WorldWideScience

Sample records for human frap1 interacting

  1. A human protein interaction network shows conservation of aging processes between human and invertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Bell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.

  2. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  3. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  4. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  5. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  6. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  7. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  8. Minimal mobile human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of personal, mobile computing devices in everyday life, has allowed entry into a new technological era in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The constant change of the physical and social context in a user's situation made possible by the portability of

  9. The Self-Organization of Human Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Rick; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Duran, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We describe a “centipede’s dilemma” that faces the sciences of human interaction. Research on human interaction has been involved in extensive theoretical debate, although the vast majority of research tends to focus on a small set of human behaviors, cognitive processes, and interactive contexts...

  10. From Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Robot Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Tarek; Zidani, Abdelmadjid

    2014-01-01

    Human-Robot Social Interaction became one of active research fields in which researchers from different areas propose solutions and directives leading robots to improve their interactions with humans. In this paper we propose to introduce works in both human robot interaction and human computer interaction and to make a bridge between them, i.e. to integrate emotions and capabilities concepts of the robot in human computer model to become adequate for human robot interaction and discuss chall...

  11. Pantomimic gestures for human-robot interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS 1 Pantomimic Gestures for Human-Robot Interaction Michael Burke, Student Member, IEEE, and Joan Lasenby Abstract This work introduces a pantomimic gesture interface, which classifies human hand gestures using...

  12. Human-Robot Interaction and Human Self-Realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco

    2014-01-01

    is to test the basis for this type of discrimination when it comes to human-robot interaction. Furthermore, the paper will take Heidegger's warning concerning technology as a vantage point and explore the possibility of human-robot interaction forming a praxis that might help humans to be with robots beyond...

  13. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  14. Modeling multimodal human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.

    2004-01-01

    Incorporating the well-known Unified Modeling Language into a generic modeling framework makes research on multimodal human-computer interaction accessible to a wide range off software engineers. Multimodal interaction is part of everyday human discourse: We speak, move, gesture, and shift our gaze

  15. Emotion based human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berns Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-machine interaction is a major challenge in the development of complex humanoid robots. In addition to verbal communication the use of non-verbal cues such as hand, arm and body gestures or mimics can improve the understanding of the intention of the robot. On the other hand, by perceiving such mechanisms of a human in a typical interaction scenario the humanoid robot can adapt its interaction skills in a better way. In this work, the perception system of two social robots, ROMAN and ROBIN of the RRLAB of the TU Kaiserslautern, is presented in the range of human-robot interaction.

  16. Occupational stress in human computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M J; Conway, F T; Karsh, B T

    1999-04-01

    There have been a variety of research approaches that have examined the stress issues related to human computer interaction including laboratory studies, cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal case studies and intervention studies. A critical review of these studies indicates that there are important physiological, biochemical, somatic and psychological indicators of stress that are related to work activities where human computer interaction occurs. Many of the stressors of human computer interaction at work are similar to those stressors that have historically been observed in other automated jobs. These include high workload, high work pressure, diminished job control, inadequate employee training to use new technology, monotonous tasks, por supervisory relations, and fear for job security. New stressors have emerged that can be tied primarily to human computer interaction. These include technology breakdowns, technology slowdowns, and electronic performance monitoring. The effects of the stress of human computer interaction in the workplace are increased physiological arousal; somatic complaints, especially of the musculoskeletal system; mood disturbances, particularly anxiety, fear and anger; and diminished quality of working life, such as reduced job satisfaction. Interventions to reduce the stress of computer technology have included improved technology implementation approaches and increased employee participation in implementation. Recommendations for ways to reduce the stress of human computer interaction at work are presented. These include proper ergonomic conditions, increased organizational support, improved job content, proper workload to decrease work pressure, and enhanced opportunities for social support. A model approach to the design of human computer interaction at work that focuses on the system "balance" is proposed.

  17. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    ), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...

  18. Proxemics in Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Saul; Honbaek, Kasper; Quigley, Aaron; Reiterer, Harald; Rädle, Roman

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, anthropologist Edward Hall coined the term "proxemics." Proxemics is an area of study that identifies the culturally dependent ways in which people use interpersonal distance to understand and mediate their interactions with others. Recent research has demonstrated the use of proxemics in human-computer interaction (HCI) for supporting users' explicit and implicit interactions in a range of uses, including remote office collaboration, home entertainment, and games. One promise of pro...

  19. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  20. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  1. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  2. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Mark Pejtersen, Annelise; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Design (name HWID) through the last two and half years since the commencement of this Working Group. The paper thus provides an introduction to the theory and empirical evidence that lie behind the combination of empirical work studies and interaction design. It also recommends key topics for future......Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...

  3. Human-Robot Interaction: Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    The current status of human-robot interaction (HRI) is reviewed, and key current research challenges for the human factors community are described. Robots have evolved from continuous human-controlled master-slave servomechanisms for handling nuclear waste to a broad range of robots incorporating artificial intelligence for many applications and under human supervisory control. This mini-review describes HRI developments in four application areas and what are the challenges for human factors research. In addition to a plethora of research papers, evidence of success is manifest in live demonstrations of robot capability under various forms of human control. HRI is a rapidly evolving field. Specialized robots under human teleoperation have proven successful in hazardous environments and medical application, as have specialized telerobots under human supervisory control for space and repetitive industrial tasks. Research in areas of self-driving cars, intimate collaboration with humans in manipulation tasks, human control of humanoid robots for hazardous environments, and social interaction with robots is at initial stages. The efficacy of humanoid general-purpose robots has yet to be proven. HRI is now applied in almost all robot tasks, including manufacturing, space, aviation, undersea, surgery, rehabilitation, agriculture, education, package fetch and delivery, policing, and military operations. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  5. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  6. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  7. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  8. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities....

  9. Learning to Detect Human-Object Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Yunfan; Liu, Xieyang; Zeng, Huayi; Deng, Jia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of detecting human-object interactions (HOI) in static images, defined as predicting a human and an object bounding box with an interaction class label that connects them. HOI detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision as it provides semantic information about the interactions among the detected objects. We introduce HICO-DET, a new large benchmark for HOI detection, by augmenting the current HICO classification benchmark with instance annotations. We propose Human-Object Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (HO-RCNN), a novel DNN-based framework for HOI detection. At the core of our HO-RCNN is the Interaction Pattern, a novel DNN input that characterizes the spatial relations between two bounding boxes. We validate the effectiveness of our HO-RCNN using HICO-DET. Experiments demonstrate that our HO-RCNN, by exploiting human-object spatial relations through Interaction Patterns, significantly improves the performance of HOI detection over baseline approaches.

  10. Learning to Detect Human-Object Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chao, Yu-Wei

    2017-02-17

    In this paper we study the problem of detecting human-object interactions (HOI) in static images, defined as predicting a human and an object bounding box with an interaction class label that connects them. HOI detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision as it provides semantic information about the interactions among the detected objects. We introduce HICO-DET, a new large benchmark for HOI detection, by augmenting the current HICO classification benchmark with instance annotations. We propose Human-Object Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (HO-RCNN), a novel DNN-based framework for HOI detection. At the core of our HO-RCNN is the Interaction Pattern, a novel DNN input that characterizes the spatial relations between two bounding boxes. We validate the effectiveness of our HO-RCNN using HICO-DET. Experiments demonstrate that our HO-RCNN, by exploiting human-object spatial relations through Interaction Patterns, significantly improves the performance of HOI detection over baseline approaches.

  11. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, Andrew F

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction aims to sensitize the systems designer to the problems faced by the user of an interactive system. The book grew out of a course entitled """"The User Interface: Human Factors for Computer-based Systems"""" which has been run annually at the University of York since 1981. This course has been attended primarily by systems managers from the computer industry. The book is organized into three parts. Part One focuses on the user as processor of information with studies on visual perception; extracting information from printed and electronically presented

  12. Human work interaction design meets international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, P.; Clemmensen, T.; Barricelli, B.R.

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  13. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  14. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important and natural element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. In particular this is the case in the interaction between humans and the virtual humans that inhabit our cyberworlds. Virtual humans need to adapt their

  15. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  16. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  17. Human interactions with sirenians (manatees and dugongs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Flint, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are three extant sirenian species of the Trichechidae family and one living Dugongidae family member. Given their close ties to coastal and often urbanized habitats, sirenians are exposed to many types of anthropogenic activities that result in challenges to their well-being, poor health, and even death. In the wild, they are exposed to direct and indirect local pressures as well as subject to large-scale stressors such as global climate change acting on regions or entire genetic stocks. In captivity, they are subject to husbandry and management practices based on our collective knowledge, or in some cases lack thereof, of their needs and welfare. It is therefore reasonable to consider that their current imperiled status is very closely linked to our actions. In this chapter, we identify and define human interactions that may impact dugongs and manatees, including hunting, fisheries, boat interactions, negative interactions with man-made structures, disease and contaminants, and global climate change. We examine techniques used to investigate these impacts and the influence of sirenian biology and of changing human behaviors on potential outcomes. We examine how this differs for dugongs and manatees in the wild and for those held in captivity. Finally, we provide possible mitigation strategies and ways to assess the efforts we are making to improve the welfare of individuals and to conserve these species. This chapter identifies how the welfare of these species is intrinsically linked to the human interactions these animals experience, and how the nature of these interactions has changed with societal shifts. We proffer suggested ways to minimize negative impacts. Current knowledge should be used to minimize negative human interactions and impacts, to promote positive impacts, and to protect these animals for the future.

  18. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  19. User localization during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, F; Gorostiza, Javi F; Malfaz, María; Salichs, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented.

  20. Humans, computers and wizards human (simulated) computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Norman; McGlashan, Scott; Wooffitt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using data taken from a major European Union funded project on speech understanding, the SunDial project, this book considers current perspectives on human computer interaction and argues for the value of an approach taken from sociology which is based on conversation analysis.

  1. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis, Jennifer; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is about understanding and shaping the interactions between humans and robots (Goodrich & Schultz, 2007). It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human s ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively (Crandall, Goodrich, Olsen Jr., & Nielsen, 2005) It is also critical to evaluate the effects of human-robot interfaces and command modalities on operator mental workload (Sheridan, 1992) and situation awareness (Endsley, Bolt , & Jones, 2003). By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed that support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for design. Because the factors associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI are too numerous to address in 3 years of research, the proposed research concentrates on three manageable areas applicable to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) robot systems. These topic areas emerged from the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 work that included extensive literature reviews and observations of NASA systems. The three topic areas are: 1) video overlays, 2) camera views, and 3) command modalities. Each area is described in detail below, along with relevance to existing NASA human-robot systems. In addition to studies in these three topic areas, a workshop is proposed for FY12. The workshop will bring together experts in human-robot interaction and robotics to discuss the state of the practice as applicable to research in space robotics. Studies proposed in the area of video overlays consider two factors in the implementation of augmented reality (AR) for operator displays during teleoperation. The first of these factors is the type of navigational guidance provided by AR symbology. In the proposed

  2. Interactive Exploration Robots: Human-Robotic Collaboration and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terry

    2017-01-01

    For decades, NASA has employed different operational approaches for human and robotic missions. Human spaceflight missions to the Moon and in low Earth orbit have relied upon near-continuous communication with minimal time delays. During these missions, astronauts and mission control communicate interactively to perform tasks and resolve problems in real-time. In contrast, deep-space robotic missions are designed for operations in the presence of significant communication delay - from tens of minutes to hours. Consequently, robotic missions typically employ meticulously scripted and validated command sequences that are intermittently uplinked to the robot for independent execution over long periods. Over the next few years, however, we will see increasing use of robots that blend these two operational approaches. These interactive exploration robots will be remotely operated by humans on Earth or from a spacecraft. These robots will be used to support astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), to conduct new missions to the Moon, and potentially to enable remote exploration of planetary surfaces in real-time. In this talk, I will discuss the technical challenges associated with building and operating robots in this manner, along with lessons learned from research conducted with the ISS and in the field.

  3. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  4. Human-human and human-animal interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Handlin, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to investigate hormonal and physiological effects in mothers during a breastfeeding session and in dogs and their owners in response to short-term interaction. In study one, sixty-six mothers receiving either exogenous oxytocin infusion and/or epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor or intramuscular oxytocin injection post partum were studied. Oxytocin, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, as well as blood pressure were measured d...

  5. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  6. Interaction of Staphylococci with Human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler K Nygaard

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human infections worldwide. The pathogen produces numerous molecules that can interfere with recognition and binding by host innate immune cells, an initial step required for the ingestion and subsequent destruction of microbes by phagocytes. To better understand the interaction of this pathogen with human immune cells, we compared the association of S. aureus and S. epidermidis with leukocytes in human blood. We found that a significantly greater proportion of B cells associated with S. epidermidis relative to S. aureus. Complement components and complement receptors were important for the binding of B cells with S. epidermidis. Experiments using staphylococci inactivated by ultraviolet radiation and S. aureus isogenic deletion mutants indicated that S. aureus secretes molecules regulated by the SaeR/S two-component system that interfere with the ability of human B cells to bind this bacterium. We hypothesize that the relative inability of B cells to bind S. aureus contributes to the microbe's success as a human pathogen.

  7. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  8. Human-computer interaction : Guidelines for web animation

    OpenAIRE

    Galyani Moghaddam, Golnessa; Moballeghi, Mostafa

    2006-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in the large is an interdisciplinary area which attracts researchers, educators, and practioners from many differenf fields. Human-computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. This paper is related to the human side of human-computer interaction and focuses on animations. The growing use of animation in Web pages testifies to the increasing ease with which such multim...

  9. Structure of the human chromosome interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sarnataro

    Full Text Available New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence. Intra-chromosomal contacts broadly occur between epigenomically homologous regions, whereas inter-chromosomal contacts are especially associated with regions rich in highly expressed genes. Overall, genomic contacts in the nucleus appear to be structured as a network of networks where a set of strongly individual chromosomal units, as envisaged in the 'chromosomal territory' scenario derived from microscopy, interact with each other via on average weaker, yet far from random and functionally important interactions.

  10. The interactive evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Garrod, Simon; Roberts, Leo; Swoboda, Nik

    2010-04-01

    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants' horizontal, pair-wise interactions led "bottom up" to the creation of an effective and efficient shared sign system in the community condition. Furthermore, the community-evolved sign systems were as effective and efficient as the local sign systems developed by isolated pairs. Finally, and as predicted by a social collaboration account, and not by an iterated learning account, interaction was critical to the creation of shared sign systems, with different isolated pairs establishing different local sign systems and different communities establishing different global sign systems. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Introduction to human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co

  12. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also...... of this thesis was to attain a better understanding of some of the factors related to the inter-action between humans and dogs. This aim was addressed by focusing on dog personality and hu-man social skills in relation to human-dog interaction. Two studies investigated dog personality and how it a) affects...... the relationship with the owner, and b) is affected by human breeding goals. Two studies investigated how human social skills affect the communication and interaction between hu-man and dog. As part of these studies it was also investigated how experience with dogs interacts with human social skills, perception...

  13. Temporal stability in human interaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Renato; Fabbri, Ricardo; Antunes, Deborah Christina; Pisani, Marilia Mello; de Oliveira, Osvaldo Novais

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on stable (or invariant) properties of human interaction networks, with benchmarks derived from public email lists. Activity, recognized through messages sent, along time and topology were observed in snapshots in a timeline, and at different scales. Our analysis shows that activity is practically the same for all networks across timescales ranging from seconds to months. The principal components of the participants in the topological metrics space remain practically unchanged as different sets of messages are considered. The activity of participants follows the expected scale-free trace, thus yielding the hub, intermediary and peripheral classes of vertices by comparison against the Erdös-Rényi model. The relative sizes of these three sectors are essentially the same for all email lists and the same along time. Typically, 45% are peripheral vertices. Similar results for the distribution of participants in the three sectors and for the relative importance of the topological metrics were obtained for 12 additional networks from Facebook, Twitter and ParticipaBR. These properties are consistent with the literature and may be general for human interaction networks, which has important implications for establishing a typology of participants based on quantitative criteria.

  14. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace,

  15. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  16. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  17. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although there are quite a few studies, the variety of methods, the complexity of t...

  18. Environmental and genetic interactions in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.C.

    Humans, depending upon their genetic make-up, differ in their susceptibility to the cancer-causing effects of extrinsic agents. Clinical and laboratory studies on the hereditary disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (AT) show that persons afflicted with this are cancer-prone and unusually sensitive to conventional radiotherapy. Their skin cells, when cultured, are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation, being defective in the enzymatic repair of radiation-induced damange to the genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This molecular finding implicates DNA damage and its imperfect repair as an early step in the induction of human cancer by radiation and other carcinogens. The parents of AT patients are clincally normal but their cultured cells are often moderately radiosensitive. The increased radiosensitivity of cultured cells offers a means of identifying a presumed cancer-prone subpopulation that should avoid undue exposure to certain carcinogens. The radioresponse of cells from patients with other cancer-associated genetic disorders and persons suspected of being genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer has also been measured. Increased cell killing by γ-rays appears in the complex genetic disease, tuberous sclerosis. Cells from cancer-stricken members of a leukemia-prone family are also radiosensitive, as are cells from one patient with radiation-associated breast cancer. These radiobiological data, taken together, strongly suggest that genetic factors can interact with extrinsic agents and thereby play a greater causative role in the development of common cancers in man than previously thought. (L.L.)

  19. Modelling dynamic human-device interaction in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Niezen, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Errors are typically blamed on human factors, forgetting that the system should have been designed to take them into account and minimise these problems. In our research we are developing tools to design interactive medical devices using human-in-the-loop modelling. Manual control theory is used to describe and analyse the dynamic aspects of human-device interaction.

  20. Safe physical human robot interaction- past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, Aslam; Ryu, Jeha

    2008-01-01

    When a robot physically interacts with a human user, the requirements should be drastically changed. The most important requirement is the safety of the human user in the sense that robot should not harm the human in any situation. During the last few years, research has been focused on various aspects of safe physical human robot interaction. This paper provides a review of the work on safe physical interaction of robotic systems sharing their workspace with human users (especially elderly people). Three distinct areas of research are identified: interaction safety assessment, interaction safety through design, and interaction safety through planning and control. The paper then highlights the current challenges and available technologies and points out future research directions for realization of a safe and dependable robotic system for human users

  1. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  2. Human-wildlife interaction in Serengeti and Ngorongoro districts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    animals for reptile farms, ecologically focused small mammal management ... Magige - Human-wildlife interaction in Serengeti and Ngorongoro districts of Tanzania … 96 ... Information about attitudes of ..... interface: Interactions around Tilden.

  3. Mobile human-computer interaction perspective on mobile learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying a Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MHCI) view to the domain of education using Mobile Learning (Mlearning), the research outlines its understanding of the influences and effects of different interactions on the use of mobile technology...

  4. An ontology for human-like interaction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Albacete García, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    This report proposes and describes the development of a Ph.D. Thesis aimed at building an ontological knowledge model supporting Human-Like Interaction systems. The main function of such knowledge model in a human-like interaction system is to unify the representation of each concept, relating it to the appropriate terms, as well as to other concepts with which it shares semantic relations. When developing human-like interactive systems, the inclusion of an ontological module can be valuab...

  5. Implications of interaction between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Many civil engineering structures are occupied by humans, and often humans are considered as a static load in calculations. However, active humans on structures can cause structural vibrations. Passive humans might also be present on that structure and they do change the structural system (such a...

  6. Human-structure Interaction and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    On civil engineering structures human occupancy is often modeled as a static load. Modeling humans as a static load is a simplification of matters, as will be demonstrated in the paper. The paper addresses the complexity of having both passive humans (sitting or standing) as well as active humans...

  7. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans...

  8. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodgson, Ernest

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the human-metabolism and metabolic interactions of a subset of deployment-related chemicals, including chlorpyrifos, DEET, permethrin, pyridostigmine bromide, and sulfur mustard metabolites...

  9. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  10. Towards quantifying dynamic human-human physical interactions for robot assisted stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mayumi; Mendonca, Rochelle; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    Human-Robot Interaction is a prominent field of robotics today. Knowledge of human-human physical interaction can prove vital in creating dynamic physical interactions between human and robots. Most of the current work in studying this interaction has been from a haptic perspective. Through this paper, we present metrics that can be used to identify if a physical interaction occurred between two people using kinematics. We present a simple Activity of Daily Living (ADL) task which involves a simple interaction. We show that we can use these metrics to successfully identify interactions.

  11. Interaction debugging : an integral approach to analyze human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, T.; Kanda, T.; Bartneck, C.; Ishiguro, H.; Hagita, N.

    2006-01-01

    Along with the development of interactive robots, controlled experiments and field trials are regularly conducted to stage human-robot interaction. Experience in this field has shown that analyzing human-robot interaction for evaluation purposes fosters the development of improved systems and the

  12. Model-based acquisition and analysis of multimodal interactions for improving human-robot interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Patrick; Pfeiffer, Thies

    2014-01-01

    For solving complex tasks cooperatively in close interaction with robots, they need to understand natural human communication. To achieve this, robots could benefit from a deeper understanding of the processes that humans use for successful communication. Such skills can be studied by investigating human face-to-face interactions in complex tasks. In our work the focus lies on shared-space interactions in a path planning task and thus 3D gaze directions and hand movements are of particular in...

  13. Human-Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.

  14. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  15. Two Invariants of Human-Swarm Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Goodrich, 2013; Kolling, Sycara, Nunnally, & Lewis, 2013). Nunnally et al. explore bandwidth constraints on swarm-to- human communications , but assume that...the human can communicate with all of the agents in the swarm (Nunnally et al., 2012). Walker et al. investigate communication la- tency between a...Claiming that the collective state is the fundamental percept requires that the human is able to perceive, understand , and influence the abstracted

  16. Humor in Human-Computer Interaction : A Short Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Niculescu, Andreea; Valitutti, Alessandro; Banchs, Rafael E.; Joshi, Anirudha; Balkrishan, Devanuj K.; Dalvi, Girish; Winckler, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a short survey on humor in human-computer interaction. It describes how humor is designed and interacted with in social media, virtual agents, social robots and smart environments. Benefits and future use of humor in interactions with artificial entities are discussed based on

  17. Study on Human-structure Dynamic Interaction in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Cao, Li Lin; Li, Xing Hua

    2018-06-01

    The research of human-structure dynamic interaction are reviewed. Firstly, the influence of the crowd load on structural dynamic characteristics is introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of different crowd load models are analyzed. Then, discussing the influence of structural vibration on the human-induced load, especially the influence of different stiffness structures on the crowd load. Finally, questions about human-structure interaction that require further study are presented.

  18. Management Education: Reflective Learning on Human Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe an attempt to develop a more effective technique to teach self-awareness and relationship skills. Design/methodology/approach: A journal is used in combination with a model of human nature. The model lists human characteristics that the management trainee must identify in themselves and others they interact…

  19. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-12-23

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human's attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners' eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers' eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android's hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions.

  20. Sea Turtle Human/Gear Interactions Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories is responsible for new gear development and testing to reduce bycatch and incidental interactions of...

  1. Semiotics and Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Joao; Ribeiro, M.Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The social barriers that still constrain the use of robots in modern societies will tend to vanish with the sophistication increase of interaction strategies. Communication and interaction between people and robots occurring in a friendly manner and being accessible to everyone, independent of their skills in robotics issues, will certainly foster the breaking of barriers. Socializing behaviors, such as following people, are relatively easy to obtain with current state of the art robotics. Ho...

  2. Sulfogalactosylglycerolipid is involved in human gamete interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerachatyanukul, W; Rattanachaiyanont, M; Carmona, E; Furimsky, A; Mai, A; Shoushtarian, A; Sirichotiyakul, S; Ballakier, H; Leader, A; Tanphaichitr, N

    2001-12-01

    Recent results from our laboratory have revealed the role of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG) in mouse sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. In this report, we demonstrated the presence of SGG in Percoll-gradient centrifuged (PGC) human sperm by high performance thin layer chromatography with orcinol and Azure A staining, specific for glycolipids and sulfolipids, respectively. SGG in human PGC sperm was quantified by its affinity to Azure A to be 12-15 mol% of sperm lipids. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that SGG existed on both live and aldehyde fixed human sperm in the head region. Pretreatment of human PGC sperm with affinity purified antiSGG Fab markedly inhibited sperm binding to the ZP in a concentration dependent manner, without any changes in the spontaneous acrosome rate or sperm motility parameters. Fluorescently labeled SGG liposomes also bound uniformly to isolated human ZP, while fluorescently labeled galactosylglycerolipid (GG, SGG's parental lipid) or phosphatidylserine (PS, negatively charged like SGG) liposomes did not. All of these results suggested the role of human sperm SGG in ZP binding. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A Physical Interaction Network of Dengue Virus and Human Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sudip; Vangeloff, Abbey D.; Zhang, Chaoying; Siddavatam, Prasad; Heaton, Nicholas S.; Wang, Ling; Sengupta, Ranjan; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Gribskov, Michael; Kuhn, Richard J.; Perera, Rushika; LaCount, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection. PMID:21911577

  4. A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sudip; Vangeloff, Abbey D; Zhang, Chaoying; Siddavatam, Prasad; Heaton, Nicholas S; Wang, Ling; Sengupta, Ranjan; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Gribskov, Michael; Kuhn, Richard J; Perera, Rushika; LaCount, Douglas J

    2011-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection.

  5. Formation of Human Subjectivity in Psychological Interactions with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Mudrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the current trends in the environmental psychological research of the peculiarities of developing the subject-subjective human relationship with nature: considering human habitat environment as a set of natural objects; studying certain natural sites as psychologically attributive elements of the environment; determining the psychological meaning of the «Human Habitat Environment»; giving the analysis of the problem of the subjectivity development in human interaction with the natural objects.

  6. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Werry, I., Rae, J., Dickerson, P., Stribling, P., & Ogden, B. (2002). Robotic Playmates: Analysing Interactive Competencies of Children with Autism ...WE-4RII. IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Edmonton, Canada. 35. Moravec, H. (1988). Mind Children : The Future of...and if so when and where? • What approaches, theories , representations, and experimental methods inform affective HRI research? Report Documentation

  7. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi...

  8. Human factors and man-machine-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr-Bruckmayr, E.

    1985-01-01

    Definitions of the man-machine-interface concept are given. The importance of ergonomics in planning, construction, start-up and operation of a nuclear power plant is highlighted. A comprehensive task analysis is the basis of man-machine-interaction. Personnel performance, work shaping and security are discussed

  9. Interaction of an atypical Plasmodium falciparum ETRAMP with human apolipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahasrabudhe Sudhir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to establish a successful infection in the human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum must establish interactions with a variety of human proteins on the surface of different cell types, as well as with proteins inside the host cells. To better understand this aspect of malaria pathogenesis, a study was conducted with the goal of identifying interactions between proteins of the parasite and those of its human host. Methods A modified yeast two-hybrid methodology that preferentially selects protein fragments that can be expressed in yeast was used to conduct high-throughput screens with P. falciparum protein fragments against human liver and cerebellum libraries. The resulting dataset was analyzed to exclude interactions that are not likely to occur in the human host during infection. Results An initial set of 2,200 interactions was curated to remove proteins that are unlikely to play a role in pathogenesis based on their annotation or localization, and proteins that behave promiscuously in the two-hybrid assay, resulting in a final dataset of 456 interactions. A cluster that implicates binding between P. falciparum PFE1590w/ETRAMP5, a putative parasitophorous vacuole membrane protein, and human apolipoproteins ApoA, ApoB and ApoE was selected for further analysis. Different isoforms of ApoE, which are associated with different outcomes of malaria infection, were shown to display differential interactions with PFE1590w. Conclusion A dataset of interactions between proteins of P. falciparum and those of its human host was generated. The preferential interaction of the P. falciparum PFE1590w protein with the human ApoE ε3 and ApoE ε4 isoforms, but not the ApoE ε2 isoform, supports the hypothesis that ApoE genotype affects risk of malaria infection. The dataset contains other interactions of potential relevance to disease that may identify possible vaccine candidates and drug targets.

  10. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  11. Quantitative heartbeat coupling measures in human-horse interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Antonio; Guidi, Andrea; Valenza, Gaetano; Baragli, Paolo; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2016-08-01

    We present a study focused on a quantitative estimation of a human-horse dynamic interaction. A set of measures based on magnitude and phase coupling between heartbeat dynamics of both humans and horses in three different conditions is reported: no interaction, visual/olfactory interaction and grooming. Specifically, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC), Mean Phase Coherence (MPC) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) have been used as estimators of the amount of coupling between human and horse through the analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) time series in a group of eleven human subjects, and one horse. The rationale behind this study is that the interaction of two complex biological systems go towards a coupling process whose dynamical evolution is modulated by the kind and time duration of the interaction itself. We achieved a congruent and consistent statistical significant difference for all of the three indices. Moreover, a Nearest Mean Classifier was able to recognize the three classes of interaction with an accuracy greater than 70%. Although preliminary, these encouraging results allow a discrimination of three distinct phases in a real human-animal interaction opening to the characterization of the empirically proven relationship between human and horse.

  12. Communication: The Study of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, C. David

    Designed to provide a comprehensive and broadly based introduction to the study of human communication, this book presents the concept of communication as interrelated constituent processes that operate at varying levels of complexity and acquire significance only in the context of larger intrapersonal, interpersonal, or socio-cultural systems of…

  13. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  14. Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an analysis. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines ways in which the various sources of law can be modified in such ...

  15. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Sciutti, Alessandra; Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Fadiga, Luciano; Sandini, Giulio; Pozzo, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot). After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  16. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Bisio

    Full Text Available Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot. After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  17. Benefits of Subliminal Feedback Loops in Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Ritter

    2011-01-01

    A lot of efforts have been directed to enriching human-computer interaction to make the user experience more pleasing or efficient. In this paper, we briefly present work in the fields of subliminal perception and affective computing, before we outline a new approach to add analog communication channels to the human-computer interaction experience. In this approach, in addition to symbolic predefined mappings of input to output, a subliminal feedback loop is used that provides feedback in evo...

  18. Neural Signatures of Trust During Human-Automation Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    also automated devices such as a Global Positioning System. For instance, to provide advanced safety measures, the Transportation Safety...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0160 Neural Signatures of Trust during Human- Automation Interactions Frank Krueger GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY Final Report 04/01...SUBTITLE Neural Signatures of Trust during Human- Automation Interactions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0017 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here ...

  20. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  2. Human-Robot Interaction Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    electrical and electronics engineering, telecommunications and other technical fields. (IEEE, 2007) NTIS – National Technical Information Service NTIS...of a task is automated. However, performance recovery is much lower if automation fails and the human is excluded from the implementation of the task...Vincenzi, D.A. (2009). Effects of Systems Automation Management STartegies and Milti-mission Operator-to-vehicle Ratio on Operator Performance in

  3. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-02

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.

  4. The Interaction between Human and Organizational Capital in Strategic Human Resource Management (P.49-62)

    OpenAIRE

    Audia Junita

    2017-01-01

    Studies in strategic human resource management emphasize the contribution of human and human resource management to organizational performance achievement. Human and organizational capitals are strategic capability and mechanism to create value in an organization.This paper seeks to identify an interactive relationship between human and organizational capital in strategic human resource management theoretically, which so far, have not got adequate attention, particularly in a systemic relatio...

  5. Temporal interaction between an artificial orchestra conductor and human musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Bos, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor project concerns the development of the first properly interactive virtual orchestra conductor—a Virtual Human that can conduct a piece of music through interaction with musicians, leading and following them while they are playing. This article describes our motivation for

  6. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  7. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human...

  8. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but

  9. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic:

  10. Human-robot interaction assessment using dynamic engagement profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Poltorak, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    -1] interval, where 0 represents disengaged and 1 fully engaged. The network shows a good accuracy at recognizing the engagement state of humans given positive emotions. A time based analysis of interaction experiments between small humanoid robots and humans provides time series of engagement estimates, which...... and is applicable to humanoid robotics as well as other related contexts.......This paper addresses the use of convolutional neural networks for image analysis resulting in an engagement metric that can be used to assess the quality of human robot interactions. We propose a method based on a pretrained convolutional network able to map emotions onto a continuous [0...

  11. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  12. [Interaction of human factor X with thromboplastin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S V; Zubairov, D M; Timarbaev, V N

    2003-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled human factor X to native and papaine-treated tissue tromboplastin in the presence of CaCl2 or EDTA was studied. The Scatchard analysis suggests the existence of high (Kd=l,8 x10(-9) M) and low affinity binding sites on the thromboplastin surface. The removal of Ca2+ reduced affinity of factor X to the high affinity sites. This was accompanied by some increase of their number. Proteolysis by papaine decreased affinity of high affinity sites and caused the increase of their number in the presence of Ca2+. In the absence of Ca2+ the affinity remained unchanged, but the number of sites decreased. At low concentrations of factor X positive cooperativity for high affinity binding sites was observed. It did not depend on the presence of Ca2+. The results indirectly confirm the role of hydrophobic interactons in Ca2+ dependent binding of factor X to thromboplastin and the fact that heterogeneity of this binding is determined by mesophase structure of the thromboplastin phospholipids.

  13. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  15. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  16. The Past, Present and Future of Human Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Churchill, Elizabeth

    2018-01-16

    Human Computer Interaction (HCI) focuses on how people interact with, and are transformed by computation. Our current technology landscape is changing rapidly. Interactive applications, devices and services are increasingly becoming embedded into our environments. From our homes to the urban and rural spaces, we traverse everyday. We are increasingly able toヨoften required toヨmanage and configure multiple, interconnected devices and program their interactions. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are being used to create dynamic services that learn about us and others, that make conclusions about our intents and affiliations, and that mould our digital interactions based in predictions about our actions and needs, nudging us toward certain behaviors. Computation is also increasingly embedded into our bodies. Understanding human interactions in the everyday digital and physical context. During this lecture, Elizabeth Churchill -Director of User Experience at Google- will talk about how an emerging landscape invites us to revisit old methods and tactics for understanding how people interact with computers and computation, and how it challenges us to think about new methods and frameworks for understanding the future of human-centered computation.

  17. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  18. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  19. Evaluation of the Humanity Research Paradigms based on Analysis of Human – Environment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As claimed by many behavioral scientists, designing should be based on the knowledge of interaction between human and environment. Environmental quality is also created in the context in which humans interact with their environment. To achieve such quality, designers should develop appropriate models for explaining this relationship, and this requires an understanding of human nature and the environment. Criticisms on the Modern Movement have shown that architects have often used incomplete and simplistic models in this regard, while most of design ideas are based on the definitions of human and environment and the interaction between them. However, the most important question that is raised is that how understanding of human nature and the environment and their interaction, which depends on foundations of different views, can affect the pursuit of quality in designing? Therefore, the present paper, in addition to introduction and comparison of common paradigms in humanities as the and methodological foundation of human sciences, aims to deal with the relationship of human and the environment from the perspective of objectivist, relativist, and critical paradigms in order to identify the characteristics and differences in their views on the analysis of the quality of this interaction. This is the most important step that paves the way for understanding the qualitative foundations of the environment and human life quality and also the quality of interaction between them.

  20. Drug interactions at the human placenta: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eRubinchik-Stern

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women (and their fetuses are treated with a significant number of prescription and nonprescription medications. Interactions among those drugs may affect their efficacy and toxicity in both mother and fetus. Whereas interactions that result in altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma are detectable, those involving modulation of placental transfer mechanisms are rarely reflected by altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma. Therefore, they are often overlooked. Placental-mediated interactions are possible because the placenta is not only a passive diffusional barrier, but also expresses a variety of influx and efflux transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes. Current data on placental-mediated drug interactions are limited. In rodents, pharmacological or genetic manipulations of placental transporters significantly affect fetal drug exposure. In contrast, studies in human placentae suggest that the magnitude of such interactions is modest in most cases. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances, such interactions may be of clinical significance. This review describes currently known mechanisms of placental-mediated drug interactions and the potential implications of such interactions in humans. Better understanding of those mechanisms is important for minimizing fetal toxicity from drugs while improving their efficacy when directed to treat the fetus.

  1. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Spirou, Dean; Brock, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an "intentional stance" by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants' behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative "joint attention" game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other's eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm ("Computer" condition). The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room ("Human" condition). Those in the "Human" condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the "Computer" condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect on the achievement of the application's goals.

  2. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450

    OpenAIRE

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver micro...

  3. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  4. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature......, Workplace observation, Think-Aloud Usability Test, etc. These techniques often give - seemingly - similar results when applied in diverse cultural settings, but experience shows that we need a deep understanding of the cultural, social and organizational context to interpret the results, and to transform...

  5. A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Stance on Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminade Thierry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices, thanks to the controlled variations in their appearance and behaviors, provide useful tools to test hypotheses pertaining to social interactions. These agents were used to investigate one theoretical framework, resonance, which is defined, at the behavioral and neural levels, as an overlap between first- and third- person representations of mental states such as motor intentions or emotions. Behaviorally, we found a reduced, but significant, resonance towards a humanoid robot displaying biological motion, compared to a human. Using neuroimaging, we've reported that while perceptual processes in the human occipital and temporal lobe are more strongly engaged when perceiving a humanoid robot than a human action, activity in areas involved in motor resonance depends on attentional modulation for artificial agent more strongly than for human agents. Altogether, these studies using artificial agents offer valuable insights into the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of artificial agents.

  6. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  7. Sphericall: A Human/Artificial Intelligence interaction experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frack Gechter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.

  8. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM FOR HUMAN MACHINE INTERACTION IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Obed Chan-Canche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The communication networks built by multiple devices and sensors are becoming more frequent. These device networks allow human-machine interaction development which aims to improve the human performance generating an adaptive environment in response to the information provided by it. The problem of this work is the quick integration of a device network that allows the development of a flexible immersive environment for different uses.

  9. Quantifying Trust, Distrust, and Suspicion in Human-System Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    communication, psychology , human factors, management, marketing, information technology, and brain/neurology. We first developed a generic model of state...task classification based upon topographic EEG data. Biological Psychology , 1995. 40: p. 239-250. 5. Gevins, A., et al., High-Resolution EEG...Interaction (submitted), 2013. 15. Pouliota, P., et al., Nonlinear hemodynamic responses in human epilepsy : A multimodal analysis with fNIRS-EEG and fMRI

  10. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  11. Velocity-curvature patterns limit human-robot physical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Pauline; Huber, Meghan E; Hogan, Neville; Sternad, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Physical human-robot collaboration is becoming more common, both in industrial and service robotics. Cooperative execution of a task requires intuitive and efficient interaction between both actors. For humans, this means being able to predict and adapt to robot movements. Given that natural human movement exhibits several robust features, we examined whether human-robot physical interaction is facilitated when these features are considered in robot control. The present study investigated how humans adapt to biological and non-biological velocity patterns in robot movements. Participants held the end-effector of a robot that traced an elliptic path with either biological (two-thirds power law) or non-biological velocity profiles. Participants were instructed to minimize the force applied on the robot end-effector. Results showed that the applied force was significantly lower when the robot moved with a biological velocity pattern. With extensive practice and enhanced feedback, participants were able to decrease their force when following a non-biological velocity pattern, but never reached forces below those obtained with the 2/3 power law profile. These results suggest that some robust features observed in natural human movements are also a strong preference in guided movements. Therefore, such features should be considered in human-robot physical collaboration.

  12. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  13. CHI 2013 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro F.; Katre, Dinesh S.

    2013-01-01

    In this SIG we aim to introduce the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) approach to the CHI audience. The HWID working group aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. We invite participants from industry and academia with an inte...

  14. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  15. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design. PMID:24748718

  16. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  17. Interactive analysis of human error factors in NPP operation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zou Yanhua; Huang Weigang

    2010-01-01

    Interactive of human error factors in NPP operation events were introduced, and 645 WANO operation event reports from 1999 to 2008 were analyzed, among which 432 were found relative to human errors. After classifying these errors with the Root Causes or Causal Factors, and then applying SPSS for correlation analysis,we concluded: (1) Personnel work practices are restricted by many factors. Forming a good personnel work practices is a systematic work which need supports in many aspects. (2)Verbal communications,personnel work practices, man-machine interface and written procedures and documents play great roles. They are four interaction factors which often come in bundle. If some improvements need to be made on one of them,synchronous measures are also necessary for the others.(3) Management direction and decision process, which are related to management,have a significant interaction with personnel factors. (authors)

  18. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  20. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Caruana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an “intentional stance” by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants’ behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative “joint attention” game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other’s eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm (“Computer” condition. The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room (“Human” condition. Those in the “Human” condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the “Computer” condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect

  1. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xueping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83% of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134% than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109% or occurrence ranking (~46%. Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high

  2. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    OpenAIRE

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using d...

  3. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  4. Human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2005-01-01

    Advanced nuclear power plants are generally large complex systems automated by computers. Whenever a rate plant emergency occurs the plant operators must cope with the emergency under severe mental stress without committing any fatal errors. Furthermore, the operators must train to improve and maintain their ability to cope with every conceivable situation, though it is almost impossible to be fully prepared for an infinite variety of situations. In view of the limited capability of operators in emergency situations, there has been a new approach to preventing the human error caused by improper human-machine interaction. The new approach has been triggered by the introduction of advanced information systems that help operators recognize and counteract plant emergencies. In this paper, the adverse effect of automation in human-machine systems is explained. The discussion then focuses on how to configure a joint human-machine system for ideal human-machine interaction. Finally, there is a new proposal on how to organize technologies that recognize the different states of such a joint human-machine system

  5. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  7. Identification of proteins that may directly interact with human RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Ryou; Takaya, Junichiro; Onuki, Takeshi; Moritani, Mariko; Nozaki, Naohito; Ishimi, Yukio

    2010-11-01

    RPA, which consisted of three subunits (RPA1, 2 and 3), plays essential roles in DNA transactions. At the DNA replication forks, RPA binds to single-stranded DNA region to stabilize the structure and to assemble other replication proteins. Interactions between RPA and several replication proteins have been reported but the analysis is not comprehensive. We systematically performed the qualitative analysis to identify RPA interaction partners to understand the protein-protein interaction at the replication forks. We expressed in insect cells the three subunits of human RPA, together with one replication protein, which is present at the forks under normal conditions and/or under the replication stress conditions, to examine the interaction. Among 30 proteins examined in total, it was found that at least 14 proteins interacted with RPA. RPA interacted with MCM3-7, MCM-BP and CDC45 proteins among the proteins that play roles in the initiation and the elongation of the DNA replication. RPA bound with TIPIN, CLASPIN and RAD17, which are involved in the DNA replication checkpoint functions. RPA also bound with cyclin-dependent kinases and an amino-terminal fragment of Rb protein that negatively regulates DNA replication. These results suggest that RPA interacts with the specific proteins among those that play roles in the regulation of the replication fork progression.

  8. Human-technology interaction for standoff IED detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Evan; Zou, Yiyang; Zachrich, Liping; Fulton, Jack

    2011-03-01

    IEDs kill our soldiers and innocent people every day. Lessons learned from Iraq and Afghanistan clearly indicated that IEDs cannot be detected/defeated by technology alone; human-technology interaction must be engaged. In most cases, eye is the best detector, brain is the best computer, and technologies are tools, they must be used by human being properly then can achieve full functionality. In this paper, a UV Raman/fluorescence, CCD and LWIR 3 sensor fusion system for standoff IED detection and a handheld fusion system for close range IED detection are developed and demonstrated. We must train solders using their eyes or CCD/LWIR cameras to do wide area search while on the move to find small suspected area first then use the spectrometer because the laser spot is too small, to scan a one-mile long and 2-meter wide road needs 185 days although our fusion system can detect the IED in 30m with 1s interrogating time. Even if the small suspected area (e.g., 0.5mx0.5m) is found, human eyes still cannot detect the IED, soldiers must use or interact with the technology - laser based spectrometer to scan the area then they are able to detect and identify the IED in 10 minutes not 185 days. Therefore, the human-technology interaction approach will be the best solution for IED detection.

  9. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  10. Scaling identity connects human mobility and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Eagle, Nathan; Blondel, Vincent D; Barabási, Albert-László; Wang, Dashun

    2016-06-28

    Massive datasets that capture human movements and social interactions have catalyzed rapid advances in our quantitative understanding of human behavior during the past years. One important aspect affecting both areas is the critical role space plays. Indeed, growing evidence suggests both our movements and communication patterns are associated with spatial costs that follow reproducible scaling laws, each characterized by its specific critical exponents. Although human mobility and social networks develop concomitantly as two prolific yet largely separated fields, we lack any known relationships between the critical exponents explored by them, despite the fact that they often study the same datasets. Here, by exploiting three different mobile phone datasets that capture simultaneously these two aspects, we discovered a new scaling relationship, mediated by a universal flux distribution, which links the critical exponents characterizing the spatial dependencies in human mobility and social networks. Therefore, the widely studied scaling laws uncovered in these two areas are not independent but connected through a deeper underlying reality.

  11. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  12. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  13. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  14. Kernel Method Based Human Model for Enhancing Interactive Evolutionary Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly. PMID:25879050

  15. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  16. Human and machine perception communication, interaction, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.

  17. Cognitive Emotional Regulation Model in Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Xie, Lun; Liu, Anqi; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper integrated Gross cognitive process into the HMM (hidden Markov model) emotional regulation method and implemented human-robot emotional interaction with facial expressions and behaviors. Here, energy was the psychological driving force of emotional transition in the cognitive emotional model. The input facial expression was translated into external energy by expression-emotion mapping. Robot’s next emotional state was determined by the cognitive energy (the stimulus after cognition...

  18. Transnational HCI: Humans, Computers and Interactions in Global Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertesi, Janet; Lindtner, Silvia; Shklovski, Irina

    2011-01-01

    , but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope...... to broaden the conversation around the impact of technology in global processes by bringing together scholars from HCI and from related humanities, media arts and social sciences disciplines....

  19. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  20. Situated dialog in speech-based human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Raux, Antoine; Lane, Ian; Misu, Teruhisa

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art in the practical implementation of Spoken Dialog Systems for applications in everyday settings. It includes contributions on key topics in situated dialog interaction from a number of leading researchers and offers a broad spectrum of perspectives on research and development in the area. In particular, it presents applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication and covers the following topics: dialog for interacting with robots; language understanding and generation; dialog architectures and modeling; core technologies; and the analysis of human discourse and interaction. The contributions are adapted and expanded contributions from the 2014 International Workshop on Spoken Dialog Systems (IWSDS 2014), where researchers and developers from industry and academia alike met to discuss and compare their implementation experiences, analyses and empirical findings.

  1. Intrinsic interactive reinforcement learning - Using error-related potentials for real world human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Stefes, Arne; Kirchner, Frank

    2017-12-14

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL. Initially we validated our approach with seven subjects in a simulated robot learning scenario. ErrPs were detected online in single trial with a balanced accuracy (bACC) of 91%, which was sufficient to learn to recognize gestures and the correct mapping between human gestures and robot actions in parallel. Finally, we validated our approach in a real robot scenario, in which seven subjects freely chose gestures and the real robot correctly learned the mapping between gestures and actions (ErrP detection (90% bACC)). In this paper, we demonstrated that intrinsically generated EEG-based human feedback in RL can successfully be used to implicitly improve gesture-based robot control during human-robot interaction. We call our approach intrinsic interactive RL.

  2. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found. This effect has been confirmed with two CYP3A4 substrates, testosterone (formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone) and diazepam (temazepam formation). CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were inhibited down to 75-80% (at the same rocuronium concentration). Activities of other microsomal CYPs have not been inhibited by rocuronium. To prove the possibility of rocuronium interaction with other drugs (diazepam), the effect of rocuronium on formation of main diazepam metabolites, temazepam (by CYP3A4) and desmethyldiazepam, (also known as nordiazepam; formed by CYP2C19) in primary culture of human hepatocytes has been examined. Rocuronium has caused inhibition of both reactions by 20 and 15%, respectively. The results open a possibility that interactions of rocuronium with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 (and possibly also CYP2C19) may be observed. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  4. SHARP - a framework for incorporating human interactions into PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.; Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been given to understanding the role of humans in the safe operation of nuclear power plants. By virtue of the ability to combine equipment reliability with human reliability probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology was deemed capable of providing significant insights about the contributions of human interations in accident scenarios. EPRI recognized the need to strengthen the methodology for incorporating human interactions into PRAs as one element of their broad research program to improve the credibility of PRAs. This research project lead to the development and detailed description of SHARP (Systematic Human Application Reliability Procedure) in EPRI NP-3583. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the SHARP framework. This should help PRA analysts state more clearly their assumptions and approach no matter which human reliability assessment technique is used. SHARP includes a structure of seven analysis steps which can be formally or informally performed during PRAs. The seven steps are termed definition, screening, breakdown, representation, impact assessment, quantification, and documentation

  5. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  6. Interaction of Human Serum Albumin with Metal Protoporphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and molecular biophysics, since it can provide information on a wide range of molecular processes, e.g. the interactions of solvent molecules with fluorophores, conformational changes, and binding interactions etc. In this study, we present the photophysical properties of the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with a series of metal compound of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), including ZnPPIX, FePPIX, MgPPIX, MnPPIX and SnPPIX respectively, as well as the free base PPIX. Binding constants were retrieved independently using the Benesi-Hildebrand analysis of the porphyrin emission or absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching (i.e. Stern-Volmer analysis) and reveal that the two methods yield a difference of approximately one order or magnitude between the two. Fluorescence lifetimes was used to probe whether binding of the porphyrin changes the conformation of the protein or if the interaction places the porphyrin at a location that can prompt resonance energy transfer with the lone Tryptophan residue. In recent years it has been discovered that HSA provides a specific binding site for metal-chelated protoporphyrins in subdomain IA. This has opened a novel field of study over the importance of this site for biomedical applications but it has also created the potential for a series of biotechnological applications of the HSA/protoporphyrin complexes. Our study provides a preliminary investigation of the interaction with metal-chelated protoporphyrins that had not been previously investigated.

  7. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  8. Haptic Human-Human Interaction Through a Compliant Connection Does Not Improve Motor Learning in a Force Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Niek; Keemink, Arvid; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van der Kooij, Herman; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Tan, Hong Z.; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Frisoli, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Humans have a natural ability to haptically interact with other humans, for instance during physically assisting a child to learn how to ride a bicycle. A recent study has shown that haptic human-human interaction can improve individual motor performance and motor learning rate while learning to

  9. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  10. Choice of Human-Computer Interaction Mode in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Hondori, Hossein; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; Lopes, Cristina V; Cramer, Steven C

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology are providing new forms of human-computer interaction. The current study examined one form of human-computer interaction, augmented reality (AR), whereby subjects train in the real-world workspace with virtual objects projected by the computer. Motor performances were compared with those obtained while subjects used a traditional human-computer interaction, that is, a personal computer (PC) with a mouse. Patients used goal-directed arm movements to play AR and PC versions of the Fruit Ninja video game. The 2 versions required the same arm movements to control the game but had different cognitive demands. With AR, the game was projected onto the desktop, where subjects viewed the game plus their arm movements simultaneously, in the same visual coordinate space. In the PC version, subjects used the same arm movements but viewed the game by looking up at a computer monitor. Among 18 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke, the AR game was associated with 21% higher game scores (P = .0001), 19% faster reaching times (P = .0001), and 15% less movement variability (P = .0068), as compared to the PC game. Correlations between game score and arm motor status were stronger with the AR version. Motor performances during the AR game were superior to those during the PC game. This result is due in part to the greater cognitive demands imposed by the PC game, a feature problematic for some patients but clinically useful for others. Mode of human-computer interface influences rehabilitation therapy demands and can be individualized for patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Probing cocaine-antibody interactions in buffer and human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Despite progress in cocaine immunotherapy, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of antibodies which bind to cocaine and its metabolites are not well understood. It is also not clear how the interactions between them differ in a complex matrix such as the serum present in the human body. In the present study, we have used microscale thermophoresis (MST, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR we have evaluated the affinity properties of a representative mouse monoclonal (mAb08 as well as those of polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mouse and human patient serum.MST analysis of fluorescently tagged mAb08 binding to cocaine reveals an approximately 15 fold decrease in its equilibrium dissociation constant in 20-50% human serum compared with that in saline buffer. A similar trend was also found using enriched polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mice and patient serum, for which we have used fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin conjugated to succinyl norcocaine (BSA-SNC. This conjugate closely mimics both cocaine and the hapten used to raise these antibodies. The ITC data also revealed that cocaine has a moderate affinity of about 2 µM to 20% human serum and very little interaction with human serum albumin or nonspecific human IgG at that concentration range. In a SPR inhibition experiment, the binding of mAb08 to immobilized BSA-SNC was inhibited by cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a highly competitive manner, whereas the purified polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated humans and mice, revealed preferential selectivity to pharmacologically active cocaine but not to the inactive metabolite benzoylecgonine. We have also developed a simple binding model to simulate the challenges associated with cocaine immunotherapy using the variable quantitative and kinetic properties of the antibodies.High sensitivity calorimetric determination of antibody binding to cocaine and its metabolites provide

  12. Adaptive interaction a utility maximization approach to understanding human interaction with technology

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The frame

  13. [Study on the interaction of doxycycline with human serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao-Ying; Chen, Lin; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the interaction of doxycycline (DC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by the inner filter effects, displacement experiments and molecular docking methods, based on classic multi-spectroscopy. With fluorescence quenching method at 298 and 310 K, the binding constants Ka, were determined to be 2. 73 X 10(5) and 0. 74X 10(5) L mol-1, respectively, and there was one binding site between DC and HSA, indicating that the binding of DC to HSA was strong, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change, AH and enthropy change, delta S) were calculated to be -83. 55 kJ mol-1 and -176. 31 J mol-1 K-1 via the Vant' Hoff equation, which indicated that the interaction of DC with HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Based on the Föster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the specific binding distance between Trp-214 (acceptor) and DC (donor) was 4. 98 nm, which was similar to the result confirmed by molecular docking. Through displacement experiments, sub-domain IIA of HSA was assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DC. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of DC to HSA induced the conformation change of HSA and increased the disclosure of some part of hydrophobic regions that had been buried before. The results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that DC bound to HSA led to the slight unfolding of the polypeptide chain of HSA. Furthermore, the binding details between DC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking methods, which revealed that DC was bound at sub-domain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and pi-pi interactions. The experimental results provide theoretical basis and reliable data for the study of the interaction between small drug molecule and human serum albumin

  14. Soy and Gut Microbiota: Interaction and Implication for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Krishnan, Hari B; Pham, Quynhchi; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-11-23

    Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the United States, and soy foods are gaining popularity due to their reported health-promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health-promoting/disease-preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life. This review summarizes current knowledge on the effects of soy foods and soy components on gut microbiota population and composition. It was found, although results vary in different studies, in general, both animal and human studies have shown that consumption of soy foods can increase the levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and alter the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These changes in microbiota are consistent with reported reductions in pathogenic bacteria populations in the gut, thereby lowering the risk of diseases and leading to beneficial effects on human health.

  15. Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

  16. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  17. Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1991-07-01

    At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level. Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies. There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. 24 refs

  18. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (~19 months, ~20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale.

  19. Spatial interactions reveal inhibitory cortical networks in human amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Erwin H; Levi, Dennis M; McGraw, Paul V

    2005-10-01

    Humans with amblyopia have a well-documented loss of sensitivity for first-order, or luminance defined, visual information. Recent studies show that they also display a specific loss of sensitivity for second-order, or contrast defined, visual information; a type of image structure encoded by neurons found predominantly in visual area A18/V2. In the present study, we investigate whether amblyopia disrupts the normal architecture of spatial interactions in V2 by determining the contrast detection threshold of a second-order target in the presence of second-order flanking stimuli. Adjacent flanks facilitated second-order detectability in normal observers. However, in marked contrast, they suppressed detection in each eye of the majority of amblyopic observers. Furthermore, strabismic observers with no loss of visual acuity show a similar pattern of detection suppression. We speculate that amblyopia results in predominantly inhibitory cortical interactions between second-order neurons.

  20. Human eosinophil–airway smooth muscle cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Margaret Hughes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are present throughout the airway wall of asthmatics. The nature of the interaction between human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC and eosinophils was investigated in this study. We demonstrated, using light microscopy, that freshly isolated eosinophils from healthy donors rapidly attach to ASMC in vitro. Numbers of attached eosinophils were highest at 2 h, falling to 50% of maximum by 20 h. Eosinophil attachment at 2 h was reduced to 72% of control by anti-VCAM-1, and to 74% at 20 h by anti-ICAM-1. Pre-treatment of ASMC for 24 h with TNF-α, 10 nM, significantly increased eosinophil adhesion to 149 and 157% of control after 2 and 20 h. These results provide evidence that eosinophil interactions with ASMC involve VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and are modulated by TNF-α.

  1. PVA matches human liver in needle-tissue interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Tonke L; Pluymen, Loes H; van Gerwen, Dennis J; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2017-05-01

    Medical phantoms can be used to study needle-tissue interaction and to train medical residents. The purpose of this research is to study the suitability of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a liver tissue mimicking material in terms of needle-tissue interaction. Insertions into ex-vivo human livers were used for reference. Six PVA samples were created by varying the mass percentage of PVA to water (4m% and 7m%) and the number of freeze-thaw cycles (1, 2 and 3 cycles, 16hours of freezing at -19°C, 8hours of thawing). The inner needle of an 18 Gauge trocar needle with triangular tip was inserted 13 times into each of the samples, using an insertion velocity of 5 mm/s. In addition, 39 insertions were performed in two ex-vivo human livers. Axial forces on the needle were captured during insertion and retraction and characterized by friction along the needle shaft, peak forces, and number of peak forces per unit length. The concentration of PVA and the number of freeze-thaw cycles both influenced the mechanical interaction between needle and specimen. Insertions into 4m% PVA phantoms with 2 freeze-thaw cycles were comparable to human liver in terms of estimated friction along the needle shaft and the number of peak forces. Therefore, these phantoms are considered to be suitable liver mimicking materials for image-guided needle interventions. The mechanical properties of PVA hydrogels can be influenced in a controlled manner by varying the concentration of PVA and the number of freeze-thaw cycles, to mimic liver tissue characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dependencies, human interactions and uncertainties in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), three areas were investigated in a 4-year Nordic programme: dependencies with special emphasis on common cause failures, human interactions and uncertainty aspects. The approach was centered around comparative analyses in form of Benchmark/Reference Studies and retrospective reviews. Weak points in available PSAs were identified and recommendations were made aiming at improving consistency of the PSAs. The sensitivity of PSA-results to basic assumptions was demonstrated and the sensitivity to data assignment and to choices of methods for analysis of selected topics was investigated. (author)

  3. Simplified Human-Robot Interaction: Modeling and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel concept of human-robot interaction (HRI modeling is proposed. Including factors like trust in automation, situational awareness, expertise and expectations a new user experience framework is formed for industrial robots. Service Oriented Robot Operation, proposed in a previous paper, creates an abstract level in HRI and it is also included in the framework. This concept is evaluated with exhaustive tests. Results prove that significant improvement in task execution may be achieved and the new system is more usable for operators with less experience with robotics; personnel specific for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.

  4. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  5. Human Work Interaction Design for Pervasive and Smart Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro F.; Lopes, Arminda; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2014-01-01

    ' experience and outputs? This workshop focuses on answering this question to support professionals, academia, national labs, and industry engaged in human work analysis and interaction design for the workplace. Conversely, tools, procedures, and professional competences for designing human......Pervasive and smart technologies have pushed workplace configuration beyond linear logic and physical boundaries. As a result, workers' experience of and access to technology is increasingly pervasive, and their agency constantly reconfigured. While this in certain areas of work is not new (e.......g., technology mediation and decision support in air traffic control), more recent developments in other domains such as healthcare (e.g., Augmented Reality in Computer Aided Surgery) have raised challenging issues for HCI researchers and practitioners. The question now is: how to improve the quality of workers...

  6. Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Hertel, Frederik; Clark, Woodrow

    2014-01-01

    In understanding economics and the organisation of economics, the questions are what constituteeconomics and the thinking behind economics today? In short what is the field of economics? And in what ways can we connect to and understand this field of study? Of course, the answer to this depends...... upon the perspective chosen, in which one sees and thinks of economics from a particular philosophical and even political position and perspective. If one takes the perspective on economics from a qualitative paradigm that draws upon the tradition from Kant, Husserl, Simmel, Mead, Schutz, Blumer (see...... references), then it can be stated that economics cannot only be understood as something that appears in nature. On the contrary, economics must be understood as “something” which results from human behaviour, interaction and groups in human activities and the thinking involved and embedded in those...

  7. Metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene and n-hexane in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Hansen, S H

    1998-01-01

    This human experimental study describes the mutual metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane.......This human experimental study describes the mutual metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane....

  8. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes.

  9. Predictive Mechanisms Are Not Involved the Same Way during Human-Human vs. Human-Machine Interactions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïsha Sahaï

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, interactions with others do not only involve human peers but also automated systems. Many studies suggest that the motor predictive systems that are engaged during action execution are also involved during joint actions with peers and during other human generated action observation. Indeed, the comparator model hypothesis suggests that the comparison between a predicted state and an estimated real state enables motor control, and by a similar functioning, understanding and anticipating observed actions. Such a mechanism allows making predictions about an ongoing action, and is essential to action regulation, especially during joint actions with peers. Interestingly, the same comparison process has been shown to be involved in the construction of an individual's sense of agency, both for self-generated and observed other human generated actions. However, the implication of such predictive mechanisms during interactions with machines is not consensual, probably due to the high heterogeneousness of the automata used in the experimentations, from very simplistic devices to full humanoid robots. The discrepancies that are observed during human/machine interactions could arise from the absence of action/observation matching abilities when interacting with traditional low-level automata. Consistently, the difficulties to build a joint agency with this kind of machines could stem from the same problem. In this context, we aim to review the studies investigating predictive mechanisms during social interactions with humans and with automated artificial systems. We will start by presenting human data that show the involvement of predictions in action control and in the sense of agency during social interactions. Thereafter, we will confront this literature with data from the robotic field. Finally, we will address the upcoming issues in the field of robotics related to automated systems aimed at acting as collaborative agents.

  10. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  11. When Humanoid Robots Become Human-Like Interaction Partners: Corepresentation of Robotic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Anna; Chinellato, Eris; Bou, Maria A. Tirado; del Pobil, Angel P.; Lappe, Markus; Liepelt, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In human-human interactions, corepresenting a partner's actions is crucial to successfully adjust and coordinate actions with others. Current research suggests that action corepresentation is restricted to interactions between human agents facilitating social interaction with conspecifics. In this study, we investigated whether action…

  12. A Challenge for Developers: Preserving the Interactivity of Human Relations in a Standalone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, F. E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the efforts taken by the Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble to provide interactive human relations training on date rape using live dramatizations, video with facilitated audience participation, and an electronic multimedia format with decision trees for interactive involvement. (EA)

  13. Intranasal oxytocin modulates neural functional connectivity during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Chen, Xiangchuan; Chen, Xu; Haroon, Ebrahim

    2018-02-10

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Interaction between Saikosaponin D, Paeoniflorin, and Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guo-Wu; Chen, Yi-Cun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hong-Mei; Pan, Xiang-Yu; Chen, Pei-Hong; Niu, Qing-Xia

    2018-01-27

    Saikosaponin D (SSD) and paeoniflorin (PF) are the major active constituents of Bupleuri Radix and Paeonia lactiflora Pall , respectively, and have been widely used in China to treat liver and other diseases for many centuries. We explored the binding of SSD/PF to human serum albumin (HSA) by using fluorospectrophotometry, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking. Both SSD and PF produced a conformational change in HSA. Fluorescence quenching was accompanied by a blue shift in the fluorescence spectra. Co-binding of PF and SSD also induced quenching and a conformational change in HSA. The Stern-Volmer equation showed that quenching was dominated by static quenching. The binding constant for ternary interaction was below that for binary interaction. Site-competitive experiments demonstrated that SSD/PF bound to site I (subdomain IIA) and site II (subdomain IIIA) in HSA. Analysis of thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were mostly responsible for the binary association. Also, there was energy transfer upon binary interaction. Molecular docking supported the experimental findings in conformation, binding sites and binding forces.

  15. Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system

  16. Pleistocene megafaunal interaction networks became more vulnerable after human arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mathias M; Koch, Paul L; Fariña, Richard A; de Aguiar, Marcus A M; dos Reis, Sérgio F; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2015-09-07

    The end of the Pleistocene was marked by the extinction of almost all large land mammals worldwide except in Africa. Although the debate on Pleistocene extinctions has focused on the roles of climate change and humans, the impact of perturbations depends on properties of ecological communities, such as species composition and the organization of ecological interactions. Here, we combined palaeoecological and ecological data, food-web models and community stability analysis to investigate if differences between Pleistocene and modern mammalian assemblages help us understand why the megafauna died out in the Americas while persisting in Africa. We show Pleistocene and modern assemblages share similar network topology, but differences in richness and body size distributions made Pleistocene communities significantly more vulnerable to the effects of human arrival. The structural changes promoted by humans in Pleistocene networks would have increased the likelihood of unstable dynamics, which may favour extinction cascades in communities facing extrinsic perturbations. Our findings suggest that the basic aspects of the organization of ecological communities may have played an important role in major extinction events in the past. Knowledge of community-level properties and their consequences to dynamics may be critical to understand past and future extinctions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Human Possibilities: The Interaction of Biology and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the two main strands of a new unified theory about human nature and human possibilities: cultural transformation theory and bio-culturalism. Bio-culturalism combines findings from neuroscience about how our brains develop in interaction with our environments with findings from the study of relational dynamics, a new method of social analysis focusing on what kinds of relations—from intimate to international—a particular culture or subculture supports. Bio-culturalism recognizes that our species has a vast spectrum of genetic capacities, ranging from consciousness, caring, empathy, cooperation, and creativity to insensitivity, cruelty, exploitation, and destructiveness, and proposes that which of these capacities are expressed or inhibited largely hinges on the nature of our cultural environments. Cultural transformation theory looks at the whole span of human cultural evolution from the perspective of the tension between the contrasting configurations of the partnership system and the domination system as two underlying possibilities for structuring beliefs, institutions, and relationships. The article describes the core components of partnership- and domination-oriented societies, provides examples of each, and proposes that our future hinges on accelerating the cultural transformation from domination to partnership in our time of nuclear and biological weapons and the ever more efficient despoliation of nature, when high technology guided by an ethos of domination and conquest could take us to an evolutionary dead end.

  18. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called "Ghost-in-the-Machine" (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer's requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  19. Enantiomeric metabolic interactions and stereoselective human methadone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totah, Rheem A; Allen, Kyle E; Sheffels, Pamela; Whittington, Dale; Kharasch, Evan D

    2007-04-01

    Methadone is administered as a racemate, although opioid activity resides in the R-enantiomer. Methadone disposition is stereoselective, with considerable unexplained variability in clearance and plasma R/S ratios. N-Demethylation of methadone in vitro is predominantly mediated by cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and somewhat by CYP2C19. This investigation evaluated stereoselectivity, models, and kinetic parameters for methadone N-demethylation by recombinant CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19, and the potential for interactions between enantiomers during racemate metabolism. CYP2B6 metabolism was stereoselective. CYP2C19 was less active, and stereoselectivity was opposite that for CYP2B6. CYP3A4 was not stereoselective. With all three isoforms, enantiomer N-dealkylation rates in the racemate were lower than those of (R)-(6-dimethyamino-4,4-diphenyl-heptan-3-one) hydrochloride (R-methadone) or (S)-(6-dimethyamino-4,4-diphenyl-heptan-3-one) hydrochloride (S-methadone) alone, suggesting an enantiomeric interaction and mutual metabolic inhibition. For CYP2B6, the interaction between enantiomers was stereoselective, with S-methadone as a more potent inhibitor of R-methadone N-demethylation than R-of S-methadone. In contrast, enantiomer interactions were not stereoselective with CYP2C19 or CYP3A4. For all three cytochromes P450, methadone N-demethylation was best described by two-site enzyme models with competitive inhibition. There were minor model differences between cytochromes P450 to account for stereoselectivity of metabolism and enantiomeric interactions. Changes in plasma R/S methadone ratios observed after rifampin or troleandomycin pretreatment in humans in vivo were successfully predicted by CYP2B6- but not CYP3A4-catalyzed methadone N-demethylation. CYP2B6 is a predominant catalyst of stereoselective methadone metabolism in vitro. In vivo, CYP2B6 may be a major determinant of methadone metabolism and disposition, and CYP2B6 activity and stereoselective metabolic

  20. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  1. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  2. INTESTINAL VIROME AND NORMAL MICROFLORA OF HUMAN: FEATURES OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intestinal bacteria defend the host organism and narrow pathogenic bacterial colonization. However, the microbiome effect to enteric viruses is unexplored largely as well as role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of viral infections in general. This review focuses on precisely these issues. Keywords: microbiome, virome, normal microflora, enteric viruses, contagiousness. In this review article, facts about viral persistence in the human gut are summarized. It is described the role of viral populations during health and diseases. After analyzing of the literary facts it was concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is an environment for one from the most complex microbial ecosystems, which requires of more deeper study of its composition, role in physiological processes, as well as the dynamics of changes under influence of the environment. Normal microflora performs a different important functions providing the physiological homeostasis of the human body, including, in particular, an important role in the human metabolic processes, supporting of homeostasis, limiting of colonization by infectious bacteria. The multifactorial significance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora can be divided into immunological, structural and metabolic functions. At the same time, interaction between intestinal microflora and enteric viruses has not been studied largely. In recent years, much attention is paid to study of viruses-bacteria associations, and it is possible, obtained results should change our understanding of microbiota role in the systematic pathogenesis of the diseases with viral etiology. In contrast to the well-known benefits of normal microflora to the host, the viruses can use intestinal microflora as a trigger for replication at the optimal region. Recent studies give a reason for assumption that depletion of normal microflora with antibiotics can determining the antiviral effect. Thus, the role of commensal bacteria in viral

  3. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Flooring-system designs may be sensitive in terms of their vibrational performance due the risk that serviceability-limit-state problems may be encountered. For evaluating the vibrational performance of a flooring system at the design stage, decisions must be made by the engineer in charge...... of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non......-structural mass can influence central parameters describing the dynamic behaviour of the flooring system with focus on elevated non-structural mass. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  4. Optoelectronic investigation of nanodiamond interactions with human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Wasowicz, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H2-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O2-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.

  5. Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma-T cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdegaal, Els M. E.; De Miranda, Noel F. C. C.; Visser, Marten

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of neoantigens that are formed as a consequence of DNA damage is likely to form a major driving force behind the clinical activity of cancer immunotherapies such as T-cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapy. Therefore, strategies to selectively enhance T-cell reactivity...... against genetically defined neoantigens are currently under development. In mouse models, T-cell pressure can sculpt the antigenicity of tumours, resulting in the emergence of tumours that lack defined mutant antigens. However, whether the T-cell-recognized neoantigen repertoire in human cancers...... by overall reduced expression of the genes or loss of the mutant alleles. Notably, loss of expression of T-cell-recognized neoantigens was accompanied by development of neoantigen-specific T-cell reactivity in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. These data demonstrate the dynamic interactions between cancer...

  6. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD) with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001). However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively). The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels of anxiety in

  7. Behavioural responses of spinner dolphins to human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Maddalena; Cesario, Amina; Costa, Marina; Harraway, John; Notarbartolo di Sciara, Giuseppe; Slooten, Elisabeth

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that whale and dolphin watching activities have detrimental effects on targeted cetacean populations. In Egypt, spinner dolphins regularly occur in the resting areas of Samadai, Satayah and Qubbat'Isa reefs. In-water human interactions with dolphins are regulated with a time-area closure system at Samadai, unregulated at Satayah and non-existent at Qubbat'Isa. This provided an ideal experimental setting to advance our understanding of the effects of tourism on a species highly sensitive to disturbances. Our study confirmed that the intensity and duration of interactions, and therefore, dolphin exposure to tourism, differed among the study sites. Compared with the Qubbat'Isa control site, behavioural reactions to boats and swimmers at the two tourism sites suggested that dolphin rest was disrupted, especially around the middle of the day and especially at Satayah, where dolphin tourism is unregulated. Our results indicate also that the dolphin protection measures at Samadai reduce the level of disturbance. We recommend that similar measures be implemented at other dolphin tourism locations, and that no new operations be initiated until the long-term impacts on dolphin populations are better understood. Our experience emphasizes the need to adopt precautionary approaches in research and management of whale and dolphin watching.

  8. Human immunodeficiencies related to APC/T cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinos eKallikourdis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized inter-cellular junctions referred to as the immune synapses. In vivo live-cell imaging of APC-T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. Here we will discuss in details the mechanisms of defective APC-T cell communications in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and in warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome (WHIM. In addition, we will summarize the evidences pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  9. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K. B.; Nettle, D.; McElreath, R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such ‘strong situations’ will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background. PMID:26503684

  10. The scaling of human interactions with city size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläpfer, Markus; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Grauwin, Sébastian; Raschke, Mathias; Claxton, Rob; Smoreda, Zbigniew; West, Geoffrey B; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-09-06

    The size of cities is known to play a fundamental role in social and economic life. Yet, its relation to the structure of the underlying network of human interactions has not been investigated empirically in detail. In this paper, we map society-wide communication networks to the urban areas of two European countries. We show that both the total number of contacts and the total communication activity grow superlinearly with city population size, according to well-defined scaling relations and resulting from a multiplicative increase that affects most citizens. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the probability that an individual's contacts are also connected with each other remains largely unaffected. These empirical results predict a systematic and scale-invariant acceleration of interaction-based spreading phenomena as cities get bigger, which is numerically confirmed by applying epidemiological models to the studied networks. Our findings should provide a microscopic basis towards understanding the superlinear increase of different socioeconomic quantities with city size, that applies to almost all urban systems and includes, for instance, the creation of new inventions or the prevalence of certain contagious diseases. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of glucocorticoids and progesterone derivatives with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Rola; Akil, Mohammad; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) and progesterone derivatives (PGDs) are steroid hormones with well-known biological activities. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) may control their distribution. Their binding to albumin is poorly studied in literature. This paper deals with the interaction of a series of GCs (cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, 6-methylprednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and PGDs (progesterone, hydroxylated PGDs, methylated PGDs and dydrogesterone) with HSA solution (pH 7.4) at molar ratios steroid to HSA varying from 0 to 10. Similar titrations were conducted using Trp aqueous solution. Fluorescence titration method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used. PGDs (except dydrogesterone), cortisone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate affected weakly the fluorescence of Trp in buffer solution while they decreased in a dose-dependent manner that of HSA. Their binding constants to HSA were then calculated. Moreover, displacement experiment was performed using bilirubin as a site marker. The binding constant of bilirubin to albumin was determined in the absence and presence of a steroid at a molar ratio steroid to HSA of 1. The results indicate that the steroids bind to HSA at site I in a pocket different from that of bilirubin. Furthermore, the peak positions of amide I and amide II bands of HSA were shifted in the presence of progesterone, dydrogesterone and GCs. Also a variation was observed in amide I region indicating the formation of hydrogen bonding between albumin and steroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reputation, a universal currency for human social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Decision rules of reciprocity include ‘I help those who helped me’ (direct reciprocity) and ‘I help those who have helped others’ (indirect reciprocity), i.e. I help those who have a reputation to care for others. A person's reputation is a score that members of a social group update whenever they see the person interacting or hear at best multiple gossip about the person's social interactions. Reputation is the current standing the person has gained from previous investments or refusal of investments in helping others. Is he a good guy, can I trust him or should I better avoid him as a social partner? A good reputation pays off by attracting help from others, even from strangers or members from another group, if the recipient's reputation is known. Any costly investment in others, i.e. direct help, donations to charity, investment in averting climate change, etc. increases a person's reputation. I shall argue and illustrate with examples that a person's known reputation functions like money that can be used whenever the person needs help. Whenever possible I will present tests of predictions of evolutionary theory, i.e. fitness maximizing strategies, mostly by economic experiments with humans. PMID:26729939

  13. Agent Based Modeling of Human Gut Microbiome Interactions and Perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Shashkova

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the human health. It is involved in the digestion and protects the host against external pathogens. Examination of the intestinal microbiome interactions is required for understanding of the community influence on host health. Studies of the microbiome can provide insight on methods of improving health, including specific clinical procedures for individual microbial community composition modification and microbiota correction by colonizing with new bacterial species or dietary changes.In this work we report an agent-based model of interactions between two bacterial species and between species and the gut. The model is based on reactions describing bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides to acetate and propionate and fermentation of acetate to butyrate. Antibiotic treatment was chosen as disturbance factor and used to investigate stability of the system. System recovery after antibiotic treatment was analyzed as dependence on quantity of feedback interactions inside the community, therapy duration and amount of antibiotics. Bacterial species are known to mutate and acquire resistance to the antibiotics. The ability to mutate was considered to be a stochastic process, under this suggestion ratio of sensitive to resistant bacteria was calculated during antibiotic therapy and recovery.The model confirms a hypothesis of feedbacks mechanisms necessity for providing functionality and stability of the system after disturbance. High fraction of bacterial community was shown to mutate during antibiotic treatment, though sensitive strains could become dominating after recovery. The recovery of sensitive strains is explained by fitness cost of the resistance. The model demonstrates not only quantitative dynamics of bacterial species, but also gives an ability to observe the emergent spatial structure and its alteration, depending on various feedback mechanisms. Visual version of the model shows that spatial

  14. Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions with Human Tropoelastin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Yu

    Full Text Available The deployment of endovascular implants such as stents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease damages the vascular endothelium, increasing the risk of thrombosis and promoting neointimal hyperplasia. The rapid restoration of a functional endothelium is known to reduce these complications. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are increasingly recognized as important contributors to device re-endothelialization. Extracellular matrix proteins prominent in the vessel wall may enhance EPC-directed re-endothelialization. We examined attachment, spreading and proliferation on recombinant human tropoelastin (rhTE and investigated the mechanism and site of interaction. EPCs attached and spread on rhTE in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximal level of 56±3% and 54±3%, respectively. EPC proliferation on rhTE was comparable to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen. EDTA, but not heparan sulfate or lactose, reduced EPC attachment by 81±3%, while full attachment was recovered after add-back of manganese, inferring a classical integrin-mediated interaction. Integrin αVβ3 blocking antibodies decreased EPC adhesion and spreading on rhTE by 39±3% and 56±10% respectively, demonstrating a large contribution from this specific integrin. Attachment of EPCs on N-terminal rhTE constructs N25 and N18 accounted for most of this interaction, accompanied by comparable spreading. In contrast, attachment and spreading on N10 was negligible. αVβ3 blocking antibodies reduced EPC spreading on both N25 and N18 by 45±4% and 42±14%, respectively. In conclusion, rhTE supports EPC binding via an integrin mechanism involving αVβ3. N25 and N18, but not N10 constructs of rhTE contribute to EPC binding. The regulation of EPC activity by rhTE may have implications for modulation of the vascular biocompatibility of endovascular implants.

  15. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  16. Mobile app for human-interaction with sitter robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumit Kumar; Sahu, Ankita; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    Human environments are often unstructured and unpredictable, thus making the autonomous operation of robots in such environments is very difficult. Despite many remaining challenges in perception, learning, and manipulation, more and more studies involving assistive robots have been carried out in recent years. In hospital environments, and in particular in patient rooms, there are well-established practices with respect to the type of furniture, patient services, and schedule of interventions. As a result, adding a robot into semi-structured hospital environments is an easier problem to tackle, with results that could have positive benefits to the quality of patient care and the help that robots can offer to nursing staff. When working in a healthcare facility, robots need to interact with patients and nurses through Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that are intuitive to use, they should maintain awareness of surroundings, and offer safety guarantees for humans. While fully autonomous operation for robots is not yet technically feasible, direct teleoperation control of the robot would also be extremely cumbersome, as it requires expert user skills, and levels of concentration not available to many patients. Therefore, in our current study we present a traded control scheme, in which the robot and human both perform expert tasks. The human-robot communication and control scheme is realized through a mobile tablet app that can be customized for robot sitters in hospital environments. The role of the mobile app is to augment the verbal commands given to a robot through natural speech, camera and other native interfaces, while providing failure mode recovery options for users. Our app can access video feed and sensor data from robots, assist the user with decision making during pick and place operations, monitor the user health over time, and provides conversational dialogue during sitting sessions. In this paper, we present the software and hardware framework that

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  18. In our own image? Emotional and neural processing differences when observing human-human vs human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Quadflieg, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Notwithstanding the significant role that human-robot interactions (HRI) will play in the near future, limited research has explored the neural correlates of feeling eerie in response to social robots. To address this empirical lacuna, the current investigation examined brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while a group of participants (n = 26) viewed a series of human-human interactions (HHI) and HRI. Although brain sites constituting the mentalizing network were found to respond to both types of interactions, systematic neural variation across sites signaled diverging social-cognitive strategies during HHI and HRI processing. Specifically, HHI elicited increased activity in the left temporal-parietal junction indicative of situation-specific mental state attributions, whereas HRI recruited the precuneus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) suggestive of script-based social reasoning. Activity in the VMPFC also tracked feelings of eeriness towards HRI in a parametric manner, revealing a potential neural correlate for a phenomenon known as the uncanny valley. By demonstrating how understanding social interactions depends on the kind of agents involved, this study highlights pivotal sub-routes of impression formation and identifies prominent challenges in the use of humanoid robots. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Dynamic perceptions of human-likeness while interacting with a social robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijten, P.A.M.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In human-robot interaction research, much attention is given to the development of socially assistive robots that can have natural interactions with their users. One crucial aspect of such natural interactions is that the robot is perceived as human-like. Much research already exists that

  20. Turn-Taking Based on Information Flow for Fluent Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaz, Andrea L.; Chao, Crystal

    2011-01-01

    Turn-taking is a fundamental part of human communication. Our goal is to devise a turn-taking framework for human-robot interaction that, like the human skill, represents something fundamental about interaction, generic to context or domain. We propose a model of turn-taking, and conduct an experiment with human subjects to inform this model. Our findings from this study suggest that information flow is an integral part of human floor-passing behavior. Following this, we implement autonomous ...

  1. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  2. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  3. Institutionalizing human-computer interaction for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Digitalization is the societal change process in which new ICT-based solutions bring forward completely new ways of doing things, new businesses and new movements in the society. Digitalization also provides completely new ways of addressing issues related to global health. This paper provides an overview of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and in what way the field has contributed to international development in different regions of the world. Additionally, it outlines the United Nations' new sustainability goals from December 2015 and what these could contribute to the development of global health and its relationship to digitalization. Finally, it argues why and how HCI could be adopted and adapted to fit the contextual needs, the need for localization and for the development of new digital innovations. The research methodology is mostly qualitative following an action research paradigm in which the actual change process that the digitalization is evoking is equally important as the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. In conclusion, the paper argues that digitalization is fundamentally changing the society through the development and use of digital technologies and may have a profound effect on the digital development of every country in the world. But it needs to be developed based on local practices, it needs international support and to not be limited by any technological constraints. Particularly digitalization to support global health requires a profound understanding of the users and their context, arguing for user-centred systems design methodologies as particularly suitable.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide interactions of C-terminal peptides from human thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2013-05-13

    Interactions with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), both in aqueous solution and in lipid membranes, were investigated for a series of amphiphilic peptides derived from the C-terminal region of human thrombin, using ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering, and z-potential measurements. The ability of these peptides to block endotoxic effects caused by LPS, monitored through NO production in macrophages, was compared to peptide binding to LPS and its endotoxic component lipid A, and to size, charge, and secondary structure of peptide/LPS complexes. While the antiendotoxic peptide GKY25 (GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE) displayed significant binding to both LPS and lipid A, so did two control peptides with either selected D-amino acid substitutions or with maintained composition but scrambled sequence, both displaying strongly attenuated antiendotoxic effects. Hence, the extent of LPS or lipid A binding is not the sole discriminant for the antiendotoxic effect of these peptides. In contrast, helix formation in peptide/LPS complexes correlates to the antiendotoxic effect of these peptides and is potentially linked to this functionality. Preferential binding to LPS over lipid membrane was furthermore demonstrated for these peptides and preferential binding to the lipid A moiety within LPS inferred.

  5. Interactions of human serum albumin with doxorubicin in different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M.; Turov, Vladimir V.; Krupska, Tetyana V.; Tsapko, Magdalina D.

    2017-02-01

    Interactions of human serum albumin (10 wt% H2O and 0.3 wt% sodium caprylate) with doxorubicin hydrochloride (1 wt%) were studied alone or with addition of HCl (3.6 wt% HCl) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A model of hydrated HSA/12DOX was calculated using PM7 method with COSMO showing large variations in the binding constant depending on structural features of DOX/HSA complexes. DOX molecules/ions displace bound water from narrow intramolecular voids in HSA that leads to diminution of freezing-melting point depression of strongly bound water (SBW). Structure of weakly bound water (WBW) depends much weaker on the presence of DOX than SBW because a major fraction of DOX is bound to adsorption sites of HSA. Addition of HCl results in strong changes in structure of macromolecules and organization of water in hydration shells of HSA (i.e., mainly SBW) and in the solution (i.e., WBW + non-bound bulk water).

  6. Interaction of streaming and attention in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Rupp, André; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Serially presented tones are sometimes segregated into two perceptually distinct streams. An ongoing debate is whether this basic streaming phenomenon reflects automatic processes or requires attention focused to the stimuli. Here, we examined the influence of focused attention on streaming-related activity in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Listeners were presented with a dichotic paradigm in which left-ear stimuli consisted of canonical streaming stimuli (ABA_ or ABAA) and right-ear stimuli consisted of a classical oddball paradigm. In phase one, listeners were instructed to attend the right-ear oddball sequence and detect rare deviants. In phase two, they were instructed to attend the left ear streaming stimulus and report whether they heard one or two streams. The frequency difference (ΔF) of the sequences was set such that the smallest and largest ΔF conditions generally induced one- and two-stream percepts, respectively. Two intermediate ΔF conditions were chosen to elicit bistable percepts (i.e., either one or two streams). Attention enhanced the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1 complex, but only for ambiguous ΔF conditions, consistent with the notion that automatic mechanisms for streaming tightly interact with attention and that the latter is of particular importance for ambiguous sound sequences.

  7. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmedin Morina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001. However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively. The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels

  8. A scored human protein-protein interaction network to catalyze genomic interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Taibo; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansen, Rasmus B

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (InWeb_InBioMap,......Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (In...

  9. A Review of Verbal and Non-Verbal Human-Robot Interactive Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of human-robot interactive communication is presented, covering verbal as well as non-verbal aspects of human-robot interaction. Following a historical introduction, and motivation towards fluid human-robot communication, ten desiderata are proposed, which provide an organizational axis both of recent as well as of future research on human-robot communication. Then, the ten desiderata are examined in detail, culminating to a unifying discussion, and a forward-lookin...

  10. Effect of cognitive biases on human-robot interaction: a case study of robot's misattribution

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Mriganka; Murray, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for developing long-term human-robot interactions and social relationships based on the principle of 'human' cognitive biases applied to a robot. The aim of this work is to study how a robot influenced with human ‘misattribution’ helps to build better human-robot interactions than unbiased robots. The results presented in this paper suggest that it is important to know the effect of cognitive biases in human characteristics and interactions in order to better u...

  11. Human and Virtual Agents Interacting in the Virtuality Continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Miyares Bermúdez, E.; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce several of our projects in an overview that makes it possible to compare research approaches on interaction modeling in virtual, mixed-reality and real (physical) environments. For these environments, interaction modeling means multimodal (verbal and nonverbal) interaction modeling

  12. Interactions of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM 2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures. The reactions that form ozone occur faster with greater sunlight and higher temperatures. Weather systems influence the movement and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere through the action of winds, vertical mixing, and precipitation, all of which are likely to alter in a changing climate. Recent studies indicate that, holding anthropogenic air pollution emissions constant, ozone concentrations in populated regions will tend to increase in future climate scenarios. For the USA, the climate impact on ozone is most consistently seen in north-central and north-eastern states, with the potential for many thousands of additional ozone-related deaths. The sensitivity of anthropogenic PM 2.5 to climate is more variable across studies and regions, owing to the varied nature of PM constituents, as well as to less complete characterization of PM reaction chemistry in available atmospheric models. However, PM emitted by wildland fires is likely to become an increasing health risk in many parts of the world as climate continues to change. The complex interactions between climate change and air quality imply that future policies to mitigate these twin challenges will benefit from greater coordination. Assessing the health implications of alternative policy approaches towards climate and pollution mitigation will be a critical area of future work.

  13. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  14. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  15. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion.In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity.These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  16. Human-Robot Interaction in High Vulnerability Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require successful integration of the human with highly complex systems. Highly complex systems are likely to involve humans, automation, and some level of robotic assistance. The complex environments will require successful integration of the human with automation, with robots, and with human-automation-robot teams to accomplish mission critical goals. Many challenges exist for the human performing in these types of operational environments with these kinds of systems. Systems must be designed to optimally integrate various levels of inputs and outputs based on the roles and responsibilities of the human, the automation, and the robots; from direct manual control, shared human-robotic control, or no active human control (i.e. human supervisory control). It is assumed that the human will remain involved at some level. Technologies that vary based on contextual demands and on operator characteristics (workload, situation awareness) will be needed when the human integrates into these systems. Predictive models that estimate the impact of the technologies on the system performance and the on the human operator are also needed to meet the challenges associated with such future complex human-automation-robot systems in extreme environments.

  17. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    G. Ganesh; A. Takagi; R. Osu; T. Yoshioka; M. Kawato; E. Burdet

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor...

  20. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  1. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  2. A study on the application of voice interaction in automotive human machine interface experience design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiemin

    2018-04-01

    This paper, firstly, introduces the application trend of the integration of multi-channel interactions in automotive HMI ((Human Machine Interface) from complex information models faced by existing automotive HMI and describes various interaction modes. By comparing voice interaction and touch screen, gestures and other interaction modes, the potential and feasibility of voice interaction in automotive HMI experience design are concluded. Then, the related theories of voice interaction, identification technologies, human beings' cognitive models of voices and voice design methods are further explored. And the research priority of this paper is proposed, i.e. how to design voice interaction to create more humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios to enhance interactive experiences of automotive HMI. The specific scenarios in driving behaviors suitable for the use of voice interaction are studied and classified, and the usability principles and key elements for automotive HMI voice design are proposed according to the scenario features. Then, through the user participatory usability testing experiment, the dialogue processes of voice interaction in automotive HMI are defined. The logics and grammars in voice interaction are classified according to the experimental results, and the mental models in the interaction processes are analyzed. At last, the voice interaction design method to create the humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios in the driving environment is proposed.

  3. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  4. Exploring cultural factors in human-robot interaction : A matter of personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Astrid; Evers, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study to investigate task-dependence and cultural-background dependence of the personality trait attribution on humanoid robots. In Human-Robot Interaction, as well as in Human-Agent Interaction research, the attribution of personality traits towards intelligent

  5. Abstract robots with an attitude : applying interpersonal relation models to human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiah, J.L.; Beursgens, L.; Haex, R.; Perez Romero, L.M.; Teh, Y.; Bhomer, ten M.; Berkel, van R.E.A.; Barakova, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores new possibilities for social interaction between a human user and a robot with an abstract shape. The social interaction takes place by simulating behaviors such as submissiveness and dominance and analyzing the corresponding human reactions. We used an object that has no

  6. Human and Virtual Agents Interacting in the Virtuality Continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we take a multi-party interaction point of view on our research on multimodal interactions between agents in various virtual environments: an educational environment, a meeting environment, and a storytelling environment. These environments are quite different. All these environments

  7. An Experimental Study of Embodied Interaction and Human Perception of Social Presence for Interactive Robots in Public Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith; Vlachos, Evgenios

    2018-01-01

    The human perception of cognitive robots as social depends on many factors, including those that do not necessarily pertain to a robot’s cognitive functioning. Experience Design offers a useful framework for evaluating when participants interact with robots as products or tools and when they regard...... them as social actors. This study describes a between-participants experiment conducted at a science museum, where visitors were invited to play a game of noughts and crosses with a Baxter robot. The goal is to foster meaningful interactions that promote engagement between the human and robot...... in a museum context. Using an Experience Design framework, we tested the robot in three different conditions to better understand which factors contribute to the perception of robots as social. The experiment also outlines best practices for conducting human-robot interaction research in museum exhibitions...

  8. Human-wildlife interactions in urban areas: a review of conflicts, benefits and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Soulsbury, Carl D.; White, Piran C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife has existed in urban areas since records began. However, the discipline of urban ecology is relatively new and one that is undergoing rapid growth. All wildlife in urban areas will interact with humans to some degree. With rates of urbanisation increasing globally, there is a pressing need to understand the type and nature of human-wildlife interactions within urban environments, to help manage, mitigate or even promote these interactions. Much research attention has focussed on th...

  9. See You See Me: the Role of Eye Contact in Multimodal Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian Linger; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We focus on a fundamental looking behavior in human-robot interactions - gazing at each other's face. Eye contact and mutual gaze between two social partners are critical in smooth human-human interactions. Therefore, investigating at what moments and in what ways a robot should look at a human user's face as a response to the human's gaze behavior is an important topic. Toward this goal, we developed a gaze-contingent human-robot interaction system, which relied on momentary gaze behaviors from a human user to control an interacting robot in real time. Using this system, we conducted an experiment in which human participants interacted with the robot in a joint attention task. In the experiment, we systematically manipulated the robot's gaze toward the human partner's face in real time and then analyzed the human's gaze behavior as a response to the robot's gaze behavior. We found that more face looks from the robot led to more look-backs (to the robot's face) from human participants and consequently created more mutual gaze and eye contact between the two. Moreover, participants demonstrated more coordinated and synchronized multimodal behaviors between speech and gaze when more eye contact was successfully established and maintained.

  10. Interaction of Proteins Identified in Human Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Riwaldt, Stefan; Bauer, Johann; Sickmann, Albert; Weber, Gerhard; Grosse, Jirka; Infanger, Manfred; Eilles, Christoph; Grimm, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Influence of gravity forces on the regulation of protein expression by healthy and malignant thyroid cells was studied with the aim to identify protein interactions. Western blot analyses of a limited number of proteins suggested a time-dependent regulation of protein expression by simulated microgravity. After applying free flow isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry to search for differently expressed proteins by thyroid cells exposed to simulated microgravity for three days, a considerable number of candidates for gravi-sensitive proteins were detected. In order to show how proteins sensitive to microgravity could directly influence other proteins, we investigated all polypeptide chains identified with Mascot scores above 100, looking for groups of interacting proteins. Hence, UniProtKB entry numbers of all detected proteins were entered into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and processed. The program indicated that we had detected various groups of interacting proteins in each of the three cell lines studied. The major groups of interacting proteins play a role in pathways of carbohydrate and protein metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell membrane structuring. Analyzing these groups, networks of interaction could be established which show how a punctual influence of simulated microgravity may propagate via various members of interaction chains. PMID:23303277

  11. Interaction of Proteins Identified in Human Thyroid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pietsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of gravity forces on the regulation of protein expression by healthy and malignant thyroid cells was studied with the aim to identify protein interactions. Western blot analyses of a limited number of proteins suggested a time-dependent regulation of protein expression by simulated microgravity. After applying free flow isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry to search for differently expressed proteins by thyroid cells exposed to simulated microgravity for three days, a considerable number of candidates for gravi-sensitive proteins were detected. In order to show how proteins sensitive to microgravity could directly influence other proteins, we investigated all polypeptide chains identified with Mascot scores above 100, looking for groups of interacting proteins. Hence, UniProtKB entry numbers of all detected proteins were entered into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING and processed. The program indicated that we had detected various groups of interacting proteins in each of the three cell lines studied. The major groups of interacting proteins play a role in pathways of carbohydrate and protein metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell membrane structuring. Analyzing these groups, networks of interaction could be established which show how a punctual influence of simulated microgravity may propagate via various members of interaction chains.

  12. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  13. Cardiorespiratory interactions in neural circulatory control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuzzaman, A S; Somers, V K

    2001-06-01

    The reflex mechanisms and interactions described in this overview provide some explanation for the range of neural circulatory responses evident during changes in breathing. The effects described represent the integrated responses to activation of several reflex mechanisms, including peripheral and central chemoreflexes, arterial baroreflexes, pulmonary stretch receptors, and ventricular mechanoreceptors. These interactions occur on a dynamic basis and the transfer characteristics of any single interaction are, in all likelihood, also highly dynamic. Nevertheless, it is only by attempting to understand individual reflexes and their modulating influences that a more thorough understanding of the responses to complex phenomena such as hyperventilation, apnea, and obstructive sleep apnea can be better understood.

  14. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Literature review of human microbes' interaction with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Human carried microorganisms, which cannot practically be excluded from human supporting agricultural systems of extra terrestrial stations, are considered. These microorganisms damage the plants on which the people depend for oxygen and food. The inclusion of carefully screened or constructed, but more or less normal, phylloplane and rhizosphere microbial communities is studied.

  16. Error detection in spoken human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Theune, M.; Weegels, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,

  17. Error detection in spoken human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, E.; Swerts, M.; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, M.

    Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,

  18. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  19. IoT Based Human-Building Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Jonathan

    Our interactions with built environments are increasingly augmented with digital capabilities. Smart appliances coupled with Building Management Systems (BMS) promise to increase occupant comfort and to reduce energy consumption through automated control and personalized services. However, it is ...

  20. The Past, Present and Future of Human Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Churchill, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    into our environments. From our homes to the urban and rural spaces, we traverse everyday. We are increasingly able toヨoften required toヨmanage and configure multiple, interconnected devices and program their interactions. Artificial intelligence (AI

  1. Evolution, human-microbe interactions, and life history plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Levin, Bruce R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; McLean, Angela R

    2017-07-29

    A bacterium was once a component of the ancestor of all eukaryotic cells, and much of the human genome originated in microorganisms. Today, all vertebrates harbour large communities of microorganisms (microbiota), particularly in the gut, and at least 20% of the small molecules in human blood are products of the microbiota. Changing human lifestyles and medical practices are disturbing the content and diversity of the microbiota, while simultaneously reducing our exposures to the so-called old infections and to organisms from the natural environment with which human beings co-evolved. Meanwhile, population growth is increasing the exposure of human beings to novel pathogens, particularly the crowd infections that were not part of our evolutionary history. Thus some microbes have co-evolved with human beings and play crucial roles in our physiology and metabolism, whereas others are entirely intrusive. Human metabolism is therefore a tug-of-war between managing beneficial microbes, excluding detrimental ones, and channelling as much energy as is available into other essential functions (eg, growth, maintenance, reproduction). This tug-of-war shapes the passage of each individual through life history decision nodes (eg, how fast to grow, when to mature, and how long to live). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereo Vision for Unrestricted Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Eldridge, Ross; Rudolph, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Human computer interfaces have come long way in recent years, but the goal of a computer interpreting unrestricted human movement remains elusive. The use of stereo vision in this field has enabled the development of systems that begin to approach this goal. As computer technology advances we come ever closer to a system that can react to the ambiguities of human movement in real-time. In the foreseeable future stereo computer vision is not likely to replace the keyboard or mouse. There is at...

  3. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions.

  4. Modelling Engagement in Multi-Party Conversations : Data-Driven Approaches to Understanding Human-Human Communication Patterns for Use in Human-Robot Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Oertel, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study human-human interaction in order to provide virtual agents and robots with the capability to engage into multi-party-conversations in a human-like-manner. The focus lies with the modelling of conversational dynamics and the appropriate realization of multi-modal feedback behaviour. For such an undertaking, it is important to understand how human-human communication unfolds in varying contexts and constellations over time. To this end, multi-modal human-human...

  5. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Karyala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue-human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue-human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/.

  6. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyala, Prashanthi; Metri, Rahul; Bathula, Christopher; Yelamanchi, Syam K; Sahoo, Lipika; Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue-human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue-human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/).

  7. Cognition beyond the brain computation, interactivity and human artifice

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Arguing that a collective dimension has given cognitive flexibility to human intelligence, this book shows that traditional cognitive psychology underplays the role of bodies, dialogue, diagrams, tools, talk, customs, habits, computers and cultural practices.

  8. The Emotiv EPOC interface paradigm in Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ancău Dorina; Roman Nicolae-Marius; Ancău Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested the use of decoded error potentials in the brain to improve human-computer communication. Together with state-of-the-art scientific equipment, experiments have also tested instruments with more limited performance for the time being, such as Emotiv EPOC. This study presents a review of these trials and a summary of the results obtained. However, the level of these results indicates a promising prospect for using this headset as a human-computer interface for er...

  9. Holistic Modeling for Human-Autonomous System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    piloting ...2012).  18X   Pilots  Learn  RPAs  First.      Retrieved  April  7,  2013,  from   http://www.holloman.af.mil/news/story.asp...human  processor  (QN-­‐ MHP):  a  computational  architecture  for   multitask  performance  in  human-­‐machine  

  10. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  11. See You See Me: the Role of Eye Contact in Multimodal Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, TIAN (LINGER); ZHANG, HUI; YU, CHEN

    2016-01-01

    We focus on a fundamental looking behavior in human-robot interactions – gazing at each other’s face. Eye contact and mutual gaze between two social partners are critical in smooth human-human interactions. Therefore, investigating at what moments and in what ways a robot should look at a human user’s face as a response to the human’s gaze behavior is an important topic. Toward this goal, we developed a gaze-contingent human-robot interaction system, which relied on momentary gaze behaviors from a human user to control an interacting robot in real time. Using this system, we conducted an experiment in which human participants interacted with the robot in a joint attention task. In the experiment, we systematically manipulated the robot’s gaze toward the human partner’s face in real time and then analyzed the human’s gaze behavior as a response to the robot’s gaze behavior. We found that more face looks from the robot led to more look-backs (to the robot’s face) from human participants and consequently created more mutual gaze and eye contact between the two. Moreover, participants demonstrated more coordinated and synchronized multimodal behaviors between speech and gaze when more eye contact was successfully established and maintained. PMID:28966875

  12. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  13. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations w...

  14. Toward a unified method for analysing and teaching Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    , drawing on key theories and methods from both communications- and interaction-theory. The aim is to provide a single unified method for analysing interaction, through means of video analysis and then applying theories, with proven mutual compatibility, to reach a desired granularity of study.......This abstract aims to present key aspect of a future paper, which outlines the ongoing development ofa unified method for analysing and teaching Human-Robot-Interaction. The paper will propose a novel method for analysing both HRI, interaction with other forms of technologies and fellow humans...

  15. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  16. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Human Information Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to understand the interactions of perception, effort, emotion, time and performance during the performance of multiple information tasks using Web information technologies. Method: Twenty volunteers from a university participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to obtain general background information and…

  17. The MAHNOB Mimicry Database - a database of naturalistic human interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilakhia, Sanjay; Petridis, Stavros; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    People mimic verbal and nonverbal expressions and behaviour of their counterparts in various social interactions. Research in psychology and social sciences has shown that mimicry has the power to influence social judgment and various social behaviours, including negotiation and debating, courtship,

  18. Cardiorespiratory interactions in humans and animals: Rhythms for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Maja; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Smith, Alexander J; Ben-Tal, A; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2018-03-09

    The cardiorespiratory system exhibits oscillations from a range of sources. One of the most studied oscillations is heart rate variability, which is thought to be beneficial and can serve as an index of a healthy cardiovascular system. Heart rate variability is dampened in many diseases including depression, autoimmune diseases, hypertension and heart failure. Thus, understanding the interactions that lead to heart rate variability, and its physiological role, could help with prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review we consider three types of cardiorespiratory interactions; Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia - variability in heart rate at the frequency of breathing, Cardioventilatory Coupling - synchronization between the heart beat and the onset of inspiration, and Respiratory Stroke Volume Synchronization - constant phase difference between the right and the left stroke volumes over one respiratory cycle. While the exact physiological role of these oscillations continues to be debated, the redundancies in the mechanisms responsible for its generation and its strong evolutionary conservation point to the importance of cardiorespiratory interactions. The putative mechanisms driving cardiorespiratory oscillations as well as the physiological significance of these oscillations will be reviewed. We suggest that cardiorespiratory interactions have the capacity to both dampen the variability in systemic blood flow as well as improve the efficiency of work done by the heart while maintaining physiological levels of arterial CO 2 . Given that reduction in variability is a prognostic indicator of disease, we argue that restoration of this variability via pharmaceutical or device-based approaches may be beneficial in prolonging life.

  19. Playte, a tangible interface for engaging human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Fogh, Rune; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tangible interface, Playte, designed for children animating interactive robots. The system supports physical manipulation of behaviors represented by LEGO bricks and allows the user to record and train their own new behaviors. Our objective is to explore several modes of in...

  20. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation: Comparing Different Human-Computer Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglini, Silvana; Alloni, Anna; Cattani, Barbara; Panzarasa, Silvia; Pistarini, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    In this work we describe an experiment involving aphasic patients, where the same speech rehabilitation exercise was administered in three different modalities, two of which are computer-based. In particular, one modality exploits the "Makey Makey", an electronic board which allows interacting with the computer using physical objects.

  1. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. The Emotiv EPOC interface paradigm in Human-Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancău Dorina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested the use of decoded error potentials in the brain to improve human-computer communication. Together with state-of-the-art scientific equipment, experiments have also tested instruments with more limited performance for the time being, such as Emotiv EPOC. This study presents a review of these trials and a summary of the results obtained. However, the level of these results indicates a promising prospect for using this headset as a human-computer interface for error decoding.

  3. Modeling human-machine interactions for operations room layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Keith C.; Edwards, Jack L.; Beevis, David

    2000-11-01

    The LOCATE layout analysis tool was used to analyze three preliminary configurations for the Integrated Command Environment (ICE) of a future USN platform. LOCATE develops a cost function reflecting the quality of all human-human and human-machine communications within a workspace. This proof- of-concept study showed little difference between the efficacy of the preliminary designs selected for comparison. This was thought to be due to the limitations of the study, which included the assumption of similar size for each layout and a lack of accurate measurement data for various objects in the designs, due largely to their notional nature. Based on these results, the USN offered an opportunity to conduct a LOCATE analysis using more appropriate assumptions. A standard crew was assumed, and subject matter experts agreed on the communications patterns for the analysis. Eight layouts were evaluated with the concepts of coordination and command factored into the analysis. Clear differences between the layouts emerged. The most promising design was refined further by the USN, and a working mock-up built for human-in-the-loop evaluation. LOCATE was applied to this configuration for comparison with the earlier analyses.

  4. The interaction between religious freedom, equality and human dignity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal Computer

    acknowledged church dogma or religious belief, and is of such a nature that it passes the test of a nuanced and context-sensitive form of balancing of these freedoms and the right to human dignity and equality of persons affected by them. 1. BACKGROUND. Religious freedom (s 15(1)) and freedom of religious communities ...

  5. Ecological Interactions of Bacteria in the Human Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falony, Gwen; de Vuyst, Luc

    The colon or large intestine is one of the most important organs of the human body (Macfarlane and Cummings, 1991). Moreover, its inhabitants, the colon microbiota, are the key elements of the human digestive ecosystem. The vast complexity of the human large-intestinal microbiota has inspired researchers to consider it as an organ itself, located inside the colon and acquired postnatally (Bäckhed et al., 2005; Zocco et al., 2007). From a physiologist's point of view, this image of the colon microbiota is relevant: like an organ, it is composed of different cell lineages that communicate with both one another and the host; it consumes, stores, and redistributes energy; it mediates physiologically important chemical transformations; and it is able to maintain and repair itself through self-replication (Bäckhed et al., 2005). As a microbial organ, the human colon community does not only broaden the digestive abilities of the host (Gill et al., 2006), but also influences body processes far beyond digestion (Roberfroid, 2005b; Turnbaugh et al., 2007).

  6. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  7. Controlling simulations of human-artifact interaction with scenario bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Rusák, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for modeling and simulating fully virtual human-artifact systems, aiming to resolve two issues in virtual prototyping: (i) integration of distinct modeling and simulation approaches, and (ii) extending the deployability of simulations towards conceptual design. We are

  8. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  9. Human-Robot Interaction: Intention Recognition and Mutual Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    bility, but only the human arm is modeled, with linear, low-pass-filter type transfer functions [16]. The coupled dynamics in pHRI has been intensively ...be located inside or on the edge of the polygon. IV. DISCUSSION A. Issues in Implementing LIPM on a Mobile Robot Instead of focusing on kinesiology

  10. Efficient flow and human centred assembly by an interactive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikhout, S.M.; Helmes, R.B.M.; Rhijn, J.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to fluctuations on the market, manufacturing of many product variations, and wish for fine-tuning between production and assembly a fan and motor manufacturing company wanted to improve their assembly line. The aims were efficient flow and human centered assembly in the new product line.

  11. An Animation Framework for Continuous Interaction with Reactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Zwiers, Jakob; Ruttkay, Z.M.; ter Maat, Mark; Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; van Welbergen, H.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete framework for animation of Reactive Virtual Humans that offers a mixed animation paradigm: control of different body parts switches between keyframe animation, procedural animation and physical simulation, depending on the requirements of the moment. This framework implements

  12. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C, by u...

  13. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences.

  14. Human thermoregulation model of RF-EMF interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, F.

    2012-01-01

    A thermal model has been developed which allows accurate temperature computations in high resolution anatomical models. The model is based on the basic thermal model described by Pennes which neglects any of the thermoregulatory mechanisms in humans. The thermal model developed here overcomes major simplifications by the mathematical consideration of these mechanisms which is needed for modeling a physiologically correct reaction to a thermal stimulus. The local blood perfusion, as well as the local metabolic rate, is modified as a function of the local tissue temperature. The model implemented increases the blood temperature on the basis of the absorbed energy. The heat exchange at the tissue/air interface, including the skin and respiratory tract, is also improved. The model takes not only the heat dissipation by radiation, conduction and convection into consideration but also the insensible loss of water by evaporation. Furthermore, the thermal model also accounts for the active heat dissipation by sweating. The generic implementation of the thermal model makes it possible to use it for different human models (children, adults, pregnant women) and it is also possible to take implants into consideration. The performance of the model is validated by comparing the simulation results to actual temperature measurements in humans. The thermal model is used to compute the temperature elevation in humans exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Until now, the tissue heating caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields could only be estimated by a surrogate, namely the specific absorption rate. The temperature elevations in children of different sizes and ages as well as pregnant women at different gestational stages exposed to plane waves is computed. Furthermore, the temperature elevation in human bodies is computed for a diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) and a therapeutic modality (medical diathermy). (author) [de

  15. Motivation, Participation, and Engagement in Human Work Interaction Design Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barricelli, Barbara Rita; Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This position paper is aimed at presenting as discussion material at the CoPDA 2016 Workshop the preliminary results of a short review of the literature published by the HWID community in the last 10 years in four books. Specifically, the attention is posed on understanding the importance of moti...... of motivation, participation, and engagement in Interaction Design projects for smart and pervasive workplaces...

  16. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  17. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  18. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  19. Virtual reality/ augmented reality technology : the next chapter of human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    No matter how many different size and shape the computer has, the basic components of computers are still the same. If we use the user perspective to look for the development of computer history, we can surprisingly find that it is the input output device that leads the development of the industry development, in one word, human-computer interaction changes the development of computer history. Human computer interaction has been gone through three stages, the first stage relies on the inpu...

  20. The Creation of a Multi-Human, Multi-Robot Interactive Jam Session

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Gil; Blosser, Brian; Mallikarjuna, Trishul; Raman, Aparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive and improvisational jam session, including human players and two robotic musicians. The project was developed in an effort to create novel and inspiring music through human-robot collaboration. The jam session incorporates Shimon, a newly-developed socially-interactive robotic marimba player, and Haile, a perceptual robotic percussionist developed in previous work. The paper gives an overview of the musical perception modules, adaptive improvisation modes an...

  1. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  2. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  3. A Framework for Agent-based Human Interaction Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bürkle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe an agent-based infrastructure for multimodal perceptual systems which aims at developing and realizing computer services that are delivered to humans in an implicit and unobtrusive way. The framework presented here supports the implementation of human-centric context-aware applications providing non-obtrusive assistance to participants in events such as meetings, lectures, conferences and presentations taking place in indoor "smart spaces". We emphasize on the design and implementation of an agent-based framework that supports "pluggable" service logic in the sense that the service developer can concentrate on coding the service logic independently of the underlying middleware. Furthermore, we give an example of the architecture's ability to support the cooperation of multiple services in a meeting scenario using an intelligent connector service and a semantic web oriented travel service.

  4. Dynamic Interactions Between Health, Human Capital and Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with health, human capital and wealth accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one industrial, one health, and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of four main models in economic theory: Solow’s one-sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, Arrow’s learning by doing model, and Grossman’s growth model with health. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of health service and education are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth, health, human capital, economic structure, and time distribution among work, health caring, and education under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the propensity to consume health caring, the efficiency of producing health caring, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save.

  5. Comparative biogeochemistry–ecosystem–human interactions on dynamic continental margins..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levin, L.A.; Liu, K-K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Breitburg, D.L.; Cloern, J.; Deutsch, C.; Giani, M.; Goffart, A.; Hofmann, E.E.; Lachkar, Z.; Limburg, K.; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, E.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Ragueneau, O.; Rabouille, C.; Sarkar, S.K.; Swaney, D.P.; Wassman, P.; Wishner, K.F.

    aswitnessed by diverse case studies (Table 1, Fig. 1). Intensified nitrogen loading is widespread in coastal ecosystems receiving effluents from catchments with dense human populations (Glavovic et al., submitted for publication; Rabalais, 2004). This yields... margins high-frequency climate oscillations are the domi- nant driver of biogeochemical variation and consequently, ecosystem structure. In the Bay of Calvi in the Ligurian Sea of the NWMediterra- nean (Goffart et al., submitted for publication...

  6. Interaction Profiling Identifies the Human Nuclear Exosome Targeting Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon; Christensen, Marianne Skovgaard; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    from nucleoli, and consistently NEXT is specifically required for the exosomal degradation of promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs). We also detect putative homolog TRAMP subunits hTRF4-2 (Trf4p) and ZCCHC7 (Air2p) in hRRP6 and hMTR4 precipitates. However, at least ZCCHC7 function is restricted...... to nucleoli. Our results suggest that human nuclear exosome degradation pathways comprise modules of spatially organized cofactors that diverge from the yeast model....

  7. Human Robot Interaction for Hybrid Collision Avoidance System for Indoor Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Ghandour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach for collision avoidance for indoor mobile robots based on human-robot interaction is realized. The main contribution of this work is a new technique for collision avoidance by engaging the human and the robot in generating new collision-free paths. In mobile robotics, collision avoidance is critical for the success of the robots in implementing their tasks, especially when the robots navigate in crowded and dynamic environments, which include humans. Traditional collision avoidance methods deal with the human as a dynamic obstacle, without taking into consideration that the human will also try to avoid the robot, and this causes the people and the robot to get confused, especially in crowded social places such as restaurants, hospitals, and laboratories. To avoid such scenarios, a reactive-supervised collision avoidance system for mobile robots based on human-robot interaction is implemented. In this method, both the robot and the human will collaborate in generating the collision avoidance via interaction. The person will notify the robot about the avoidance direction via interaction, and the robot will search for the optimal collision-free path on the selected direction. In case that no people interacted with the robot, it will select the navigation path autonomously and select the path that is closest to the goal location. The humans will interact with the robot using gesture recognition and Kinect sensor. To build the gesture recognition system, two models were used to classify these gestures, the first model is Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN, and the second model is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Furthermore, a novel collision avoidance system for avoiding the obstacles is implemented and integrated with the HRI system. The system is tested on H20 robot from DrRobot Company (Canada and a set of experiments were implemented to report the performance of the system in interacting with the human and avoiding

  8. Modelling of spatially complex human-ecosystem, rural-urban and rich-poor interactions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naude, AH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the challenges of modelling and assessing spatially complex human-ecosystem interactions, and the need to simultaneously consider rural-urban and rich-poor interactions. The context for exploring these challenges is South Africa...

  9. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  10. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  11. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  12. Accelerating Robot Development through Integral Analysis of Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, T.; Kanda, T.; Bartneck, C.; Ishiguro, H.; Hagita, N.

    2007-01-01

    The development of interactive robots is a complicated process, involving a plethora of psychological, technical, and contextual influences. To design a robot capable of operating "intelligently" in everyday situations, one needs a profound understanding of human-robot interaction (HRI). We propose

  13. Systematic Analysis of Video Data from Different Human-Robot Interaction Studies: A Categorisation of Social Signals During Error Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel eGiuliani; Nicole eMirnig; Gerald eStollnberger; Susanne eStadler; Roland eBuchner; Manfred eTscheligi

    2015-01-01

    Human?robot interactions are often affected by error situations that are caused by either the robot or the human. Therefore, robots would profit from the ability to recognize when error situations occur. We investigated the verbal and non-verbal social signals that humans show when error situations occur in human?robot interaction experiments. For that, we analyzed 201 videos of five human?robot interaction user studies with varying tasks from four independent projects. The analysis shows tha...

  14. Revising ecological assumptions about Human papillomavirus interactions and type replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murall, Carmen Lía; McCann, Kevin S; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-06-07

    The controversy over whether vaccine-targeted HPV types will be replaced by other oncogenic, non-vaccine-targeted types remains unresolved. This is in part because little is known about the ecology of HPV types. Patient data has been interpreted to suggest independence or facilitative interactions between types and therefore replacement is believed to be unlikely. With a novel mathematical model, we investigated which HPV type interactions and their immune responses gave qualitatively similar patterns frequently observed in patients. To assess the possibility of type replacement, vaccination was added to see if non-vaccine-targeted types increased their 'niche'. Our model predicts that independence and facilitation are not necessary for the coexistence of types inside hosts, especially given the patchy nature of HPV infection. In fact, independence and facilitation inadequately represented co-infected patients. We found that some form of competition is likely in natural co-infections. Hence, non-vaccine-targeted types that are not cross-reactive with the vaccine could spread to more patches and can increase their viral load in vaccinated hosts. The degree to which this happens will depend on replication and patch colonization rates. Our results suggest that independence between types could be a fallacy, and so without conclusively untangling HPV within-host ecology, type replacement remains theoretically viable. More ecological thinking is needed in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    -body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off-road......This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...

  16. Biomolecular Interaction Study of Cyclolinopeptide A with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rempel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics, energetics, and structure of Cyclolinopeptide A binding with Human Serum Albumin were investigated with surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. The complex is formed through slow recognition kinetics that is temperature sensitive in the range of 20°C–37°C. The overall reaction was observed to be endothermic (ΔH=204 kJ mol−1 and entropy driven (ΔS=746 J mol−1K−1 with overall small changes to the tertiary structure.

  17. Pragmatic Frames for Teaching and Learning in Human-Robot Interaction: Review and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Wrede, Britta; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    One of the big challenges in robotics today is to learn from human users that are inexperienced in interacting with robots but yet are often used to teach skills flexibly to other humans and to children in particular. A potential route toward natural and efficient learning and teaching in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is to leverage the social competences of humans and the underlying interactional mechanisms. In this perspective, this article discusses the importance of pragmatic frames as flexible interaction protocols that provide important contextual cues to enable learners to infer new action or language skills and teachers to convey these cues. After defining and discussing the concept of pragmatic frames, grounded in decades of research in developmental psychology, we study a selection of HRI work in the literature which has focused on learning-teaching interaction and analyze the interactional and learning mechanisms that were used in the light of pragmatic frames. This allows us to show that many of the works have already used in practice, but not always explicitly, basic elements of the pragmatic frames machinery. However, we also show that pragmatic frames have so far been used in a very restricted way as compared to how they are used in human-human interaction and argue that this has been an obstacle preventing robust natural multi-task learning and teaching in HRI. In particular, we explain that two central features of human pragmatic frames, mostly absent of existing HRI studies, are that (1) social peers use rich repertoires of frames, potentially combined together, to convey and infer multiple kinds of cues; (2) new frames can be learnt continually, building on existing ones, and guiding the interaction toward higher levels of complexity and expressivity. To conclude, we give an outlook on the future research direction describing the relevant key challenges that need to be solved for leveraging pragmatic frames for robot learning and teaching.

  18. Poster Abstract: A Practical Model for Human-Smart Appliances Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Jonathan; Fruergaard, Andreas; Johannesen, Marco Høvinghof

    2016-01-01

    for human-smart appliance interaction. We present a prototype implementation with an off-the-shelf smart lighting and heating system in a shared office space. Our approach minimizes the need for location metadata. It relies on a human-feedback loop (both sensor based and manual) to identify the optimal...

  19. Towards Semantic Analysis of Training-Learning Relationships within Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    In this article First-Order Predicate Logic (FOL) is employed for analysing some relationships between human beings and machines. Based on FOL, I will be conceptually and logically concerned with semantic analysis of training-learning relationships in human-machine interaction. The central focus...

  20. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  1. The Error Is the Clue: Breakdown In Human-Machine Interaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinovsky, Bilyana; Traum, David

    2006-01-01

    .... Human reactions to these irritating features typically appear in the following order: tiredness, tolerance, anger, confusion, irony, humor, exhaustion, uncertainty, lack of desire to communicate. The studied features of human expressions of irritation in nonface- to-face interaction are: intonation, emphatic speech, elliptic speech, speed of speech, extra-linguistic signs, speed of verbal action, and overlap.

  2. Optimal design method to minimize users' thinking mapping load in human-machine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between human cognition and machine requirements/behaviors usually results in serious mental thinking mapping loads or even disasters in product operating. It is important to help people avoid human-machine interaction confusions and difficulties in today's mental work mastered society. Improving the usability of a product and minimizing user's thinking mapping and interpreting load in human-machine interactions. An optimal human-machine interface design method is introduced, which is based on the purpose of minimizing the mental load in thinking mapping process between users' intentions and affordance of product interface states. By analyzing the users' thinking mapping problem, an operating action model is constructed. According to human natural instincts and acquired knowledge, an expected ideal design with minimized thinking loads is uniquely determined at first. Then, creative alternatives, in terms of the way human obtains operational information, are provided as digital interface states datasets. In the last, using the cluster analysis method, an optimum solution is picked out from alternatives, by calculating the distances between two datasets. Considering multiple factors to minimize users' thinking mapping loads, a solution nearest to the ideal value is found in the human-car interaction design case. The clustering results show its effectiveness in finding an optimum solution to the mental load minimizing problems in human-machine interaction design.

  3. Towards a Pedagogy of Humanizing Child Education in Terms of Teacher-Student Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Huang

    2018-01-01

    By reading and analyzing related studies, this article investigates methods for humanizing child education in terms of teacher-student interaction. It is hoped that this study will allow teachers to understand the essence of child education, to become better educators and humanizing child education, so that students can develop a healthy body and…

  4. Human body micro-environment: The benefits of controlling airflow interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-environment around a human body, and especially on its interaction with the surrounding environment. Research on the free convection flow generated by a human body (including the convective boundary layer around the body and the thermal plume above the body), its...

  5. Using GOMS and NASA-TLX to Evaluate Human-Computer Interaction Process in Interactive Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkumar, A.; Stappers, P.J.; Niessen, W.J.; Adebahr, S; Schimek-Jasch, T; Nestle, U; Song, Y.

    2016-01-01

    HCI plays an important role in interactive medical image segmentation. The Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) model and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire are different methods that are often used to evaluate the HCI

  6. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  7. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The contamination of food is an important pathway involved in the internal combination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this content because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications. (Author)

  8. Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L; Wilson, R

    2002-01-01

    Endobronchial infection is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the majority of cases. We have investigated the adherence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the human respiratory mucosa. Organ cultures constructed with human tissue were infected with M. tuberculosis in the presence or absence of mycobacterial fibronectin attachment cell surface proteins and examined by scanning electron microscopy. M. tuberculosis adhered mainly to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of mucosal damage, but not to ciliated mucosa, intact extruded cells, basement membrane or collagen fibres. Bacteria also adhered to fibrous but not globular mucus and occasionally to healthy unciliated mucosa, open tight junctions and to extruded cells that had degenerated, exposing their contents. There was a significant reduction (pprotein (FAP) and M. bovis antigen 85B protein, in a concentration dependent manner. The combined effect of FAP and antigen 85B protein was significantly greater than either protein alone. Bacterial adherence to fibrous mucus was not influenced by fibronectin. We conclude that M. tuberculosis adheres to ECM in areas of mucosal damage at least in part via FAP and antigen 85B protein.

  9. Modeling human diseases: an education in interactions and interdisciplinary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Zon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most investigators in the biomedical arena exploit one model system in the course of their careers. Occasionally, an investigator will switch models. The selection of a suitable model system is a crucial step in research design. Factors to consider include the accuracy of the model as a reflection of the human disease under investigation, the numbers of animals needed and ease of husbandry, its physiology and developmental biology, and the ability to apply genetics and harness the model for drug discovery. In my lab, we have primarily used the zebrafish but combined it with other animal models and provided a framework for others to consider the application of developmental biology for therapeutic discovery. Our interdisciplinary approach has led to many insights into human diseases and to the advancement of candidate drugs to clinical trials. Here, I draw on my experiences to highlight the importance of combining multiple models, establishing infrastructure and genetic tools, forming collaborations, and interfacing with the medical community for successful translation of basic findings to the clinic.

  10. Modelling human interactions in the assessment of man-made hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoi, M.; Farcasiu, M.; Apostol, M.

    2016-01-01

    The human reliability assessment tools are not currently capable to model adequately the human ability to adapt, to innovate and to manage under extreme situations. The paper presents the results obtained by ICN PSA team in the frame of FP7 Advanced Safety Assessment Methodologies: extended PSA (ASAMPSA_E) project regarding the investigation of conducting HRA in human-made hazards. The paper proposes to use a 4-steps methodology for the assessment of human interactions in the external events (Definition and modelling of human interactions; Quantification of human failure events; Recovery analysis; Review). The most relevant factors with respect to HRA for man-made hazards (response execution complexity; existence of procedures with respect to the scenario in question; time available for action; timing of cues; accessibility of equipment; harsh environmental conditions) are presented and discussed thoroughly. The challenges identified in relation to man-made hazards HRA are highlighted. (authors)

  11. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F.; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. PMID:24240598

  12. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  13. USING RESEARCH METHODS IN HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION TO DESIGN TECHNOLOGY FOR RESILIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Arminda Guerra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research in human computer interaction (HCI) covers both technological and human behavioural concerns. As a consequence, the contributions made in HCI research tend to be aware to either engineering or the social sciences. In HCI the purpose of practical research contributions is to reveal unknown insights about human behaviour and its relationship to technology. Practical research methods normally used in HCI include formal experiments, field experiments, field studies, interviews, ...

  14. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  15. An audio-visual dataset of human-human interactions in stressful situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Burghouts, G.J.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful situations are likely to occur at human operated service desks, as well as at human-computer interfaces used in public domain. Automatic surveillance can help notifying when extra assistance is needed. Human communication is inherently multimodal e.g. speech, gestures, facial expressions.

  16. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  17. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  18. Interactions of hydroxyapatite surfaces: conditioning films of human whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Marité; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Hamit, Jildiz; Rutland, Mark W; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite is a very interesting material given that it is the main component in tooth enamel and because of its uses in bone implant applications. Therefore, not only the characterization of its surface is of high relevance but also designing reliable methods to study the interfacial properties of films adsorbed onto it. In this paper we apply the colloidal probe atomic force microscopy method to investigate the surface properties of commercially available hydroxyapatite surfaces (both microscopic particles and macroscopic discs) in terms of interfacial and frictional forces. In this way, we find that hydroxyapatite surfaces at physiological relevant conditions are slightly negatively charged. The surfaces were then exposed to human whole saliva, and the surface properties were re-evaluated. A thick film was formed that was very resistant to mechanical stress. The frictional measurements demonstrated that the film was indeed highly lubricating, supporting the argument that this system may prove to be a relevant model for evaluating dental and implant systems.

  19. The human core exosome interacts with differentially localized processive RNases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomecki, Rafal; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard; Lykke-Andersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a ribonucleolytic complex involved in RNA processing and turnover. It consists of a nine-subunit catalytically inert core that serves a structural function and participates in substrate recognition. Best defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enzymatic activity comes...... from the associated subunits Dis3p (Rrp44p) and Rrp6p. The former is a nuclear and cytoplasmic RNase II/R-like enzyme, which possesses both processive exo- and endonuclease activities, whereas the latter is a distributive RNase D-like nuclear exonuclease. Although the exosome core is highly conserved......, identity and arrangements of its catalytic subunits in different vertebrates remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the association of two different Dis3p homologs--hDIS3 and hDIS3L--with the human exosome core. Interestingly, these factors display markedly different intracellular localizations: hDIS3...

  20. Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Significant concerns have been raised about the metabolic effects of antiretroviral medication, including the classic triad of dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR) and characteristic alterations in fat distribution (lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy). Co-infection with hepatitis C appears to exacerbate IR, reduce serum lipids and induce prothrombotic changes in the treated human immunodeficiency virus patient. The effects of co-infection are complex. While combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events through promotion of dyslipidaemia, IR and fat redistribution, co-infection exacerbates IR while reducing serum lipids. Co-infection also promotes a prothrombotic state characterized by endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation, which may enhance risk for cardiovascular disease. Consideration must be given to selection of appropriate treatment regimens and timing of therapy in co-infected patients to minimize metabolic derangements and, ultimately, reduce cardiovascular risk.

  1. Using Language Games as a Way to Investigate Interactional Engagement in Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    how students' engagement with a social robot can be systematically investigated and evaluated. For this purpose, I present a small user study in which a robot plays a word formation game with a human, in which engagement is determined by means of an analysis of the 'language games' played...

  2. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI 2011) was held at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic from August 29 - August 31, 2011. This conference was third in the series, following IHCI 2009 and IHCI 2010 held in January at IIIT Allahabad, India. Human computer interaction is a fast growing research area and an attractive subject of interest for both academia and industry. There are many interesting and challenging topics that need to be researched and discussed. This book aims to provide excellent opportunities for the dissemination of interesting new research and discussion about presented topics. It can be useful for researchers working on various aspects of human computer interaction. Topics covered in this book include user interface and interaction, theoretical background and applications of HCI and also data mining and knowledge discovery as a support of HCI applications.

  3. Extending NGOMSL Model for Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction in the Soccer Robotics Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of human-computer interaction, the Natural Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules Language (NGOMSL model is one of the most popular methods for modelling knowledge and cognitive processes for rapid usability evaluation. The NGOMSL model is a description of the knowledge that a user must possess to operate the system represented as elementary actions for effective usability evaluations. In the last few years, mobile robots have been exhibiting a stronger presence in commercial markets and very little work has been done with NGOMSL modelling for usability evaluations in the human-robot interaction discipline. This paper focuses on extending the NGOMSL model for usability evaluation of human-humanoid robot interaction in the soccer robotics domain. The NGOMSL modelled human-humanoid interaction design of Robo-Erectus Junior was evaluated and the results of the experiments showed that the interaction design was able to find faults in an average time of 23.84 s. Also, the interaction design was able to detect the fault within the 60 s in 100% of the cases. The Evaluated Interaction design was adopted by our Robo-Erectus Junior version of humanoid robots in the RoboCup 2007 humanoid soccer league.

  4. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  5. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, John Z; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity.

  6. Interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A; Perez, Sonia A; Gritzapis, Angelos D; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Papamichail, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells representing an attractive therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine. They possess unique immunomodulatory properties, being capable of suppressing T-cell responses and modifying dendritic cell differentiation, maturation, and function, whereas they are not inherently immunogenic, failing to induce alloreactivity to T cells and freshly isolated natural killer (NK) cells. To clarify the generation of host immune responses to implanted MSCs in tissue engineering and their potential use as immunosuppressive elements, the effect of MSCs on NK cells was investigated. We demonstrate that at low NK-to-MSC ratios, MSCs alter the phenotype of NK cells and suppress proliferation, cytokine secretion, and cyto-toxicity against HLA-class I- expressing targets. Some of these effects require cell-to-cell contact, whereas others are mediated by soluble factors, including transforming growth factor-beta1 and prostaglandin E2, suggesting the existence of diverse mechanisms for MSC-mediated NK-cell suppression. On the other hand, MSCs are susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells. Overall, these data improve our knowledge of interactions between MSCs and NK cells and consequently of their effect on innate immune responses and their contribution to the regulation of adaptive immunity, graft rejection, and cancer immunotherapy.

  7. The role of metacognition in human social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Metacognition concerns the processes by which we monitor and control our own cognitive processes. It can also be applied to others, in which case it is known as mentalizing. Both kinds of metacognition have implicit and explicit forms, where implicit means automatic and without awareness. Implicit metacognition enables us to adopt a we-mode, through which we automatically take account of the knowledge and intentions of others. Adoption of this mode enhances joint action. Explicit metacognition enables us to reflect on and justify our behaviour to others. However, access to the underlying processes is very limited for both self and others and our reports on our own and others' intentions can be very inaccurate. On the other hand, recent experiments have shown that, through discussions of our perceptual experiences with others, we can detect sensory signals more accurately, even in the absence of objective feedback. Through our willingness to discuss with others the reasons for our actions and perceptions, we overcome our lack of direct access to the underlying cognitive processes. This creates the potential for us to build more accurate accounts of the world and of ourselves. I suggest, therefore, that explicit metacognition is a uniquely human ability that has evolved through its enhancement of collaborative decision-making. PMID:22734064

  8. Human-environment interactions in arid Australia: a geoarchaeological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Patricia C.; Holdaway, Simon J.; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional approach to assessing the archaeological record in semi-arid regions of many parts of the world involves extensive survey of surface deposits thought to indicate the use of space by past peoples. However, such interpretations require a detailed understanding not only of how these deposits formed but also why they have survived. In summarizing more than a decade of research in western New South Wales, Australia, we argue that over much of semi-arid and arid Australia, archaeological ‘sites' are, in fact, accretion phenomena (or ‘palimpsests') that are not easily interpreted as the outcome of short-term behavioural events. Moreover, while the desert landscapes may appear to be unchanging, there is considerable variability in landsurface age, and hence the ‘availability' of archaeological surfaces. It cannot be assumed that stone artefact deposits, for example, from a similar location are of a similar age. To make behavioural inferences from these records, an approach is needed based on a geoarchaeological assessment of landscape potential, analyses able to detect human responses to environmental change, and analyses of artefacts that emphasise mobility rather than static settlement patterns. Landscape, paleoenvironmental and artifact assemblage data from our field area will be presented that demonstrates episodic occupation by highly mobile groups of people, most likely reacting to environmental changes and resource availability.

  9. 5-Fluorouracil-radiation interactions in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Daniel J.; Lepek, Katherine J.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Murray, David

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of cellular proliferation and cell cycle stage on the ability of postirradiation 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to radiosensitize cultured human colon adenocarcinoma Clone A cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival curves were generated for irradiated: (a) log- and plateau-phase Clone A cells; and (b) Clone A cells separated by centrifugal elutriation into the various phases of the cell cycle; with and without postirradiation treatment with 100 μg/ml 5-FU. Results: Postirradiation treatment with 5-FU sensitized proliferating cells to a greater degree than it sensitized cells growing in plateau phase. The β component of cell kill in log-phase cells was increased by a factor of 1.5 with a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.21 at the 0.01 survival level. Plateau-phase cells showed less radiosensitization (sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.13 at the 0.01 survival level); however, there was a mild increase in both α and β kill in plateau-phase cells. Elutriated G 1 cells were the most radiosensitive, independent of treatment with 5-FU. The phase of the cell cycle had little effect on the ability of fluorouracil to radiosensitize Clone A cells. Conclusion: Proliferating cells are more susceptible to radiosensitization with 5-FU than plateau-phase cells are, but this effect appears to be independent of the phase of the cell cycle

  10. Deflating Autonomy: Human Interactivity in the Emerging Social World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This article critiques recent enactivist attempts to bridge an epistemological divide between the individual and the social (i.e. to fill in the posited macro-micro gap). Its central claim is that an inflated view of ‘autonomy’ leads to error. Scrutinising two contributions, we find that methodol......This article critiques recent enactivist attempts to bridge an epistemological divide between the individual and the social (i.e. to fill in the posited macro-micro gap). Its central claim is that an inflated view of ‘autonomy’ leads to error. Scrutinising two contributions, we find...... that methodological solipsism taints Varela’s model: It induces De Jaegher & Di Paolo to ascribe social knowledge to perturbances – contingencies whose logic arises from the closed organization of an individual (De Jaegher & Di Paolo, 2007) and Steiner & Stewart to posit that the pre......-dispositions of an organizationally closed world prompt individuals to “receive” shared norms (Steiner & Stewart, 2009). On our deflated view, neither organizational closure nor participatory sense making apply to most human cognition. Rather, we invoke a developmental process based on the recursive self-maintenance that is found...

  11. Prediction of Human Drug Targets and Their Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Kumari, Priyanka; Chaube, Radha

    2018-01-01

    Identification of drug targets and drug target interactions are important steps in the drug-discovery pipeline. Successful computational prediction methods can reduce the cost and time demanded by the experimental methods. Knowledge of putative drug targets and their interactions can be very useful for drug repurposing. Supervised machine learning methods have been very useful in drug target prediction and in prediction of drug target interactions. Here, we describe the details for developing prediction models using supervised learning techniques for human drug target prediction and their interactions.

  12. A definitional framework for the human/biometric sensor interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Kukula, Eric P.

    2010-04-01

    Existing definitions for biometric testing and evaluation do not fully explain errors in a biometric system. This paper provides a definitional framework for the Human Biometric-Sensor Interaction (HBSI) model. This paper proposes six new definitions based around two classifications of presentations, erroneous and correct. The new terms are: defective interaction (DI), concealed interaction (CI), false interaction (FI), failure to detect (FTD), failure to extract (FTX), and successfully acquired samples (SAS). As with all definitions, the new terms require a modification to the general biometric model developed by Mansfield and Wayman [1].

  13. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  14. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Timothy; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance.

  15. A Simple Model for Human and Nature Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J.; Kalnay, E.

    2012-12-01

    There are widespread concerns that current trends in population and resource-use are unsustainable, but the possibilities of an overshoot and collapse remain unclear and controversial. Collapses of civilizations have occurred many times in the past 5000 years, often followed by centuries of economic, intellectual, and population decline. Many different natural and social phenomena have been invoked to explain specific collapses, but a general explanation remains elusive. Two important features seem to appear across societies that have collapsed: Ecological Strain and Economic Stratification. Our new model (Human And Nature DYnamics, HANDY) has just four equations that describe the evolution of Elites, Commoners, Nature, and Wealth. Mechanisms leading to collapse are discussed and the measure "Carrying Capacity" is developed and defined. The model shows that societal collapse can happen due to either one of two independent factors: (1) over-consumption of natural resources, and/or (2) deep inequity between Elites and Commoners. The model also portrays two distinct types of collapse: (i) collapse followed by recovery of nature, and (ii) full collapse. The model suggests that the estimation of Carrying Capacity is a practical means for early detection of a collapse. Collapse can be avoided, and population can reach a sustainable equilibrium, if the rate of depletion of nature is reduced to a sustainable level, and if resources are distributed in a reasonably equitable fashion.; A type-ii (full) collapse is shown in this figure. With high inequality and high depletion, societies are doomed to collapse. Wealth starts to decrease when population rises above the carrying capacity. The large gap between carrying capacity and its maximum is a result of depletion factor being much larger than the sustainable limit. ; It is possible to overshoot, oscillate, and eventually converge to an equilibrium, even in an inequitable society. However, it requires policies that control

  16. Intrinsically motivated reinforcement learning for human-robot interaction in the real-world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ahmed Hussain; Nakamura, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2018-03-26

    For a natural social human-robot interaction, it is essential for a robot to learn the human-like social skills. However, learning such skills is notoriously hard due to the limited availability of direct instructions from people to teach a robot. In this paper, we propose an intrinsically motivated reinforcement learning framework in which an agent gets the intrinsic motivation-based rewards through the action-conditional predictive model. By using the proposed method, the robot learned the social skills from the human-robot interaction experiences gathered in the real uncontrolled environments. The results indicate that the robot not only acquired human-like social skills but also took more human-like decisions, on a test dataset, than a robot which received direct rewards for the task achievement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Preliminary Study of Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lees, David; Schreiner, John; Siegel, Michael; Hiatt, Laura M.; Nourbakhsh, Illah; Simmons, Reid; Ambrose, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction (P2P-HRI) project is developing techniques to improve task coordination and collaboration between human and robot partners. Our work is motivated by the need to develop effective human-robot teams for space mission operations. A central element of our approach is creating dialogue and interaction tools that enable humans and robots to flexibly support one another. In order to understand how this approach can influence task performance, we recently conducted a series of tests simulating a lunar construction task with a human-robot team. In this paper, we describe the tests performed, discuss our initial results, and analyze the effect of intervention on task performance.

  18. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  19. Studying human-automation interactions: methodological lessons learned from the human-centred automation experiments 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaiu, Salvatore; Skjerve, Ann Britt Miberg; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.; Strand, Stine; Waeroe, Irene

    2004-04-01

    This report documents the methodological lessons learned from the Human Centred Automation (HCA) programme both in terms of psychometric evaluation of the measurement techniques developed for human-automation interaction study, and in terms of the application of advanced statistical methods for analysis of experiments. The psychometric evaluation is based on data from the four experiments performed within the HCA programme. The result is a single-source reference text of measurement instruments for the study of human-automation interaction, part of which were specifically developed by the programme. The application of advanced statistical techniques is exemplified by additional analyses performed on the IPSN-HCA experiment of 1998. Special importance is given to the statistical technique Structural Equation Modeling, for the possibility it offers to advance, and empirically test, comprehensive explanations about human-automation interactions. The additional analyses of the IPSN-HCA experiment investigated how the operators formed judgments about their own performance. The issue is of substantive interest for human automation interaction research because the operators' over- or underestimation of their own performance could be seen as a symptom of human-machine mismatch, and a potential latent failure. These analyses concluded that it is the interplay between (1) the level of automation and several factors that determines the operators' bias in performance self-estimation: (2) the nature of the task, (3) the level of scenario complexity, and (4) the level of trust in the automatic system. A structural model that expresses the interplay of all these factors was empirically evaluated and was found able to provide a concise and elegant explanation of the intricate pattern of relationships between the identified factors. (Author)

  20. From 'automation' to 'autonomy': the importance of trust repair in human-machine interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Ewart J; Pak, Richard; Shaw, Tyler H

    2018-04-09

    Modern interactions with technology are increasingly moving away from simple human use of computers as tools to the establishment of human relationships with autonomous entities that carry out actions on our behalf. In a recent commentary, Peter Hancock issued a stark warning to the field of human factors that attention must be focused on the appropriate design of a new class of technology: highly autonomous systems. In this article, we heed the warning and propose a human-centred approach directly aimed at ensuring that future human-autonomy interactions remain focused on the user's needs and preferences. By adapting literature from industrial psychology, we propose a framework to infuse a unique human-like ability, building and actively repairing trust, into autonomous systems. We conclude by proposing a model to guide the design of future autonomy and a research agenda to explore current challenges in repairing trust between humans and autonomous systems. Practitioner Summary: This paper is a call to practitioners to re-cast our connection to technology as akin to a relationship between two humans rather than between a human and their tools. To that end, designing autonomy with trust repair abilities will ensure future technology maintains and repairs relationships with their human partners.

  1. RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA–RNA/RNA–protein) interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA–RNA/RNA–protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA–RNA interactions and 1619 RNA–protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA–RNA/RNA–protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA–RNA/RNA–protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network. PMID:24803509

  2. Quantifying human-environment interactions using videography in the context of infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Bustos, Carla; Kwong, Laura H; Badilla, Alejandro D; Lee, Julia; Bischel, Heather N; Canales, Robert A

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative data on human-environment interactions are needed to fully understand infectious disease transmission processes and conduct accurate risk assessments. Interaction events occur during an individual's movement through, and contact with, the environment, and can be quantified using diverse methodologies. Methods that utilize videography, coupled with specialized software, can provide a permanent record of events, collect detailed interactions in high resolution, be reviewed for accuracy, capture events difficult to observe in real-time, and gather multiple concurrent phenomena. In the accompanying video, the use of specialized software to capture humanenvironment interactions for human exposure and disease transmission is highlighted. Use of videography, combined with specialized software, allows for the collection of accurate quantitative representations of human-environment interactions in high resolution. Two specialized programs include the Virtual Timing Device for the Personal Computer, which collects sequential microlevel activity time series of contact events and interactions, and LiveTrak, which is optimized to facilitate annotation of events in real-time. Opportunities to annotate behaviors at high resolution using these tools are promising, permitting detailed records that can be summarized to gain information on infectious disease transmission and incorporated into more complex models of human exposure and risk.

  3. Quantifying human-environment interactions using videography in the context of infectious disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Julian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative data on human-environment interactions are needed to fully understand infectious disease transmission processes and conduct accurate risk assessments. Interaction events occur during an individual’s movement through, and contact with, the environment, and can be quantified using diverse methodologies. Methods that utilize videography, coupled with specialized software, can provide a permanent record of events, collect detailed interactions in high resolution, be reviewed for accuracy, capture events difficult to observe in real-time, and gather multiple concurrent phenomena. In the accompanying video, the use of specialized software to capture humanenvironment interactions for human exposure and disease transmission is highlighted. Use of videography, combined with specialized software, allows for the collection of accurate quantitative representations of human-environment interactions in high resolution. Two specialized programs include the Virtual Timing Device for the Personal Computer, which collects sequential microlevel activity time series of contact events and interactions, and LiveTrak, which is optimized to facilitate annotation of events in real-time. Opportunities to annotate behaviors at high resolution using these tools are promising, permitting detailed records that can be summarized to gain information on infectious disease transmission and incorporated into more complex models of human exposure and risk.

  4. HPIminer: A text mining system for building and visualizing human protein interaction networks and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Suresh; Kalpana, Raja; Monickaraj, Pankaj Moses; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge on protein-protein interactions (PPI) and their related pathways are equally important to understand the biological functions of the living cell. Such information on human proteins is highly desirable to understand the mechanism of several diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Because much of that information is buried in biomedical literature, an automated text mining system for visualizing human PPI and pathways is highly desirable. In this paper, we present HPIminer, a text mining system for visualizing human protein interactions and pathways from biomedical literature. HPIminer extracts human PPI information and PPI pairs from biomedical literature, and visualize their associated interactions, networks and pathways using two curated databases HPRD and KEGG. To our knowledge, HPIminer is the first system to build interaction networks from literature as well as curated databases. Further, the new interactions mined only from literature and not reported earlier in databases are highlighted as new. A comparative study with other similar tools shows that the resultant network is more informative and provides additional information on interacting proteins and their associated networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In silico modeling of human α2C-adrenoreceptor interaction with filamin-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-ARs mediate vasoconstriction of small blood vessels, especially arterioles. Studies of endogenous receptors in human arteriolar smooth muscle cells (referred to as microVSM and transiently transfected receptors in heterologous HEK293 cells show that the α2C-ARs are perinuclear receptors that translocate to the cell surface under cellular stress and elicit a biological response. Recent studies in microVSM unraveled a crucial role of Rap1A-Rho-ROCK-F-actin pathways in receptor translocation, and identified protein-protein interaction of α2C-ARs with the actin binding protein filamin-2 as an essential step in the process. To better understand the molecular nature and specificity of this interaction, in this study, we constructed comparative models of human α2C-AR and human filamin-2 proteins. Finally, we performed in silico protein-protein docking to provide a structural platform for the investigation of human α2C-AR and filamin-2 interactions. We found that electrostatic interactions seem to play a key role in this complex formation which manifests in interactions between the C-terminal arginines of α2C-ARs (particularly R454 and R456 and negatively charged residues from filamin-2 region between residues 1979 and 2206. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that these interactions have evolved in warm-blooded animals.

  6. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  7. Interaction of nitric oxide with human heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Lu, Shen; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2003-01-24

    NO and CO may complement each other as signaling molecules in some physiological situations. We have examined the binding of NO to human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an enzyme that oxidizes heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron, to determine whether inhibition of hHO-1 by NO can contribute to the signaling interplay of NO and CO. An Fe(3+)-NO hHO-1-heme complex is formed with NO or the NO donors NOC9 or 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide.sodium salt. Resonance Raman spectroscopy shows that ferric hHO-1-heme forms a 6-coordinated, low spin complex with NO. The nu(N-O) vibration of this complex detected by Fourier transform IR is only 4 cm(-1) lower than that of the corresponding metmyoglobin (met-Mb) complex but is broader, suggesting a greater degree of ligand conformational freedom. The Fe(3+)-NO complex of hHO-1 is much more stable than that of met-Mb. Stopped-flow studies indicate that k(on) for formation of the hHO-1-heme Fe(3+)-NO complex is approximately 50-times faster, and k(off) 10 times slower, than for met-Mb, resulting in K(d) = 1.4 microm for NO. NO thus binds 500-fold more tightly to ferric hHO-1-heme than to met-Mb. The hHO-1 mutations E29A, G139A, D140A, S142A, G143A, G143F, and K179A/R183A do not significantly diminish the tight binding of NO, indicating that NO binding is not highly sensitive to mutations of residues that normally stabilize the distal water ligand. As expected from the K(d) value, the enzyme is reversibly inhibited upon exposure to pathologically, and possibly physiologically, relevant concentrations of NO. Inhibition of hHO-1 by NO may contribute to the pleiotropic responses to NO and CO.

  8. Human-nature interactions and the consequences and drivers of provisioning wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2018-05-05

    Many human populations are undergoing an extinction of experience, with a progressive decline in interactions with nature. This is a consequence both of a loss of opportunity for, and orientation towards, such experiences. The trend is of concern in part because interactions with nature can be good for human health and wellbeing. One potential means of redressing these losses is through the intentional provision of resources to increase wildlife populations in close proximity to people, thereby increasing the potential for positive human-nature experiences, and thence the array of benefits that can result. In this paper, we review the evidence that these resource subsidies have such a cascade of effects. In some Westernized countries, the scale of provision is extraordinarily high, and doubtless leads to both positive and negative impacts for wildlife. In turn, these impacts often lead to more frequent, reliable and closer human-nature interactions, with a greater variety of species. The consequences for human wellbeing remain poorly understood, although benefits documented in the context of human-nature interactions more broadly seem likely to apply. There are also some important feedback loops that need to be better characterized if resource provisioning is to contribute effectively towards averting the extinction of experience.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'. © 2018 The Authors.

  9. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain’s neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum

  10. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  11. Structure-Interaction Theory: Conceptual, Contextual and Strategic Influences on Human Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Стивен А Биби

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Structure-Interaction Theory (SIT, a theoretical framework that both describes communication messages as well as assists in making predictions about how human communication can be improved based on listener preferences for message structure or interaction. Communication messages may be characterized as existing on a continuum of structure-interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way information in a message is organized. A highly structured message is one in which the message is strategically organized using a planned arrangement of symbols to create meaning. Communication interaction is a way of viewing a message with give-and-take, less sustained “notes,” more change in note sequence and briefer notes. SIT seeks to provide a framework to assist communicators in appropriately adapting a message for maximum effectiveness. Although Structure-Interaction Theory newly articulated here, it is anchored in both classic ways of describing communication, such as rhetoric and dialectic (Aristotle, 1959, as well as more contemporary communication theories (Salem, 2012; Littlejohn & Foss, 2008. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of the theory and its conceptual assumptions, identifies how the theory can help explain and predict communication in several communication contexts (interpersonal, group, public communication, and suggests how SIT may help identify strategies to enhance human development. Structure-Interaction Theory is based on an assumption that a human communication message which is understood, achieves the intended effect of the communicator, and is ethical, requires an appropriate balance of two things: structure and interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way a message is constructed to provide a sustained direction to present information to another person. In linking structure and interaction to Aristotle’s description of messages, rhetoric is a more structured, sustained speech

  12. Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human-Machine Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    opponent had some human-likeness. In particular, the research shows that activity in the left parietal region correlating with a human players future ...human-likeness. In particular, our research shows that activity in the left parietal region correlating with a human player’s future behavior can be...this work. - Emotional Conversational Agent: The 4th Korean Flagship AI Project, from December 2016 to December 2020, about US$14,000,000 (Principal

  13. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-11-07

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques.

  14. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques. (paper)

  15. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using ethnomethod...... in studying how human work analysis and interaction design in concrete cases are related and connected.......This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...... ethnomethodology, work domain/task analysis, and the HWID approach, and comparing the results. Compared to the traditional approaches, the HWID focus on case-specific connections between human work and interaction design, gives different and supplementary answers. The conclusion is that there are benefits...

  16. Human-Computer Interaction and Sociological Insight: A Theoretical Examination and Experiment in Building Affinity in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Michael Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The juxtaposition of classic sociological theory and the, relatively, young discipline of human-computer interaction (HCI) serves as a powerful mechanism for both exploring the theoretical impacts of technology on human interactions as well as the application of technological systems to moderate interactions. It is the intent of this dissertation…

  17. Virtual Reality Techniques for Eliciting Empathy and Cultural Awareness: Affective Human-Virtual World Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chirino-Klevans, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    On the average human beings have about 50,000 thoughts every day. If we consider that thoughts influence how we feel there is little doubt that the way we perceive reality will strongly correlate with how we act upon that reality. Let’s contextualize this thinking process within the realm of global business where interacting with individuals from other cultural backgrounds is the norm. Our own perceptions and stereotypes towards those cultural groups will strongly influence how we interact wi...

  18. Experimental studies of the interaction between people and virtual humans with a focus on social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, X.

    2010-01-01

    Psychotherapy has been one of the major applications of Virtual Reality technology; examples include fear of flying, heights, spiders, and post‐traumatic stress disorder. Virtual reality has been shown to be useful, in the context of exposure therapy for the treatment of social anxiety, such as fear of public speaking, where the clients learn how to conquer their anxiety through interactions with Virtual Characters (avatars). This thesis is concerned with the interaction between human p...

  19. Analytic Provenance Datasets: A Data Repository of Human Analysis Activity and Interaction Logs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohseni, Sina; Pachuilo, Andrew; Nirjhar, Ehsanul Haque; Linder, Rhema; Pena, Alyssa; Ragan, Eric D.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analytic provenance data repository that can be used to study human analysis activity, thought processes, and software interaction with visual analysis tools during exploratory data analysis. We conducted a series of user studies involving exploratory data analysis scenario with textual and cyber security data. Interactions logs, think-alouds, videos and all coded data in this study are available online for research purposes. Analysis sessions are segmented in multiple sub-task ...

  20. Electrochemical Studies of Camptothecin and Its Interaction with Human Serum Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jing; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Xing, Wei; Huang, Junyi; Li, Genxi

    2007-01-01

    Camptothecin, an anticancer component from Camptotheca acuminate, may interact with human serum albumin (HSA) at the subdomain IIA (site I), and then convert to its inactive form(carboxylate form). In this paper, the detailed electrochemical behaviors of camptothecin at a pyrolytic graphite electrode is presented. The interaction between camptothecin and HSA is also studied by electrochemical technique. By comparing with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is highly homologous to HSA, we prove ...

  1. Photo-physical and structural interactions between viologen phosphorus-based dendrimers and human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciepluch, Karol; Katir, Nadia; El Kadib, Abdelkrim; Weber, Monika; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Bousmina, Mostapha; Pierre Majoral, Jean; Bryszewska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with photo-physical and structural interactions between viologen phosphorus dendrimers and human serum albumin (HSA). Viologens are derivatives of 4,4′-bipyridinium salts. Aiming to rationalize the parameters governing such interactions eight types of these polycationic dendrimers in which the generation, the number of charges, the nature of the core and of the terminal groups vary from one to another, were designed and used. The influence of viologen-based dendrimers' on human serum albumin has been investigated. The photo-physical interactions of the two systems have been monitored by fluorescence quenching of free L-tryptophan and of HSA tryptophan residue. Additionally, using circular dichroism (CD) the effect of dendrimers on the secondary structure of albumin was measured. The obtained results show that viologen dendrimers interact with human serum albumin quenching its fluorescence either by collisional (dynamic) way or by forming complexes in a ground state (static quenching). In some cases the quenching is accompanied by changes of the secondary structure of HSA. - Highlights: ► Photo-physical interactions between viologen phosphorus dendrimers and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated. ► The viologen dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of tryptophan in HSA. ► CD spectra to explain the changes in secondary structure of albumin after exposition of dendrimers.

  2. Photo-physical and structural interactions between viologen phosphorus-based dendrimers and human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciepluch, Karol, E-mail: ciepluch@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of General Biophysics, University of Lodz, 141/143 Pomorska St., 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Katir, Nadia [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS (LCC), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (INANOTECH)-MAScIR (Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), ENSET, Avenue de l' Armee Royale, Madinat El Irfane, 10100 Rabat (Morocco); El Kadib, Abdelkrim [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (INANOTECH)-MAScIR (Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), ENSET, Avenue de l' Armee Royale, Madinat El Irfane, 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Weber, Monika [Department of General Biophysics, University of Lodz, 141/143 Pomorska St., 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Caminade, Anne-Marie [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS (LCC), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bousmina, Mostapha [Hassan II Academy of Sciences and Technology, Avenue MVI, Km4, 10220 Rabat (Morocco); Pierre Majoral, Jean [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS (LCC), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Hassan II Academy of Sciences and Technology, Avenue MVI, Km4, 10220 Rabat (Morocco); Bryszewska, Maria [Department of General Biophysics, University of Lodz, 141/143 Pomorska St., 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2012-06-15

    This work deals with photo-physical and structural interactions between viologen phosphorus dendrimers and human serum albumin (HSA). Viologens are derivatives of 4,4 Prime -bipyridinium salts. Aiming to rationalize the parameters governing such interactions eight types of these polycationic dendrimers in which the generation, the number of charges, the nature of the core and of the terminal groups vary from one to another, were designed and used. The influence of viologen-based dendrimers' on human serum albumin has been investigated. The photo-physical interactions of the two systems have been monitored by fluorescence quenching of free L-tryptophan and of HSA tryptophan residue. Additionally, using circular dichroism (CD) the effect of dendrimers on the secondary structure of albumin was measured. The obtained results show that viologen dendrimers interact with human serum albumin quenching its fluorescence either by collisional (dynamic) way or by forming complexes in a ground state (static quenching). In some cases the quenching is accompanied by changes of the secondary structure of HSA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-physical interactions between viologen phosphorus dendrimers and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viologen dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of tryptophan in HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD spectra to explain the changes in secondary structure of albumin after exposition of dendrimers.

  3. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As space missions become more complex and as mission demands increase, robots, human-robot mixed initiative teams and software autonomy applications are needed to...

  4. Muscle-tendon interaction and elastic energy usage in human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V.; Grey, Michael James

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore how the interaction between the fascicles and tendinous tissues is involved in storage and utilization of elastic energy during human walking. Eight male subjects walked with a natural cadence (1.4 +/- 0.1 m/s) on a 10-m-long force plate system. In vivo......-stance phase. In contrast, the soleus fascicles were lengthened until the end of the single-stance phase. These findings suggest that the elastic recoil takes place not as a spring-like bouncing but as a catapult action in natural human walking. The interaction between the muscle fascicles and tendinous...

  5. DNA damage in human lymphocytes due to synergistic interaction between ionizing radiation and pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. H.; Chun, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Biological risks may arise from the possibility of the synergistic interaction between harmful factors such as ionizing radiation and pesticide. The effect of pesticide on radiation-induced DNA damage in human in human blood lymphocytes was evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the pesticide, were exposed to 2.0 Gy of gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in SCGE assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The present study confirms that the pesticide has the cytotoxic effect on lymphocytes and that it interacts synergistically with ionizing radiationon DNA damage, as well

  6. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  7. Human hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L; Staba, Richard J; Behnke, Eric J; Lam, Hoa A; Maidment, Nigel T; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Siegel, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.

  8. Analysis of the binding interaction in uric acid - Human hemoglobin system by spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    The binding interaction between human hemoglobin and uric acid has been studied for the first time, by UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence techniques. Characteristic effects observed for human hemoglobin intrinsic fluorescence during interaction with uric acid at neutral pH point at the formation of stacking non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes. All the calculated parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants, as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters confirm the existence of static quenching. The results of synchronous fluorescence measurements indicate that the fluorescence quenching of human hemoglobin originates both from Trp and Tyr residues and that the addition of uric acid could significantly hinder the physiological functions of human hemoglobin.

  9. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; d'Avella, Andrea; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yury

    2018-01-01

    Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free) arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating) arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries ("quadrupedal" arm-leg coordination) during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and coordinate steps during

  10. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries (“quadrupedal” arm-leg coordination during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and

  11. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device.

  12. Discourse with Visual Health Data: Design of Human-Data Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Ola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has suggested that large repositories of data can revolutionize healthcare activities; however, there remains a disconnection between data collection and its effective usage. The way in which users interact with data strongly impacts their ability to not only complete tasks but also capitalize on the purported benefits of such data. Interactive visualizations can provide a means by which many data-driven tasks can be performed. Recent surveys, however, suggest that many visualizations mostly enable users to perform simple manipulations, thus limiting their ability to complete tasks. Researchers have called for tools that allow for richer discourse with data. Nonetheless, systematic design of human-data interaction for visualization tools is a non-trivial task. It requires taking into consideration a myriad of issues. Creation of visualization tools that incorporate rich human-data discourse would benefit from the use of design frameworks. In this paper, we examine and present a design process that is based on a conceptual human-data interaction framework. We discuss and describe the design of interaction for a visualization tool intended for sensemaking of public health data. We demonstrate the utility of systematic interaction design in two ways. First, we use scenarios to highlight how our design approach supports a rich and meaningful discourse with data. Second, we present results from a study that details how users were able to perform various tasks with health data and learn about global health trends.

  13. Mapping Protein Interactions between Dengue Virus and Its Human and Insect Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Janet M.; Gomez, Shawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is an increasingly significant arthropod-borne viral disease, with at least 50 million cases per year worldwide. As with other viral pathogens, dengue virus is dependent on its host to perform the bulk of functions necessary for viral survival and replication. To be successful, dengue must manipulate host cell biological processes towards its own ends, while avoiding elimination by the immune system. Protein-protein interactions between the virus and its host are one avenue through which dengue can connect and exploit these host cellular pathways and processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We implemented a computational approach to predict interactions between Dengue virus (DENV) and both of its hosts, Homo sapiens and the insect vector Aedes aegypti. Our approach is based on structural similarity between DENV and host proteins and incorporates knowledge from the literature to further support a subset of the predictions. We predict over 4,000 interactions between DENV and humans, as well as 176 interactions between DENV and A. aegypti. Additional filtering based on shared Gene Ontology cellular component annotation reduced the number of predictions to approximately 2,000 for humans and 18 for A. aegypti. Of 19 experimentally validated interactions between DENV and humans extracted from the literature, this method was able to predict nearly half (9). Additional predictions suggest specific interactions between virus and host proteins relevant to interferon signaling, transcriptional regulation, stress, and the unfolded protein response. Conclusions/Significance Dengue virus manipulates cellular processes to its advantage through specific interactions with the host's protein interaction network. The interaction networks presented here provide a set of hypothesis for further experimental investigation into the DENV life cycle as well as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:21358811

  14. Mapping protein interactions between Dengue virus and its human and insect hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Doolittle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is an increasingly significant arthropod-borne viral disease, with at least 50 million cases per year worldwide. As with other viral pathogens, dengue virus is dependent on its host to perform the bulk of functions necessary for viral survival and replication. To be successful, dengue must manipulate host cell biological processes towards its own ends, while avoiding elimination by the immune system. Protein-protein interactions between the virus and its host are one avenue through which dengue can connect and exploit these host cellular pathways and processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We implemented a computational approach to predict interactions between Dengue virus (DENV and both of its hosts, Homo sapiens and the insect vector Aedes aegypti. Our approach is based on structural similarity between DENV and host proteins and incorporates knowledge from the literature to further support a subset of the predictions. We predict over 4,000 interactions between DENV and humans, as well as 176 interactions between DENV and A. aegypti. Additional filtering based on shared Gene Ontology cellular component annotation reduced the number of predictions to approximately 2,000 for humans and 18 for A. aegypti. Of 19 experimentally validated interactions between DENV and humans extracted from the literature, this method was able to predict nearly half (9. Additional predictions suggest specific interactions between virus and host proteins relevant to interferon signaling, transcriptional regulation, stress, and the unfolded protein response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dengue virus manipulates cellular processes to its advantage through specific interactions with the host's protein interaction network. The interaction networks presented here provide a set of hypothesis for further experimental investigation into the DENV life cycle as well as potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  16. Human processor modelling language (HPML): Estimate working memory load through interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, J.; Scheben, C.

    2007-01-01

    To operate machines over their user interface may cause high load on human's working memory. This load can decrease performance in the working task significantly if this task is a cognitive challenging one, e. g. diagnosis. With the »Human Processor Modelling Language« (HPML) the interaction activity can be modelled with a directed graph. From such models a condensed indicator value for working memory load can be estimated. Thus different user interface solutions can get compared with respect...

  17. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ge; Segura, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  18. Human Capital Variables and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Interactive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Mosunmola Osoba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have focused on the relationship between human capital and economic growth all over the world. However, there is still a missing gap on the joint influence of human capital investment components on economic growth particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore examines the interactive effects of the relationship between human capital investment components and economic growth in Nigeria for the period of 1986 – 2014. The study employed secondary annual data on education expenditure, health expenditure, real gross domestic product and gross capital formation obtained from the Central Bank Statistical bulletin, 2014. The data were analyzed using Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS technique. The results of the study showed that there was positive and significant relationship between the interactive effects of human capital components and growth in Nigeria. The study concluded that the interactive effect of the human capital variables was also in conformity with the theoretical proposition that increase in human capital will enhance growth as stipulated in the modified Solow growth model by Mankiw, Romer & Weil (1992.

  19. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram

  20. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  1. Interaction of Human Enteric Viruses with Microbial Compounds: Implication for Virus Persistence and Disinfection Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Prunelle; Meseguer, Alba; Lucas, Françoise; Moulin, Laurent; Wurtzer, Sébastien

    2017-12-05

    Although the interaction between phages and bacteria has already been well described, it only recently emerged that human viruses also interact with bacteria in the mammalian gut. We studied whether this interaction could occur in tap water and thus confer enteric viruses protection against temperature and the classical disinfection treatments used in drinking water production. We demonstrated that the addition of lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan of bacterial origin to enterovirus provides thermal protection through stabilization of the viral capsid. This interaction plays a role when viruses are exposed to disinfection that targets the capsid, but less so when the virus genome is directly targeted. The interaction seems to be serotype-specific, suggesting that the capsid protein sequence could be important. The protection is linked to a direct association between viral particles and bacterial compounds as observed by microscopy. These results show that bacterial compounds present in the environment can affect virus inactivation.

  2. Efficient prediction of human protein-protein interactions at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenrock, Andrew; Samanfar, Bahram; Pitre, Sylvain; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Jin, Ke; Phillips, Charles A; Wang, Hui; Phanse, Sadhna; Omidi, Katayoun; Gui, Yuan; Alamgir, Md; Wong, Alex; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Babu, Mohan; Benson, Mikael; Langston, Michael A; Green, James R; Dehne, Frank; Golshani, Ashkan

    2014-12-10

    Our knowledge of global protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in complex organisms such as humans is hindered by technical limitations of current methods. On the basis of short co-occurring polypeptide regions, we developed a tool called MP-PIPE capable of predicting a global human PPI network within 3 months. With a recall of 23% at a precision of 82.1%, we predicted 172,132 putative PPIs. We demonstrate the usefulness of these predictions through a range of experiments. The speed and accuracy associated with MP-PIPE can make this a potential tool to study individual human PPI networks (from genomic sequences alone) for personalized medicine.

  3. Intelligent Interaction for Human-Friendly Service Robot in Smart House Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zenn Bien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart house under consideration is a service-integrated complex system to assist older persons and/or people with disabilities. The primary goal of the system is to achieve independent living by various robotic devices and systems. Such a system is treated as a human-in-the loop system in which human- robot interaction takes place intensely and frequently. Based on our experiences of having designed and implemented a smart house environment, called Intelligent Sweet Home (ISH, we present a framework of realizing human-friendly HRI (human-robot interaction module with various effective techniques of computational intelligence. More specifically, we partition the robotic tasks of HRI module into three groups in consideration of the level of specificity, fuzziness or uncertainty of the context of the system, and present effective interaction method for each case. We first show a task planning algorithm and its architecture to deal with well-structured tasks autonomously by a simplified set of commands of the user instead of inconvenient manual operations. To provide with capability of interacting in a human-friendly way in a fuzzy context, it is proposed that the robot should make use of human bio-signals as input of the HRI module as shown in a hand gesture recognition system, called a soft remote control system. Finally we discuss a probabilistic fuzzy rule-based life-long learning system, equipped with intention reading capability by learning human behavioral patterns, which is introduced as a solution in uncertain and time-varying situations.

  4. Understanding and Resolving Failures in Human-Robot Interaction: Literature Review and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanee Honig

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While substantial effort has been invested in making robots more reliable, experience demonstrates that robots operating in unstructured environments are often challenged by frequent failures. Despite this, robots have not yet reached a level of design that allows effective management of faulty or unexpected behavior by untrained users. To understand why this may be the case, an in-depth literature review was done to explore when people perceive and resolve robot failures, how robots communicate failure, how failures influence people's perceptions and feelings toward robots, and how these effects can be mitigated. Fifty-two studies were identified relating to communicating failures and their causes, the influence of failures on human-robot interaction (HRI, and mitigating failures. Since little research has been done on these topics within the HRI community, insights from the fields of human computer interaction (HCI, human factors engineering, cognitive engineering and experimental psychology are presented and discussed. Based on the literature, we developed a model of information processing for robotic failures (Robot Failure Human Information Processing, RF-HIP, that guides the discussion of our findings. The model describes the way people perceive, process, and act on failures in human robot interaction. The model includes three main parts: (1 communicating failures, (2 perception and comprehension of failures, and (3 solving failures. Each part contains several stages, all influenced by contextual considerations and mitigation strategies. Several gaps in the literature have become evident as a result of this evaluation. More focus has been given to technical failures than interaction failures. Few studies focused on human errors, on communicating failures, or the cognitive, psychological, and social determinants that impact the design of mitigation strategies. By providing the stages of human information processing, RF-HIP can be used as a

  5. Prediction of protein-protein interactions between viruses and human by an SVM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guangyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several computational methods have been developed to predict protein-protein interactions from amino acid sequences, but most of those methods are intended for the interactions within a species rather than for interactions across different species. Methods for predicting interactions between homogeneous proteins are not appropriate for finding those between heterogeneous proteins since they do not distinguish the interactions between proteins of the same species from those of different species. Results We developed a new method for representing a protein sequence of variable length in a frequency vector of fixed length, which encodes the relative frequency of three consecutive amino acids of a sequence. We built a support vector machine (SVM model to predict human proteins that interact with virus proteins. In two types of viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, our SVM model achieved an average accuracy above 80%, which is higher than that of another SVM model with a different representation scheme. Using the SVM model and Gene Ontology (GO annotations of proteins, we predicted new interactions between virus proteins and human proteins. Conclusions Encoding the relative frequency of amino acid triplets of a protein sequence is a simple yet powerful representation method for predicting protein-protein interactions across different species. The representation method has several advantages: (1 it enables a prediction model to achieve a better performance than other representations, (2 it generates feature vectors of fixed length regardless of the sequence length, and (3 the same representation is applicable to different types of proteins.

  6. Sensor-based assessment of the in-situ quality of human computer interaction in the cars : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human attention is a finite resource. When interrupted while performing a task, this : resource is split between two interactive tasks. People have to decide whether the benefits : from the interruptive interaction will be enough to offset the loss o...

  7. Quantitation of Metformin in Human Plasma and Urine by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming; Hougaard Christensen, Mette Marie; Brøsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    : We describe an analytical method for the quantification of the widely used antihyperglycemic agent, metformin, in human plasma and urine. The separation was performed using isocratic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on a Luna hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (125...

  8. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  9. International workshop on multimodal analyses enabling artificial agents in human-machine interaction (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böck, Ronald; Bonin, Francesca; Campbell, Nick; Poppe, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief overview of the third workshop on Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction. The paper is focussing on the main aspects intended to be discussed in the workshop reflecting the main scope of the papers presented during the meeting. The MA3HMI

  10. Guess who? An interactive and entertaining game-like platform for investigating human emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, M.I.; Tariq, H.; Saeed, M.; Shahid, S.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and the development of a highly customizable interactive platform ‘Guess Who’, which was designed as a tool for investigating human emotions in a variety of experimental setups. In its essence, ‘Guess Who?’ is actually a game, which includes typical game elements

  11. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shoko, E-mail: satosho@rs.tus.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Hitoshi, E-mail: shirakah@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Tomita, Shuhei, E-mail: tomita@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Tohkin, Masahiro, E-mail: tohkin@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Medical Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 267-8603 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: gonzalef@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Komai, Michio, E-mail: mkomai@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  12. Teachers' work engagement: Considering interaction with pupils and human resources practices as job resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.; Konermann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of these 2 studies was to investigate whether teachers' work engagement is related to the extent to which they experience their interactions with pupils and human resource (HR) practices within their schools as motivating. Study 1 was a qualitative study, including document analysis and

  13. HCI^2 Workbench: A Development Tool for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Wenzhe, Shi; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper, we present a novel software tool designed and implemented to simplify the development process of Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (MHCI) systems. This tool, which is called the HCI^2 Workbench, exploits a Publish / Subscribe (P/S) architecture [13] [14] to facilitate efficient

  14. Natural Tasking of Robots Based on Human Interaction Cues (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Rodney A

    2005-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 207 MB. ABSTRACT: We proposed developing the perceptual and intellectual abilities of robots so that in the field, war-fighters can interact with them in the same natural ways as they do with their human cohorts...

  15. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  16. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction

  18. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  19. Identification of Odorant-Receptor Interactions by Global Mapping of the Human Odorome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Tromelin, Anne; Le Bon, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    The human olfactory system recognizes a broad spectrum of odorants using approximately 400 different olfactory receptors ( hORs). Although significant improvements of heterologous expression systems used to study interactions between ORs and odorant molecules have been made, screening the olfacto...

  20. The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Manfredo, M.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Rechkemmer, A.; Duke, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land change is the result of multiple human-environment interactions operating across different scales. Land change research needs to account for processes ranging from global trade of food and energy to the local management of land resources at farm and landscape level. Land change has a pronounced

  1. Effects of eye contact and iconic gestures on message retention in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van E.T.; Torta, E.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of iconic gestures and eye contact on message retention in human-robot interaction were investigated in a series of experiments. A humanoid robot gave short verbal messages to participants, accompanied either by iconic gestures or no gestures while making eye contact with the participant

  2. History Classroom Interactions and the Transmission of the Recent Memory of Human Rights Violations in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteíza, Teresa; Henríquez, Rodrigo; Pinuer, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine history classroom interactions in Chilean secondary schools in relation to the transmission of historical memories of human rights violations committed by Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship from 1973 to 1990. Corpora of this research are comprised of history lessons filmed in the two types of public schools…

  3. Implementations of the CC'01 Human-Computer Interaction Guidelines Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaris, Bill; Wainer, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E.; Stalvey, RoxAnn H.; Shannon, Christine; Leventhal, Laura; Barnes, Julie; Wright, John; Schafer, J. Ben; Sanders, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In today's technology-laden society human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge area for computer scientists and software engineers. This paper surveys existing approaches to incorporate HCI into computer science (CS) and such related issues as the perceived gap between the interests of the HCI community and the needs of CS…

  4. Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science

  5. Specificity and functional interaction of the polymerase complex proteins of human and avian metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); S. Herfst (Sander); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); Y. Choi (Ying); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) have a similar genome organization and protein composition, but a different host range. AMPV subgroup C (AMPV-C) is more closely relaled to HMPV than other AMPVs. To investigate the specificity and functional interaction of

  6. Boolean analysis reveals systematic interactions among low-abundance species in the human gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Christian Claussen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microbiome compositions in the human gut has gained increasing interest due to the broader availability of data and functional databases and substantial progress in data analysis methods, but also due to the high relevance of the microbiome in human health and disease. While most analyses infer interactions among highly abundant species, the large number of low-abundance species has received less attention. Here we present a novel analysis method based on Boolean operations applied to microbial co-occurrence patterns. We calibrate our approach with simulated data based on a dynamical Boolean network model from which we interpret the statistics of attractor states as a theoretical proxy for microbiome composition. We show that for given fractions of synergistic and competitive interactions in the model our Boolean abundance analysis can reliably detect these interactions. Analyzing a novel data set of 822 microbiome compositions of the human gut, we find a large number of highly significant synergistic interactions among these low-abundance species, forming a connected network, and a few isolated competitive interactions.

  7. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  8. 350 Years of Fire-Climate-Human Interactions in a Great Lakes Sandy Outwash Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Guyette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of eastern North America, quantitative records of historical fire regimes and interactions with humans are absent. Annual resolution fire scar histories provide data on fire frequency, extent, and severity, but also can be used to understand fire-climate-human interactions. This study used tree-ring dated fire scars from red pines (Pinus resinosa at four sites in the Northern Sands Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin to quantify the interactions among fire occurrence and seasonality, drought, and humans. New methods for assessing the influence of human ignitions on fire regimes were developed. A temporal and spatial index of wildland fire was significantly correlated (r = 0.48 with drought indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI. Fire intervals varied through time with human activities that included early French Jesuit missions, European trade (fur, diseases, war, and land use. Comparisons of historical fire records suggest that annual climate in this region has a broad influence on the occurrence of fire years in the Great Lakes region.

  9. Human milk blocks DC-SIGN - pathogen interaction via MUC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eKoning

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of breastfeeding are well-recognized and include both immediate neonatal protection against pathogens, as well as long term protection against allergies and autoimmune diseases. Although several proteins have been identified to have anti-viral or anti-bacterial effects like secretory IgA or lactoferrin, the mechanisms of immune modulation are not fully understood. Recent studies identified important beneficial effects of glycans in human milk, such as those expressed in oligosaccharides or on glycoproteins. Glycans are recognized by the carbohydrate receptors C-type lectins on DC and specific tissue macrophages, which exert important functions in immune modulation and immune homeostasis. A well-characterized C-type lectin is DC-SIGN, which binds terminal fucose. The present study shows that in human milk, MUC1 is the major milk glycoprotein that binds to the lectin domain of DC-SIGN and prevents pathogen interaction through the presence of Lewis x-type oligosaccharides. Surprisingly, this was specific for human milk, as formula, bovine or camel milk did not show any presence of proteins that interacted with DC-SIGN. The expression of DC-SIGN is found in young infants along the entire gastro-intestinal tract. Our data thus suggest the importance of human milk glycoproteins for blocking pathogen interaction to DC in young children. Moreover, a potential benefit of human milk later in life in shaping the infants immune system through DC-SIGN cannot be ruled out.

  10. Physical human-robot interaction of an active pelvis orthosis: toward ergonomic assessment of wearable robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Nicolò; Vanetti, Federica; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Parri, Andrea; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-04-14

    In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO). This device was designed to effectively assist in hip flexion-extension during locomotion with a minimum impact on the physiological human kinematics, owing to a set of passive degrees of freedom for self-alignment of the human and robotic hip flexion-extension axes. Five healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at different speeds without and with the APO under different levels of assistance. The user-APO physical interaction was evaluated in terms of: (i) the deviation of human lower-limb joint kinematics when wearing the APO with respect to the physiological behavior (i.e., without the APO); (ii) relative displacements between the APO orthotic shells and the corresponding body segments; and (iii) the discrepancy between the kinematics of the APO and the wearer's hip joints. The results show: (i) negligible interference of the APO in human kinematics under all the experimented conditions; (ii) small (i.e., ergonomics assessment of wearable robots.

  11. Compliance control based on PSO algorithm to improve the feeling during physical human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Sun, Yu; Gao, Peng; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Robots play more important roles in daily life and bring us a lot of convenience. But when people work with robots, there remain some significant differences in human-human interactions and human-robot interaction. It is our goal to make robots look even more human-like. We design a controller which can sense the force acting on any point of a robot and ensure the robot can move according to the force. First, a spring-mass-dashpot system was used to describe the physical model, and the second-order system is the kernel of the controller. Then, we can establish the state space equations of the system. In addition, the particle swarm optimization algorithm had been used to obtain the system parameters. In order to test the stability of system, the root-locus diagram had been shown in the paper. Ultimately, some experiments had been carried out on the robotic spinal surgery system, which is developed by our team, and the result shows that the new controller performs better during human-robot interaction.

  12. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  13. [Investigation on the interaction between pentadecafluorooctanoic acid and human serum albumin by capillary electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Guo, Ming; Lü, Da; Hou, Ping; Yin, Xinxin

    2018-01-08

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used to establish the analytical method of interaction between pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and human serum albumin (HSA). Under the physiological conditions, the interaction model of PFOA and HSA were constructed. Mobility method, plug-plug kinetic (PPK) method and simplified Hummel-Dreyer method were used to determine the interaction between derivatives and HSA. Non-linear regression, Scatchard equation and Klotz equation were adopted to obtain the interaction parameters. The results showed that all the three methods can be used to analyze the interaction of PFOA-HSA system. According to the interaction parameters, the most suitable CE method is simplified Hummel-Dreyer method while the most suitable theoretical equation is non-linear regression. The binding parameters indicated that the interaction of PFOA-HSA system has only one type of binding sites and the binding is stable. The research results have illustrated the interaction between HSA and PFOA, and provided a beneficial reference for in-depth research of the toxic mechanism of PFOA.

  14. Emotion model of interactive virtual humans on the basis of MDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guojiang; WANG Zhiliang; TENG Shaodong; XIE Yinggang; WANG Yujie

    2007-01-01

    Emotion plays an essential role in the adaptation and social communication of organisms.Similarly,an appropriately timed and clearly expressed emotion is a central requirement for believable interactive virtual humans.Presently,incorporating emotion into virtual humans has gained increasing attention in the academia and industry.This strong interest is driven by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality,e-learning,entertainment,etc.This paper introduces an emotion model of artificial psychology,in which the transition of emotion can be viewed as a Markov process and the relation of emotion,external incentive and personality can be described by a Markov decision process (MDP).In order to demonstrate the approach,this paper integrates the emotion model into a system composed of voice recognition and a realistic facial model.Thus,the model could be used for generating a variety of emotional expressions of autonomous,interactive virtual human beings.

  15. Smart sensor: a platform for an interactive human physiological state recognition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gorochovik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept of making interactive human state recognition systems based on smart sensor design. The token measures on proper ADC signal processing had significantly lowered the interference level. A more reliable way of measuring human skin temperature was offered by using Maxim DS18B20 digital thermometers. They introduced a more sensible response to temperature changes compared to previously used analog LM35 thermometers. An adaptive HR measuring algorithm was introduced to suppress incorrect ECG signal readings caused by human muscular activities. User friendly interactive interface for touch sensitive GLCD screen was developed to present real time physiological data readings both in numerals and graphics. User was granted an ability to dynamically customize data processing methods according to his needs. Specific procedures were developed to simplify physiological state recording for further analysis. The introduced physiological data sampling and preprocessing platform was optimized to be compatible with “ATmega Oscilloscope” PC data collecting and visualizing software.

  16. Human Skin Is the Largest Epithelial Surface for Interaction with Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Richard L

    2017-06-01

    Human skin contains an abundant and diverse population of microbial organisms. Many of these microbes inhabit follicular structures of the skin. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that the interaction of some members of the skin microbiome with host cells will result in changes in cell function. However, estimates of the potential for the microbiome to influence human health through skin have ignored the inner follicular surface, and therefore vastly underestimated the potential of the skin microbiome to have a systemic effect on the human body. By calculating the surface area of follicular and the interfollicular epithelial surface it is shown that skin provides a vast interface for interactions with the microbiome. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction of the Ebola Virus Infection Related Human Genes Using Protein-Protein Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, HuanHuan; Zhang, YuHang; Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Liucun; Wang, Yi; Li, JiaRui; Feng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). It is reported that human could be infected by EBOV with a high fatality rate. However, association factors between EBOV and host still tend to be ambiguous. According to the "guilt by association" (GBA) principle, proteins interacting with each other are very likely to function similarly or the same. Based on this assumption, we tried to obtain EBOV infection-related human genes in a protein-protein interaction network using Dijkstra algorithm. We hope it could contribute to the discovery of novel effective treatments. Finally, 15 genes were selected as potential EBOV infection-related human genes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDiarmid, Alison; MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn

    2016-01-01

    -term changes of affected species and define appropriate and realistic management targets. Second, increased multi-and trans-disciplinary effort is required to better understand the relative importance of different human demographic, technological, economic, and cultural drivers on the patterns, intensities......There is an essentially circular interaction between the human social system and the marine ecosystem. The Oceans Past V Conference "Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean" held in Tallinn, Estonia, in May 2015 was an opportunity...... for the presentation and discussion of papers on a diverse array of topics that examined this socio-ecological system from a historical perspective. Here we provide background to the disciplines participating in the conference and to the conference itself. We summarize the conference papers that appear in this special...

  19. Modelling of human-machine interaction in equipment design of manufacturing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, David S.; Arinez, Jorge F.; Collins, Micah T.; Bi, Zhuming

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a systematic approach to model human-machine interactions (HMIs) in supervisory control of machining operations; it characterises the coexistence of machines and humans for an enterprise to balance the goals of automation/productivity and flexibility/agility. In the proposed HMI model, an operator is associated with a set of behavioural roles as a supervisor for multiple, semi-automated manufacturing processes. The model is innovative in the sense that (1) it represents an HMI based on its functions for process control but provides the flexibility for ongoing improvements in the execution of manufacturing processes; (2) it provides a computational tool to define functional requirements for an operator in HMIs. The proposed model can be used to design production systems at different levels of an enterprise architecture, particularly at the machine level in a production system where operators interact with semi-automation to accomplish the goal of 'autonomation' - automation that augments the capabilities of human beings.

  20. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy G Ghosh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  1. Interacting proteins on human spermatozoa: adaptive evolution of the binding of semenogelin I to EPPIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick J R Silva

    Full Text Available Semenogelin I (SEMG1 is found in human semen coagulum and on the surface of spermatozoa bound to EPPIN. The physiological significance of the SEMG1/EPPIN interaction on the surface of spermatozoa is its capacity to modulate sperm progressive motility. The present study investigates the hypothesis that the interacting surface of SEMG1 and EPPIN co-evolved within the Hominoidea time scale, as a result of adaptive pressures applied by their roles in sperm protection and reproductive fitness. Our results indicate that some amino acid residues of SEMG1 and EPPIN possess a remarkable deficiency of variation among hominoid primates. We observe a distinct residue change unique to humans within the EPPIN sequence containing a SEMG1 interacting surface, namely His92. In addition, Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis for positive selection indicates that the SEMG1 Cys239 residue underwent positive selection in humans, probably as a consequence of its role in increasing the binding affinity of these interacting proteins. We confirm the critical role of Cys239 residue for SEMG1 binding to EPPIN and inhibition of sperm motility by showing that recombinant SEMG1 mutants in which Cys239 residue was changed to glycine, aspartic acid, histidine, serine or arginine have reduced capacity to interact to EPPIN and to inhibit human sperm motility in vitro. In conclusion, our results indicate that EPPIN and SEMG1 rapidly co-evolved in primates due to their critical role in the modulation of sperm motility in the semen coagulum, providing unique insights into the molecular co-evolution of sperm surface interacting proteins.

  2. Exhaustive Genome-Wide Search for SNP-SNP Interactions Across 10 Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Murk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of statistical SNP-SNP interactions may help explain the genetic etiology of many human diseases, but exhaustive genome-wide searches for these interactions have been difficult, due to a lack of power in most datasets. We aimed to use data from the Resource for Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA study to search for SNP-SNP interactions associated with 10 common diseases. FastEpistasis and BOOST were used to evaluate all pairwise interactions among approximately N = 300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF ≥ 0.15, for the dichotomous outcomes of allergic rhinitis, asthma, cardiac disease, depression, dermatophytosis, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hemorrhoids, hypertensive disease, and osteoarthritis. A total of N = 45,171 subjects were included after quality control steps were applied. These data were divided into discovery and replication subsets; the discovery subset had > 80% power, under selected models, to detect genome-wide significant interactions (P < 10−12. Interactions were also evaluated for enrichment in particular SNP features, including functionality, prior disease relevancy, and marginal effects. No interaction in any disease was significant in both the discovery and replication subsets. Enrichment analysis suggested that, for some outcomes, interactions involving SNPs with marginal effects were more likely to be nominally replicated, compared to interactions without marginal effects. If SNP-SNP interactions play a role in the etiology of the studied conditions, they likely have weak effect sizes, involve lower-frequency variants, and/or involve complex models of interaction that are not captured well by the methods that were utilized.

  3. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  4. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience. It suggests that when humans, faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability, often appearing in the 'backloop' of the adaptive cycle. The relationships that human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales may be one critical source of resilience in disaster and related contexts. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature, the process of remembering that attraction, and the urge to express it through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience across multiple scales. In making this argument, the paper also represents a novel contribution to further theorizing alternatives to anthropocentric understandings of human-nature relations, and strongly makes the case for humans as part of, not separate from, ecosystems.

  5. Investigation on human serum albumin and Gum Tragacanth interactions using experimental and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sajad; Taran, Mojtaba; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    The study on the interaction of human serum albumin and Gum Tragacanth, a biodegradable bio-polymer, has been undertaken. For this purpose, several experimental and computational methods were used. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters and mode of interactions were carried out using Fluorescence spectroscopy in 300 and 310K. Also, a Fourier transformed infrared spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was performed. To give detailed insight of possible interactions, docking and molecular dynamic simulations were also applied. Results show that the interaction is based on hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Structural analysis implies on no adverse change in protein conformation during binding of GT. Furthermore, computational methods confirm some evidence on secondary structure enhancement of protein as a presence of combining with Gum Tragacanth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Observations on human-technology interaction aspects in remote handling for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Karoliina

    2009-01-01

    Remote handling can been seen as cooperation between human and machine. One of the characteristics of remote handling is that there is always a human involved in the technique: there is always a human guiding and supervising the movements and deciding the actions of the machine. Unlike many other fields of remote handling for fusion, the human-technology interaction side has not been studied carefully recently. The state-of-the-art research about different kinds of remote handling systems shows that there is a lot of information available in this subject, but there is a clear need for studies where the special needs of ITER are taken into account. During the PREFIT programme, the human-interaction aspects of remote handling have been studied, and the goal has been to find solutions compatible with ITER. Some of the aspects that make ITER a unique system are its new technology combining state-of-the-art knowledge from several different fields, and its very international working environment. When discussing the human aspects, the fact of the multinational cooperation cannot be neglected. Since the majority of the information found in the literature review is not about remote handling, references need to be taken from other industries, like aviation. This article consists of ITER remote handling relevant findings in state-of-the-art research and information and knowledge gained during the PREFIT programme, especially during the training periods at JET in Culham and at CEA in Fontenay-aux-Roses. It also discusses the importance of human-technology interaction field in remote handling, especially in ITER.

  7. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  8. Human UBL5 protein interacts with coilin and meets the Cajal bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švéda, Martin; Častorálová, Markéta; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Knejzlík, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Localization of the UBL5 protein in Hela cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy and biochemical fractionation. •Colocalization of UBL5 with Cajal bodies was observed. •Interaction of UBL5 with coilin was proven by pull-down. -- Abstract: UBL5 protein, a structural homologue of ubiquitin, was shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and transcription regulation in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. However, role of the UBL5 human orthologue is still elusive. In our study, we observed that endogenous human UBL5 that was localized in the nucleus, partially associates with Cajal bodies (CBs), nuclear domains where spliceosomal components are assembled. Simultaneous expression of exogenous UBL5 and coilin resulted in their nuclear colocalization in HeLa cells. The ability of UBL5 to interact with coilin was proved by GST pull-down assay using coilin that was either in vitro translated or extracted from HEK293T cells. Further, our results showed that the UBL5–coilin interaction was not influenced by coilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that UBL5 could be targeted to CBs via its interaction with coilin. Relation between human UBL5 protein and CBs is in the agreement with current observations about yeast orthologue Hub1 playing important role in alternative splicing

  9. Human UBL5 protein interacts with coilin and meets the Cajal bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Švéda, Martin; Častorálová, Markéta; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Knejzlík, Zdeněk, E-mail: knejzliz@vscht.cz

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Localization of the UBL5 protein in Hela cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy and biochemical fractionation. •Colocalization of UBL5 with Cajal bodies was observed. •Interaction of UBL5 with coilin was proven by pull-down. -- Abstract: UBL5 protein, a structural homologue of ubiquitin, was shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and transcription regulation in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. However, role of the UBL5 human orthologue is still elusive. In our study, we observed that endogenous human UBL5 that was localized in the nucleus, partially associates with Cajal bodies (CBs), nuclear domains where spliceosomal components are assembled. Simultaneous expression of exogenous UBL5 and coilin resulted in their nuclear colocalization in HeLa cells. The ability of UBL5 to interact with coilin was proved by GST pull-down assay using coilin that was either in vitro translated or extracted from HEK293T cells. Further, our results showed that the UBL5–coilin interaction was not influenced by coilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that UBL5 could be targeted to CBs via its interaction with coilin. Relation between human UBL5 protein and CBs is in the agreement with current observations about yeast orthologue Hub1 playing important role in alternative splicing.

  10. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  11. A Novel Bioinspired Vision System: A Step toward Real-Time Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Hafiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a human-like robot that could be involved in our daily lives is a dream of many scientists. Achieving a sophisticated robot's vision system, which can enhance the robot's real-time interaction ability with the human, is one of the main keys toward realizing such an autonomous robot. In this work, we are suggesting a bioinspired vision system that helps to develop an advanced human-robot interaction in an autonomous humanoid robot. First, we enhance the robot's vision accuracy online by applying a novel dynamic edge detection algorithm abstracted from the rules that the horizontal cells play in the mammalian retina. Second, in order to support the first algorithm, we improve the robot's tracking ability by designing a variant photoreceptors distribution corresponding to what exists in the human vision system. The experimental results verified the validity of the model. The robot could have a clear vision in real time and build a mental map that assisted it to be aware of the frontal users and to develop a positive interaction with them.

  12. Interactive machine learning for health informatics: when do we need the human-in-the-loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and health informatics is among the greatest challenges. The goal of ML is to develop algorithms which can learn and improve over time and can be used for predictions. Most ML researchers concentrate on automatic machine learning (aML), where great advances have been made, for example, in speech recognition, recommender systems, or autonomous vehicles. Automatic approaches greatly benefit from big data with many training sets. However, in the health domain, sometimes we are confronted with a small number of data sets or rare events, where aML-approaches suffer of insufficient training samples. Here interactive machine learning (iML) may be of help, having its roots in reinforcement learning, preference learning, and active learning. The term iML is not yet well used, so we define it as "algorithms that can interact with agents and can optimize their learning behavior through these interactions, where the agents can also be human." This "human-in-the-loop" can be beneficial in solving computationally hard problems, e.g., subspace clustering, protein folding, or k-anonymization of health data, where human expertise can help to reduce an exponential search space through heuristic selection of samples. Therefore, what would otherwise be an NP-hard problem, reduces greatly in complexity through the input and the assistance of a human agent involved in the learning phase.

  13. Toward a framework for levels of robot autonomy in human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jenay M; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

    2014-07-01

    A critical construct related to human-robot interaction (HRI) is autonomy, which varies widely across robot platforms. Levels of robot autonomy (LORA), ranging from teleoperation to fully autonomous systems, influence the way in which humans and robots may interact with one another. Thus, there is a need to understand HRI by identifying variables that influence - and are influenced by - robot autonomy. Our overarching goal is to develop a framework for levels of robot autonomy in HRI. To reach this goal, the framework draws links between HRI and human-automation interaction, a field with a long history of studying and understanding human-related variables. The construct of autonomy is reviewed and redefined within the context of HRI. Additionally, the framework proposes a process for determining a robot's autonomy level, by categorizing autonomy along a 10-point taxonomy. The framework is intended to be treated as guidelines to determine autonomy, categorize the LORA along a qualitative taxonomy, and consider which HRI variables (e.g., acceptance, situation awareness, reliability) may be influenced by the LORA.

  14. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  15. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). → The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. → The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. → A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. → KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange and the failure of proton (H + ) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells.

  16. Estimation of Physical Human-Robot Interaction Using Cost-Effective Pneumatic Padding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wilkening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea to use a cost-effective pneumatic padding for sensing of physical interaction between a user and wearable rehabilitation robots is not new, but until now there has not been any practical relevant realization. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate physical human-robot interaction using a pneumatic padding based on artificial neural networks (ANNs. This estimation can serve as rough indicator of applied forces/torques by the user and can be applied for visual feedback about the user’s participation or as additional information for interaction controllers. Unlike common mostly very expensive 6-axis force/torque sensors (FTS, the proposed sensor system can be easily integrated in the design of physical human-robot interfaces of rehabilitation robots and adapts itself to the shape of the individual patient’s extremity by pressure changing in pneumatic chambers, in order to provide a safe physical interaction with high user’s comfort. This paper describes a concept of using ANNs for estimation of interaction forces/torques based on pressure variations of eight customized air-pad chambers. The ANNs were trained one-time offline using signals of a high precision FTS which is also used as reference sensor for experimental validation. Experiments with three different subjects confirm the functionality of the concept and the estimation algorithm.

  17. Structure and interactions of the human programmed cell death 1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxiao; Veverka, Vaclav; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Waters, Lorna C; Muskett, Frederick W; Morgan, Sara H; Huo, Jiandong; Yu, Chao; Evans, Edward J; Leslie, Alasdair J; Griffiths, Meryn; Stubberfield, Colin; Griffin, Robert; Henry, Alistair J; Jansson, Andreas; Ladbury, John E; Ikemizu, Shinji; Carr, Mark D; Davis, Simon J

    2013-04-26

    PD-1, a receptor expressed by T cells, B cells, and monocytes, is a potent regulator of immune responses and a promising therapeutic target. The structure and interactions of human PD-1 are, however, incompletely characterized. We present the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structure of the human PD-1 extracellular region and detailed analyses of its interactions with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. PD-1 has typical immunoglobulin superfamily topology but differs at the edge of the GFCC' sheet, which is flexible and completely lacks a C" strand. Changes in PD-1 backbone NMR signals induced by ligand binding suggest that, whereas binding is centered on the GFCC' sheet, PD-1 is engaged by its two ligands differently and in ways incompletely explained by crystal structures of mouse PD-1 · ligand complexes. The affinities of these interactions and that of PD-L1 with the costimulatory protein B7-1, measured using surface plasmon resonance, are significantly weaker than expected. The 3-4-fold greater affinity of PD-L2 versus PD-L1 for human PD-1 is principally due to the 3-fold smaller dissociation rate for PD-L2 binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is entropically driven, whereas PD-1/PD-L2 binding has a large enthalpic component. Mathematical simulations based on the biophysical data and quantitative expression data suggest an unexpectedly limited contribution of PD-L2 to PD-1 ligation during interactions of activated T cells with antigen-presenting cells. These findings provide a rigorous structural and biophysical framework for interpreting the important functions of PD-1 and reveal that potent inhibitory signaling can be initiated by weakly interacting receptors.

  18. DrawCompileEvolve: Sparking interactive evolutionary art with human creations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jinhong; Taarnby, Rasmus; Liapis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DrawCompileEvolve, a web-based drawing tool which allows users to draw simple primitive shapes, group them together or define patterns in their groupings (e.g. symmetry, repetition). The user’s vector drawing is then compiled into an indirectly encoded genetic representation......, which can be evolved interactively, allowing the user to change the image’s colors, patterns and ultimately transform it. The human artist has direct control while drawing the initial seed of an evolutionary run and indirect control while interactively evolving it, thus making DrawCompileEvolve a mixed...

  19. The Semantic Environment: Heuristics for a Cross-Context Human-Information Interaction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Andrea; Rosati, Luca

    This chapter introduces a multidisciplinary holistic approach for the general design of successful bridge experiences as a cross-context human-information interaction model. Nowadays it is common to interact through a number of different domains in order to communicate successfully, complete a task, or elicit a desired response: Users visit a reseller’s web site to find a specific item, book it, then drive to the closest store to complete their purchase. As such, one of the crucial challenges user experience design will face in the near future is how to structure and provide bridge experiences seamlessly spanning multiple communication channels or media formats for a specific purpose.

  20. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  1. Proceedings of the 5th Danish Human-Computer Interaction Research Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    Lene Nielsen DEALING WITH REALITY - IN THEORY Gitte Skou PetersenA NEW IFIP WORKING GROUP - HUMAN WORK INTERACTION DESIGN Rikke Ørngreen, Torkil Clemmensen & Annelise Mark-Pejtersen CLASSIFICATION OF DESCRIPTIONS USED IN SOFTWARE AND INTERACTION DESIGN Georg Strøm OBSTACLES TO DESIGN IN VOLUNTEER BASED...... for the symposium, of which 14 were presented orally in four panel sessions. Previously the symposium has been held at University of Aarhus 2001, University of Copenhagen 2002, Roskilde University Center 2003, Aalborg University 2004. Torkil Clemmensen & Lene Nielsen Copenhagen, November 2005 CONTENT INTRODUCTION...

  2. Transcriptional interactions suggest niche segregation among microorganisms in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Damian Rafal; Juncker, Agnieszka; dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha

    2016-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the habitat for hundreds of microbial species, of which many cannot be cultivated readily, presumably because of the dependencies between species 1. Studies of microbial co-occurrence in the gut have indicated community substructures that may reflect...... functional and metabolic interactions between cohabiting species 2,3. To move beyond species co-occurrence networks, we systematically identified transcriptional interactions between pairs of coexisting gut microbes using metagenomics and microarray-based metatranscriptomics data from 233 stool samples from...

  3. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify...... combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells.Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well...

  4. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  5. 1st Workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living: Recognise2Interact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casale, P.; Houben, S.; Amft, O.D.

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware systems have the potential to revolutionize the way humans interact with information technology. The first workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living (Recognise2Interact) aims to enable researchers and practitioners from both,

  6. How Do Small Things Make a Big Difference? Activities to Teach about Human-Microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara; Waters, Jillian L; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2014-11-01

    Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students investigate human-microbe interactions as they work together to interpret and analyze authentic data from published articles and develop scientific models. Through the activities, students learn and apply ecological concepts as they come to see the human body as a fascinatingly complex ecosystem.

  7. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interactions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces Applying Our Minds to Human-computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Desney S

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person's mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science fiction stories. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to turn these myths into a reality, and are providing us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that monitor physical p

  9. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J

    2018-02-26

    The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.

  10. Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator–prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Schultner, Jannik; Nimmo, Dale G.; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kehoe, Laura; Ritchie, Euan G.

    2015-01-01

    Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated landscape in Transylvania, Romania. By global standards this system is diverse, including apex predators (brown bear and wolf), mesopredators (red fox) and large herbivores (roe and red deer). Humans and free-ranging dogs represent additional predators in the system. Using structural equation modelling, we found that apex predators suppress lower trophic levels, especially herbivores. However, direct and indirect top-down effects of humans affected the ecosystem more strongly, influencing species at all trophic levels. Our study highlights the need to explicitly embed humans and their influences within trophic cascade theory. This will greatly expand our understanding of species interactions in human-modified landscapes, which compose the majority of the Earth's terrestrial surface. PMID:26336169

  11. Modeling and Simulation for Exploring Human-Robot Team Interaction Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Bruemmer, David Jonathon; Davis, Midge Lee

    2001-12-01

    Small-sized and micro-robots will soon be available for deployment in large-scale forces. Consequently, the ability of a human operator to coordinate and interact with largescale robotic forces is of great interest. This paper describes the ways in which modeling and simulation have been used to explore new possibilities for human-robot interaction. The paper also discusses how these explorations have fed implementation of a unified set of command and control concepts for robotic force deployment. Modeling and simulation can play a major role in fielding robot teams in actual missions. While live testing is preferred, limitations in terms of technology, cost, and time often prohibit extensive experimentation with physical multi-robot systems. Simulation provides insight, focuses efforts, eliminates large areas of the possible solution space, and increases the quality of actual testing.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Human Body Movement and Group Interactions in Response to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Frank; Leman, Marc; Lesaffre, Micheline; de Bruyn, Leen

    Quantification of time series that relate to physiological data is challenging for empirical music research. Up to now, most studies have focused on time-dependent responses of individual subjects in controlled environments. However, little is known about time-dependent responses of between-subject interactions in an ecological context. This paper provides new findings on the statistical analysis of group synchronicity in response to musical stimuli. Different statistical techniques were applied to time-dependent data obtained from an experiment on embodied listening in individual and group settings. Analysis of inter group synchronicity are described. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Cross Correlation Function (CCF) were found to be valid methods to estimate group coherence of the resulting movements. It was found that synchronicity of movements between individuals (human-human interactions) increases significantly in the social context. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the type of music is the predominant factor in both the individual and the social context.

  13. Human machine interaction research experience and perspectives as seen from the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oewre, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review is given on important safety issues in the field of human machine interaction as expressed by important nuclear organisations such as USNRC, IAEA and the OECD NEA. Further on, a presentation is offered of research activities at the OECD Halden Reactor Project in the field of human machine interaction aiming to clarify some of the issues outlined by the above mentioned organisations. The OECD Halden Reactor Project is a joint undertaking of national nuclear organisations in 19 countries sponsoring a jointly financed research programme under the auspices of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency. One of the research areas is the man-machine systems research addressing the operator tasks in a control room environment. The overall objective is to provide a basis for improving today's control rooms through introduction of computer-based solutions for effective and safe execution of surveillance and control functions in normal as well as off-normal plant situations. (author)

  14. Displacement of Drugs from Human Serum Albumin: From Molecular Interactions to Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimac, Hrvoje; Debeljak, Željko; Bojić, Mirza; Miller, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in human serum. It has numerous functions, one of which is transport of small hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, toxins, nutrients, hormones and metabolites. HSA has the ability to interact with a wide variety of structurally different compounds. This promiscuous, nonspecific affinity can lead to sudden changes in concentrations caused by displacement, when two or more compounds compete for binding to the same molecular site. It is important to consider drug combinations and their binding to HSA when defining dosing regimens, as this can directly influence drug's free, active concentration in blood. In present paper we review drug interactions with potential for displacement from HSA, situations in which they are likely to occur and their clinical significance. We also offer guidelines in designing drugs with decreased binding to HSA. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Human-machine interactions: The human element of expert systems for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will begin with a brief history of the development of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This discussion will serve to provide the reader with an understanding of how the field of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the nuclear industry has developed. Next, this paper will discuss the general human factors issues relative to the development and implementation of expert systems for the nuclear industry. It will summarize the relevant research that addresses these issues and identify those areas that need the most effort for success. Since much of the prominent work for the application of expert systems has focused on computerized aids for decisionmaking in emergencies, this paper will draw from this area for its examples. This area tends to highlight the issues because of the safety-critical nature of the application. The same issues, however, are relevant to other applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry as well, even though the consequences of failure may not be as dramatic. (orig./GL)

  16. Bowling alone but tweeting together: the evolution of human interaction in the social networking era

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, Angelo; Sabatini, Fabio; Sodini, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to theoretically analyze how human interaction may evolve in a world characterized by the explosion of online networking and other Web-mediated ways of building and nurturing relationships. The analysis shows that online networking yields a storage mechanism through which any individual contribution - e.g. a blog post, a comment, or a photo - is stored within a particular network and ready for virtual access by each member who connects to the network. When someo...

  17. Interactions of the human MCM-BP protein with MCM complex components and Dbf4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Nguyen

    Full Text Available MCM-BP was discovered as a protein that co-purified from human cells with MCM proteins 3 through 7; results which were recapitulated in frogs, yeast and plants. Evidence in all of these organisms supports an important role for MCM-BP in DNA replication, including contributions to MCM complex unloading. However the mechanisms by which MCM-BP functions and associates with MCM complexes are not well understood. Here we show that human MCM-BP is capable of interacting with individual MCM proteins 2 through 7 when co-expressed in insect cells and can greatly increase the recovery of some recombinant MCM proteins. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis indicated that MCM-BP interacts most strongly with MCM4 and MCM7. Similar gradient analyses of human cell lysates showed that only a small amount of MCM-BP overlapped with the migration of MCM complexes and that MCM complexes were disrupted by exogenous MCM-BP. In addition, large complexes containing MCM-BP and MCM proteins were detected at mid to late S phase, suggesting that the formation of specific MCM-BP complexes is cell cycle regulated. We also identified an interaction between MCM-BP and the Dbf4 regulatory component of the DDK kinase in both yeast 2-hybrid and insect cell co-expression assays, and this interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from human cells. In vitro kinase assays showed that MCM-BP was not a substrate for DDK but could inhibit DDK phosphorylation of MCM4,6,7 within MCM4,6,7 or MCM2-7 complexes, with little effect on DDK phosphorylation of MCM2. Since DDK is known to activate DNA replication through phosphorylation of these MCM proteins, our results suggest that MCM-BP may affect DNA replication in part by regulating MCM phosphorylation by DDK.

  18. Interactions of the human MCM-BP protein with MCM complex components and Dbf4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tin; Jagannathan, Madhav; Shire, Kathy; Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    MCM-BP was discovered as a protein that co-purified from human cells with MCM proteins 3 through 7; results which were recapitulated in frogs, yeast and plants. Evidence in all of these organisms supports an important role for MCM-BP in DNA replication, including contributions to MCM complex unloading. However the mechanisms by which MCM-BP functions and associates with MCM complexes are not well understood. Here we show that human MCM-BP is capable of interacting with individual MCM proteins 2 through 7 when co-expressed in insect cells and can greatly increase the recovery of some recombinant MCM proteins. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis indicated that MCM-BP interacts most strongly with MCM4 and MCM7. Similar gradient analyses of human cell lysates showed that only a small amount of MCM-BP overlapped with the migration of MCM complexes and that MCM complexes were disrupted by exogenous MCM-BP. In addition, large complexes containing MCM-BP and MCM proteins were detected at mid to late S phase, suggesting that the formation of specific MCM-BP complexes is cell cycle regulated. We also identified an interaction between MCM-BP and the Dbf4 regulatory component of the DDK kinase in both yeast 2-hybrid and insect cell co-expression assays, and this interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from human cells. In vitro kinase assays showed that MCM-BP was not a substrate for DDK but could inhibit DDK phosphorylation of MCM4,6,7 within MCM4,6,7 or MCM2-7 complexes, with little effect on DDK phosphorylation of MCM2. Since DDK is known to activate DNA replication through phosphorylation of these MCM proteins, our results suggest that MCM-BP may affect DNA replication in part by regulating MCM phosphorylation by DDK.

  19. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human--Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language--behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, ``internal dynamics'' refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language--behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language--behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  20. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  1. Proceedings of the topical meeting on advances in human factors research on man/computer interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: expert systems and knowledge engineering-I; verification and validation of software; methods for modeling UMAN/computer performance; MAN/computer interaction problems in producing procedures -1-2; progress and problems with automation-1-2; experience with electronic presentation of procedures-2; intelligent displays and monitors; modeling user/computer interface; and computer-based human decision-making aids

  2. Engageability: a new sub-principle of the learnability principle in human-computer interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chimbo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The learnability principle relates to improving the usability of software, as well as users’ performance and productivity. A gap has been identified as the current definition of the principle does not distinguish between users of different ages. To determine the extent of the gap, this article compares the ways in which two user groups, adults and children, learn how to use an unfamiliar software application. In doing this, we bring together the research areas of human-computer interaction (HCI, adult and child learning, learning theories and strategies, usability evaluation and interaction design. A literature survey conducted on learnability and learning processes considered the meaning of learnability of software applications across generations. In an empirical investigation, users aged from 9 to 12 and from 35 to 50 were observed in a usability laboratory while learning to use educational software applications. Insights that emerged from data analysis showed different tactics and approaches that children and adults use when learning unfamiliar software. Eye tracking data was also recorded. Findings indicated that subtle re- interpretation of the learnability principle and its associated sub-principles was required. An additional sub-principle, namely engageability was proposed to incorporate aspects of learnability that are not covered by the existing sub-principles. Our re-interpretation of the learnability principle and the resulting design recommendations should help designers to fulfill the varying needs of different-aged users, and improve the learnability of their designs. Keywords: Child computer interaction, Design principles, Eye tracking, Generational differences, human-computer interaction, Learning theories, Learnability, Engageability, Software applications, Uasability Disciplines: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Studies, Computer science, Observational Studies

  3. Why E-Business Must Evolve beyond Market Orientation: Applying Human Interaction Models to Computer-Mediated Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin McCullough

    2001-01-01

    Considers the design of corporate communications for electronic business and discusses the increasing importance of corporate interaction as companies work in virtual environments. Compares sociological and psychological theories of human interaction and relationship formation with organizational interaction theories of corporate relationship…

  4. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human–Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents lik...

  5. Antiviral activity of human lactoferrin: inhibition of alphavirus interaction with heparan sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waarts, Barry-Lee; Aneke, Onwuchekwa J.C.; Smit, Jolanda M.; Kimata, Koji; Bittman, Robert; Meijer, Dirk K.F.; Wilschut, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Human lactoferrin is a component of the non-specific immune system with distinct antiviral properties. We used alphaviruses, adapted to interaction with heparan sulfate (HS), as a tool to investigate the mechanism of lactoferrin's antiviral activity. Lactoferrin inhibited infection of BHK-21 cells by HS-adapted, but not by non-adapted, Sindbis virus (SIN) or Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Lactoferrin also inhibited binding of radiolabeled HS-adapted viruses to BHK-21 cells or liposomes containing lipid-conjugated heparin as a receptor analog. On the other hand, low-pH-induced fusion of the viruses with liposomes, which occurs independently of virus-receptor interaction, was unaffected. Studies involving preincubation of virus or cells with lactoferrin suggested that the protein does not bind to the virus, but rather blocks HS-moieties on the cell surface. Charge-modified human serum albumin, with a net positive charge, had a similar antiviral effect against HS-adapted SIN and SFV, suggesting that the antiviral activity of lactoferrin is related to its positive charge. It is concluded that human lactoferrin inhibits viral infection by interfering with virus-receptor interaction rather than by affecting subsequent steps in the viral cell entry or replication processes

  6. Data on overlapping brain disorders and emerging drug targets in human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Podder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intercommunication of Dopamine Receptors (DRs with their associate protein partners is crucial to maintain regular brain function in human. Majority of the brain disorders arise due to malfunctioning of such communication process. Hence, contributions of genetic factors, as well as phenotypic indications for various neurological and psychiatric disorders are often attributed as sharing in nature. In our earlier research article entitled “Human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN: a systems biology perspective on topology, stability and functionality of the network” (Podder et al., 2014 [1], we had depicted a holistic interaction map of human Dopamine Receptors. Given emphasis on the topological parameters, we had characterized the functionality along with the vulnerable properties of the network. In support of this, we hereby provide an additional data highlighting the genetic overlapping of various brain disorders in the network. The data indicates the sharing nature of disease genes for various neurological and psychiatric disorders in dopamine receptors connecting protein-protein interactions network. The data also indicates toward an alternative approach to prioritize proteins for overlapping brain disorders as valuable drug targets in the network.

  7. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chao; Fang, Senbiao; Cao, Huiming; Lu, Yan; Ma, Yaqiong [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wei, Dongfeng [Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Xie, Xiaoyun [College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiaohua [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Fei, Dongqing [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: zhaochy07@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We identify the binding mode of PCB153 to human serum albumin (HSA). ► Spectroscopic and molecular modeling results reveal that PCB153 binds at the site II. ► The interaction is mainly governed by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. ► The work helps to probe transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs. -- Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum.

  8. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  9. Human-computer interaction for alert warning and attention allocation systems of the multimodal watchstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, Richard W.; Nugent, William A.

    2000-11-01

    The SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego is currently developing an advanced Multi-Modal Watchstation (MMWS); design concepts and software from this effort are intended for transition to future United States Navy surface combatants. The MMWS features multiple flat panel displays and several modes of user interaction, including voice input and output, natural language recognition, 3D audio, stylus and gestural inputs. In 1999, an extensive literature review was conducted on basic and applied research concerned with alerting and warning systems. After summarizing that literature, a human computer interaction (HCI) designer's guide was prepared to support the design of an attention allocation subsystem (AAS) for the MMWS. The resultant HCI guidelines are being applied in the design of a fully interactive AAS prototype. An overview of key findings from the literature review, a proposed design methodology with illustrative examples, and an assessment of progress made in implementing the HCI designers guide are presented.

  10. Fluorescence study on the interaction of human serum albumin with Butein in liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Mahmut

    2016-02-01

    The interaction of Butein with human serum albumin in L-egg lecithin phosphatidycholine (PC) liposome has been investigated by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The results of the fluorescence measurement indicated that Butein effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The Stern-Volmer plots in all the liposome solutions showed a positive deviation from the linearity. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the hydrophobic interactions appeared be the major interaction forces between Butein and HSA. The effect of Butein on the conformation of HSA was also investigated by the synchronous fluorescence under the same experimental conditions. In addition, the partition coefficient of the Butein in the PC liposomes was also determined by using the fluorescence quenching process. The obtained results can be of biological significance in pharmacology and clinical medicine.

  11. Panta Rhei-Everything flows: Global Hotspots of Human-Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Tian, F.; Mohamed, Y.; Krueger, T.; Kreibich, H.; Liu, J.; Troy, T. J.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Panta Rhei-Everything Flows is the scientific decade (2013-2022) of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). This initiative aims to reach an improved interpretation of the processes governing the water cycle by focusing on their changing dynamics in connection with rapidly changing human systems (Montanari et al., 2013; McMillan et al., 2016). More than 400 water scientists have been involved in Panta Rhei so far, and several working groups have produced significant outcomes. In this presentation, we first summarize some key achievements of this initiative by showing how they have advanced our understanding of the way in which humans impact on, and respond to, hydrological change. Then, we suggest simple indicators to characterize interactions between water and human systems. These indicators aim to capture the relevance of human-water interactions and their potential to generate negative effects, such as water crises or unintended consequences. Finally, we show an application of these indicators to global hotspots, i.e. contrasting case studies from around the world. Our goal is to facilitate a community-wide effort in collecting and sharing essential data to map the role of human-water interactions across social and hydrological conditions. ReferencesMontanari et al. (2013) Panta Rhei—Everything Flows: Change in hydrology and society—The IAHS Scientific Decade 2013-2022, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58(6), 1256-1275. McMillan et al. (2016) Panta Rhei 2013-2015: Global perspectives on hydrology, society and change. Hydrological sciences journal 61(7), 1174-1191.

  12. Conflict to Coexistence: Human – Leopard Interactions in a Plantation Landscape in Anamalai Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Sidhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When leopards are found in human-dominated landscapes, conflicts may arise due to attacks on people or livestock loss or when people retaliate following real and perceived threats. In the plantation landscape of the Valparai plateau, we studied incidents of injury and loss of life of people and livestock over time (15 – 25 y and carried out questionnaire surveys in 29 plantation colonies and eight tribal villages to study correlates of livestock depredation, people's perception of leopards, and preferred management options for human – leopard interactions. Leopards were implicated in an average of 1.3 (± 0.4 SE incidents/year (1990 – 2014 involving humans and 3.6 (± 0.8 SE incidents/year (1999 – 2014 involving livestock, with no statistically significant increasing trend over time. Most incidents of injury or loss of life involved young children or unattended livestock, and occurred between afternoon and night. At the colony level, livestock depredation was positively related to the number of livestock, but decreased with the distance from protected area and number of residents. Half the respondents reported seeing a leopard in a neutral situation, under conditions that resulted in no harm. All tribal and 52% of estate respondents had neutral perceptions of leopards and most (81.9%, n = 161 respondents indicated changing their own behaviour as a preferred option to manage negative interactions with leopards, rather than capture or removal of leopards. Perception was unrelated to livestock depredation, but tended to be more negative when human attacks had occurred in a colony. A combination of measures including safety precautions for adults and children at night, better livestock herding and cattle-sheds, and building on people's neutral perception and tolerance can mitigate negative interactions and support continued human – leopard coexistence.

  13. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target

  14. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Quistgaard, Esben M. [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Par [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Thanabalu, Thirumaran [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Torres, Jaume, E-mail: jtorres@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  15. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  16. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive cha...

  17. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human?robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Stephen M.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; Jentsch, Florian G.; Huang, Wesley H.; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human–robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relatio...

  18. Identification of New Protein Interactions between Dengue Fever Virus and Its Hosts, Human and Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairiang, Dumrong; Zhang, Huamei; Sodja, Ann; Murali, Thilakam; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Finley, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host – dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies. PMID:23326450

  19. Identification of new protein interactions between dengue fever virus and its hosts, human and mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairiang, Dumrong; Zhang, Huamei; Sodja, Ann; Murali, Thilakam; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Finley, Russell L

    2013-01-01

    The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host - dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies.

  20. Identification of new protein interactions between dengue fever virus and its hosts, human and mosquito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumrong Mairiang

    Full Text Available The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host - dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies.