low-coherence optical interferometry to obtain micron-scale resolution cross- sectional images of tissue microstructure noninvasively. OCT fills a valuable niche in imaging of tissue structure, providing subsurface imaging with high spatial resolution (on the order of 10 micrometers) and penetration depths of 1 - 2 mm with no contact or matching medium needed between the probe and the tissue. An OCT system for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been developed using a small-diameter rotary-scanning probe compatible with standard GI endoscopes and capable of imaging in real-time. To date more than 100 volunteers have been imaged during routine upper and lower endoscopic procedures. Results of imaging in normal organs have demonstrated visualization of morphological layers (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria) and microscopic structures (glands, villi, crypts, vessels) in all endoscopically accessible GI organs. It has been observed in more than 30 patients that the EOCT appearance of Barrett's mucosa is clearly differentiable from normal gastric or esophageal mucosa. Furthermore, the EOCT appearance of dysplasia and neoplastic lesions, including adenocarcenoma in Barrett's and villous tumor in colon have been observed and are under investigation. Preliminary data indicate the potential of EOCT for routine clinical diagnostics in GI tissues, including early cancer detection and staging and detection of tumor margins.

  16. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ester; Bargiela, Rafael; Diez, María Suárez; Friedrichs, Anette; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Gosalbes, María José; Knecht, Henrik; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Artacho, Alejandro; Ruiz, Alicia; Campoy, Cristina; Latorre, Amparo; Ott, Stephan J; Moya, Andrés; Suárez, Antonio; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A P; Ferrer, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to carbohydrate metabolism, and to contribute to unravel the underlying mechanisms and consequences for health conditions. We measured the activity level of GIT carbohydrate-active enzymes toward 23 distinct sugars in adults patients (n = 2) receiving 14-d β-lactam therapy and in obese (n = 7) and lean (n = 5) adolescents. We observed that both 14 d antibiotic-treated and obese subjects showed higher and less balanced sugar anabolic capacities, with 40% carbohydrates being preferentially processed as compared with non-treated and lean patients. Metaproteome-wide metabolic reconstructions confirmed that the impaired utilization of sugars propagated throughout the pentose phosphate metabolism, which had adverse consequences for the metabolic status of the GIT microbiota. The results point to an age-independent positive association between GIT glycosidase activity and the body mass index, fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance (r ( 2) ≥ 0.95). Moreover, antibiotics altered the active fraction of enzymes controlling the thickness, composition and consistency of the mucin glycans. Our data and analyses provide biochemical insights into the effects of antibiotic usage on the dynamics of the GIT microbiota and pin-point presumptive links to obesity. The knowledge and the hypotheses generated herein lay a foundation for subsequent, systematic research that will be paramount for the design of "smart" dietary and therapeutic interventions to modulate host-microbe metabolic co-regulation in intestinal homeostasis.

  17. Effect of bread gluten content on gastrointestinal function: a crossover MRI study on healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Marina; Gates, Fred K; Marciani, Luca; Shiwani, Henna; Major, Giles; Hoad, Caroline L; Chaddock, Gemma; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2016-01-14

    Gluten is a crucial functional component of bread, but the effect of increasing gluten content on gastrointestinal (GI) function remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the effect of increasing gluten content on GI function and symptoms in healthy participants using the unique capabilities of MRI. A total of twelve healthy participants completed this randomised, mechanistic, open-label, three-way crossover study. On days 1 and 2 they consumed either gluten-free bread (GFB), or normal gluten content bread (NGCB) or added gluten content bread (AGCB). The same bread was consumed on day 3, and MRI scans were performed every 60 min from fasting baseline up to 360 min after eating. The appearance of the gastric chime in the images was assessed using a visual heterogeneity score. Gastric volumes, the small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes and colonic gas content and GI symptoms were measured. Fasting transverse colonic volume after the 2-d preload was significantly higher after GFB compared with NGCB and AGCB with a dose-dependent response (289 (SEM 96) v. 212 (SEM 74) v. 179 (SEM 87) ml, respectively; P=0·02). The intragastric chyme heterogeneity score was higher for the bread with increased gluten (AGCB 6 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·5) compared with GFB 3 (IQR 0·5); P=0·003). However, gastric half-emptying time was not different between breads nor were study day GI symptoms, postprandial SBWC, colonic volume and gas content. This MRI study showed novel mechanistic insights in the GI responses to different breads, which are poorly understood notwithstanding the importance of this staple food.

  18. Prospective assessment of urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual symptoms before, during and after image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Widmark, Anders; Fransson, Per

    2015-01-01

    . One year after RT, there was no longer any difference compared to baseline for any of the urinary symptoms. All gastrointestinal symptoms except for nausea increased significantly at the end of RT. One year after RT, patients also reported slightly higher degrees of stool frequency, bowel leakage......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the development of 24 urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual symptoms in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) during and after image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 87 patients with PCa...... RT compared to baseline were analysed by a mixed model analysis of repeated measurements with the following covariates: age, comorbidity, smoking and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). RESULTS: All urinary problems except for haematuria increased significantly at the end of RT compared to baseline...

  19. Evidence That the Enterotoxin Gene Can Be Episomal in Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Non-Food-Borne Human Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for the diarrheal and cramping symptoms of human C. perfringens type A food poisoning. CPE-producing C. perfringens isolates have also recently been associated with several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and sporadic diarrhea. The current study has used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses to compare the genoty...

  20. Impact of formal training in endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastrointestinal cancer: A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Miguel A; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Morita, Yoshinori; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan; Gomez, Elisa; Moctezuma-Velazquez, Carlos; Estradas-Trujillo, Jose A; Valdovinos, Miguel A; Uscanga, Luis F; Fujita, Rikiya

    2015-04-16

    To summarize the clinical impact of a formal training for the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastrointestinal cancer. We searched databases including PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and Science citation Index updated to August 2014 to include eligible articles. In the Meta-analysis, the main outcome measurements were en bloc resection rate, local recurrence rate (R0) and the incidence of procedure-related complications (perforation, bleeding). En bloc resection was high for both, dissecting stomach tumors with an overall percentage of 93.2% (95%CI: 90.5-95.8) and dissecting colorectal tumors with an overall percentage of 89.4% (95%CI: 85.1-93.7). Although the number of studies reporting R0 resection (the dissected specimen was revealed free of tumor in both vertical and lateral margins) was small, the overall estimates for R0 resection were 81.4% (95%CI: 72-90.8) for stomach and 85.9% (95%CI: 77.5-95.5) for colorectal tumors, respectively. The analysis showed that the percentage of immediate perforation and bleeding were very low; 4.96 (95%CI: 3.6-6.3) and 1.4% (95%CI: 0.8-1.9) for colorectal tumors and 3.1% (95%CI: 2.0-4.1) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.8-6.7) for stomach tumors, respectively. In order to obtain the same rate of success of the analyzed studies it is a necessity to create training centers in the western countries during the "several years" of gastroenterology residence first only to teach EGC diagnose and second only to train endoscopic submucosal dissection.

  1. Optical coherence tomography in detection of dysplasia and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and bilio-pancreatic ductal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Alberto Testoni; Benedetto Mangiavillano

    2008-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality that performs high-resolution, cross-sectional, subsurface tomographic imaging of the microstructure of tissues. The physical principle of OCT is similar to that of B-mode ultrasound imaging, except that it uses infrared light waves rather than acoustic waves. The in vivo resolution is 10-25 times better (about 10 μm) than with high-frequency ultrasound imaging, but the depth of penetration is limited to 1-3 mm, depending upon tissue structure, depth of focus of the probe used, and pressure applied to the tissue surface. In the last decade, OCT technology has evolved from an experimental laboratory tool to a new diagnostic imaging modality with a wide spectrum of clinical applications in medical practice, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and pancreatic-biliary ductal system. OCT imaging from the GI tract can be done in humans by using narrow-diameter, catheter-based probes that can be inserted through the accessory channel of either a conventional front-view endoscope, for investigating the epithelial structure of the GI tract, or a side-view endoscope, inside a standard transparent ERCP catheter, for investigating the pancreatico-biliary ductal system. Esophagus and the esophago-gastric junction has been the most widely investigated organ so far; more recently, also duodenum, colon and pancreatico-biliary ductal system have been extensively investigated. OCT imaging of the gastro-intestinal wall structure is characterized by a multiple-layer architecture that permits an accurate evaluation of the mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and part of the submucosa. The technique may be, therefore, used to identify pre-neoplastic conditions of the GI tract, such as Barrett's epithelium and dysplasia, and evaluate the depth of penetration of early-stage neoplastic lesions. OCT imaging of the pancreatic and biliary ductal system could improve the diagnostic accuracy for ductal epithelial

  2. The association between two microRNA variants (miR-499, miR-149 and gastrointestinal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNAs may contribute to cancer susceptibility due to changes in the microRNA's properties and/or maturation. The present study aimed to investigate the association between two miRNA polymorphisms (miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-149 rs2292832 and gastrointestinal (GI cancer risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a search of case-control studies in PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science and the CNKI database. Eleven rs3746444 studies and six rs2292832 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The only obvious association between the miR-499 polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility was found in the homozygote comparison (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.02-2.70, P(h = 0.10, P = 0.04. No significant association was found in the subgroup analysis for ethnicity and risk of hepatocellular and gastric cancer. A marginally elevated GI cancer risk was discovered in the recessive model for miR-149 (TT vs. TC+CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30, P(h = 0.68, P = 0.02. Stratifying the results by ethnicity revealed a slight association between the recessive model and the Asian population (TT vs. TC+CC: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29, P(h = 0.79, P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present meta-analysis indicates that miR-499 may be associated with the risk to colorectal cancer. MiR-149 may confer a marginally increased risk of susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer, especially for Asians.

  3. Present status and existing problems of laparoscopic surgery for malignant gastrointestinal cancer%腹腔镜在胃肠恶性肿瘤中的应用现状及存在问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周总光; 王自强

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has gained wide acceptance for its use in benign gastrointestinal cancer in the past 20 years, while its use in malignant gastrointestinal cancer has been highly controversial until the recent 3-5 years. Several prospective randomized clinical trials have suggested that the long-term outcome of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is the same as or better than that of open surgery. As for rectal cancer, whether the principles of total mesorectal excision can be well followed in laparoscopic surgery remains. Most recently, the trial of large number of patients doesn't show any differences upon local recurrence and 3-year survival rate between rectal cancer patients in laparoscopic group and open group. Laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted as a standard treatment regimen for early gastric cancer in many specialized centers. Meanwhile, the feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer has been proved by several scholars. The use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer especially for T3 gastric cancer still remains controversial. The early concern that laparoscopic surgery for malignant cancer might increase tumor dissemination is not confirmed. The system of technical training and occupational qualification, proper selection of patients and adherence to all the principles of cancer clearance will ensure a good result of laparoscopic surgery for malignant gastrointestinal cancer.

  4. Gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, T A

    2011-11-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains one of the most important emergencies in gastroenterology. Despite this, only about 100 abstracts concerning gastrointestinal bleeding (excluding bleeding complicating endoscopic procedures) were presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (DDW; 7-10 May 2011; Chicago, Illinois, USA), accounting for less than 2% of all presented lectures and posters. It seems that the number of such abstracts has been decreasing over recent years. This may be due in part to the high level of medical care already achieved, especially in the areas of pharmacotherapy and endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review of gastrointestinal bleeding, priority has been given to large epidemiological studies reflecting "real life," and abstracts dealing more or less directly with endoscopic management. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  6. Gastrointestinal tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, T E; Goodell, W M; Pulitzer, D R

    1994-06-01

    Tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract is used to facilitate the relocation of biopsy sites or other sites of interest at the time of subsequent biopsy or surgery. Submucosal injection of sterile india ink produces a zone of blue-black coloration that is grossly visible from both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The pathology of gastrointestinal tattoos has only been briefly mentioned previously in the medical literature. We report two cases of gastrointestinal tattooing: one that was done to mark the margin of resection in a patient with gastric lymphoma, and the second that occurred unintentionally following the administration of activated charcoal for drug overdosage in a patient with undiagnosed active inflammatory bowel disease. Unintentional tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract has, therefore, not been reported.

  7. Gastrointestinal manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanowitz, H B; Simon, D; Weiss, L M; Noyer, C; Coyle, C; Wittner, M

    1996-11-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common problem in the setting of HIV-1 infection. As patients live longer and other opportunistic pathogens are suppressed, these problems are becoming even more important in the quality of life.

  8. Comparative proteomics analysis of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Jian-Fang Li; Ying Qu; Xue-Hua Chen; Jian-Min Qin; Qin-Long Gu; Min Yan; Zheng-Gang Zhu; Bing-Ya Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and identify differentially expressed proteins between cancer and normal tissues of gastric cancer by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).METHODS: Soluble fraction proteins of gastric cancer tissues and paired normal tissues were separated by 2-DE.The differentially expressed proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search.RESULTS: 2-DE profiles with high resolution and reproducibility were obtained.Twenty-three protein spots were excised from sliver staining gel and digested in gel by trypsin,in which fifteen protein spots were identified successfully.Among the identified proteins,there were ten over-expressed and five under-expressed proteins in stomach cancer tissues compared with normal tissues.CONCLUSION: In this study,the well-resolved,reproducible 2-DE patterns of human gastric cancer tissue and paired normal tissue were established and optimized and certain differentially-expressed proteins were identified.The combined use of 2-DE and MS provides an effective approach to screen for potential tumor markers.

  9. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  10. Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; LaDou, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should reevaluate its position on aspartame as being safe under all conditions. Animal bioassay results predict human cancer risks, and a recent animal study confirms that there is a potential aspartame risk to humans. Aspartame is produced and packaged in China for domestic use and global distribution. Japan, France, and the United States are also major producers. No study of long-term adverse occupational health effects on aspartame workers have been conducted. The FDA should consider sponsoring a prospective epidemiologic study of aspartame workers.

  11. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  12. Biophotonic endoscopy: a review of clinical research techniques for optical imaging and sensing of early gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coda, S.; Siersema, P.D.; Stamp, G.W.; Thillainayagam, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Detection, characterization, and staging constitute the fundamental elements in the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases, but histology still remains the diagnostic gold standard. New developments in endoscopic techniques may challenge histopathology in the near future. An ideal endosco

  13. Postoperative change of anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich and Tn IgG level: The follow-up study of gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence of tumor removal on the serum level of IgG antibodies to tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF), Tn carbohydrate epitopes and xenogeneic αGal, and to elucidate on the change of the level during the follow-up as well as its association with the stage and morphology of the tumor and the values of blood parameters in gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: Sixty patients with gastric cancer and 34 patients with colorectal cancer in stages Ⅰ-Ⅳ without distant metastases were subjected to follow- up. The level of antibodies in serum was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using synthetic polyacrylamide (PAA) glycoconjugates. Biochemical and haematological analyses were performed using automated equipment. RESULTS: In gastrointestinal cancer, the TF antibody level was found to have elevated significantly after the removal of G3 tumors as compared with the preoperative level (U = 278.5, P < 0.05). After surgery, the TF and Tn antibody level was elevated in the majority of gastric cancer patients (sign test, 20 vs 8, P < 0.05, and 21 vs 8, P < 0.05, respectively). In gastrointestinal cancer, the elevated postoperative level of TF, Tn and aGal antibodies was noted in most patients with G3 tumors (sign test, 22 vs 5, P < 0.01; 19 vs 6, P < 0.05; 24 vs 8, P < 0.01, respectively), but the elevation was not significant in patients with G1 + G2 resected tumors. The postoperative fo llow-up showed that the percentage of patients with G3 resected tumors of the digestive tract, who had a mean level of anti-TF IgG above the cut- off value (1.53), was significantly higher than that of patients with G1 + G2 resected tumors (X2 = 3.89, all patients; X2 = 5.34, patients without regional lymph node metastases; P < 0.05). The percentage of patients with a tumor in stage I, whose mean anti-TF IgG level remained above the cut-off value (1.26), was significantly higher than that of patients with the cancer in stages Ⅲ-Ⅳ (X2 = 4

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Synthesized Palladium(II Complexes of Diethyldithiocarbamate on Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Hadizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of a drug development program to discover novel therapeutic and more effective palladium (Pd based anticancer drugs, a series of water-soluble Pd complexes have been synthesized by interaction between [Pd (phen(H2O2(NO32] and alkylenebisdithiocarbamate(al-bis-dtc disodium salts. This study was undertaken to examine the possible cytotoxic effect of three novel complexes (0.125–64 µg/mL on human gastric carcinoma (AGS, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (Kyse-30, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cell lines. The cytotoxicity was examined using cell proliferation and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB assay. In order to examine the effects of new Pd(II complexes on cell cycle status, we performed cell cycle analysis. The complexes were found to have completely lethal effects on the cell lines, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values obtained for the cell lines were much lower in comparison with cisplatin. We demonstrated that the three new Pd(II complexes are able to induce G2/M phase arrest in AGS and HepG2; in addition, the Pd(II complexes caused an S phase arrest in Kyse-30 cell line. Our results indicate that newly synthesized Pd(II complexes may provide a novel class of chemopreventive compounds for anticancer therapy.

  15. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  16. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  17. Oral Bisphosphonates and Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Risks in Asians with Osteoporosis: A Nested Case-Control Study Using National Retrospective Cohort Sample Data from Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Jung

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa and increase the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer. The relatively high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancers and the widespread use of bisphosphonate in Korea call for further investigation. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer after exposure to oral bisphosphonates in Korean patients with osteoporosis.We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database of Korea from 2002 to 2013. Among osteoporotic patients (>40 years, cases were defined as incident diagnosis of esophageal or gastric cancer between 2006 and 2013. For each case, four controls were matched for age, sex, and income level by type of insurance. We categorized bisphosphonate use as non-user, recent user, past user, and past and recent user, depending on prescription in two periods (1 to 2 years and 2 to 4 years prior to the index date. We also assessed the duration of bisphosphonate use by measuring cumulative duration of exposure (CDE. To examine the association between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for concomitant diseases.A total of 1,708 cases and 6,832 controls were identified. The aORs (95% CIs of recent, past, and continuous bisphosphonate use compared to non-users were 1.18 (0.93-1.51, 1.04 (0.83-1.29, and 1.25 (0.95-1.58, respectively. In addition, no significant association was observed by CDE, even when different outcome definitions were applied.This study did not prove an increased risk of esophageal or gastric cancer risk associated with bisphosphonate use, with respect to both risk windows and duration of exposure, in an Asian population-based, real-world setting.

  18. HUMAN CANCER IS A PARASITE SPREAD VIA INTRUSION IN GENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Rumyantsev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to further development of new paradigm about the biology of human cancer: the hypothesis of parasitic nature, origin and evolution of the phenomenon. The study included integrative reconsidering, and reinterpretation of the make-ups, traits and processes existing both in human and animal cancers. It was demonstrated that human cancer possesses nearly analogous set of traits characteristic of transmissible animal cancer. Undoubted analogies are seen in the prevalence, clinical exposure, progression of disease, origin of causative agents, immune response against invasion and especially in the intrinsic deviations of the leading traits of cancerous cells. Both human and animal cancers are highly exceptional pathogens. But in contrast to contagious animal cancers the cells of of human cancer can not pass between individuals as usual infectious agents. Exhaustive evidence of the parasitic nature and evolutionary origin of human cancer was revealed and interpreted. In contrast to animal cancer formed of solitary cell lineage, human cancer consists of a couple of lineages constructed under different genetic regulations and performed different structural and physiological functions. The complex make-up of cancer composition remains stable over sequential propagation. The subsistence of human cancer regularly includes obligatory interchange of its successive forms. Human cancer possesses its own biological watch and the ability to gobble its victim, transmit via the intrusion of the genome, perform intercommunications within the tumor components and between the dispersed subunits of cancer. Such intrinsic traits characterize human cancer as a primitively structured parasite that can be classified in Class Mammalians, Species Genomeintruder malevolent (G.malevolent.

  19. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Heijden OG van der; Giessen JWB van der; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Published data on infection of human hosts with various protozoa, bacteria, and viruses causing gastro-enteritis are used to establish a quantitative relationship between ingested dose and the risk of infection. For all data sets analysed, this relationship is determined by fitting either an exponen

  20. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; van der Heijden OG; van der Giessen JWB; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Gepubliceerde gegevens omtrent infectie van humane proefpersonen met pathogene micro-organismen die gastro-enteritis veroorzaken (protozoa, bacterien en virussen), worden gebruikt om een kwantitatieve relatie vast te stellen tussen de ingenomen dosis en het risico op infectie. Voor alle bestudeerde

  1. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6 h post-adm...

  2. Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function. Methods: A total of 106 cases of patients received radical operation for gastric cancer in our hospital were selected as research subjects, and according to different ways of postoperative nutrition intervention, all patients were divided into observation group (n=50) and control group (n=56). Control group received conventional enteral nutrition intervention, observation group received postoperative early enteral immune nutrition support, and then differences in postoperative intestinal mucosa barrier function, gastrointestinal hormone levels, immune function levels and nutrition-related indicator values were compared between two groups. Results:After observation group received enteral immune nutrition intervention, serum DAO, PS and D-lactate levels as well as urine L/M ratio were lower than those of control group; serum GAS, CCK, MTL and SP values of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group, and GLU, VIP, GIP and SS values were lower than those of control group; CD4, IgG, NK cell, C3, C4, CH50 and S-IgA levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group; serum ALB, PRE, TRF and RBP levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer is conducive to the recovery of gastrointestinal function and the promotion of immune state, eventually promotes patients’ postoperative overall recovery and has active clinical significance.

  3. N-nitrosation of medicinal drugs catalysed by bacteria from human saliva and gastro-intestinal tract, including Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, D; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1997-02-01

    Micro-organisms commonly present in human saliva and three DSM strains (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria cinerea), which can be isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract, were assayed in vitro for their capacity to catalyse N-nitrosation of a series of medicinal drugs and other compounds. Following incubation at pH 7.2 in the presence of nitrate (or nitrite) for up to 24 (48) h, the yield of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) was quantified by HPLC equipped with a post-column derivatization device, allowing the sensitive detection of acid-labile and acid-stable NOC. Eleven out of the 23 test compounds underwent bacteria-catalysed nitrosation by salivary bacteria, the yield of the respective nitrosation products varying 800-fold. 4-(Methylamino)antipyrine exhibited the highest rate of nitrosation, followed by dichlofenac > metamizole > piperazine > five other drugs, whilst L-proline and L-thioproline had the lowest nitrosation rate. Ten drugs including aminophenazone, cimetidine and nicotine, did not inhibit bacterial growth, allowing transitory nitrite to be formed, but no N-nitroso derivatives were detected. Three drugs inhibited the proliferation of bacteria and neither nitrite nor any NOC were formed. Using metamizole as an easily nitrosatable precursor, two strains, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, were shown to catalyse nitrosation in the presence of nitrite at pH 7.2. As compared to Neisseria cinerea used as a nitrosation-proficient control strain, H. pylori was 30-100 times less effective, whilst C. jejuni had intermediary activity. The results of our sensitive nitrosation assay further confirm that bacteria isolated from human sources, possessing nitrate reductase and/or nitrosating enzymes such as cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductase (Calmels et al., Carcinogenesis, 17, 533-536, 1996), can contribute to intragastric nitrosamine formation in the anacidic stomach when nitrosatable precursors from exogenous and endogenous sources

  4. Antiangiogenic Steroids in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Pietras

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high. The treatment of cancer may benefit from the introduction of novel therapies derived from natural products. Natural products have served to provide a basis for many of the pharmaceutical agents in current use in cancer therapy. Emerging research indicates that progressive growth and spread of many solid tumors depends, in part, on the formation of an adequate blood supply, and this process of tumor-associated angiogenesis is reported to have prognostic significance in several human cancers. This review focuses on the potential application in antitumor therapy of naturally-occurring steroids that target tumor-associated angiogenesis. Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3, is known to have strong antiangiogenic activity in vitro, and it significantly disrupts tumor proliferation and progression in laboratory studies. Work on the interactions of squalamine with vascular endothelial cells indicate that it binds with cell membranes, inhibits the membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and may further function as a calmodulin chaperone. These primary actions appear to promote inhibition of several vital steps in angiogenesis, such as blockade of mitogen-induced actin polymerization, cell–cell adhesion and cell migration, leading to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation. Preclinical studies with squalamine have shown additive benefits in tumor growth delay when squalamine is combined with cisplatin, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, genistein or radiation therapy. This compound has also been assessed in early phase clinical trials in cancer; squalamine was found to exhibit little systemic toxicity and was generally well tolerated by treated patients with various solid tumor malignancies

  5. Antiangiogenic Steroids in Human Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Richard J; Weinberg, Olga K

    2005-03-01

    Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high. The treatment of cancer may benefit from the introduction of novel therapies derived from natural products. Natural products have served to provide a basis for many of the pharmaceutical agents in current use in cancer therapy. Emerging research indicates that progressive growth and spread of many solid tumors depends, in part, on the formation of an adequate blood supply, and this process of tumor-associated angiogenesis is reported to have prognostic significance in several human cancers. This review focuses on the potential application in antitumor therapy of naturally-occurring steroids that target tumor-associated angiogenesis. Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3, is known to have strong antiangiogenic activity in vitro, and it significantly disrupts tumor proliferation and progression in laboratory studies. Work on the interactions of squalamine with vascular endothelial cells indicate that it binds with cell membranes, inhibits the membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and may further function as a calmodulin chaperone. These primary actions appear to promote inhibition of several vital steps in angiogenesis, such as blockade of mitogen-induced actin polymerization, cell-cell adhesion and cell migration, leading to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation. Preclinical studies with squalamine have shown additive benefits in tumor growth delay when squalamine is combined with cisplatin, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, genistein or radiation therapy. This compound has also been assessed in early phase clinical trials in cancer; squalamine was found to exhibit little systemic toxicity and was generally well tolerated by treated patients with various solid tumor malignancies, including ovarian, non

  6. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  7. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-01-01

    .... Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk...

  8. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    chronic myeloid leukaemia | colorectal cancer | Down syndrome | infantile haemangiomas | multiple myeloma | non-small-cell lung cancer | rheumatoid...Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital...From - To) 15 FEB 2004 - 14 FEB 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer 5b

  9. HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) encodes for the transmembrane glycoprotein HER-2 that is involved in activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways that control cell growth and differentiation. HER-2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% of patients with breast cancer and has been associated with poorer prognosis. Since 1998, the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of patients with HER-2-positive breast cancers. However, little information is available about the relationship between HER-2 and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. This study's purpose was to determine the HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We found that all 477 cases included in this study were negative (score 0) by immunohistochemistry using HercepTest, and no HER-2 gene amplification was detected in 71 cases submitted to fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results show that HER-2 may not have any role in gastrointestinal stromal tumor pathogenesis and that the neoplasm may not be suitable for treatment with trastuzumab.

  10. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53 and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53. RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. Results BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45, or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. Conclusions The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies.

  11. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  12. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  13. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Labib@hc-sc.gc.ca; Guo, Charles H., E-mail: Charles.Guo@hc-sc.gc.ca; Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca; White, Paul A., E-mail: Paul.White@hc-sc.gc.ca; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: Sabina.Halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  14. In vitro approaches to assess bioavailability and human gastrointestinal mobilization of food-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus J

    2008-06-01

    This study reports on the potential for gastrointestinal (GI) mobilization and bioavailability of food-borne PCBs in humans. The development and validation of a GI simulator and operational protocols, developed in compliance with the requirements of German DIN 19738 risk assessment test procedure, are presented. Food, naturally contaminated with PCBs, was homogenized with simulated saliva fluid and shaken in the GI simulator with simulated gastric fluids (containing pepsin, mucine) for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Afterwards, the simulated intestinal fluids (containing pepsin, mucine, trypsin, pancreatin, bile) were added and the mixture shaken for a further 6 h prior to centrifugation and filtration using Buchner funnels to separate the undigested GI residues from GI fluids. PCBs were recovered from GI residues and fluids by Soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively, cleaned up using silica-SFE, and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Detailed studies with fish indicate variations in mobilization and bioavailability of Sigma PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138 and 180). For example, the bioavailable fractions (fractions mobilized) in mackerel, salmon, crab and prawn were 0.77, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.72 respectively of the Sigma PCBs initially present in these food samples. The bioavailable fraction was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the PCBs. In mackerel bioavailable fractions for individual PCB congeners ranged from 0.47-0.82, from 0.30-0.70 in salmon, 0.44-0.64 in crab and in prawn from 0.47-0.77. Future studies will focus on understanding better, the variability in bioavailable fractions to be expected for different foodstuffs, in addition to tissue culture techniques using human gut cell lines to investigate a simultaneous mobilization and absorption of food-borne PCBs.

  15. Gene profile identifies zinc transporters differentially expressed in normal human organs and human pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, Y; Cui, X; Yao, W; Yu, X; Cen, P; Hodges, S E; Fisher, W E; Brunicardi, F C; Chen, C; Yao, Q; Li, M

    2013-03-01

    Deregulated expression of zinc transporters was linked to several cancers. However, the detailed expression profile of all human zinc transporters in normal human organs and in human cancer, especially in pancreatic cancer is not available. The objectives of this study are to investigate the complete expression patterns of 14 ZIP and 10 ZnT transporters in a large number of normal human organs and in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We examined the expression patterns of ZIP and ZnT transporters in 22 different human organs and tissues, 11 pairs of clinical human pancreatic cancer specimens and surrounding normal/benign tissues, as well as 10 established human pancreatic cancer cell lines plus normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium (HPDE) cells, using real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that human zinc transporters have tissue specific expression patterns, and may play different roles in different organs or tissues. Almost all the ZIPs except for ZIP4, and most ZnTs were down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer tissues compared to the surrounding benign tissues. The expression patterns of individual ZIPs and ZnTs are similar among different pancreatic cancer lines. Those results and our previous studies suggest that ZIP4 is the only zinc transporter that is significantly up-regulated in human pancreatic cancer and might be the major zinc transporter that plays an important role in pancreatic cancer growth. ZIP4 might serve as a novel molecular target for pancreatic cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. A. Curi; Paschoal,A. M. O.; Massara,R. L.; SANTOS, H. A.; Guimarães,M.P.; M. Passamani; Chiarello,A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitologi...

  17. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yesilkanal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC, however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.

  18. Human papillomavirus-associated diseases and cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yang; Jianbo Zhu Co-first author; Xiaoyue Song; Yan Qi; Xiaobin Cui; Feng Li 

    2015-01-01

    Human papilomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in cervical cancer cels and skin papiloma cels, which have a variety of types, including low-risk and high-risk types. HPV genome replication requires the host cel’s DNA synthesis machinery, and HPVs encode proteins that maintain diferentiated epithelial cels in a replication-competent state. HPV types are tissue-specific and generaly produce diferent types of le-sions, either benign or malignant. This review examines diferent HPV types and their associated diseases and presents therapeutic options for the treatment of HPV-positive diseases.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients: recommendations from the 2012 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique [Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barbaro, Brunella [Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Luis [Coimbra University Hospitals, Coimbra (Portugal); Fenlon, Helen M. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Gollub, Marc J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Guy' s and St. Thomas' NHS FT, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hoeffel, Christine [Reims University Hospital, Reims (France); Kim, Seung Ho [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Laghi, Andrea [Sapienza - University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Maier, Andrea [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Rafaelsen, Soeren R. [Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Torkzad, Michael R. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart [Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach regarding the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. A consensus meeting of 14 abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) was conducted following the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) chairs facilitated the meeting. Two hundred and thirty-six items were scored by participants for appropriateness and classified subsequently as appropriate or inappropriate (defined by {>=} 80 % consensus) or uncertain (defined by < 80 % consensus). Items not reaching 80 % consensus were noted. Consensus was reached for 88 % of items: recommendations regarding hardware, patient preparation, imaging sequences, angulation, criteria for MRI assessment and MRI reporting were constructed from these. These expert consensus recommendations can be used as clinical guidelines for primary staging and restaging of rectal cancer using MRI. (orig.)

  20. Assessing global transitions in human development and colorectal cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Bray, Freddie; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer incidence has paralleled increases in human development across most countries. Yet, marked decreases in incidence are now observed in countries that have attained very high human development. Thus, in this study, we explored the relationship between human development and colorectal cancer incidence, and in particular assessed whether national transitions to very high human development are linked to temporal patterns in colorectal cancer incidence. For these analyses, we utilized the Human Development Index (HDI) and annual incidence data from regional and national cancer registries. Truncated (30-74 years) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. Yearly incidence rate ratios and HDI ratios, before and after transitioning to very high human development, were also estimated. Among the 29 countries investigated, colorectal cancer incidence was observed to decrease after reaching the very high human development threshold for 12 countries; decreases were also observed in a further five countries, but the age-standardized incidence rates remained higher than that observed at the threshold. Such declines or stabilizations are likely due to colorectal cancer screening in some populations, as well as varying levels of exposure to protective factors. In summary, it appears that there is a threshold at which human development predicts a stabilization or decline in colorectal cancer incidence, though this pattern was not observed for all countries assessed. Future cancer planning must consider the increasing colorectal cancer burden expected in countries transitioning towards higher levels of human development, as well as possible declines in incidence among countries reaching the highest development level. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Secreted human adipose leptin decreases mitochondrial respiration in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Nimri, Lili; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kirshtein, Boris; Rudich, Assaf; Schwartz, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis) were examined vis-à-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese) subjects decreased basal (40%, pobese subjects. We conclude that secreted products from the adipose tissue of obese subjects inhibit mitochondrial respiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues.

  2. Secreted human adipose leptin decreases mitochondrial respiration in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav Yehuda-Shnaidman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis were examined vis-à-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese subjects decreased basal (40%, p<0.05 and maximal (50%, p<0.05 OCR and gene expression of mitochondrial proteins and Bax without affecting cell viability or expression of glycolytic enzymes. Similar changes could be recapitulated by incubating cells with leptin, whereas, leptin-receptor specific antagonist inhibited the reduced OCR induced by conditioned media from obese subjects. We conclude that secreted products from the adipose tissue of obese subjects inhibit mitochondrial respiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues.

  3. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  4. Examining the effect of peer helping in a coping skills intervention: a randomized controlled trial for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Secinti, Ekin; Johns, Shelley A; O'Neil, Bert H; Helft, Paul R; Shahda, Safi; Jalal, Shadia I; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-06-10

    At the end of life, spiritual well-being is a central aspect of quality of life for many patients and their family caregivers. A prevalent spiritual value in advanced cancer patients is the need to actively give. To address this need, the current randomized trial examined whether adding a peer helping component to a coping skills intervention leads to improved meaning in life and peace for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and their caregivers. Feasibility and acceptability outcomes were also assessed. Advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and caregivers (n = 50 dyads) were randomly assigned to a 5-session, telephone-based coping skills intervention or a peer helping + coping skills intervention. One or both dyad members had moderate-severe distress. Peer helping involved contributing to handouts on coping skills for other families coping with cancer. Patients and caregivers completed measures of meaning in life/peace, fatigue, psychological symptoms, coping self-efficacy, and emotional support. Patient pain and caregiver burden were also assessed. Small effects in favor of the coping skills group were found regarding meaning in life/peace at 1 and 5 weeks post-intervention. Other outcomes did not vary as a function of group assignment, with both groups showing small decreases in patient and caregiver fatigue and caregiver distress and burden. High recruitment and retention rates supported feasibility, and high participant satisfaction ratings supported acceptability. Although a telephone-based intervention is feasible and acceptable for this population, peer helping in the context of a coping skills intervention does not enhance spiritual well-being relative to coping skills alone.

  5. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  6. Modern criteria to establish human cancer etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Michele; Klein, George; Gruber, Jack; Wong, May

    2004-08-01

    The Cancer Etiology Branch of the National Cancer Institute hosted a workshop, "Validation of a causal relationship: criteria to establish etiology," to determine whether recent technological advances now make it possible to delineate improved or novel criteria for the rapid establishment for cancer causation. The workshop was held in Washington, D.C., December 11-12, 2003, and participants were among the international leaders in the fields of epidemiology, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, virology, environmental and chemical carcinogenesis, immunology, pathology, molecular pathology, genetics, oncology, and surgical oncology. There was a general consensus that the rapid identification of human carcinogens and their removal (when possible) or the establishment of specific preventive and therapeutic measures was the most desirable and effective way to have a rapid and positive impact in the fight against cancer. From a clinical perspective, it may be as important to target initiators, cocarcinogens and promoters, if by removing any one of them tumor growth can be prevented. Future studies should focus on interactions among and between different biological, chemical, and physical agents. Analyses of single agents can at times miss their carcinogenic potential when such agents are carcinogenic only in subgroups of individuals because of their genetic background, diet, exposure to other carcinogens, or microbial infection. Epidemiology, molecular pathology (including chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, molecular virology, molecular genetics, epigenetics, genomics, proteomics, and other molecular-based approaches), and animal and tissue culture experiments should all be seen as important integrating evidence in the determination of human carcinogenicity. Concerning the respective roles of epidemiology and molecular pathology, it was noted that epidemiology allows the determination of the overall effect of a given carcinogen in the human population (e

  7. Modelling mutational landscapes of human cancers in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Magali; Weninger, Annette; Ardin, Maude; Huskova, Hana; Castells, Xavier; Vallée, Maxime P.; McKay, James; Nedelko, Tatiana; Muehlbauer, Karl-Rudolf; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Alexander, John; Hazelwood, Lee; Byrnes, Graham; Hollstein, Monica; Zavadil, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    Experimental models that recapitulate mutational landscapes of human cancers are needed to decipher the rapidly expanding data on human somatic mutations. We demonstrate that mutation patterns in immortalised cell lines derived from primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exposed in vitro to carcinogens recapitulate key features of mutational signatures observed in human cancers. In experiments with several cancer-causing agents we obtained high genome-wide concordance between human tumour mutation data and in vitro data with respect to predominant substitution types, strand bias and sequence context. Moreover, we found signature mutations in well-studied human cancer driver genes. To explore endogenous mutagenesis, we used MEFs ectopically expressing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and observed an excess of AID signature mutations in immortalised cell lines compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. MEF immortalisation is thus a simple and powerful strategy for modelling cancer mutation landscapes that facilitates the interpretation of human tumour genome-wide sequencing data.

  8. State of the art in advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coda S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Coda,1,2 Andrew V Thillainayagam1,2 1Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine and Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Endoscopy Unit, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Abstract: Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection – at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity – premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not

  9. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Perioperative immuonutrition in gastrointestinal cancer%免疫营养在胃肠道恶性肿瘤患者围手术期的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁凯涛; 石汉平

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结免疫营养支持在胃肠道恶性肿瘤患者围手术期应用的研究进展.方法:应用PubMed及CNKI期刊全文数据库检索系统,以"免疫营养、肿瘤、胃肠道"等为关键词,检索2005-2010的相关文献,共检到文献64篇,纳入标准:1)免疫营养物质抑制肿瘤生长和调节免疫的机制;2)免疫营养支持在胃肠道恶性肿瘤患者围手术期应用的临床研究.根据纳入标准,选取22篇进行分析.结果:谷氨酰胺、精氨酸、n-3脂肪酸等免疫营养物质可以通过激活多条信号通路诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡;刺激淋巴细胞增殖,增强NK细胞的杀伤功能.胃肠道恶性肿瘤患者术前多有营养不良和免疫功能受抑制,大量临床研究结果显示胃肠道恶性肿瘤患者围手术期应用免疫营养制剂可以改善患者的免疫状态.结论:围手术期,特别是术前应用免疫营养支持可以改善胃肠道恶性肿瘤患者的营养状态,减轻术后应激反应,减低术后感染并发症发生的风险.%OBJECTIVE: To sum up the research progresses in application of immunonutrition support in gastrointestinal cancer patients during the perioperative period. METHOD: A total of 64 papers were searched with immunonutrition, cancer and gastrointestinal as key words in PUBMED and CNKI database from 2005-2010.And 22 articles were selected and analyzed according to the inclusion criteria as follows: 1 ) The mechanism of immunonutrition agents suppress the cancer cell growth and modulating the immunity.2) Clinical studies on application of immunonutrition support in gastrointestinal caner patients during the perioperative period. RESULTS: Immunonutrition agents, such as glutamine, arginine, n-3 fatty acids, can induce apoptosis of tumor cells via various cell singaling pathways; stimulate lymphocytes proliferation and enhance the NK cells function. Gastrointestinal cancer patients are mostly malnutrition and immune suppression. A number of clinical studies

  11. Patients with brain metastases from gastrointestinal tract cancer treated with whole brain radiation therapy:Prognostic factors and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Bartelt; Felix Momm; Christian Weissenberger; Johannes Lutterbach

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the prognostic factors with regard to survival for patients with brain metastasis from primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.METHODS: Nine hundred and sixteen patients with brain metastases, treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) between January 1985 and December 2000 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients presented with a primary tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus: n = 0, stomach:n = 10, colorectal: n = 47). Twenty-six patients had a solitary brain metastasis, 31 patients presented with multiple brain metastases. Surgical resection was performed in 25 patients.WBRTwas applied with daily fractions of 2 Gray (Gy) or 3 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy or 30 Gy, respectively. The interval between diagnoses of the primary tumors and brain metastases was 22.6 mo vs8.0 mo for patients with primary tumors of the colon/rectum vs other primary tumors,respectively (P<0.01, log-rank). Median overall survival for all patients with brain metastases (n = 916) was 3.4 mo and 3.2 mo for patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms.Patients with gastrointestinal primary tumors presented significantly more often with a solitary brain metastasis than patients with other primary tumors (P<0.05, log-rank). In patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms (n = 57), the median overall survival was 5.8 mo for patients with solitary brain metastasis vs 2.7 mo for patients with multiple brain metastases (P<0.01, log-rank). The median overall survival for patients with a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥70was 5.5 mo vs2.1 mo for patients with KPS <70 (P<0.01,log-rank). At multivariate analysis (Cox Model) the performance status and the number of brain metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival.CONCLUSION: Brain metastases occur late in the course of gastrointestinal tumors. Pretherapeutic variables like KPS and the

  12. The performance of three-sample qualitative immunochemical fecal test to detect colorectal adenoma and cancer in gastrointestinal outpatients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated qualitative fecal immunochemical test (qlFIT is a clinical strategy widely used to detect lower gastrointestinal lesions, but its diagnostic power has not been assessed in opportunistic screening for colorectal neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the performance of three-sample qlFIT in screening for colorectal cancer and its precursors in high-risk participants. METHODS: 513 gastrointestinal outpatients yielded three qlFITs before a standard colonoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of one, two, and three positive qlFITs serving as the positivity threshold. The risk factors of colorectal neoplasia to yield positive qlFITs were also determined. RESULTS: 52 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 70 with advanced adenomatous polyp. For colorectal cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of one positive qlFIT were 90.4% and 53.8%, of two were 80.8% and 75.1%, and of three were 53.9% and 88.5%, respectively. For advanced adenomatous polyp, the sensitivity and specificity of one positive qlFIT were 81.4% and 54.2%, of two were 50.0% and 72.5%, and of three were 28.6% and 86.2%. Left-sided location (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.26-4.95 and advanced histology of tumors (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.58-6.01 were independently associated with positive qlFITs. CONCLUSIONS: Three-sample qlFIT is a reasonably good method to detect colorectal neoplasia in high-risk population. Tumors in the left side or with advanced pathological features are more likely to produce positive qlFITs.

  13. Apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells induced by Triptolide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Xiao-Ling Ding; Jie-Fei Huang; Hong Zhang; Sheng-Bao Wu; Jian-Ping Cheng; Qun Wei

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer ceils induced by Triptolide (TL),and the relationship between this apoptosis and expression of caspase-3' bcl-2 and bax.METHODS:Human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was cultured in DIEM media for this study.MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth inhibitory rate in vitro.Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to detect the apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells before and after TL treatment.RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-associated gene caspase-3' bcl-2 and bax.RESULTS:TL inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner.TL induced human pancreatic cancer cells to undergo apoptosis with typically apoptotic characteristics.TUNEL assay showed that after the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells with 40 ng/mL TL for 12 h and 24 h,the apoptotic rates of human pancreatic cancer cells increased significantly.RT-PCR demonstrated that caspase-3 and bax were significantly up-regulated in SW1990 cells treated with TL while bcl-2 mRNA was not.CONCLUSION:TL is able to induce the apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.This apoptosis may be mediated by up-regulating the expression of apoptosisassociated caspase-3 and bax gene.

  14. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    IGF1, SOX15, BMPR1B, TGFBR1, etc), which fall into distinct GO categories including SC, development, stress response, and wound healing (unpublished...prostate cancer through the elucidation of the role of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. During the past year, we have made the...studies, ii) in vitro co-culture of human prostate cancer cells (established cell lines and primary patient samples) with human prostate fibroblasts

  15. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive non-human primates of twenty-four zoological gardens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhao, Bo; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Captive primates are susceptible to gastrointestinal (GIT) parasitic infections, which are often zoonotic and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Fecal samples were examined by the means of direct smear, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation, and fecal cultures. Of 26.51% (317/1196) of the captive primates were diagnosed gastrointestinal parasitic infections. Trichuris spp. were the most predominant in the primates, while Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in Old World monkeys (P primates and the safety of animal keepers and visitors.

  16. Bacterial protein toxins in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadi, Francesca; Fiorentini, Carla; Fabbri, Alessia

    2016-02-01

    Many bacteria causing persistent infections produce toxins whose mechanisms of action indicate that they could have a role in carcinogenesis. Some toxins, like CDT and colibactin, directly attack the genome by damaging DNA whereas others, as for example CNF1, CagA and BFT, impinge on key eukaryotic processes, such as cellular signalling and cell death. These bacterial toxins, together with other less known toxins, mimic carcinogens and tumour promoters. The aim of this review is to fulfil an up-to-date analysis of toxins with carcinogenic potential that have been already correlated to human cancers. Bacterial toxins-induced carcinogenesis represents an emerging aspect in bacteriology, and its significance is increasingly recognized.

  17. Genotyping Analysis of Bitter-Taste Receptor Genes TAS2R38 and TAS2R46 in Japanese Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Michiko; Saito, Hiroki; Isono, Kunio; Goto, Tomoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Shoji, Noriaki; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Sasano, Takashi; Okada, Ryo; Kudoh, Katsuyoshi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Komai, Michio

    2017-01-01

    Type-2 bitter-taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for the evaluation of food quality and the nutritional control in animals. Mutations in some TAS2Rs including TAS2R38 are known to increase susceptibility to various diseases. However, the involvement of TAS2Rs in cancers has not been well understood. We conducted a pilot study by genotyping two TAS2R genes, TAS2R38 and TAS2R46, in Japanese cancer patients diagnosed with the following types of cancer: biliary tract cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer and gastric cancer. We selected the two TAS2Rs because they carry virtually non-functional alleles in human populations. We found that cancer risk is not associated with any TAS2R46 genotypes since there were no significant differences in genotype frequencies between cancer patients and controls. On the other hand, we confirmed that phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) non-tasters homozygous (AVI/AVI) for TAS2R38 were more frequent among Japanese cancer patients than those among controls as suggested in a previous study. The AVI/AVI genotype was therefore considered to increases cancer risk. In contrast, we also found that homozygous (PAV/PAV) PTC tasters are less frequent among cancer patients, suggesting that the PAV/PAV is a cancer resistant genotype that decreases cancer risk. Genotype frequencies for heterozygous AVI/PAV genotype were not significantly different between the two groups. It is suggested that the risk and resistance of cancers is antagonistically controlled by the two TAS2R38 alleles, PAV and AVI, rather than by the AVI allele alone.

  18. Lack of Association between the CDH1 -160C>A Polymorphism and Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer - a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahami-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Yazd, Ehsan Farashahi; Khazaei, Zahra; Neamatzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) genetic variations alter gene transcriptional activity of epithelial cells in vitro and may cause susceptibility to various cancers. Associations of CDH1 -160C>A polymorphism with various cancers have been widely reported. However, the results are controversial and inconsistent. To derive a more accurate estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed with regard to gastrointestinal (GI) cancer risk. Eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed database until December 2015. Associations between the CDH1 -160C>A polymorphism and GI cancer risk was considered by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 31 studies including 11,606 cases and 12,655 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, this meta-analysis showed no association between CDH1 -160C>A polymorphism and GI cancer risk (A vs. C: OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.98-1.18, P = 0.086;CA vs. CC: OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.97- 1.22, P = 0.118; AA vs. CC: OR = 1.10, 95%CI = 0.89-1.35, P = 0.356; AA vs. CC + CA: OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.96-1.18, P = 0.207; CA+AA vs. CC: OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.84-1.22, P = 0.89). In subgroup analysis, similar results were found. In conclusion, this meta-analysis has demonstrated that there is a lack of association of the CDH1-160C>A polymorphism with GI cancer susceptibility.

  19. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: relevance to human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sarah; Guo, Charles H; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mgBaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans.

  20. Tryptophan as key biomarker to detect gastrointestinal tract cancer using non-negative biochemical analysis of native fluorescence and Stokes Shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leana; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Zhou, Lixin; He, Yong; Pu, Yang; Nguyen, Thien An; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the emission spectral fingerprints for discrimination of human colorectal and gastric cancer from normal tissue in vitro by applying native fluorescence. The native fluorescence (NFL) and Stokes shift spectra of seventy-two human cancerous and normal colorectal (colon, rectum) and gastric tissues were analyzed using three selected excitation wavelengths (e.g. 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm). Three distinct biomarkers, tryptophan, collagen and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), were found in the samples of cancerous and normal tissues from eighteen subjects. The spectral profiles of tryptophan exhibited a sharp peak in cancerous colon tissues under a 300 nm excitation when compared with normal tissues. The changes in compositions of tryptophan, collagen, and NADH were found between colon cancer and normal tissues under an excitation of 300 nm by the non-negative basic biochemical component analysis (BBCA) model.

  1. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  2. Characterizing metabolic changes in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael D; Zhang, Xing; Park, Jeong-Jin; Siems, William F; Gang, David R; Resar, Linda M S; Reeves, Raymond; Hill, Herbert H

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, despite the fact that it is a curable disease when diagnosed early. The development of new screening methods to aid in early diagnosis or identify precursor lesions at risk for progressing to CRC will be vital to improving the survival rate of individuals predisposed to CRC. Metabolomics is an advancing area that has recently seen numerous applications to the field of cancer research. Altered metabolism has been studied for many years as a means to understand and characterize cancer. However, further work is required to establish standard procedures and improve our ability to identify distinct metabolomic profiles that can be used to diagnose CRC or predict disease progression. The present study demonstrates the use of direct infusion traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry to distinguish metabolic profiles from CRC samples and matched non-neoplastic epithelium as well as metastatic and primary tumors at different stages of disease (T1-T4). By directly infusing our samples, the analysis time was reduced significantly, thus increasing the speed and efficiency of this method compared to traditional metabolomics platforms. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to visualize differences between the metabolic profiles of sample types and to identify the specific m/z features that led to this differentiation. Identification of the distinct m/z features was made using the human metabolome database. We discovered alterations in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative, glycolytic, and polyamine pathways that distinguish tumors from non-malignant colonic epithelium as well as various stages of CRC. Although further studies are needed, our results indicate that colonic epithelial cells undergo metabolic reprogramming during their evolution to CRC, and the distinct metabolites could serve as diagnostic tools or potential targets in therapy or primary prevention. Graphical Abstract

  3. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  4. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  5. Ghrelin and motilin in the gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2012-01-01

    Human ghrelin and human motilin, belonging to the ghrelin/motilin-related peptide family, share 36% amino acid sequence identity, while the human ghrelin receptor exhibits a remarkable 50% overall identity with the human motilin receptor. In addition to their structural resemblance, ghrelin and motilin are the only two mammalian hormones known to decrease in the postprandial period. Ghrelin and motilin participate in initiating the migrating motor complex in the stomach, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility, accelerate gastric emptying, and induce "gastric hunger". In addition to modulating the release of growth hormone and gut motility, ghrelin plays a crucial role in the secretion and protection of the stomach and colon. Ghrelin mimetics and motilin agonists are currently being developed to reverse gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders. With additional appetite-enhancing, adiposity-promoting, and anti-inflammatory effects, ghrelin and rikkunshito (a traditional Japanese herb enhancing acyl ghrelin signaling) are superior to motilin in the treatment of cancer-related anorexia and cachexia, post-chemotherapy symptoms, rheumatological diseases, age-related frailty, as well as post-operative, septic, and post-burn gut ileus.

  6. Reprogramming of human cancer cells to pluripotency for models of cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsun; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to study live cells as they progress through the stages of cancer provides the opportunity to discover dynamic networks underlying pathology, markers of early stages, and ways to assess therapeutics. Genetically engineered animal models of cancer, where it is possible to study the consequences of temporal-specific induction of oncogenes or deletion of tumor suppressors, have yielded major insights into cancer progression. Yet differences exist between animal and human cancers, such as in markers of progression and response to therapeutics. Thus, there is a need for human cell models of cancer progression. Most human cell models of cancer are based on tumor cell lines and xenografts of primary tumor cells that resemble the advanced tumor state, from which the cells were derived, and thus do not recapitulate disease progression. Yet a subset of cancer types have been reprogrammed to pluripotency or near-pluripotency by blastocyst injection, by somatic cell nuclear transfer and by induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology. The reprogrammed cancer cells show that pluripotency can transiently dominate over the cancer phenotype. Diverse studies show that reprogrammed cancer cells can, in some cases, exhibit early-stage phenotypes reflective of only partial expression of the cancer genome. In one case, reprogrammed human pancreatic cancer cells have been shown to recapitulate stages of cancer progression, from early to late stages, thus providing a model for studying pancreatic cancer development in human cells where previously such could only be discerned from mouse models. We discuss these findings, the challenges in developing such models and their current limitations, and ways that iPS reprogramming may be enhanced to develop human cell models of cancer progression. PMID:25712212

  7. Endoscopy with i-scan for upper gastrointestinal cancer screening%i-scan 内镜在上消化道癌筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯传强; 刘英果; 刘运龙; 周秀芬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of endoscopy with i-scan in the screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer.Methods Subjects who were to undergo upper gastrointestinal cancer screening in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups,endoscopy with i-scan group (n =3 000),and white light endoscopy group (n =3 000). Detection rate,early detection rate,sensitivity and specificity of the two groups were compared.Results Compared with white light endoscopy group,the endoscopy with i-scan group showed better detection rate (P <0.05).The sensi-tivity,specificity and early detection rate of endoscopy with i-scan group were 82.35%,79.14%,and 12%,while those of the white light endoscopy group were 78.13%,65.54% and 6.67%,with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P <0.05).Conclusion Endoscopy with i-scan can improve the detection rate of upper gas-trointestinal cancer and precancerous lesions.It is a valuable technique for upper gastrointestinal cancer screening.%目的:探讨 i-scan 内镜在上消化道癌筛查的应用。方法将进行上消化道癌筛查的人群随机分为白光模式组和 i-scan 模式组,各3000例,比较两组镜下检出病例检出率、随访病例检出率、早诊率及敏感度、特异度。结果i-scan 模式组检出病例检出率、随访病例检出率与白光模式组相比有统计学差异(χ2=4.41,P <0.05;χ2=4.81,P <0.05)。i-scan 模式组检出病例、随访病例的敏感度(82.35%、79.14%)均高于白光模式组(78.13%、65.54%);i-scan 模式组早诊率(12.00%)高于白光模式组(6.67%),两组早诊率相比有统计学差异(P <0.05,χ2=4.61)。结论 i-scan 技术提高了上消化道癌及癌前病变的检出率,在上消化道早癌筛查中有很大的应用价值。

  8. Endoscopic OCT for in-vivo imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Snopova, Ludmila; Denisenko, Arkady; Almasov, Valentin

    1998-01-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in gastrointestinal and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT system has ben created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, stomach and uterine cervix as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancerous tissue is distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  9. In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, R. V.; Gladkova, N. D.; Shakhova, N. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Shakhov, A. V.; Kuznetzova, I. A.; Denisenko, A. N.; Pochinko, V. V.; Chumakov, Yu P.; Streltzova, O. S.

    1997-12-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT (EOCT) system has been created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, larynx, stomach, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and body as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancered tissue are distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  10. CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF A HUMAN-MOUSE CHIMERIC ANTIBODY AGAINST HUMAN BLADDER CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银; 王琰; 周丽君; 俞莉章

    2001-01-01

    To construct and express a human-mouse chimeric antibody against human bladder cancer. Method: The variable region genes of anti-human bladder cancer monoclonal antibody BDI-1 were cloned by RT-PCR. A human-mouse chimeric antibody expression vector was constructed and transfected into CHO cells. The chimeric antibody against bladder cancer was expressed and characterized. Result: Eukaryotic expression vector of the chimeric antibody against human bladder carcinoma was successfully constructed, and was expressed in eukaryotic cells; the expressed chimeric antibody ch-BDI showed same specificity as its parent McAb against human bladder cancer cells. Conclusion: The constructed chimeric antibody was expressed successfully in eukaryotic cells, and the chimeric antibody had desired affinity against human bladder cancer cells.

  11. Qualitative analysis of cancer patients' experiences using donated human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough, Susanne M; Sakamoto, Pauline; Fee, Caroline H; Hollenbeck, Clarie B

    2009-05-01

    This represents the first published account from the patient's perspective of the use of human milk as cancer therapy. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 10 participants. Five were patients and 5 were family proxies. Individual interviews were conducted using confirmatory interviewing technique to obtain individual perspectives on the motivation for cancer patients to take donated human milk. Human milk therapy improved the quality of life (QOL) measures in the physical, psychological, and spiritual domains for most patients interviewed. The patients continued their use of human milk despite cost, taste, and discouragement from the conventional medical community. The study results support the theory that QOL may be more important to cancer patients than cancer outcomes and may improve patient medical care overall. These interviews offer information to cancer patients, their practitioners, and donor milk banks on outcomes and symptom relief from this therapy.

  12. gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  13. The global cancer burden and human development: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Bray, Freddie; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    This review examines the links between human development and cancer overall and for specific types of cancer, as well as cancer-related risk-factors and outcomes, such as disability and life expectancy. To assess human development, the Human Development Index was utilized continuously and according to four levels (low, medium, high, very high), where the low and very high categories include the least and most developed countries, respectively. All studies that assessed aspects of the global cancer burden using this measure were reviewed. Although the present cancer incidence burden is greater in higher Human Development Index countries, a greater proportion of the global mortality burden is observed in less developed countries, with a higher mean fatality rate in the latter countries. Further, the future cancer burden is expected to disproportionally affect less developed regions; in particular, it has been estimated that low and medium Human Development Index countries will experience a 100% and 81% increase in cancer incidence from 2008 to 2030, respectively. Disparities were also observed in risk factors and average health outcomes, such as a greater number of years of life lost prematurely and fewer cancer-related gains in life expectancy observed in lower versus higher Human Development Index settings. From a global perspective, there remain clear disparities in the cancer burden according to national Human Development Index scores. International efforts are needed to aid countries in social and economic transition in order to efficiently plan, implement and evaluate cancer control initiatives as a means to reduce the widening gap in cancer occurrence and survival worldwide.

  14. In-vitro bioaccessibility of five pyrethroids after human ingestion and the corresponding gastrointestinal digestion parameters: A contribution for human exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Feng, Rong-Peng; Liu, Yu-Ying; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2017-09-01

    Bioaccessibility is a crucial parameter in assessing the absorption of contaminants during the human digestive process, but few studies have involved the differences in the bioaccessibilities of pesticides. To investigate the mode of using the in vitro bioaccessibility to refine estimates of dietary exposure to pesticide residues, this study measured the bioaccessibilities of five pyrethroids in apples, and then, it modelled physicochemical predictors (gastrointestinal pH, digestive times, and the solid-liquid (S/L) ratio) of the bioaccessibilities of pyrethroids. Apple samples of gastric and intestinal phase digestive juices were obtained from an in vitro simulated digestion model. Our survey of in vitro digestion models found that the bioaccessibilities ranged from 4.42% to 31.22% and 10.58%-35.63% in the gastric and intestinal phases, respectively. A sharp trend similar to a normal distribution was observed between the bioaccessibilities and pH values. The bioaccessibility reached its highest value at a pH of 1.91 in the simulated gastric juice and did not significantly change with an increase of the digestive time. A significant negative correlation occurred between the bioaccessibility and S/L ratio, which followed a logarithmic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranged from 0.9259 to 0.9831 and 0.9077 to 0.9960 in the simulated gastric and intestinal juice, respectively, suggested that both the pH value and S/L ratio were the main factors affecting the bioaccessibility. Furthermore, a combination of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and bioaccessibility for human exposure assessments indicated the implication that traditional risk assessment using ADI may seriously overestimate the actual risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of S-1-based and capecitabine-based regimens in gastrointestinal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Direct