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Sample records for human foveal development

  1. Dynamics of human foveal development after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ramiro S; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Sarin, Neeru; Freedman, Sharon F; Wallace, David K; Cotten, C Michael; Winter, Katrina P; Stinnett, Sandra; Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina; Toth, Cynthia A

    2011-12-01

    To determine the dynamic morphologic development of the human fovea in vivo using portable spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Thirty-one prematurely born neonates, 9 children, and 9 adults. Sixty-two neonates were enrolled in this study. After examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), SD-OCT imaging was performed at the bedside in nonsedated infants aged 31 to 41 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (= gestational age in weeks + chronologic age) and at outpatient follow-up ophthalmic examinations. Thirty-one neonates met eligibility criteria. Nine children and nine adults without ocular pathology served as control groups. Semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation was performed. Central foveal thickness, foveal to parafoveal (FP) ratio (central foveal thickness divided by thickness 1000 μm from the foveal center), and 3-dimensional thickness maps were analyzed. In vivo determination of foveal morphology, layer segmentation, analysis of subcellular changes, and spatiotemporal layer shifting. In contrast with the adult fovea, several signs of immaturity were observed in the neonates: a shallow foveal pit, persistence of inner retinal layers (IRLs), and a thin photoreceptor layer (PRL) that was thinnest at the foveal center. Three-dimensional mapping showed displacement of retinal layers out of the foveal center as the fovea matured and the progressive formation of the inner/outer segment band in the opposite direction. The FP-IRL ratios decreased as IRL migrated before term and minimally after that, whereas FP-PRL ratios increased as PRL subcellular elements formed closer to term and into childhood. A surprising finding was the presence of cystoid macular edema in 58% of premature neonates that appeared to affect inner foveal maturation. This study provides the first view into the development of living cellular layers of the human retina and of subcellular specialization at the fovea in premature infant eyes

  2. Associating peripheral and foveal visual input across saccades: a default mode of the human visual system?

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    Weiß, Katharina; Schneider, Werner X; Herwig, Arvid

    2014-09-09

    Spatial processing resolution of a particular object in the visual field can differ considerably due to eye movements. The same object will be represented with high acuity in the fovea but only coarsely in periphery. Herwig and Schneider (in press) proposed that the visual system counteracts such resolution differences by predicting, based on previous experience, how foveal objects will look in the periphery and vice versa. They demonstrated that previously learned transsaccadic associations between peripheral and foveal object information facilitate performance in visual search, irrespective of the correctness of these associations. False associations were learned by replacing the presaccadic object with a slightly different object during the saccade. Importantly, participants usually did not notice this object change. This raises the question of whether perception of object continuity is a critical factor in building transsaccadic associations. We disturbed object continuity during learning with a postsaccadic blank or a task-irrelevant shape change. Interestingly, visual search performance revealed that neither disruption of temporal object continuity (blank) nor disruption of spatial object continuity (shape change) impaired transsaccadic learning. Thus, transsaccadic learning seems to be a very robust default mechanism of the visual system that is probably related to the more general concept of action-effect learning.

  3. Human retinal disease from AIPL1 gene mutations: foveal cone loss with minimal macular photoreceptors and rod function remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Cideciyan, Artur V; Aleman, Tomas S; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J; Swider, Malgorzata; Schwartz, Sharon B; Banin, Eyal; Stone, Edwin M

    2011-01-05

    To determine the human retinal phenotype caused by mutations in the gene encoding AIPL1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1) now that there are proof-of-concept results for gene therapy success in Aipl1-deficient mice. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) patients (n = 10) and one patient with a later-onset retinal degeneration (RD) and AIPL1 mutations were studied by ocular examination, retinal imaging, perimetry, full-field sensitivity testing, and pupillometry. The LCA patients had severe visual acuity loss early in life, nondetectable electroretinograms (ERGs), and little or no detectable visual fields. Hallmarks of retinal degeneration were present in a wide region, including the macula and midperiphery; there was some apparent peripheral retinal sparing. Cross-sectional imaging showed foveal cone photoreceptor loss with a ring of minimally preserved paracentral photoreceptor nuclear layer. Features of retinal remodeling were present eccentric to the region of detectable photoreceptors. Full-field sensitivity was reduced by at least 2 log units, and chromatic stimuli, by psychophysics and pupillometry, revealed retained but impaired rod function. The RD patient, examined serially over two decades (ages, 45-67 years), retained an ERG in the fifth decade of life with abnormal rod and cone signals; and there was progressive loss of central and peripheral function. AIPL1-LCA, unlike some other forms of LCA with equally severe visual disturbance, shows profound loss of foveal as well as extrafoveal photoreceptors. The more unusual late-onset and slower form of AIPL1 disease may be better suited to gene augmentation therapy and is worthy of detection and further study.

  4. Foveal development and nystagmus.

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    Proudlock, Frank; Gottlob, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and genetic methods along with other clinical diagnostic tools permit the discrimination of infantile nystagmus subtypes with a precision that has not previously been possible. Analysis of specific diseases, such as albinism and achromatopsia as well as known genetic abnormalities, such as FRMD7 and PAX6 mutations, shows subtle but significant differences between nystagmus subtypes using eye movement recordings. In addition, OCT can be used to chart the progression of retinal diseases with age, for example, as has been shown in achromatopsia. OCT can also be used to predict the level of visual deficit due to retinal abnormalities, as demonstrated for albinism. These findings suggest that the classification of all infantile nystagmus into one single entity is premature.

  5. Foveal sparing in stargardt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, R.A.C. van; Bax, N.M.; Westeneng-van Haaften, S.C.; Muhamad, M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide a clinical and genetic description of a patient cohort with Stargardt disease (STGD1) with identifiable foveal sparing. METHODS: Patients with retinal atrophy (defined as an absence of autofluorescence) that surrounded the fovea by at least 180 degrees and did not include the fov

  6. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

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    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  7. Directional eye fixation sensor using birefringence-based foveal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I.; Zalloum, Othman H. Y.; Wu, Yi Kai; Hunter, David G.; Guyton, David L.

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed and reported an eye fixation monitor that detects the fovea by its radial orientation of birefringent nerve fibers. The instrument used a four-quadrant photodetector and a normalized difference function to check for a best match between the detector quadrants and the arms of the bow-tie pattern of polarization states surrounding the fovea. This function had a maximum during central fixation but could not tell where the subject was looking relative to the center. We propose a linear transformation to obtain horizontal and vertical eye position coordinates from the four photodetector signals, followed by correction based on a priori calibration information. The method was verified on both a computer model and on human eyes. The major advantage of this new eye-tracking method is that it uses true information coming from the fovea, rather than reflections from other structures, to identify the direction of foveal gaze.

  8. Residual Foveal Cone Structure in CNGB3-Associated Achromatopsia.

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    Langlo, Christopher S; Patterson, Emily J; Higgins, Brian P; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Razeen, Moataz M; Erker, Laura R; Parker, Maria; Collison, Frederick T; Fishman, Gerald A; Kay, Christine N; Zhang, Jing; Weleber, Richard G; Yang, Paul; Wilson, David J; Pennesi, Mark E; Lam, Byron L; Chiang, John; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Dubra, Alfredo; Hauswirth, William W; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Congenital achromatopsia (ACHM) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which cone function is absent or severely reduced. Gene therapy in animal models of ACHM have shown restoration of cone function, though translation of these results to humans relies, in part, on the presence of viable cone photoreceptors at the time of treatment. Here, we characterized residual cone structure in subjects with CNGB3-associated ACHM. High-resolution imaging (optical coherence tomography [OCT] and adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy [AOSLO]) was performed in 51 subjects with CNGB3-associated ACHM. Peak cone density and inter-cone spacing at the fovea was measured using split-detection AOSLO. Foveal outer nuclear layer thickness was measured in OCT images, and the integrity of the photoreceptor layer was assessed using a previously published OCT grading scheme. Analyzable images of the foveal cones were obtained in 26 of 51 subjects, with nystagmus representing the major obstacle to obtaining high-quality images. Peak foveal cone density ranged from 7,273 to 53,554 cones/mm2, significantly lower than normal (range, 84,733-234,391 cones/mm2), with the remnant cones being either contiguously or sparsely arranged. Peak cone density was correlated with OCT integrity grade; however, there was overlap of the density ranges between OCT grades. The degree of residual foveal cone structure varies greatly among subjects with CNGB3-associated ACHM. Such measurements may be useful in estimating the therapeutic potential of a given retina, providing affected individuals and physicians with valuable information to more accurately assess the risk-benefit ratio as they consider enrolling in experimental gene therapy trials. (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01846052.).

  9. Foveal hemorrhage in an eye with foveal hypoplasia associated with albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naonori Masuda, Taiji Hasegawa, Mariko Yamashita, Nahoko Ogata Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan Abstract: Oculocutaneous albinism is a group of congenital disorders caused by alterations of melanin biosynthesis. We report our findings in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism who presented with foveal hypoplasia and a foveal hemorrhage. A 48-year-old man noted a dark spot in the middle of the visual field of his right eye. He had depigmented skin, white hair, white eyebrows, and white cilia. He also had horizontal nystagmus and depigmented irides. His best-corrected visual acuity was 2/100 with -14.0 diopters in the right eye and 3/100 with -5.0 diopters in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed diffuse depigmentation in both eyes and a foveal hemorrhage in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography showed the absence of a foveal pit in both eyes and a subretinal hyperreflective lesion corresponding to the foveal hemorrhage in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed that the retinal and choroidal vessels were relatively hypofluorescent because of the lack of a blocking effect of the pigments in the retinal pigment epithelium. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography did not show any evidence of choroidal neovascularization in either eye. The foveal hemorrhage in the right eye spontaneously regressed and finally resolved at 3 months after onset. At the final examination, the patient reported that his vision had recovered. A foveal hemorrhage is a rare condition in an eye with foveal hypoplasia associated with albinism. The hemorrhage may be related to high myopia and also to the hypoplasia of the fovea associated with albinism. Keywords: albinism, foveal hemorrhage, foveal hypoplasia, simple hemorrhage

  10. The role of extra-foveal processing in 3D imaging

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    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Lago, Miguel A.; Abbey, Craig K.

    2017-03-01

    The field of medical image quality has relied on the assumption that metrics of image quality for simple visual detection tasks are a reliable proxy for the more clinically realistic visual search tasks. Rank order of signal detectability across conditions often generalizes from detection to search tasks. Here, we argue that search in 3D images represents a paradigm shift in medical imaging: radiologists typically cannot exhaustively scrutinize all regions of interest with the high acuity fovea requiring detection of signals with extra-foveal areas (visual periphery) of the human retina. We hypothesize that extra-foveal processing can alter the detectability of certain types of signals in medical images with important implications for search in 3D medical images. We compare visual search of two different types of signals in 2D vs. 3D images. We show that a small microcalcification-like signal is more highly detectable than a larger mass-like signal in 2D search, but its detectability largely decreases (relative to the larger signal) in the 3D search task. Utilizing measurements of observer detectability as a function retinal eccentricity and observer eye fixations we can predict the pattern of results in the 2D and 3D search studies. Our findings: 1) suggest that observer performance findings with 2D search might not always generalize to 3D search; 2) motivate the development of a new family of model observers that take into account the inhomogeneous visual processing across the retina (foveated model observers).

  11. Trans-saccadic integration of peripheral and foveal feature information is close to optimal.

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    Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C

    2015-01-01

    Due to the inhomogenous visual representation across the visual field, humans use peripheral vision to select objects of interest and foveate them by saccadic eye movements for further scrutiny. Thus, there is usually peripheral information available before and foveal information after a saccade. In this study we investigated the integration of information across saccades. We measured reliabilities--i.e., the inverse of variance-separately in a presaccadic peripheral and a postsaccadic foveal orientation--discrimination task. From this, we predicted trans-saccadic performance and compared it to observed values. We show that the integration of incongruent peripheral and foveal information is biased according to their relative reliabilities and that the reliability of the trans-saccadic information equals the sum of the peripheral and foveal reliabilities. Both results are consistent with and indistinguishable from statistically optimal integration according to the maximum-likelihood principle. Additionally, we tracked the gathering of information around the time of the saccade with high temporal precision by using a reverse correlation method. Information gathering starts to decline between 100 and 50 ms before saccade onset and recovers immediately after saccade offset. Altogether, these findings show that the human visual system can effectively use peripheral and foveal information about object features and that visual perception does not simply correspond to disconnected snapshots during each fixation.

  12. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection.

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    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-07-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates ("wave-plate-enhanced RBS") that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia.

  13. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates (“wave-plate-enhanced RBS”) that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia. PMID:21750772

  14. Foveal slope measurements in diabetic retinopathy: Can it predict development of sight-threatening retinopathy? Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II, Report no 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Gella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the foveal slope configuration in subjects with type 2 diabetes in a population-based study. Materials and Methods: A subset of 668 subjects from Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy (DR Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study II, a population-based study, were included in the current study. All the subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation including spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Foveal thickness was assessed in five central early treatment DR study quadrants from the three-dimensional scan and foveal slope was calculated in all the four quadrants. Results: Subjects with sight-threatening DR (STDR had significantly shallow foveal slope in inferior quadrant (STDR: 7.33 ± 6.26 vs. controls: 10.31 ± 3.44; P = 0.021 when compared to controls and in superior (STDR: 7.62 ± 5.81 vs. no DR: 9.11 ± 2.82; P = 0.033, inferior (STDR: 7.33 ± 6.26 vs. no DR: 8.81 ± 2.81; P = 0.048, and temporal quadrants (STDR: 6.69 ± 5.70 vs. no DR: 7.97 ± 2.33; P = 0.030 when compared to subjects with no DR. Foveal slope was significantly shallow among the older age groups in subjects with no DR (P < 0.001 and non-STDR (P = 0.027. Average foveal slope in the diabetic subjects was independently and significantly correlated with increase in age (r = −0.241; P < 0.001 and central subfield thickness (r = −0.542; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Changes in foveal slope were seen with increasing age; however, in diabetes these segmental slope changes can be seen in late DR (STDR.

  15. Clinical characteristics of high grade foveal hypoplasia.

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    Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2013-02-01

    To report clinical characteristics of high grade foveal hypoplasia. Patients with foveal hypoplasia of grade 3 or 4 on spectral domain optical coherence tomography according to a previously published scheme were enrolled. All patients underwent a full ophthalmologic assessment including visual acuity testing, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, and evaluation of ocular alignment. The underlying causes of foveal hypoplasia were identified as albinism in five patients and aniridia in six patients. The mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.57 ± 0.24 (range 0.22-1.00) in the right eyes and 0.58 ± 0.21 (range 0.30-1.00) in the left eyes. On fundus examination in patients with albinism, two patients showed marked transparency, one patient showed moderate transparency, and two patients showed minimal transparency. Among six patients with aniridia, five patients showed normal macular pigmentation without macular reflex and one patient showed decreased macular pigmentation with no macular reflex. Patients with high grade macular hypoplasia tended to have poor visual acuities; however, the range of visual acuity was quite variable. Other factors associated with underlying disease could be the reason of this variability. Therefore, careful consideration should be given when assessing visual prognosis in foveal hypoplasia using optical coherence tomography.

  16. Foveal processing difficulty does not affect parafoveal preprocessing in young readers

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    Marx, Christina; Hawelka, Stefan; Schuster, Sarah; Hutzler, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested that parafoveal preprocessing develops early during reading acquisition, that is, young readers profit from valid parafoveal information and exhibit a resultant preview benefit. For young readers, however, it is unknown whether the processing demands of the currently fixated word modulate the extent to which the upcoming word is parafoveally preprocessed – as it has been postulated (for adult readers) by the foveal load hypothesis. The present study used the novel incremental boundary technique to assess whether 4th and 6th Graders exhibit an effect of foveal load. Furthermore, we attempted to distinguish the foveal load effect from the spillover effect. These effects are hard to differentiate with respect to the expected pattern of results, but are conceptually different. The foveal load effect is supposed to reflect modulations of the extent of parafoveal preprocessing, whereas the spillover effect reflects the ongoing processing of the previous word whilst the reader’s fixation is already on the next word. The findings revealed that the young readers did not exhibit an effect of foveal load, but a substantial spillover effect. The implications for previous studies with adult readers and for models of eye movement control in reading are discussed. PMID:28139718

  17. The foveal 'crowding' effect: physics or physiology?

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    Hess, R F; Dakin, S C; Kapoor, N

    2000-01-01

    It has been known for some time that both foveal and peripheral visual acuity is higher for single letters than for letters in a row. Early work showed that this was due to the destructive interaction of adjacent contours (termed 'crowding' or contour interaction). It has been assumed to have a neural basis and a number of competing explanations have been advanced which implicate either high-level or low-level stages of visual processing. Our results suggest a much simpler explanation, one primarily determined by the physics of the stimulus rather than the physiology of the visual system. We show that, under conditions of contour interaction or 'crowding', the most relevant physical spatial frequency band of the letter is displaced to higher spatial frequencies and that foveal vision tracks this change in spatial scale.

  18. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in foveal hypoplasia

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    Swakshyar Saumya Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of foveal hypoplasia associated with ocular albinism with anatomic and functional changes by various techniques using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, microperimeter and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope is described. This case highlights the importance of microperimeter in detecting the functional abnormalities of vision and SD-OCT in identifying the retinal laminar abnormalities in foveal hypoplasia.

  19. Photo-induced foveal injury after viewing a solar eclipse.

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    Källmark, Fredrik P; Ygge, Jan

    2005-10-01

    To study the injury to and possible recovery of the visual function and foveal morphology in patients with photo-induced foveal injury due to watching the solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999 in Stockholm, Sweden. Fifteen patients, all of whom viewed the solar eclipse, were followed for 1 year, during which their visual symptoms were recorded and visual acuity (VA) was tested, and ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy were performed. Photo-induced foveal injury gave rise to subjective visual disturbances, reduced VA and morphological changes in the fovea. Central scotomas could still be seen in all patients 1 year after the foveal injury. Photo-induced foveal injury gave rise to subjective visual disturbances, reduced VA and morphological changes in the fovea. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers the possibility of detailed examination of small retinal lesions, which can sometimes be difficult to localize with ophthalmoscopy.

  20. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

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    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  1. Reading strategies in Stargardt's disease with foveal sparing

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Mira; Déruaz, Anouk; Lorincz, Erika N; Whatham, Andrew R; Mermoud, Christophe; Safran, Avinoam B

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Subjects with a ring scotoma can use two retinal loci, a foveal and a peripheral, for reading. Our aim was to investigate the relative use of both retinal loci as a function of the spared foveal area size and the spatial resolution at both retinal loci. FINDINGS: Two patients with Stargardt's disease and ring scotomas read through a scanning laser ophthalmoscope a series of letters and words at various character sizes. The number of fixations made using each retinal locu...

  2. Reading strategies in Stargardt's disease with foveal sparing

    OpenAIRE

    Whatham Andrew R; Lorincz Erika N; Déruaz Anouk; Goldschmidt Mira; Mermoud Christophe; Safran Avinoam B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjects with a ring scotoma can use two retinal loci, a foveal and a peripheral, for reading. Our aim was to investigate the relative use of both retinal loci as a function of the spared foveal area size and the spatial resolution at both retinal loci. Findings Two patients with Stargardt's disease and ring scotomas read through a scanning laser ophthalmoscope a series of letters and words at various character sizes. The number of fixations made using each retinal locus w...

  3. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  4. Human Development Report 1991: Financing Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    1991-01-01

    Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real barrier to human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

  5. Recessive mutations in SLC38A8 cause foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting without albinism.

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    Poulter, James A; Al-Araimi, Musallam; Conte, Ivan; van Genderen, Maria M; Sheridan, Eamonn; Carr, Ian M; Parry, David A; Shires, Mike; Carrella, Sabrina; Bradbury, John; Khan, Kamron; Lakeman, Phillis; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Webster, Andrew R; Moore, Anthony T; Pal, Bishwanath; Mohamed, Moin D; Venkataramana, Anandula; Ramprasad, Vedam; Shetty, Rohit; Saktivel, Murugan; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; Tan, Alex; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Banfi, Sandro; Ali, Manir; Inglehearn, Chris F; Toomes, Carmel

    2013-12-05

    Foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting are developmental defects of the visual pathway and only co-occur in connection with albinism; to date, they have only been associated with defects in the melanin-biosynthesis pathway. Here, we report that these defects can occur independently of albinism in people with recessive mutations in the putative glutamine transporter gene SLC38A8. Nine different mutations were identified in seven Asian and European families. Using morpholino-mediated ablation of Slc38a8 in medaka fish, we confirmed that pigmentation is unaffected by loss of SLC38A8. Furthermore, by undertaking an association study with SNPs at the SLC38A8 locus, we showed that common variants within this gene modestly affect foveal thickness in the general population. This study reveals a melanin-independent component underpinning the development of the visual pathway that requires a functional role for SLC38A8.

  6. Segmentation of the foveal microvasculature using deep learning networks

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    Prentašić, Pavle; Heisler, Morgan; Mammo, Zaid; Lee, Sieun; Merkur, Andrew; Navajas, Eduardo; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Šarunić, Marinko; Lončarić, Sven

    2016-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of the retinal microvasculature is a critical step in the quantitative analysis of the retinal circulation, which can be an important marker in evaluating the severity of retinal diseases. As manual segmentation remains the gold standard for segmentation of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) images, we present a method for automating the segmentation of OCT-A images using deep neural networks (DNNs). Eighty OCT-A images of the foveal region in 12 eyes from 6 healthy volunteers were acquired using a prototype OCT-A system and subsequently manually segmented. The automated segmentation of the blood vessels in the OCT-A images was then performed by classifying each pixel into vessel or nonvessel class using deep convolutional neural networks. When the automated results were compared against the manual segmentation results, a maximum mean accuracy of 0.83 was obtained. When the automated results were compared with inter and intrarater accuracies, the automated results were shown to be comparable to the human raters suggesting that segmentation using DNNs is comparable to a second manual rater. As manually segmenting the retinal microvasculature is a tedious task, having a reliable automated output such as automated segmentation by DNNs, is an important step in creating an automated output.

  7. Arthroscopic foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

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    Atzei, Andrea; Luchetti, Riccardo; Braidotti, Federica

    2015-02-01

    Background Foveal disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is associated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. TFCC fixation onto the fovea is the suitable treatment, which is not achieved by conventional arthroscopic techniques. We describe an all-inside arthroscopic technique that uses a suture anchor through distal DRUJ arthroscopy for foveal repair of the TFCC. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients with TFCC foveal tear and DRUJ instability were selected according to the Atzei-European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) algorithm of treatment. Retrospective evaluation included pain, DRUJ instability, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score. Description of Technique DRUJ arthroscopy was performed to débride the TFCC and the foveal area. Under arthroscopic guidance, a suture anchor was inserted via the distal foveal portal to repair the TFCC onto the fovea. Sutures were tied on the radiocarpal surface of the TFCC. Postoperative immobilization of forearm rotation was maintained for 4 weeks. Heavy tasks were allowed after 3 months. Results After a mean follow-up of 33 months, pain improved significantly but remained moderate in four patients, severe in one. DRUJ instability resolved in 44 patients. Wrist ROM increased. Grip strength, MMWS, and DASH score improved significantly. Excellent and good MMWS equaled 83.3%. Forty-one patients (85.5%) resumed previous work and sport activities. As a postoperative complication, five patients experienced neuroapraxia of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) with full spontaneous recovery. Conclusions With appropriate indications and patient selection, arthroscopic foveal repair of the TFCC may restore DRUJ stability and provide satisfactory results without significant complications.

  8. Parafoveal-Foveal Overlap Can Facilitate Ongoing Word Identification during Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, Bernhard; Tran, Randy; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Readers continuously receive parafoveal information about the upcoming word in addition to the foveal information about the currently fixated word. Previous research (Inhoff, Radach, Starr, & Greenberg, 2000) showed that the presence of a parafoveal word that was similar to the foveal word facilitated processing of the foveal word. We used the…

  9. Visual Memory for Objects Following Foveal Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B.; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual…

  10. Foveal thickness after phacoemulsification as measured by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Th Georgopoulos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Gerasimos Th Georgopoulos, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Maria Niskopoulou, Marilita Moschos, Ilias Georgalas, Chrysanthi KoutsandreaGlaucoma Department, Medical School, Athens University, Athens, GreeceBackground: Despite a significant body of research, no consistency on postoperative foveal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT, can be recorded. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of uncomplicated cataract surgery in the thickness of the retina in the foveal area during the early postoperative period.Methods: In a prospective study, 79 eyes were assessed by OCT, on day 1, and weeks 2 and 4 after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in the Athens University Clinic. The outcome measure was the thickness of the retina in the foveal area.Results: The thickness of the retina preoperatively is significantly smaller (150.4 ± 18.8 (p < 0.05 than the thickness of the retina on day 1 (171.8 ± 21 and week 2 (159.7 ± 19 and returned to the initial levels on week 4 (152 ± 17.1. The estimated correlation coefficients between preoperative and postoperative thickness of the retina were significant (p < 0.05. Conversely, no association was found between postoperative visual acuity and thickness of the retina, neither between the phacoemulsification energy and retinal thickness. Operation time, although inversely related with postoperative visual acuity, was not associated with the thickness of the retina.Conclusions: Following phacoemulsification, an increase in the foveal thickness was detected in the early postoperative period, quantified and followed up by OCT. The foveal thickness returned to the preoperative level, 1 month following surgery in our study. No association was shown between intraoperative parameters and increased postoperative retinal thickness.Keywords: optical coherence tomography, phacoemulsification, retinal thickness

  11. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  12. Reading strategies in Stargardt's disease with foveal sparing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whatham Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjects with a ring scotoma can use two retinal loci, a foveal and a peripheral, for reading. Our aim was to investigate the relative use of both retinal loci as a function of the spared foveal area size and the spatial resolution at both retinal loci. Findings Two patients with Stargardt's disease and ring scotomas read through a scanning laser ophthalmoscope a series of letters and words at various character sizes. The number of fixations made using each retinal locus was quantified. The relative use of each retinal locus depended on character size of the stimulus. Both patients used exclusively the eccentric retinal locus to read words of large character sizes. At small character sizes, the central retinal locus was predominantly used. For reading letters or words, once foveal fixation was used, patients did not shift back to the eccentric retinal locus. When spatial resolution allowed deciphering at both the eccentric and the central areas, patients consistently fixated with the eccentric retinal locus. Conclusions Spatial resolution at the eccentric locus appears as a determinant factor to select the retinal area for reading. Reading strategies in patients with Stargardt's disease and a ring scotoma demonstrate a pattern of coordination of both eccentric and central retinal loci, reflecting a high degree of adaptation.

  13. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  14. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  15. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  16. An ERP assessment of hemispheric projections in foveal and extrafoveal word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Jordan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The existence and function of unilateral hemispheric projections within foveal vision may substantially affect foveal word recognition. The purpose of this research was to reveal these projections and determine their functionality. METHODOLOGY: Single words (and pseudowords were presented to the left or right of fixation, entirely within either foveal or extrafoveal vision. To maximize the likelihood of unilateral projections for foveal displays, stimuli in foveal vision were presented away from the midline. The processing of stimuli in each location was assessed by combining behavioural measures (reaction times, accuracy with on-line monitoring of hemispheric activity using event-related potentials recorded over each hemisphere, and carefully-controlled presentation procedures using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Event-related potentials 100-150 ms and 150-200 ms after stimulus onset indicated that stimuli in extrafoveal and foveal locations were projected unilaterally to the hemisphere contralateral to the presentation hemifield with no concurrent projection to the ipsilateral hemisphere. These effects were similar for words and pseudowords, suggesting this early division occurred before word recognition. Indeed, event-related potentials revealed differences between words and pseudowords 300-350 ms after stimulus onset, for foveal and extrafoveal locations, indicating that word recognition had now occurred. However, these later event-related potentials also revealed that the hemispheric division observed previously was no longer present for foveal locations but remained for extrafoveal locations. These findings closely matched the behavioural finding that foveal locations produced similar performance each side of fixation but extrafoveal locations produced left-right asymmetries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that an initial division in unilateral hemispheric projections occurs in

  17. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  18. Foveal vs. Parafoveal Processing in Anxiety: Broadened Spatial Attention for Threat Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the processing of threat-related, positive, and neutral words in parafoveal and in foveal vision as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety. In a lexical-decision task, word primes were presented for 150 ms either parafoveally (2.2[degrees] away from fixation; Experiment 1) or foveally (at fixation; Experiment 3)…

  19. Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean A; Elsner, Ann E; Weber, Anke; Miura, Masahiro; Haggerty, Bryan P

    2009-03-25

    The fovea is the retinal location responsible for our most acute vision. There are several methods used to localize the fovea, but the fovea is not always easily identifiable. Landmarks used to determine the foveal location are variable in normal subjects and localization becomes even more difficult in instances of retinal disease. In normal subjects, the photoreceptor axons that make up the Henle fiber layer are cylindrical and the radial orientation of these fibers is centered on the fovea. The Henle fiber layer exhibits form birefringence, which predictably changes polarized light in scanning laser polarimetry imaging. In this study 3 graders were able to repeatably identify the fovea in 35 normal subjects using near infrared image types with differing polarization content. There was little intra-grader, inter-grader, and inter-image variability in the graded foveal position for 5 of the 6 image types examined, with accuracy sufficient for clinical purposes. This study demonstrates that scanning laser polarimetry imaging can localize the fovea by using structural properties inherent in the central macula.

  20. A systematic review on 'Foveal Crowding' in visually impaired children and perceptual learning as a method to reduce Crowding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.; Cillessen, A.H.; Rens, G. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This systematic review gives an overview of foveal crowding (the inability to recognize objects due to surrounding nearby contours in foveal vision) and possible interventions. Foveal crowding can have a major effect on reading rate and deciphering small pieces of information from busy v

  1. A systematic review on 'Foveal Crowding' in visually impaired children and perceptual learning as a method to reduce Crowding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van

    2012-01-01

    Background - This systematic review gives an overview of foveal crowding (the inability to recognize objects due to surrounding nearby contours in foveal vision) and possible interventions. Foveal crowding can have a major effect on reading rate and deciphering small pieces of information from busy

  2. A systematic review on 'Foveal Crowding' in visually impaired children and perceptual learning as a method to reduce Crowding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Rens, Ger

    2012-01-01

    Background: This systematic review gives an overview of foveal crowding (the inability to recognize objects due to surrounding nearby contours in foveal vision) and possible interventions. Foveal crowding can have a major effect on reading rate and deciphering small pieces of information from busy v

  3. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  4. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  5. Quantifying peripheral and foveal perceived differences in natural image patches to predict visual search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anna E; Southwell, Rosy V; Gilchrist, Iain D; Tolhurst, David J

    2016-08-01

    Duncan and Humphreys (1989) identified two key factors that affected performance in a visual search task for a target among distractors. The first was the similarity of the target to distractors (TD), and the second was the similarity of distractors to each other (DD). Here we investigate if it is the perceived similarity in foveal or peripheral vision that determines performance. We studied search using stimuli made from patches cut from colored images of natural objects; differences between targets and their modified distractors were estimated using a ratings task peripherally and foveally. We used search conditions in which the targets and distractors were easy to distinguish both foveally and peripherally ("high" stimuli), in which they were difficult to distinguish both foveally and peripherally ("low"), and in which they were easy to distinguish foveally but difficult to distinguish peripherally ("metamers"). In the critical metameric condition, search slopes (change of search time with number of distractors) were similar to the "low" condition, indicating a key role for peripheral information in visual search as both conditions have low perceived similarity peripherally. Furthermore, in all conditions, search slope was well described quantitatively from peripheral TD and DD but not foveal. However, some features of search, such as error rates, do indicate roles for foveal vision too.

  6. Aniseikonia and Foveal Microstructure after Retinal Detachment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Fumiki; Sugiura, Yoshimi; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2014-07-17

    Purpose:To quantify aniseikonia after successful surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD), and to investigate the relationship between the severity of postoperative aniseikonia and retinal microstructures as well as clinical parameters. Methods:The study included 106 eyes of 106 patients, without any history of ocular disease/surgery and less than 2 diopters of anisometropia, who had undergone successful retinal reattachment surgery. Aniseikonia was measured with New Aniseikonia Test and foveal microstructure was assessed with the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 6 months postoperatively. Results:Twenty-eight of 106 patients (26%) had micropsia, 17 patients (16%) had macropsia, and 61 patients (58%) had no aniseikonia. The mean absolute value of aniseikonia was 2.3 ± 2.9% (range; -12.5% - +12.0%). Of 57 eyes with macula-on RD, 3 had micropsia and 12 had macropsia. Of 49 eyes with macula-off RD, 25 had micropsia and 5 had macropsia. Eyes with micropsia mostly exhibited persistent or transient cystoid macular edema, subretinal fluid, hyperreflective or disruption of IS/OS line, while most of the eyes with macropsia presented epiretinal membrane. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and the area of RD were significantly relevant to the mean absolute value of aniseikonia. Conclusions:These results suggested that about half of patients with successful repair of RD had aniseikonia. Eyes with macula-off RD tended to show micropsia, while those with macula-on RD mostly presented macropsia. Micropsia and macropsia were primarily caused by respective specific abnormal structures at the foveal region.

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  8. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  9. Neural network system for purposeful behavior based on foveal visual preprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovan, Alexander V.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Klepatch, Arkadi A.

    1996-10-01

    Biologically plausible model of the system with an adaptive behavior in a priori environment and resistant to impairment has been developed. The system consists of input, learning, and output subsystems. The first subsystems classifies input patterns presented as n-dimensional vectors in accordance with some associative rule. The second one being a neural network determines adaptive responses of the system to input patterns. Arranged neural groups coding possible input patterns and appropriate output responses are formed during learning by means of negative reinforcement. Output subsystem maps a neural network activity into the system behavior in the environment. The system developed has been studied by computer simulation imitating a collision-free motion of a mobile robot. After some learning period the system 'moves' along a road without collisions. It is shown that in spite of impairment of some neural network elements the system functions reliably after relearning. Foveal visual preprocessor model developed earlier has been tested to form a kind of visual input to the system.

  10. Foveal dysplasia evident by optical coherence tomography in patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Franco M; Recchia, Cynthia C

    2007-01-01

    To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings for patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Clinical records, fundus photographs, and OCT findings for consecutive patients aged 8 years and older who had a history of ROP were reviewed. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness (CFT), macular anatomy, and foveal contour by OCT. Twenty eyes of 12 patients (median age, 15 years) were studied. Median gestational age at birth was 25 weeks. Six eyes had received peripheral retinal ablation for threshold ROP. Median best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 (range, 20/20 to counting fingers). CFT was >220 microm in 70% of eyes and >240 microm in 35% of eyes. In all eyes, foveal contour was abnormal, with foveal depression either absent (n = 7 [35%]) or shallow (n = 13 [65%]). Preservation of multiple inner retinal layers within the fovea was seen in 14 eyes (70%). Vitreomacular traction or subretinal fluid was not seen in any eye. Anomalies in foveal anatomy by OCT may be a vestige of prematurity, appear to be independent of prior retinopexy, and can still be associated with excellent visual acuity.

  11. FOVEA: a new program to standardize the measurement of foveal pit morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret A. Moore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is one of the most studied retinal specializations in vertebrates, which consists of an invagination of the retinal tissue with high packing of cone photoreceptors, leading to high visual resolution. Between species, foveae differ morphologically in the depth and width of the foveal pit and the steepness of the foveal walls, which could influence visual perception. However, there is no standardized methodology to measure the contour of the foveal pit across species. We present here FOVEA, a program for the quantification of foveal parameters (width, depth, slope of foveal pit using images from histological cross-sections or optical coherence tomography (OCT. FOVEA is based on a new algorithm to detect the inner retina contour based on the color variation of the image. We evaluated FOVEA by comparing the fovea morphology of two Passerine birds based on histological cross-sections and its performance with data from previously published OCT images. FOVEA detected differences between species and its output was not significantly different from previous estimates using OCT software. FOVEA can be used for comparative studies to better understand the evolution of the fovea morphology in vertebrates as well as for diagnostic purposes in veterinary pathology. FOVEA is freely available for academic use and can be downloaded at: http://estebanfj.bio.purdue.edu/fovea.

  12. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  13. Foveal localization in non-exudative AMD using scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean A; Elsner, Ann E; Kohne, Kimberly D; Peabody, Todd D; Malinovsky, Victor E; Haggerty, Bryan P; Weber, Anke; Clark, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether custom scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) images, differing in polarization content, can be used to accurately localize the fovea in the presence of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether alterations to the foveal structure in non-exudative AMD significantly disrupts the birefringent Henle fiber layer, responsible for the macular cross pattern in some SLP images. To determine whether phase retardation information, specifically color-coded information representing its magnitude and axis, allow better foveal localization than images including retardation amplitude only. SLP images were acquired in 25 AMD subjects and 25 age-matched controls. Raw data were used to generate five custom image types differing in polarization content. The foveal location was marked by three graders in each image type for each subject. The difference in variability was compared between the AMD subjects and matched controls. We further determined whether the orientation of Henle fiber layer phase retardation improved localization in 10 subjects with the highest variability in images including only phase retardation amplitude. Images that differed in polarization content led to strikingly different visualizations of AMD pathology. The Henle fiber layer remained sufficiently intact to assist in fovea localization in all subjects but with more variability in the AMD group. For both the AMD and matched control group, images containing birefringence amplitude and orientation information reduced the amount of intragrader, intergrader, and interimage variability for estimating foveal location. The disruption in Henle fiber birefringence was evident in the eyes with AMD but nevertheless was sufficient to help in foveal localization despite macular pathology. Phase retardation amplitude and axis of orientation can be a useful tool in foveal localization in patients with AMD.

  14. Ocular coherence tomographic examination of postoperative foveal architecture after scleral buckling vs vitrectomy for macular off retinal detachment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gibran, S K

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: This pilot study uses Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging to compare the difference in foveal architecture after successful retinal detachment (RD) surgery by scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). METHODS: Prospective recruitment of patients with macular off RDs. Detachment surgery was undertaken by scleral buckling, external drainage, and air injection (group 1) or by PPV (group 2). Postoperatively patients had clinical examinations and OCT at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. If abnormalities persisted, a further OCT was obtained at 18 months. RESULTS: Retinal reattachment, including clinical macular reattachment, was achieved in all cases within 24 h postoperatively. In group 1 (n=22), postoperative OCT showed persistent foveal detachment in 63% of cases (n=14) at 1 and 3 months. At 6 and 12 months, 36% (n=8) and 9% (n=2) had a persistent foveal detachment, respectively, and at 18 months, foveal detachment eventually. In group 2 (n=21), postoperative OCT showed an attached fovea in all cases; however, foveal thickening suggesting intraretinal oedema was present in all cases. The oedematous appearance of retina on OCT settled in 1-3 months. No foveal abnormality was seen at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of patients with successful retinal reattachment surgery by scleral buckling had foveal detachments postoperatively. No cases who had PPV had foveal detachments; however, transient retinal oedema was evident in all cases. The aetiology of these changes is unknown and warrants further investigation, as there is the potential of a long-term effect on vision.

  15. Clinical evaluation of low vision and central foveal thickness in highly myopic cataract eyes after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Li Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To retrospectively evaluate central foveal thickness in highly myopic eyes with best correct visual acuity(BCVAMETHODS: In this retrospective clinical study, we consecutively recruited 70 low highly myopic cataract subjects(70 eyesunderwent Phaco. Postoperative visits were performed at 1wk, 1 and 3mo. Postoperative BCVA were recorded and further divided into 2 groups with BCVARESULTS: The ratio of BCVAPr=-0.716, PCONCLUSION: In this study, BCVA is improved after 3mo follow up. There has significant correlation between postoperative BCVA and central foveal thickness.

  16. Human Potential Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Edna J.

    This paper describes the organization and implementation of 16 seminars on the subject of developing the potentials inherent in the individuals involved. The stated goals of this group project for teacher corps interns are: (1) identify and use personal strengths and potential in many areas; (2) understand achievement patterns and the way in which…

  17. Evidence for Delayed Parafoveal-on-Foveal Effects from Word n+2 in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Sarah; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    During reading information is acquired from word(s) beyond the word that is currently looked at. It is still an open question whether such parafoveal information can influence the current viewing of a word, and if so, whether such parafoveal-on-foveal effects are attributable to distributed processing or to mislocated fixations which occur when…

  18. Biallelic Mutations in CRB1 Underlie Autosomal Recessive Familial Foveal Retinoschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, A.; Ng, J.; Gerth-Kahlert, C.; Tavares, E.; Maynes, J.T.; Wright, T.; Tiwari, A.; Tumber, A.; Li, S.; Hanson, J.V.; Bahr, A.; MacDonald, H.; Bahr, L.; Westall, C.; Berger, W.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Hollander, A.I. den; Heon, E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the genetic cause of autosomal recessive familial foveal retinoschisis (FFR). METHODS: A female sibship with FFR was identified (Family-A; 17 and 16 years, respectively); panel based genetic sequencing (132 genes) and comparative genome hybridization (142 genes) were performed.

  19. Developing human resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last eight years, the growth of the market for independent energy facilities in the United States has been spectacular. A combined capacity of about 29,300 MW, from over 2,500 independent energy facilities, has come on line since 1980 and the industry has experienced an annual growth of more than 15 percent per year. This trend is not limited to the United States, however, Governments around the world are recognizing the benefits of privately-owned independent energy plants. The interest is growing as the need for new capacity increases and as more projects are built and operated successfully using private capital. There are several reasons for the trends toward private power around the world. First, in developed countries, a growing need for new power capacity emerged after the 1983-1987 freeze when most utilities in developed countries reaped the benefits of increased energy conservation and halted any further construction. Now the demand is catching up and most large utilities are experiencing the same hesitations as their U.S. counterparts. Second, in less developed countries (LDCs), the increasing demand for new generating capacity stems from high annual growth rates in power demand -generally between four percent and seven percent per year. At the same time, these countries are expanding their power grid, which increases the opportunities for new plants in regions with limited service where delegation of power generation authority to third-parties can be more easily justified. Third, an increasing number of countries worldwide are eying industrial cogeneration and private power facilities favorably. Finally, lending institutions and donor agencies are becoming more interested in promoting cogeneration and private power, often as part of larger privatization schemes.

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  1. Evaluating outer segment length as a surrogate measure of peak foveal cone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A; Wilk, Brandon M; Langlo, Christopher S; Cooper, Robert F; Carroll, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) imaging tools enable direct visualization of the cone photoreceptor mosaic, which facilitates quantitative measurements such as cone density. However, in many individuals, low image quality or excessive eye movements precludes making such measures. As foveal cone specialization is associated with both increased density and outer segment (OS) elongation, we sought to examine whether OS length could be used as a surrogate measure of foveal cone density. The retinas of 43 subjects (23 normal and 20 albinism; aged 6-67years) were examined. Peak foveal cone density was measured using confocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and OS length was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and longitudinal reflectivity profile-based approach. Peak cone density ranged from 29,200 to 214,000cones/mm(2) (111,700±46,300cones/mm(2)); OS length ranged from 26.3 to 54.5μm (40.5±7.7μm). Density was significantly correlated with OS length in albinism (pdensity as a function of OS length was created based on histology and optimized to fit the albinism data. The model includes triangular cone packing, a cylindrical OS with a fixed volume of 136.6μm(3), and a ratio of OS to inner segment width that increased linearly with increasing OS length (R(2)=0.72). Normal subjects showed no apparent relationship between cone density and OS length. In the absence of adequate AOSLO imagery, OS length may be used to estimate cone density in patients with albinism. Whether this relationship exists in other patient populations with foveal hypoplasia (e.g., premature birth, aniridia, isolated foveal hypoplasia) remains to be seen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  3. Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development Objective Neuroeconomic game trials have detected a present-bias in human decision making which represents a serious shortcoming facing the long termed nature of complex problems in a globalized economy i.e. regional residual poverty, ecological...... threats and personal stress. So far, the evidence-based findings on human resource development (HRD) seem not to match these huge challenges. The aim of this study is to identify cost-effective means of mental training to recover sufficiently from the present bias to enable more sustainable decisions...... of Western decision makers to a level of sustainable development. In order to support the dissemination of non-dogmatic medical meditation an international scientific monitoring program for various competing medical meditation settings might be useful. Western psychology rooted in the Western humanities...

  4. Human development, heredity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Takasato, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    From March 27-29 2017, the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology held a symposium entitled 'Towards Understanding Human Development, Heredity, and Evolution' in Kobe, Japan. Recent advances in technologies including stem cell culture, live imaging, single-cell approaches, next-generation sequencing and genome editing have led to an expansion in our knowledge of human development. Organized by Yoshiya Kawaguchi, Mitinori Saitou, Mototsugu Eiraku, Tomoya Kitajima, Fumio Matsuzaki, Takashi Tsuji and Edith Heard, the symposium covered a broad range of topics including human germline development, epigenetics, organogenesis and evolution. This Meeting Review provides a summary of this timely and exciting symposium, which has convinced us that we are moving into the era of science targeted on humans. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Foveal thickness reduction after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in chronic diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Willmann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report foveal thickness reduction in eyes with resolution of macular edema and recovery of a foveal depression after one-year of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapy for center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME. METHODS: Foveal thickness was assessed with optical coherence tomography to determine the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT and macular volume in 42 eyes with DME (CSFT>275 µm. Evaluations also included measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and were performed at baseline, and upon foveal depression recovery achieved after 12 monthly intravitreal injections of either 1.5 mg/0.06 mL bevacizumab (n=21 or 0.5 mg/0.05 mL ranibizumab (n=21. Data was compared to 42 eyes of normally sighted, non-diabetic, healthy individuals with similar age, gender and race distributions. RESULTS: Mean baseline BCVA was 0.59±0.04 and 0.32± 0.03 logMAR (P<0.001 after treatment and resolution of DME, with all, but 3 eyes, showing BCVA improvement. Mean CSFT before treatment was 422.0±20.0 µm, and after treatment, decreased to 241.6±4.6 µm (P<0.001, which is significantly thinner than CSFT found in control subjects (272.0±3.4 µm; P<0.001. Moreover, in 33/42 DM eyes (79%, CSTF was thinner than the matched control eye. Macular volume showed comparable results, but with lower differences between groups (control: 8.5±0.4 mm3; DME: 8.2±1.0 mm3; P=0.0267. CONCLUSION: DME eyes show significantly lower foveal thickness than matched controls after DME resolution achieved with one-year anti-VEGF therapy. Further investigation into the reasonsfor this presumable retinal atrophy using fluorescein angiography and functional parameters as well as establishing possible predictors is warranted. This finding should be considered during the treatment of DME.

  6. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  7. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  8. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and…

  9. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate s

  10. Neural correlates of foveal splitting in reading: evidence from an ERP study of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen; Shillcock, Richard; Lee, Chia-ying

    2007-03-25

    Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated word seem to be initially projected to, and processed in, different hemispheres. In the current study, we utilize two contrasting structures in Chinese orthography, "SP" (the semantic radical on the left and the phonetic radical on the right) and "PS" characters (the opposite structure), to examine foveal splitting effects in event-related potential (ERP) recordings. We showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was a significant interaction between character type and hemisphere in N1 amplitude: SP characters elicited larger N1 compared with PS characters in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere had the opposite pattern. This effect is consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting that the two halves of a character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. There was no such interaction observed in an earlier component P1. Also, there was an interaction between character type and sex of the reader in N350 amplitude. This result is consistent with Hsiao and Shillcock's [Hsiao, J. H., & Shillcock, R. (2005b). Foveal splitting causes differential processing of Chinese orthography in the male and female brain. Cognitive Brain Research, 25, 531-536] behavioural study, which showed a similar interaction in naming response time. They argued that this effect was due to a more left-lateralized network for phonological processing in the male brain compared with the female brain. The results hence showed that foveal splitting effects in visual word recognition were observed in N1 the earliest, and could extend far enough to interact with the sex of the reader as revealed in N350.

  11. Population and human resources development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1992-06-01

    The concern of this discourse on social development planning was that individuals be part of human resources development. Population growth is an obstacle to social development, but so is national expenditures on the military rather than diverting funds for social improvements. There are important benefits for society in social development: a valued consumption good, increased productivity, and reduced fertility. Dissatisfaction with an economic growth model of development occurred during the 1960s, and by the mid-1980s, human resource development was capsuled in Asia and the Pacific Region in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development and adopted in 1988. Earlier approaches favored the supply side. This article emphasizes "human" development which considers people as more than inputs to productivity. The quality of human resources is dependent on the family and society, the educational system, and individual levels of health and nutrition. Differences in income levels between East and South Asia have been attributed by Oshima to full use of the labor force and mechanization and training of workers. Ogawa, Jones, and Williamson contend that huge investment in infrastructure, efficient absorption of advanced technology, a stable political environment, and commitment to human capital formation are key to development. Demographic transition and decline in fertility at one point reflect growth and engagement in the labor force and resource accumulation. Although East Asia had higher levels of literacy and educational attainment than many developing countries, South Asia still has high fertility. Human resource development is dependent on reduced population growth rates, but rapid population growth is not an insurmountable obstacle to achieving higher levels of education. Rapid population growth is a greater obstacle in poorer countries. The impact can be reflected in increased costs of attaining educational targets of universal primary education or in

  12. Efeitos da latanoprosta sobre a espessura foveal em olhos submetidos à cirurgia de catarata Influence of topical latanoprost on foveal thickness in eyes that underwent uneventful cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyr Saran Arcieri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar prospectivamente com o uso da tomografia de coerência óptica se o uso tópico de latanoprosta induz alterações retinianas em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico randomizado, com observador mascarado e um mês de duração. Pacientes pseudofácicos foram tratados com latanoprosta (n=10 ou lubrificante ocular uma vez ao dia (grupo controle - placebo (n=10. Metade dos pacientes de cada grupo possuía capsulotomia posterior (Nd:YAG laser. Avaliamos o status da barreira hemato-retiniana pela medida da espessura retiniana na fóvea com a tomografia de coerência óptica. Exames de tomografia de coerência óptica e medida da acuidade visual foram realizados antes do início do estudo e com 15 e 30 dias de tratamento. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada alteração significante na média da espessura foveal do grupo controle (p>0,0610. Houve aumento significante na média da espessura foveal nos pacientes tratados com latanoprosta (pPURPOSE: To study prospectively using optical coherence tomography whether topical latanoprost induces retinal disorders in patients that underwent cataract surgery. METHODS: Randomized, masked-observer, one-month clinical trial. Pseudophakic patients were treated with latanoprost (n=10 or lubricant drop q.d. (control group (n=10. Half of the patients of each group presented ruptured posterior capsule (Nd:YAG laser. We evaluated the blood-retinal barrier status assessed by optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal thickness in the fovea. Before the beginning of the study and after 15 and 30 days of treatment, optical coherence tomography images were taken, and the visual acuity examination was performed. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant increase in mean foveal thickness when patients instilled placebo (P>0.0610. A statistically significant increase in retinal thickness in the fovea was observed when patients instilled latanoprost (P<0.0004. No

  13. High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography in Late-Stage Familial Foveal Retinoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient with blurred vision in both eyes since childhood has been diagnosed with foveaschisis at the age of 14. The patient had 5 brothers, all reported to have similar retinal problems. His best-corrected visual acuity was 4/10 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed retinoschisis in the lower temporal quadrants in both eyes, pigmented laser scars in the same area in the right eye, and a dull foveal reflex was observed in both eyes. The foveal sections examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT demonstrated atrophy in the fovea bilaterally. OCT sections did not show any accumulation of intraretinal or subretinal fluid or any cystic cavities; yet, thinning was observed especially on the superficial retinal layers. Structures under the outer plexiform layer were observed as normal. Even though these OCT findings are not merely diagnostic as in early-stage familial foveal retinoschisis, there is no doubt that they still facilitate the diagnosis. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 81-3

  14. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  15. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  16. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  17. Presence of foveal bulge in optical coherence tomographic images in eyes with macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Taiji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ogata, Nahoko

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether a significant correlation exists between the presence of a bulge in the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Retrospective, observational case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had a complete resolution of macular edema and had an intact IS/OS line in the central fovea in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SDOCT) images. Thirty-one eyes with macular edema associated with BRVO (BRVO group) and 31 unaffected fellow eyes (control group) of 31 patients were evaluated. In normal eyes, the intact IS/OS line determined by SDOCT has a bulge at the central fovea, called the foveal bulge. The eyes in the BRVO group were classified by the presence or absence of foveal bulge, and the characteristics of the 2 groups were compared. A foveal bulge was present in 7 of 31 eyes in the BRVO group. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly lower in the BRVO group (22.6%) than in the control group (100%; P < .0001). All 7 eyes with foveal bulge had a decimal BCVA of ≥1.0 at the final visit. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly higher in eyes with BCVA of ≥1.0 (77.8%) than in the eyes with BCVA of <1.0 (0%; P < .0001). The foveal bulge is a good marker of the functional properties of the fovea in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with BRVO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Foveal Processing under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or…

  19. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects on eye movements in text reading: does an extra space make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieghe, Denis; Brysbaert, Marc; Desmet, Timothy

    2005-06-01

    Schiepers proposed that in text reading, the currently fixated word and the next word are processed in parallel but with a time delay of 90 ms per degree of eccentricity. In his model, the benefit of seeing the upcoming word is due to the fact that the parafoveal information from fixation n is combined with the foveal information from fixation n+1 to boost word recognition, at least when the fixation on word n is of an optimal duration (between 210 and 270 ms). We tested this assumption by adding an extra blank space between the foveal and the parafoveal word. According to the model, this should result in a 30 ms longer processing time for the foveal word. However, reading time was shorter for a word followed by a double space than for a word followed by a single space. An effect of parafoveal word length was also observed with a longer word in the parafoveal leading to shorter fixation times on the foveal word. Implications of these low-level parafoveal-on-foveal effects are discussed.

  20. COMPONENTS OF SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to propose new components of measurement of sustainable human development based on the historical-theoretical trajectory of development. The research assumes a ontoepistemological posture based on positivism, addressing the technique of the survey and the written questionnaire instrument applied to thirty-one (31 experts in the area of knowledge, whose analysis allowed to conclude that the traditional models to measure the Insufficient to demonstrate the reality of nations. Therefore, the proposal of measurement is derived in seven components: ethical, spiritual and cultural, in addition to those formally established by Munasinghe (1993, 2011 and the UN (2012: economic, social, environmental, institutional , In total, by the selection of one hundred and fifty-five (155 variables, whose index is denominated ISIDEHUS.

  1. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shery; Thomas, Mervyn G; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man; Proudlock, Frank A; McLean, Rebecca J; Pradeep, Archana; Engle, Elizabeth C; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation.

  2. Non-foveal macular holes after PPV for macular pucker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo EL Enin Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe six patients (six eyes who developed an eccentric macular hole after surgery for idiopathic epimacular proliferation. Materials and Methods: Review of records from six patients who developed eccentric macular holes postoperatively following vitrectomy in 107 consecutive cases with peeling of the epimacular proliferation and internal limiting membrane (ILM from June 2004 to January 2009, Results: Eccentric macular holes were developed from nine days to eight months (mean, 3.1 months after epimacular proliferation peeling. The ILM was peeled in addition to the epimacular proliferation in five of the six cases. Of the six eccentric macular holes, four were located temporal to the fovea, one was located superior to the fovea, and one was located nasal to the fovea. Final visual acuities after a mean follow-up period of 17.3 months were 20/20 in two eyes, 20/25 in one eye, 20/40 in two eyes, and 5/200 in one eye. The eye with the eccentric macular hole nasal to the fovea had the poorest final visual acuity of 5/200. Conclusion: Eccentric macular holes occurring after vitrectomy to remove epimacular proliferation is an uncommon postoperative finding. Various explanations have been suggested for the etiology of these holes, but there is no consensus. We suggested that the ILM tear should be initiated with a diamond dusted knife to reduce the likelihood of injury to the underlying Muller cells that may contribute to the formation of eccentric macular holes.

  3. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W G

    2016-04-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified "division of labor" hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field.

  4. Household human development index in Lakshadweep

    OpenAIRE

    I, Sahadudheen

    2014-01-01

    Since the evolution of the human development index in 1990 there has been a vivacious debate on measurement related issues of quality of human life among the nations. It is a long-established verity that the existing HDI presents averages and thus conceals wide discrepancy and disproportion in distribution of human development in overall population and does not take into account the distribution of human development within a population subgroup. This study is intended to look in to human ...

  5. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development.

  6. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects of emotional word semantics in reading Chinese sentences: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Sommer, Werner

    2015-07-01

    Despite the well-known influence of emotional meaning on cognition, relatively less is known about its effects on reading behavior. We investigated whether fixation behavior during the reading of Chinese sentences is influenced by emotional word meaning in the parafovea. Two-character target words embedded into the same sentence frames provided emotionally positive, negative, or neutral contents. Fixation durations on neutral pretarget words were prolonged for positive parafoveal words and for highly frequent negative parafoveal words. In addition, fixation durations on foveal emotional words were shorter than those on neutral words. We also found that the role of emotional words varied as a function of their valence during foveal and parafoveal processing. These findings suggest a processing advantage for emotional words relative to emotionally neutral stimuli in foveal and parafoveal vision. We discuss implications for the notion of attention attraction due to emotional content.

  7. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... He published the first Human Development report ... The main objective of human development lies on the freedom of its citizens as well as ... scholarship were Professor S. Ade Ojo, the former Director of the French Language.

  8. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  9. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  10. Values Reflected in the Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) implicitly defines "human development" and ranks countries accordingly. To elucidate the HDI's meaning of "human development," the paper examines the sensitivity of the HDI to changes in its components, namely social indicators of education, longevity and standard of living. The HDI is next compared with two…

  11. Use of an Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex in a Case with Accidental Foveal Photocoagulation by Alexandrite Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Nurullah Bulut

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandrite laser is one of the most common methods of hair removal. Its utilization is gradually increasing due to easy accessibility and high effectiveness. However, the disuse of protective goggles during the application of this laser is a serious problem. In this case report, we presented a 35-year-old male patient who had foveal injury by alexandrite laser. The inflammatory process secondary to the foveal injury and subsequent macular edema were treated with Ozurdex because of its potent antiedematous effect.

  12. Semantic parafoveal-on-foveal effects and preview benefits in reading: Evidence from Fixation Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Peréz, P J; Dampuré, J; Hernández-Cabrera, J A; Barber, H A

    2016-11-01

    During reading parafoveal information can affect the processing of the word currently fixated (parafovea-on-fovea effect) and words perceived parafoveally can facilitate their subsequent processing when they are fixated on (preview effect). We investigated parafoveal processing by simultaneously recording eye movements and EEG measures. Participants read word pairs that could be semantically associated or not. Additionally, the boundary paradigm allowed us to carry out the same manipulation on parafoveal previews that were displayed until reader's gaze moved to the target words. Event Related Potentials time-locked to the prime-preview presentation showed a parafoveal-on-foveal N400 effect. Fixation Related Potentials time locked to the saccade offset showed an N400 effect related to the prime-target relationship. Furthermore, this later effect interacted with the semantic manipulation of the previews, supporting a semantic preview benefit. These results demonstrate that at least under optimal conditions foveal and parafoveal information can be simultaneously processed and integrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on near foveal letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-nan; Tai, Yu-chi; Laukkanen, Hannu; Sheedy, James

    2009-11-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) smears retinal images of peripheral stimuli. In reading, text information is extracted from both foveal and near fovea, where TCA magnitude is relatively small and variable. The present study investigated whether TCA significantly affects near foveal letter identification. Subjects were briefly presented a string of five letters centered one degree of visual angle to the left or right of fixation. They indicated whether the middle letter was the same as a comparison letter subsequently presented. Letter strings were rendered with a reddish fringe on the left edge of each letter and a bluish fringe on the right edge, consistent with expected left periphery TCA, or with the opposite fringe consistent with expected right periphery TCA. Effect of the color fringing on letter recognition was measured by comparing the response accuracy for fringed and non-fringed stimuli. Effects of lateral interference were examined by manipulating inter-letter spacing and similarity of neighboring letters. Results demonstrated significantly improved response accuracy with the color fringe opposite to the expected TCA, but decreased accuracy when consistent with it. Narrower letter spacing exacerbated the effect of the color fringe, whereas letter similarity did not. Our results suggest that TCA significantly reduces the ability to recognize letters in the near fovea by impeding recognition of individual letters and by enhancing lateral interference between letters.

  14. Foveal and peripheral fields of vision influences perceptual skill in anticipating opponents' attacking position in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The importance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this study we examined the role of different sources of visual information (i.e., foveal versus peripheral) in anticipating volleyball attack positions. Expert (n = 11), advanced (n = 13) and novice (n = 16) players completed an anticipation task that involved predicting the location of volleyball attacks. Video clips of volleyball attacks (n = 72) were spatially and temporally occluded to provide varying amounts of information to the participant. In addition, participants viewed the attacks under three visual conditions: full vision, foveal vision only, and peripheral vision only. Analysis of variance revealed significant between group differences in prediction accuracy with higher skilled players performing better than lower skilled players. Additionally, we found significant differences between temporal and spatial occlusion conditions. Both of those factors interacted separately, but not combined with expertise. Importantly, for experts the sum of both fields of vision was superior to either source in isolation. Our results suggest different sources of visual information work collectively to facilitate expert anticipation in time-constrained sports and reinforce the complexity of expert perception.

  15. BETTER PROGNOSIS FOR EYES WITH PRESERVED FOVEAL DEPRESSION AFTER INTRAVITREAL RANIBIZUMAB INJECTION FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Shuta; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-05-18

    To determine the prognosis of eyes with central retinal vein occlusion that had a preserved foveal depression at the baseline and were treated by intravitreal ranibizumab injections (IRIs). The authors reviewed the medical records of 23 eyes of 23 consecutive treatment-naive patients who received IRIs to treat the macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Eyes were classified by the pre-IRI presence or absence of a foveal depression. A foveal depression was defined as a central foveal thickness that was central fovea. The characteristics of the two groups were compared. Seven of 23 eyes had a preserved foveal depression before the IRI. The mean number of injections within 12 months after the initial IRI was significantly fewer (P central retinal vein occlusion.

  16. Foveal morphology affects self-perceived visual function and treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Subhi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between foveal morphology and self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD and whether foveal characteristics are associated with Ranibizumab treatment response on the self-perceived visual function. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients with newly diagnosed neovascular AMD found eligible for treatment with Ranibizumab. Foveal morphology of both eyes was assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and all patients were interviewed using the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ. Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment with Ranibizumab. We evaluated foveal morphology at baseline in relation to VFQ scores at baseline and clinically meaningful changes in VFQ after 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: VFQ scores correlated with central foveal thickness, central foveal thickness of neuroretina (CFN, foveal RPE elevation, foveal integrity of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS, and external limiting membrane. In a multiple linear regression model, only best-corrected visual acuity of the better eye (p<0.001 and the IS/OS status in the better eye (p = 0.012 remained significant (Adjusted R(2 = 0.418. Lower baseline VFQ and a baseline CFN within 170-270 µm in the better eye were both associated with a clinically meaningful increase in the VFQ scores after 3 and 12 months. An absent foveal IS/OS band in the better eye was associated with a clinically meaningful decrease in the VFQ scores at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Foveal morphology in the better eye influences the self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular AMD and possesses a predictive value for change in the self-perceived visual function at 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. These findings may help clinicians provide patients more individualized information of their

  17. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methods Use was made of 38 human embryos and fetus

  18. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  19. Human Capital Development: A Family Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1995-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital as an economic construct. Suggests that human capital contributes to economic development, as do physical capital or natural resources, in that its development reinforces individuals' future economic output. Suggests that this perspective may prove useful for human service professionals because funding…

  20. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  1. Differential Hemispheric Processing in the Recognition of Chinese Characters with Different Structures in Foveal and Parafoveal Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether foveal representation in reading is initially split and contralaterally projected to different hemispheres or bilaterally projected remains a controversial issue. Here we examine visual field asymmetry effects in naming Chinese characters with different structures, with characters presented either to the left visual field or the right visual field (RVF, and either within or outside foveal vision (eccentricity. We show that overall the RVF advantage in naming characters was significant in both eccentricity conditions (fovea vs. parafovea, with a stronger effect in parafoveal vision. This suggests that foveal splitting may not be an all-or-none phenomenon but has a graded effect. When examining characters with different structures separately, this interaction between visual field and eccentricity was significant only in the dominant, right-heavy character structure type, but not in the minority left-heavy or symmetric structure types, suggesting a modulation of character structure or type frequency on the eccentricity effect. In addition, existence of a phonetic radical modulated the visual field asymmetry effect differentially in different character structure types; however this effect did not interact with eccentricity. This result thus suggests that character structure and existence of a phonetic radical have differential modulation on character processing in the foveal and parafoveal vision.

  2. Isolated foveal hypoplasia with secondary nystagmus and low vision is associated with a homozygous SLC38A8 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Yonatan; Gradstein, Libe; Flusser, Hagit; Markus, Barak; Cohen, Idan; Langer, Yshaia; Marcus, Mira; Lifshitz, Tova; Kadir, Rotem; Birk, Ohad S

    2014-05-01

    Foveal hypoplasia, always accompanied by nystagmus, is found as part of the clinical spectrum of various eye disorders such as aniridia, albinism and achromatopsia. However, the molecular basis of isolated autosomal recessive foveal hypoplasia is yet unknown. Individuals of apparently unrelated non consanguineous Israeli families of Jewish Indian (Mumbai) ancestry presented with isolated foveal hypoplasia associated with congenital nystagmus and reduced visual acuity. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping followed by fine mapping defined a 830 Kb disease-associated locus (LOD score 3.5). Whole-exome sequencing identified a single missense mutation in the homozygosity region: c.95T>G, p.(Ile32Ser), in a conserved amino acid within the first predicted transmembrane domain of SLC38A8. The mutation fully segregated with the disease-associated phenotype, demonstrating an ∼10% carrier rate in Mumbai Jews. SLC38A8 encodes a putative sodium-dependent amino-acid/proton antiporter, which we showed to be expressed solely in the eye. Thus, a homozygous SLC38A8 mutation likely underlies isolated foveal hypoplasia.

  3. Highlights of Human Resource Development Conferences 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Barbara Benedict; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The articles focus on building interpersonal skills utilizing experiential training to socialize new employees and develop leadership. They also focus on training decision makers, performance appraisal, career development, mobilizing human resources and ego stages in organizational development. (CMG)

  4. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  5. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  6. Human Development, Inequality and Poverty: empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Seth; Antonio Villar

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the empirical findings surrounding the design of human development, inequality and poverty measures. We focus on the United Nations Development Program approach to those issues, in particular regarding the human development index and the multidimensional poverty index.

  7. Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    UNDP - UNOPS EDINFODEC Project - Cooperazione italiana,

    2004-01-01

    This report is an excerpt from the sixth UNDP-UNOPS-Cooperazione Italiana Report on Multilateral Human Development Programmes (2004). The Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola began in 1999 and ended in 2003. It focused on the maintenance and consolidation of the Local Economic Development Agencies (LEDAs). The PDHI helped set up the LEDAs in the Provinces of Bengo, Benguela and Kwanza Sul.

  8. Parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition: Evidence from fixation-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eHutzler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe boundary paradigm, in combination with parafoveal masks, is the main technique for studying parafoveal preprocessing during reading. The rationale is that the masks (e.g., strings of X’s prevent parafoveal preprocessing, but do not interfere with foveal processing. A recent study, however, raised doubts about the neutrality of parafoveal masks. In the present study, we explored this issue by means of fixation-related brain potentials (FRPs. Two FRP conditions presented rows of 5 words. The task of the participant was to judge whether the final word of a list was a new word, or whether it was a repeated (i.e., old word. The critical manipulation was that the final word was X-masked during parafoveal preview in one condition, whereas another condition presented a valid preview of the word. In two additional event-related brain potential (ERP conditions, the words were presented serially with no parafoveal preview available; in one of the conditions with a fixed timing, in the other word presentation was self-paced by the participants. Expectedly, the valid-preview FRP condition elicited the shortest processing times. Processing times did not differ between the two ERP conditions indicating that cognitive readiness during self-paced processing can be ruled out as an alternative explanation for differences in processing times between the ERP and the FRP conditions. The longest processing times were found in the X-mask FRP condition indicating that parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition.

  9. Human Resource Development in Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Neyerstani

    2014-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is the domain that performs core function in an organization for the advancement of personal and professional skills, knowledge and abilities of employees. Human resource development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and organization development. HRD has the key role in improving knowledge and skills on huma...

  10. Orthomolecular enhancement of human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, L.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of molecules introduced into the human body by the way of foods is emphasized. Examples of orthomolecular therapy are given that range from the control of epileptic seizures, the therapy of mental illness, to the prevention of the common cold.

  11. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  12. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  13. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  14. Linking Career Development and Human Resource Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Thomas G.

    When organizations integrate their career development and human resources planning activities into a comprehensive whole, it is the exception rather than the rule. One reason for the frequent dichotomy between career development and human resource planning is the failure to recognize that they are complements rather than synonyms or substitutes.…

  15. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  16. DESIGN METHODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav E. Elkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "human development" and the schematic diagram of the organizational design of regional management systems in relation to human development. Management as an organizational process in the study is considered as part of all social subsystems, specifies regularities of development and formation of new structures and functions. In the study applied the following methods: allocation of levels of models, techniques of domination, the allocation phases of the operation, the construction of generalized indicators, etc. As a result of research design problems of systems management human development revealed that the primary means of successful adaptation of organizations to changing conditions is an effective mechanism for management of human capacity, which will provide the best in current economic terms the end results that allows you to apply the concept of "innovation potential" in relation to the process of human development.

  17. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  18. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  19. Development of the asymmetric human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry across the midline is present in many animals, together with the left/right asymmetry of several organs, such as the heart in vertebrates. The development of such asymmetries during embryonic development requires first the specification of the midline and then specification of left/right. One model proposes the transfer of molecular asymmetry to the multicellular level. Nodal expression on the left side in mammals and chicks is a key event, and is due to the release of calcium on the left possibly involving an ion pump and the Notch pathway

  20. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  1. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  2. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  3. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  4. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  5. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the poor.

  6. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  7. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  8. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  9. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  10. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  11. Development of the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F

    1995-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been claimed to be involved in a great number of physiological functions in development, such as sexual differentiation (gender, sexual orientation) and birth, as well as in various developmental disorders including mental retardation, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), Kallman's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. In this review a number of hypothalamic nuclei have therefore been discussed with respect to their development in health and disease. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the clock of the brain and shows circadian and seasonal fluctuations in vasopressin-expressing cell numbers. The SCN also seems to be involved in reproduction, adding interest to the sex differences in shape of the vasopressin-containing SCN subnucleus and in its VIP cell number. In addition, differences in relation to sexual orientation can be seen in this perspective. The vasopressin and VIP neurons of the SCN develop mainly postnatally, but as premature children may have circadian temperature rhythms, a different SCN cell type is probably more mature at birth. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN, intermediate nucleus, INAH-1) is twice as large in young male adults as in young females. At the moment of birth only 20% of the SDN cell number is present. From birth until two to four years of age cell numbers increase equally rapidly in both sexes. After this age cell numbers start to decrease in girls, creating the sex difference. The size of the SDN does not show any relationship to sexual orientation in men. The large neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the neurohypophysis, where they release vasopressin and oxytocin into the blood circulation. In the fetus these hormones play an active role in the birth process. Fetal oxytocin may initiate or accelerate the course of labor. Fetal vasopressin plays a role in the adaptation to stress--caused by the birth process--by redistribution of the fetal blood flow

  12. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Key words: human development, foreign language, French. Introduction ..... to communicate with each other and exchange ideas. Not only ... This will enable learners have an early exposure to the language which will in turn.

  13. Human Resource Development Strategies: The Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic development of Malaysia is greatly influenced by human resources activities in both the private and public sectors. But the private sector, particularly the industrial sector is the key player for the country’s economic growth. In acknowledging human resources importance in this sector, the country’s developmental plans developed thrusts that support the development of human resources to become skilled, creative and innovative. This article examines the concepts and nature of human resource development (HRD at the national level in Malaysia. In examining HRD from the national perspective, a review of documentary evidence from relevant Governmental reports and documents was utilised. The plans, policies, strategies, roles and responsibilities in HRD at the national level were discussed.

  14. Human Resources Development in the 70s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CENTRAL FOVEAL THICKNESS PRE AND POST CATARACT SURGERY USING SD-OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Saxena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to compare central foveal thickness (CFT of patients preoperatively and postoperatively cataract surgery using SD- optical coherence tomography and to correlate CFT with vision. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 eyes of 100 patients were examined and two groups were formed. Group-A was considered as the control group in the study and eyes in group-B were operated for cataract using SICS technique. The central foveal thickness (CFT in each group was measured using SD-OCT machine (Cirrus Zeiss preoperatively, postoperatively on day 1, week 1 and after 1 month and the data was compiled and compared. RESULTS OCT detected increased central foveal thickness postoperatively on day 1 and weeks 2 but this returned to preoperative levels in one month. It was also seen that preoperative BCVA was poor (0.53± 0.12 Snellen approx. 6/24. Improvement in BCVA was seen in postoperative day-1, week 2 and 1 month. CONCLUSION This study shows that preoperative CFT values were minimal which increased on postoperatively but returned to preoperative values at one month after surgery BCVA was poorer preoperatively due to cataract but improved as CFT decreased with time.

  16. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-03-09

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences.

  17. Entrepreneurship and human development: A capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Thomas; Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal model of entrepreneurship in human development. The framework is provided by the capabilities approach (CA). Hence we extend not only the conceptualisation of entrepreneurship in development, but the reach of the CA into entrepreneurship. From a CA view, entrepreneurship is not only a production factor, or a means to an end, as is often taken to be the case by economists, but also an end in itself. Entrepreneurship can be a human functioning and can contribute towards expa...

  18. Integration of parafoveal orthographic information during foveal word reading: beyond the sub-lexical level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Vitu, Françoise; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Prior research has shown that processing of a given target word is facilitated by the simultaneous presentation of orthographically related stimuli in the parafovea. Here we investigate the nature of such spatial integration processes by presenting orthographic neighbours of target words in the parafovea, considering that neighbours have been shown to inhibit, rather than facilitate, recognition of target words in foveal masked priming research. In Experiment 1, we used the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm to manipulate the parafoveal information subjects received while they fixated a target word within a sentence. In Experiment 2, we used the Flanking Letters Lexical Decision paradigm to manipulate parafoveal information while subjects read isolated words. Parafoveal words were either a higher-frequency orthographic neighbour of targets words (e.g., blue-blur) or a high-frequency unrelated word (e.g., hand-blur). We found that parafoveal orthographic neighbours facilitated, rather than inhibited, processing of the target. Thus, the present findings provide further evidence that orthographic information is integrated across multiple words and suggest that either the integration process does not enable simultaneous access to those words' lexical representations, or that lexical representations activated by spatially distinct stimuli do not compete for recognition.

  19. Dimensions of the foveal avascular zone using the Heidelberg retinal angiogram-2 in normal eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to study the dimensions of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ using Heidelberg Retinal Angiogram-2 (HRA-2; Heidelberg Engineering GmBH, Dossenheim, Germany. Materials and Methods: An observational study of the FAZ area and circumference was done with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA using HRA-2 in 31 normal individuals. The FAZ was studied using both contrast-adjusted and nonadjusted methods. Contrast adjustment was done to obtain better visualization of the finer capillaries around the fovea enabling more precise measurements of the FAZ in normal eyes. Results: The mean area of the FAZ calculated by the contrast-adjusted method was 0.2753 mm 2 (±0.074 and the mean circumference was 2.22 mm (±0.048. By the conventional method, the area and circumference of the FAZ were 0.6241 mm 2 (±0.177 and 3.23 mm (±0.454, respectively. Conclusion: The measurements of area and circumference of FAZ using contrast-adjusted methods were significantly smaller than the conventional method.

  20. Green laser induced foveal cyst sustained in a recreational laser light show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Aydin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 9-year-old boy complained of visual loss in his right eye after watching green laser light show being hit by a ray of a laser at shopping center before five days ago. The laser had a maximum power rating of 30 mW (US Food and Drug Administration class IIIB. Best-corrected visual acuity in his right eye was 0.2 with Snellen at 5 days after the injury. Dilated fundoscopic examination demonstrated a macular hole appearance in the right eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany demonstrates a steep fovea contour, a thickening of the macular edges, intraretinal cysts, disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment layer and macular pseudohole formation. Central foveal thickness (515 µm was increased. Two months after the injury, the patient's visual acuity improved to 0.9 in the right eye without any ocular treatment. Spectral domain OCT revealed the closure of the macular hole with the resolution of the cystic spaces. At 6-months follow-up, visual function had fully recovered and macular assessment was normal.

  1. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Development Tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.

  3. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  4. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  5. Human Resources Management & Development Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, William R., Ed.

    This revised handbook on the theory and practice of human resources management and development (HRM/D) focuses on people management and the personnel development processes. The book's 18 parts and 102 chapters by 107 contributors provide authoritative and comprehensive information on every aspect of modern HRM/D. Part 1 provides an overview of…

  6. National Cultures and Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Konrad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between basic cultural characteristics of countries and some economic indexes. As cultural characteristics, the data from The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE about the 9 cultural dimensions for 60 countries were used. Two facets of cultural dimensions were measured: the perceptions of actual practices and the perceptions of preferred values. On the other hand, the data about different economic indexes were taken from archival sources such as Human Development Report. Results show that some cultural practices and preferences are related to the development of countries as measured by Human Development Index (HDI. The implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  8. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  9. The development of human nature in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Simonovski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of human nature in children from 4 to 12 years of age. The concept of human nature is described by Oerter (Oerter, 1991, 1994; Oerter, Oerter, Agostiani, Kim, in Wibowo, 1996 in his theory of development of implicit anthropology. Two procedures were applied in the research: an interview on adulthood and a social dilemma story, which was followed by a guided interview. The distribution of the developmental stages of the concept of human nature in children of different age is presented, along with the frequency of higher-stage answers that progressively rises with subject's age. The frequency of the answers on the first, the second and the third developmental stage is compared between sexes. Higher level of conceptualisation of human nature in girls was found when compared with boys. The intering in personality, social and action theory are explained.

  10. Human prefrontal cortex: evolution, development, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffer, Kate; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is critical to many cognitive abilities that are considered particularly human, and forms a large part of a neural system crucial for normal socio-emotional and executive functioning in humans and other primates. In this chapter, we survey the literature regarding prefrontal development and pathology in humans as well as comparative studies of the region in humans and closely related primate species. The prefrontal cortex matures later in development than more caudal regions, and some of its neuronal subpopulations exhibit more complex dendritic arborizations. Comparative work suggests that the human prefrontal cortex differs from that of closely related primate species less in relative size than it does in organization. Specific reorganizational events in neural circuitry may have taken place either as a consequence of adjusting to increases in size or as adaptive responses to specific selection pressures. Living in complex environments has been recognized as a considerable factor in the evolution of primate cognition. Normal frontal lobe development and function are also compromised in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. A phylogenetically recent reorganization of frontal cortical circuitry may have been critical to the emergence of human-specific executive and social-emotional functions, and developmental pathology in these same systems underlies many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  11. Diabetes: energetics, development and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B C; Cajigal, A

    2001-07-01

    The recent emergence of the thrifty phenotype as an explanation for metabolic efficiency has brought evolutionary perspectives on diabetes, as represented by the thrifty genotype, under scrutiny. However, the logic of natural selection along with evidence from non-human primates supports the role for energetic constraints in the evolution of metabolic efficiency, particularly in skeletal muscle physiology. Environmental fluctuation during human evolution would have provided selective pressures for the development of efficient skeletal muscle starting prenatally and continuing throughout the lifespan. Such mechanisms including, glucose transporters, mitochondrial gene expression, leptin receptors and uncoupling proteins, should be present in all humans, though some living populations may exhibit particular 'thriftier' alleles. A focus on physical activity and the factors underlying efficient muscle physiology has implications for prevention of diabetes in both developing and developed societies. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  13. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  14. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in mortality both at the hospital and pre-hospital levels. Key words: children, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, development stages, training of pediatricians. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:25-27

  15. How to Find Out in: Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Doris F.

    This library handbook was designed to aid the student in human development. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in five categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) handbooks and guides; (3) yearbooks; (4) congresses; and (5) documents. Some…

  16. The Dictionary for Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas H., Comp.

    This dictionary lists and defines approximately 360 words and phrases used in the field of human resource development (HRD). It reflects the opinions and collective expertise of a diverse range of HRD practitioners and faculty. The words and phrases selected were drawn from a search of more than 300 current and recent texts and 10 periodicals in…

  17. Human rights and sustainable spatial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallemaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    What is the relationship between spatial planning and human rights? Though this question may seem highly theoretical at first glance, closer analysis will reveal that there are in fact a number of ways in which public policies in the area of territorial planning and development and the imperative of

  18. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  19. Human Resource Development and Organizational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Arif

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Organizations create mission statements and emphasize core values. Inculcating those values depends on the way employees are treated and nurtured. Therefore, there seems to be a strong relationship between human resource development (HRD) practices and organizational values. The paper aims to empirically examine this relationship.…

  20. How to Find Out in: Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Doris F.

    This library handbook was designed to aid the student in human development. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in five categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) handbooks and guides; (3) yearbooks; (4) congresses; and (5) documents. Some…

  1. Development of Human System Integration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Human Systems Integration seeks to design systems around the capabilities and limitations of the humans which use and interact with the system, ensuring greater efficiency of use, reduced error rates, and less rework in the design, manufacturing and operational deployment of hardware and software. One of the primary goals of HSI is to get the human factors practitioner involved early in the design process. In doing so, the aim is to reduce future budget costs and resources in redesign and training. By the preliminary design phase of a project nearly 80% of the total cost of the project is locked in. Potential design changes recommended by evaluations past this point will have little effect due to lack of funding or a huge cost in terms of resources to make changes. Three key concepts define an effective HSI program. First, systems are comprised of hardware, software, and the human, all of which operate within an environment. Too often, engineers and developers fail to consider the human capacity or requirements as part of the system. This leads to poor task allocation within the system. To promote ideal task allocation, it is critical that the human element be considered early in system development. Poor design, or designs that do not adequately consider the human component, could negatively affect physical or mental performance, as well as, social behavior. Second, successful HSI depends upon integration and collaboration of all the domains that represent acquisition efforts. Too often, these domains exist as independent disciplines due to the location of expertise within the service structure. Proper implementation of HSI through participation would help to integrate these domains and disciplines to leverage and apply their interdependencies to attain an optimal design. Via this process domain interests can be integrated to perform effective HSI through trade-offs and collaboration. This provides a common basis upon which to make knowledgeable decisions. Finally

  2. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  3. Foveal reflection analyzer : on the spectral and directional reflectance of the retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagers, Niels Petrus Antonius

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this thesis was on the development of a new instrument for measurement of light reflected from the retina in a living human eye. The key element is an imaging spectrograph, with its slit placed conjugate to the pupil of the eye. The instrument measures both the spectral and the dir

  4. Foveal reflection analyzer : on the spectral and directional reflectance of the retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagers, Niels Petrus Antonius

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this thesis was on the development of a new instrument for measurement of light reflected from the retina in a living human eye. The key element is an imaging spectrograph, with its slit placed conjugate to the pupil of the eye. The instrument measures both the spectral and the

  5. DFLAT: functional annotation for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Heather C; Drabkin, Harold; Ngu, Huy; Sackman, Michael; Fournier, Craig; Haggett, Jessica; Blake, Judith A; Bianchi, Diana W; Slonim, Donna K

    2014-02-07

    Recent increases in genomic studies of the developing human fetus and neonate have led to a need for widespread characterization of the functional roles of genes at different developmental stages. The Gene Ontology (GO), a valuable and widely-used resource for characterizing gene function, offers perhaps the most suitable functional annotation system for this purpose. However, due in part to the difficulty of studying molecular genetic effects in humans, even the current collection of comprehensive GO annotations for human genes and gene products often lacks adequate developmental context for scientists wishing to study gene function in the human fetus. The Developmental FunctionaL Annotation at Tufts (DFLAT) project aims to improve the quality of analyses of fetal gene expression and regulation by curating human fetal gene functions using both manual and semi-automated GO procedures. Eligible annotations are then contributed to the GO database and included in GO releases of human data. DFLAT has produced a considerable body of functional annotation that we demonstrate provides valuable information about developmental genomics. A collection of gene sets (genes implicated in the same function or biological process), made by combining existing GO annotations with the 13,344 new DFLAT annotations, is available for use in novel analyses. Gene set analyses of expression in several data sets, including amniotic fluid RNA from fetuses with trisomies 21 and 18, umbilical cord blood, and blood from newborns with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, were conducted both with and without the DFLAT annotation. Functional analysis of expression data using the DFLAT annotation increases the number of implicated gene sets, reflecting the DFLAT's improved representation of current knowledge. Blinded literature review supports the validity of newly significant findings obtained with the DFLAT annotations. Newly implicated significant gene sets also suggest specific hypotheses for future

  6. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  7. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    This paper addresses the crucial call for upgrading to more value-added production in developing country firms in the light of increased global competition and suggests that such upgrading demands a shift in focus from investment in technology to investment in people, knowledge and learning....... In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  8. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  9. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  10. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  11. Foveal contour interactions and crowding effects at the resolution limit of the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Marina V; Bondarko, Valeria M

    2007-11-27

    We describe several experiments on contour interactions and crowding effects at the resolution limit of the visual system. As test stimuli we used characters that are often employed in optometric practice for testing visual acuity: Landolt C's, Snellen E's, and rectangular gratings. We tested several hypotheses that have been put forward to explain contour interaction and crowding effects. In Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, Landolt C's were the test stimuli, and bars, or Landolt C's, or gratings served as distractors. In Experiment 1, we showed that neither scale invariance nor spatial frequency selectivity is a characteristic of foveal crowding effects. These results allowed us to conclude that mechanisms other than lateral masking contribute to observers' performance in 'crowded' tasks. R. F. Hess, S. C. Dakin, and N. Kappor (2000) suggested that the spatial frequency band most appropriate for target recognition is shifted by the surrounding bars to higher spatial frequencies that cannot be resolved by observers. Our Experiment 2 rejects this hypothesis as the experimental data do not follow theoretical predictions. In Experiment 3, we employed Snellen E's, both as test stimuli and as distractors. The masking functions were similar to those measured in Experiment 1 when the test Landolt C was surrounded by Landolt C's. In Experiment 4, we extended the range of test stimuli to rectangular gratings; same-frequency or high-frequency gratings were distractors. In this case, if the distracting gratings had random orientation from trial to trial, the critical spacing was twice larger than in the first three experiments. If the orientation of the distractors was fixed during the whole experiment, the critical spacing was similar to that measured in the first three experiments. We suggest that the visual system can use different mechanisms for the discrimination of different test stimuli in the presence of particular surround. Different receptive fields with different

  12. [Contribution of epigenetics to understand human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Shand, Beatriz; Santos, Manuel J; Ventura-Juncá, Patricio

    2010-03-01

    Epigenetics refers to the study of how genes produce their effect on the phenotype of the organism. This article is a review on the scope and importance of recently discovered epigenetic mechanisms on human development and their relationship to perinatal epidemiological issues. It shows a general view and present concepts about epigenetics and its contribution to the comprehension of several physiologic and pathological conditions of human beings. Secondly, it analyzes the evidence coming from epidemiological and animal studies, about the influence of events that occur in the perinatal and early postnatal periods on adult life and the possible epigenetic mechanisms involved. Lastly, it underscores the implications of these results of future research and the design of public policies that take into account the importance of events in early life in the future development of individuals.

  13. A happiness index of human development

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, Carina da Conceição

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Nowadays many social scientists defend the advantages to define a measure of well being able to complement the GDP per capita. This work project proposes a new index of human development: the happiness index. Many studies have been undertaken in order to determine the best measurement of happiness. Happiness is much more than just...

  14. Centre for human development, stem cells & regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreffo, Richard O C

    2014-01-01

    The Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration (CHDSCR) was founded in 2004 as a cross-disciplinary research and translational program within the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton. The Centre undertakes fundamental research into early development and stem cells together with applied translational research for patient benefit. The Centre has vibrant and thriving multidisciplinary research programs that harness the translational strength of the Faculty together with an innovative Stem Cell PhD program, outstanding clinical infrastructure and enterprise to deliver on this vision.

  15. Naming fluency in dyslexic and nondyslexic readers: differential effects of visual crowding in foveal, parafoveal, and peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Jones, Manon

    2013-01-01

    Reading fluency is often indexed by performance on rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks, which are known to reflect speed of access to lexical codes. We used eye tracking to investigate visual influences on naming fluency. Specifically, we examined how visual crowding affects fluency in a RAN-letters task on an item-by-item basis, by systematically manipulating the interletter spacing of items, such that upcoming letters in the array were viewed in the fovea, parafovea, or periphery relative to a given fixated letter. All lexical information was kept constant. Nondyslexic readers' gaze durations were longer in foveal than in parafoveal and peripheral trials, indicating that visual crowding slows processing even for fluent readers. Dyslexics' gaze durations were longer in foveal and parafoveal trials than in peripheral trials. Our results suggest that for dyslexic readers, influences of crowding on naming speed extend to a broader visual span (to parafoveal vision) than that for nondyslexic readers, but do not extend as far as peripheral vision. The findings extend previous research by elucidating the different visual spans within which crowding operates for dyslexic and nondyslexic readers in an online fluency task.

  16. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  17. Physical biology of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view toward surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level toward form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  18. Quantification of fluid resorption from diabetic macular oedema with foveal serous detachment after dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex(®) ) in a pregnant diabetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodzic-Hadzibegovic, Delila; Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Valerius, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    with type 1 diabetes for 33 years presented with diabetic macular oedema with foveal serous detachment and symptomatic vision loss at 16 gestational weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in Snellen notation and central retinal volume assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT, Topcon Corporation...

  19. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  1. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  2. Development of cue integration in human navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Marko; Jones, Peter; Bedford, Rachael; Braddick, Oliver

    2008-05-06

    Mammalian navigation depends both on visual landmarks and on self-generated (e.g., vestibular and proprioceptive) cues that signal the organism's own movement [1-5]. When these conflict, landmarks can either reset estimates of self-motion or be integrated with them [6-9]. We asked how humans combine these information sources and whether children, who use both from a young age [10-12], combine them as adults do. Participants attempted to return an object to its original place in an arena when given either visual landmarks only, nonvisual self-motion information only, or both. Adults, but not 4- to 5-year-olds or 7- to 8-year-olds, reduced their response variance when both information sources were available. In an additional "conflict" condition that measured relative reliance on landmarks and self-motion, we predicted behavior under two models: integration (weighted averaging) of the cues and alternation between them. Adults' behavior was predicted by integration, in which the cues were weighted nearly optimally to reduce variance, whereas children's behavior was predicted by alternation. These results suggest that development of individual spatial-representational systems precedes development of the capacity to combine these within a common reference frame. Humans can integrate spatial cues nearly optimally to navigate, but this ability depends on an extended developmental process.

  3. A systematic review on ‘Foveal Crowding’ in visually impaired children and perceptual learning as a method to reduce Crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huurneman Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This systematic review gives an overview of foveal crowding (the inability to recognize objects due to surrounding nearby contours in foveal vision and possible interventions. Foveal crowding can have a major effect on reading rate and deciphering small pieces of information from busy visual scenes. Three specific groups experience more foveal crowding than adults with normal vision (NV: 1 children with NV, 2 visually impaired (VI children and adults and 3 children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI. The extent and magnitude of foveal crowding as well as interventions aimed at reducing crowding were investigated in this review. The twofold goal of this review is : [A] to compare foveal crowding in children with NV, VI children and adults and CVI children and [B] to compare interventions to reduce crowding. Methods Three electronic databases were used to conduct the literature search: PubMed, PsycINFO (Ovid, and Cochrane. Additional studies were identified by contacting experts. Search terms included visual perception, contour interaction, crowding, crowded, and contour interactions. Results Children with normal vision show an extent of contour interaction over an area 1.5–3× as large as that seen in adults NV. The magnitude of contour interaction normally ranges between 1–2 lines on an acuity chart and this magnitude is even larger when stimuli are arranged in a circular configuration. Adults with congenital nystagmus (CN show interaction areas that are 2× larger than those seen adults with NV. The magnitude of the crowding effect is also 2× as large in individuals with CN as in individuals with NV. Finally, children with CVI experience a magnitude of the crowding effect that is 3× the size of that experienced by adults with NV. Conclusions The methodological heterogeneity, the diversity in paradigms used to measure crowding, made it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. This is the first systematic review to

  4. Long-term results of excision of plaque-like foveal hard exudates in patients with chronic diabetic macular oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, R; Inan, U U; Kaderli, B

    2008-09-01

    To analyse the long-term results of surgical removal of plaque-like diabetic foveal hard exudates. In this retrospective, interventional, non-randomized, controlled study, vitrectomy and excision of submacular hard exudates was performed on 11 eyes of 11 patients with plaque-like hard exudates. The mean preoperative LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and exudate diameter were 1.35+/-0.3 and 1.19 disks (range, 0.5-1.8), respectively. In the control group, which consisted of 10 eyes of 7 patients who refused the surgery, baseline mean BCVA and exudate diameter were 1.06+/-0.2 and 1.2 disks (range, 0.7-2.0), respectively. Main outcome measures included BCVA, fundus photography, and surgical complications. The mean follow-up was 39.1+/-3.2 months for the study group and 32.5+/-3.6 months for the control group. In the study group, BCVA improved in 8 (73%) eyes at the final examination. The mean final BCVA was 1.08+/-0.4 (P=0.021). Macular oedema and exudates resolved completely in all eyes. In the control group, final LogMAR visual acuity declined to 1.53+/-0.1 (P=0.005). Macular pigment epithelium atrophy or scar formation was observed in 7 (64%) eyes in the study group and in all eyes in the control group. Surgical excision of plaque-like foveal hard exudates resulted in better anatomical and functional outcome when compared to observation alone.

  5. The Near Mallett Unit Foveal Suppression Test: a cross-sectional study to establish test norms and relationship with other optometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sosena T W; Evans, Bruce J W

    2007-01-01

    When the binocular system comes under prolonged stress in decompensated heterophoria, a small suppression area can develop at the fovea. This foveal suppression (FS) may be an adaptation to eliminate symptoms. The near Mallett unit (NMU) is a hand-held instrument that contains a binocular status test for detecting and quantifying FS. We measured FS in a cross-sectional study of 131 patients to investigate the normal range of responses. A ratio scoring method was devised which considers the number of letters read with dichoptic viewing when binocularly fused (b) and under monocular (m) conditions, using the formula 100 x (m - b)/m. The 95th percentile value of the FS ratios was calculated as the limit of the normal range and this gave a value for the right eye (RE; 33%), left eye (LE; 43%) and total (38%). This result shows that statistically significant FS occurs when a patient can read approximately one line further in the test monocularly, compared to under fused dichoptic conditions. A statistically significant correlation was found between absolute values of horizontal aligning prism (associated heterophoria on the NMU) and FS ratio. Some limitations of the FS test and unexpected results became apparent during our research and an abnormal result on the test does not always indicate a binocular vision anomaly. Nonetheless, we feel that the test can provide useful information when the results are taken in the context of other clinical tests. Our results are used to develop recommendations and clinical guidelines for using the FS test, and to make suggestions for improvements in future designs of the test.

  6. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  7. Human Development and Poverty - a Perspective Across Indian States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonu Madan

    2012-01-01

    ... indicatorsof longevity, literacy and a decent standard of living. Human development is about enlarging choices, whereas poverty implies denial to the opportunities and choices most basic to human development...

  8. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  9. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  10. Outcomes of Human Resource Development Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Malaysia, Human Resource Development (HRD plays an important role in the economic development of the country. Despite government policies encouraging the implementation of HRD activities, as well as the substantial infrastructural and financial support provided, the benefits or outcomes of the HRD activities being implemented and provided to employees have not been examined. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of HRD interventions using the fundamental aspects of HRD’s definitions. Approach: This study utilised a mixed method approach, combining questionnaire surveys and interviews with HR practitioners. Results: The findings suggested that HRD programs and activities being implemented and provided to employees in manufacturing firms in Malaysia generate individual and team development as well as work process improvement, but do not support HRD strategic planning for organizational change. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study implied that HRD programs and activities implemented had not been strategically planned and aligned with organizational goals and objectives. The limitations of the study and recommendations for further research were discussed.

  11. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research: Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting and an opportunity for public comment on...

  12. Postnatal development of the human sternum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, M L; Dwornik, J J; Ganey, T M; Ogden, J A

    1998-01-01

    Postnatal development and maturation of the human sternum are highly variable. Endochondral ossification centers (sternebrae) form within each cartilaginous segment of the sternum, with each center enveloped by a spherical growth plate. Within a cartilaginous center there may be either one or two ossification centers, those with two centers retaining and reflecting features of their bilateral embryonic origin. Malaligned bifid centers are clearly associated with rib articulation asymmetry as well. Expansion of individual ossification centers progresses within the peripheral cartilaginous domains of the sternum. With respect to the rostrocaudal axis, sternebrae form between the costosternal articulations. Consistent with the biology of endochondral transition, cartilage canals are evident throughout unossified regions of the hyaline matrix. Expanding ossification of adjacent sternebrae results in depletion of the common area of cartilage between the two sternebrae, and eventually in physiologic epiphysiodesis. Fusion of the mesosternebrae reciprocates the initial pattern of sternebral ossification site appearance, proceeding in a caudal-to-cranial direction. Union of adjacent sternebrae, initiated through a central osseous bridge, progresses through anterior, lateral, cephalocaudal, and posterior domains to achieve synostosis. Accessory and bifid centers of ossification within the same intercostal space coalesce prior to adjoining adjacent sternebrae. Manubriosternal fusion is rare due to the presence of a fibrocartilaginous joint restricting ossification. The xiphoid process remains connected to the most caudal mesosternum via a common zone of hyaline cartilage that ossifies by middle to late adulthood. A single pattern of development does not appear fundamental to successful growth of the sternum, as morphological variants were common.

  13. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  14. Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: The Nigeria Experience

    OpenAIRE

    God’stime Osekhebhen Eigbiremolen; Uchechi Shirley Anaduaka

    2014-01-01

    This study employs the augmented Solow human-capital-growth model to investigate the impact of human capital development on national output, a proxy for economic growth, using quarterly time-series data from 1999-2012. Empirical results show that human capita development, in line with theory, exhibits significant positive impact on output level. This implies that human capital development is indispensable in the achievement of sustainable economic growth in Nigeria, as there is an increase in...

  15. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  16. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  17. 310 The Impact of Philosophy to Human Development Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy plays a fundamental role in human development. As love of wisdom, it .... protection of nature. So with such evolution of value, human laws ... divers ways of which few are: the brain drainage syndrome, the exploitation of natural ...

  18. Influence Of Globalization On Human Resource Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was seen as a panacea for the training of marketable, self employed individuals ... presence in human resource development, international transfer of technology. ... human resource planning based on the cost benefit analysis of education.

  19. HUMAN SECURITY – BUILDING THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals agenda through the human security paradigm. It suggests that the human security paradigm represents “the missing link” from the development agenda. Therefore, this analysis explains the necessity for extending the development agenda by including the human security doctrine. The first part of the article discusses the relation between human security and development. The next section analyzes the values of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. The last part evaluates the improvements that the inclusion of the human security on the post-2015 development framework may bring. The results of this analysis present illustrate the opportunity of deepening the MDGs agenda with a more realistic and ethical approach, through the inclusion of the human security paradigm within the development agenda.

  20. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    DETERMINED? This speech is an attempt to offer á perspective, given the particular .... The universal nature of these rights and freedoms is beyond question…19. ▫ All human ... Islamic Middle East” Policial Studies (1995), XLIII, 155. 25 Espiell ...

  1. Assessing global transitions in human development and colorectal cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Bray, Freddie; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer incidence has paralleled increases in human development across most countries. Yet, marked decreases in incidence are now observed in countries that have attained very high human development. Thus, in this study, we explored the relationship between human development and colorectal cancer incidence, and in particular assessed whether national transitions to very high human development are linked to temporal patterns in colorectal cancer incidence. For these analyses, we utilized the Human Development Index (HDI) and annual incidence data from regional and national cancer registries. Truncated (30-74 years) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. Yearly incidence rate ratios and HDI ratios, before and after transitioning to very high human development, were also estimated. Among the 29 countries investigated, colorectal cancer incidence was observed to decrease after reaching the very high human development threshold for 12 countries; decreases were also observed in a further five countries, but the age-standardized incidence rates remained higher than that observed at the threshold. Such declines or stabilizations are likely due to colorectal cancer screening in some populations, as well as varying levels of exposure to protective factors. In summary, it appears that there is a threshold at which human development predicts a stabilization or decline in colorectal cancer incidence, though this pattern was not observed for all countries assessed. Future cancer planning must consider the increasing colorectal cancer burden expected in countries transitioning towards higher levels of human development, as well as possible declines in incidence among countries reaching the highest development level. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...

  3. The Asymmetric Impact of Growth Fluctuation on Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Bedir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the impact of economic growth fluctuation on human development indicators. Using the per capita growth rate and human development indicators for 131 countries between 1974 and 2007, we find that growth acceleration and deceleration have significant impact on the human development indicators. We also find that the effects are asymmetric. This asymmetric effect is valid both in terms of acceleration and deceleration periods and countries which are classified accordi...

  4. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Training Effect on Human Resource Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建权

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the essential connotation of the training effect on human resource development and the basic principles of setting up a index system, the evaluation index system of the training effect on human resource development in enterprises has been established. It evaluates the training effect on human resource development with the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and achieves better results. It also provides a scientific, practical and quantitative method for the systematic analysis and comprehensive evaluation of the training effect on human resource development.

  5. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  6. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure Research,'' published in the Federal...

  7. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique oppo...

  8. Human Resources Development for Change and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, McKenzie H.

    1979-01-01

    In helping staff adapt to inevitable organizational changes, whether in industry or school, personnel motivation and participation are necessary for institutional efficiency. The articles examines how organizations can meet human needs in planning for change, citing several studies on handling organizational change systems. (MF)

  9. Transcriptome profiling of human pre-implantation development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preimplantation development is a crucial step in early human development. However, the molecular basis of human preimplantation development is not well known. METHODOLOGY: By applying microarray on 397 human oocytes and embryos at six developmental stages, we studied the transcription dynamics during human preimplantation development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the preimplantation development consisted of two main transitions: from metaphase-II oocyte to 4-cell embryo where mainly the maternal genes were expressed, and from 8-cell embryo to blastocyst with down-regulation of the maternal genes and up-regulation of embryonic genes. Human preimplantation development proved relatively autonomous. Genes predominantly expressed in oocytes and embryos are well conserved during evolution. SIGNIFICANCE: Our database and findings provide fundamental resources for understanding

  10. Human Development and Poverty - a Perspective Across Indian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Madan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of development planning and policies is to increase social welfare and well-being of the society. As income alone is an incomplete measure of well-being of any society, human development attempts to capture quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of human well-being by encapsulating indicatorsof longevity, literacy and a decent standard of living. Human development is about enlarging choices, whereas poverty implies denial to the opportunities and choices most basic to human development. The main concern of this paper is to examine the transformation of development efforts into the well- being of the society, with special reference to India. Here an attempt has been made to find complementary between Human Development Index (HDI and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI across major Indian states using regression analysis. The negative relationship between the two underlines the need of raising economic and educationalopportunities and their equitable distribution among all the sections of the society.

  11. Development of the human pancreas from foregut to endocrine commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Kirkwood-Wilson, Rebecca; Roberts, Neil A; Hearn, Thomas; Salisbury, Rachel J; Blaylock, Jennifer; Piper Hanley, Karen; Hanley, Neil A

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of human pancreas development underpins our interpretation and exploitation of human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation toward a β-cell fate. However, almost no information exists on the early events of human pancreatic specification in the distal foregut, bud formation, and early development. Here, we have studied the expression profiles of key lineage-specific markers to understand differentiation and morphogenetic events during human pancreas development. The notochord was adjacent to the dorsal foregut endoderm during the fourth week of development before pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 detection. In contrast to the published data from mouse embryos, during human pancreas development, we detected only a single-phase of Neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3) expression and endocrine differentiation from approximately 8 weeks, before which Nirenberg and Kim homeobox 2.2 (NKX2.2) was not observed in the pancreatic progenitor cell population. In addition to revealing a number of disparities in timing between human and mouse development, these data, directly assembled from human tissue, allow combinations of transcription factors to define sequential stages and differentiating pancreatic cell types. The data are anticipated to provide a useful reference point for stem cell researchers looking to differentiate human PSCs in vitro toward the pancreatic β-cell so as to model human development or enable drug discovery and potential cell therapy.

  12. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: Quality education, Human Capital Development, Economic Growth,. Functional Education ... as inhibitors to sustainable development in Nigeria, according to Eze (2017), include: ..... US Academy of Management, Toronto, August.

  13. Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Alison; Morris, Lucy; Vroegindeweij, Eric; Depreter, Marianne; Vaidya, Harsh; Stenhouse, Frances; Tomlinson, Simon; Anderson, Richard,; Cupedo, Tom; Cornelissen, Jan; Clare, Blackburn

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe thymus is the central site of T-cell development and thus is of fundamental importance to the immune system, but little information exists regarding molecular regulation of thymus development in humans. Here we demonstrate, via spatial and temporal expression analyses, that the genetic mechanisms known to regulate mouse thymus organogenesis are conserved in humans. In addition, we provide molecular evidence that the human thymic epithelium derives solely from the third pharyng...

  14. Teaching Human Development: A Case for Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Nathan R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a case for the use of blended learning in teaching human development as a means to encourage higher-order student learning outcomes. The authors review literature regarding the use and effectiveness of blended learning, discuss an illustrative example of a redesign of a human development course, present outcomes from a…

  15. Teaching Human Development: A Case for Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Nathan R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a case for the use of blended learning in teaching human development as a means to encourage higher-order student learning outcomes. The authors review literature regarding the use and effectiveness of blended learning, discuss an illustrative example of a redesign of a human development course, present outcomes from a…

  16. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  17. Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better Human Resource Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of human resource planning and development for organizational effectiveness, and examines how the major components of a human resource planning and development system should be coordinated for maximum effectiveness. Available from Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,…

  18. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential me

  19. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of…

  20. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  1. Issues of Human Development and Special Education: Students Communicating across Developing and Developed Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nancy McK.; Pickert, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Children with disabilities live in every country of the world. Training personnel to provide education and rehabilitative services to these children, no matter where they live, is a continuing challenge for the profession. This paper describes a human development course in a program designed for an international religious organization based in…

  2. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  3. Palmitic Acid in Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, Sheila M

    2016-09-09

    Palmitic acid (16:0) is a saturated fatty acid present in the diet and synthesized endogenously. Although often considered to have adverse effects on chronic disease in adults, 16:0 is an essential component of membrane, secretory, and transport lipids, with crucial roles in protein palmitoylation and signal molecules. At birth, the term infant is 13-15% body fat, with 45-50% 16:0, much of which is derived from endogenous synthesis in the fetus. After birth, the infant accumulates adipose tissue at high rates, reaching 25% body weight as fat by 4-5 months age. Over this time, human milk provides 10% dietary energy as 16:0, but in unusual triglycerides with 16:0 on the glycerol center carbon. This paper reviews the synthesis and oxidation of 16:0 and possible reasons why the infant is endowed with large amounts of fat and 16:0. The marked deviations in tissues with displacement of 16:0 that can occur in infants fed vegetable oil formulas is introduced. Assuming fetal fatty acid synthesis and the unusual delivery of 16:0 in human milk evolved to afford survival advantage to the neonate, it is timely to question if 16:0 is an essential component of tissue lipids whereby both deficiency and excess are detrimental.

  4. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  5. Professional Skills Acquisition and Human Capital Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education ... profession were not exposed to comprehensive induction programmes; the strategies used for professional development were limited; and new entrants into teaching were disposed towards mentoring.

  6. Mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability during human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Cynthia T

    2010-11-01

    Trinucleotide expansion underlies several human diseases. Expansion occurs during multiple stages of human development in different cell types, and is sensitive to the gender of the parent who transmits the repeats. Repair and replication models for expansions have been described, but we do not know whether the pathway involved is the same under all conditions and for all repeat tract lengths, which differ among diseases. Currently, researchers rely on bacteria, yeast and mice to study expansion, but these models differ substantially from humans. We need now to connect the dots among human genetics, pathway biochemistry and the appropriate model systems to understand the mechanism of expansion as it occurs in human disease.

  7. People-oriented Development and Human Rights Protection for Criminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YUQIAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ People-oriented development refers to the economic and social integrative development that regards human beings as the orientation and subject of economic and social development and considers the development of human beings the essence, objective, momentum and symbol of development.One of its important connotations is to protect human beings' rights and interests in all links and works of economic and social development.On December 10,2008, Hu Jintao, secretary general of the CPC Central Committee, clarified that "We will, as always, adhere to people-oriented principles in building a well-off society in an all-round way and accelerating the process of socialist modernization" in his letter to the China Society for Human Rights Studies.

  8. Developing a strategic human resources plan for the Urban Angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare a significant portion of the budget is related to human resources. However, many healthcare organizations have yet to develop and implement a focused organizational strategy that ensures all human resources are managed in a way that best supports the successful achievement of corporate strategies. St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, recognized the benefits of a strategic human resources management plan. During an eight-month planning process, St. Michael's Hospital undertook the planning for and development of a strategic human resources management plan. Key learnings are outlined in this paper.

  9. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  10. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  11. Organization of human hypothalamus in fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutcherov, Yuri; Mai, Jürgen K; Ashwell, Ken W S; Paxinos, George

    2002-05-13

    The organization of the human hypothalamus was studied in 33 brains aged from 9 weeks of gestation (w.g.) to newborn, using immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, neurophysin, growth-associated protein (GAP)-43, synaptophysin, and the glycoconjugate 3-fucosyl- N-acetyl-lactosamine. Developmental stages are described in relation to obstetric trimesters. The first trimester (morphogenetic periods 9-10 w.g. and 11-14 w.g.) is characterized by differentiating structures of the lateral hypothalamic zone, which give rise to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and posterior hypothalamus. The PeF differentiates at 18 w.g. from LH neurons, which remain anchored in the perifornical position, whereas most of the LH cells are displaced laterally. A transient supramamillary nucleus was apparent at 14 w.g. but not after 16 w.g. As the ventromedial nucleus differentiated at 13-16 w.g., three principal parts, the ventrolateral part, the dorsomedial part, and the shell, were revealed by distribution of calbindin, calretinin, and GAP43 immunoreactivity. The second trimester (morphogenetic periods 15-17 w.g., 18-23 w.g., and 24-33 w.g.) is characterized by differentiation of the hypothalamic core, in which calbindin- positive neurons revealed the medial preoptic nucleus at 16 w.g. abutted laterally by the intermediate nucleus. The dorsomedial nucleus was clearly defined at 10 w.g. and consisted of compact and diffuse parts, an organization that was lost after 15 w.g. Differentiation of the medial mamillary body into lateral and medial was seen at 13-16 w.g. Late second trimester was marked by differentiation of periventricular zone structures, including suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and paraventricular nuclei. The subnuclear differentiation of these nuclei extends into the third trimester. The use of chemoarchitecture in the human fetus permitted the identification of interspecies nuclei homologies, which otherwise remain concealed in the cytoarchitecture.

  12. Prognostic significance of foveal capillary drop-out and previous panretinal photocoagulation for diabetic macular oedema treated with ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the prognostic significance of macular capillary drop-out and previous panretinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular oedema treated with intravitreal ranibizumab. Retrospective observational case series. Treatment-naive patients with diabetic macular oedema that had been treated with intravitreal ranibizumab as per the RESTORE study protocol for at least 12 months were included. Some patients (n=15) had previous panretinal laser photocoagulation. Best-corrected visual acuity and central retina thickness were recorded monthly. The foveal avascular zone and the perifoveal capillaries were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed on fluorescein angiography on two occasions during the observational period. From the 46 eyes (46 patients) in this study, 13 (28%) had evidence of perifoveal capillary drop-out. Central retinal thickness was significantly thinner at baseline (p=0.02) and throughout the study period in these eyes compared with those with normal perifoveal capillaries. Both groups responded with a significant gain of best-corrected visual acuity to ranibizumab treatment (7.6±3.3 and 6.3±1.3 ETDRS letters, respectively). Eyes with previous panretinal laser photocoagulation displayed a comparable final outcome regarding function and morphology, requiring a similar intensity of intravitreal injections. Perifoveal capillary drop-out did not limit the gain of visual acuity from intravitreal ranibizumab treatment. The reduction of central retina thickness was similar to that seen in eyes with normal perifoveal capillaries. Central retinal thickness in eyes with perifoveal capillary drop-out was generally reduced. However, this did not affect their benefit from treatment. Ranibizumab did not increase the amount of perifoveal capillary loss. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Visual Acuity Is Correlated with the Area of the Foveal Avascular Zone in Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Inoue, Maiko; Ahn, Seungjun; McCann, Jesse; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey

    2016-11-01

    To determine if the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) is correlated with visual acuity (VA) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Cross-sectional study. Ninety-five eyes of 66 subjects with DR (65 eyes), branch retinal vein occlusion (19 eyes), and central retinal vein occlusion (11 eyes). Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT; Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) and OCT angiography (OCTA; Avanti, Optovue RTVue XR) data from a single visit were analyzed. FAZ area, point thickness of central fovea, central 1-mm subfield thickness, the occurrence of intraretinal cysts, ellipsoid zone disruption, and disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRIL) length were measured. VA was also recorded. Correlations between FAZ area and VA were explored using regression models. Main outcome measure was VA. Mean age was 62.9±13.2 years. There was no difference in demographic and OCT-derived anatomic measurements between branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion groups (all P ≥ 0.058); therefore, data from the 2 groups were pooled together to a single RVO group for further statistical comparisons. Univariate and multiple regression analysis showed that the area of the FAZ was significantly correlated with VA in DR and RVO (all P ≤ 0.003). The relationship between FAZ area and VA varied with age (P = 0.026) such that for a constant FAZ area, an increase in patient age was associated with poorer vision (rise in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity). Disruption of the ellipsoid zone was significantly correlated with VA in univariate and multiple regression analysis (both P retinal vascular diseases and following treatment is warranted. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The emergence of three human development clubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vollmer

    Full Text Available We examine the joint distribution of levels of income per capita, life expectancy, and years of schooling across countries in 1960 and in 2000. In 1960 countries were clustered in two groups; a rich, highly educated, high longevity "developed" group and a poor, less educated, high mortality, "underdeveloped" group. By 2000 however we see the emergence of three groups; one underdeveloped group remaining near 1960 levels, a developed group with higher levels of education, income, and health than in 1960, and an intermediate group lying between these two. This finding is consistent with both the ideas of a new "middle income trap" that countries face even if they escape the "low income trap", as well as the notion that countries which escaped the poverty trap form a temporary "transition regime" along their path to the "developed" group.

  15. The emergence of three human development clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Holzmann, Hajo; Ketterer, Florian; Klasen, Stephan; Canning, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the joint distribution of levels of income per capita, life expectancy, and years of schooling across countries in 1960 and in 2000. In 1960 countries were clustered in two groups; a rich, highly educated, high longevity "developed" group and a poor, less educated, high mortality, "underdeveloped" group. By 2000 however we see the emergence of three groups; one underdeveloped group remaining near 1960 levels, a developed group with higher levels of education, income, and health than in 1960, and an intermediate group lying between these two. This finding is consistent with both the ideas of a new "middle income trap" that countries face even if they escape the "low income trap", as well as the notion that countries which escaped the poverty trap form a temporary "transition regime" along their path to the "developed" group.

  16. A device for continuous monitoring of true central fixation based on foveal birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris; Irsch, Kristina; Müllenbroich, Marie; Frindt, Nicole; Qu, Yinhong; Gutmark, Ron; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2013-09-01

    A device for continuous monitoring of central fixation utilizes birefringence, the property of the Henle fibers surrounding the human fovea, to change the polarization state of light. A circular scan of retinal birefringence, where the scanning circle encompasses the fovea, allows identification of true central fixation-an assessment much needed in various applications in ophthalmology, psychology, and psychiatry. The device allows continuous monitoring for central fixation over an extended period of time in the presence of fixation targets and distracting stimuli, which may be helpful in detecting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and other disorders characterized by changes in the subject's ability to maintain fixation. A proof-of-concept has been obtained in a small study of ADHD patients and normal control subjects.

  17. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  18. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  19. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  20. Monozukuri and Human Resource Development Monozukuri Bushido

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuo

    Despite the revitalization of the Japanese economy, Japan's status as a technologically creative country in the 21st century is still not tangibly and firmly established. Utilizing my 45 years of experience, I have been talking recently to young engineers about monozukuri bushido, or samurai spirit. In order to strengthen Japanese monozukuri capability, I strongly believe in the need for the development of monozukuri professionals in cooperation with industry, academia and government.

  1. Alternative Institutional Arrangements for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The anger that comes from watching and feeling failure in development, in addition to the anger that comes from the West's reluctance or refusal to recognize thought and religious conviction needs to challenge us towards major institutional reform for a wider and drastic democratization of the world's architecture. Stephen Chan warns there are tremendous new hopes and fears and the old cannot understand them or miscegenate easily with them. In fact, the old keeps trying to express the new in ...

  2. Structural connectivity of the developing human amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep M Saygin

    Full Text Available A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei. The central nucleus' connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age.

  3. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  4. Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Alison M; Morris, Lucy X; Vroegindeweij, Eric; Depreter, Marianne L G; Vaidya, Harsh; Stenhouse, Frances H; Tomlinson, Simon R; Anderson, Richard A; Cupedo, Tom; Cornelissen, Jan J; Blackburn, C Clare

    2013-05-01

    The thymus is the central site of T-cell development and thus is of fundamental importance to the immune system, but little information exists regarding molecular regulation of thymus development in humans. Here we demonstrate, via spatial and temporal expression analyses, that the genetic mechanisms known to regulate mouse thymus organogenesis are conserved in humans. In addition, we provide molecular evidence that the human thymic epithelium derives solely from the third pharyngeal pouch, as in the mouse, in contrast to previous suggestions. Finally, we define the timing of onset of hematopoietic cell colonization and epithelial cell differentiation in the human thymic primordium, showing, unexpectedly, that the first colonizing hematopoietic cells are CD45(+)CD34(int/-). Collectively, our data provide essential information for translation of principles established in the mouse to the human, and are of particular relevance to development of improved strategies for enhancing immune reconstitution in patients.

  5. Financial Development,Human Capital and Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihong; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Financial development and human capital are the important driving forces of economic and social development in Shandong Province,and the level of them as well as the degree of coordination between the two not only affects the transformation of economic development pattern in Shandong Province,but also affects the implementation of leapfrog development strategy in Shandong Province. Through the study,it is found that there is a long-term stable dynamic equilibrium relationship among economic growth,human capital and financial development;the degree of coordination between financial development and human capital in Shandong Province is constantly improved,evolving from imbalance to balance. Obviously,the coordination between financial development and urbanization construction in Shandong Province continues to improve.

  6. TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki

    We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

  7. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FINANCING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozarezenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the possibilities and expediency of endowment utilization as an alternative of the social sphere elements budgetary funding in Ukraine. We have conclusions that the endowments have some advantages. That’s is creates the possibility for a long-term planning and development of social sphere (mechanism of adequate general stable situation in the country, convenient for major companies inclined to strategic business planning and contributions in the social sphere, transparent and provides guarantees for the donors in the specific cash expenditure, provides the non-commercial organizations with the possibility to change the approach to implementation of social projects, to study how to earn the money and not to be just the consumers, creates the possibility to accumulate the funds in charitable purposes that makes them attractive for medium and small companies. The disadvantages of endowments are risks of financial nature (small income guaranteed transactions, high inflation rate, exposure to the financial crises, difficulties with forming the «body» of the specific capital of such size that would guarantee more or less substantial income directed for charity, no instant effect for recipient’s favor,  possibility to be used in swindling, no tax stimulation of donors. Let’s think that endowments or funds specific capital have an important meaning in the development of social sphere because they are basis for its long-term planning and development. For non-commercial organization there are at least two advantages. First is stable financing and second is attraction of new contributors for non-commercial organizations. It is both stability of financing and guarantee of stable functioning.

  8. Human Capital Development in the International Organization: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulvisaechana, Somboon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence of the nature of corporate rhetoric in developing human capital and how it becomes embedded within a large international organization operating in the Nordic region. The qualitative case study aims to examine the sensemaking of individual managers, and how human capital rhetoric…

  9. Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in…

  10. Children of War and Peace: A Human Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Political conflicts and intractable wars can be conceived as disasters of human activities and they affect the entire life of children and their families. An ecological-transactional perspective of human development is adopted in order to identify multilevel developmental and contextual trajectories that might facilitate or impede the willingness…

  11. China's First Blue Book on Human Rights Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2011-01-01

    The China Society for the Studies of Human Rights and the Social Sciences Documentation Press held a joint press conference on September 8,2011,officially launching the publication of China's first blue book,the China Human Rights Development Report No.1 (2011 ).

  12. Children of War and Peace: A Human Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Political conflicts and intractable wars can be conceived as disasters of human activities and they affect the entire life of children and their families. An ecological-transactional perspective of human development is adopted in order to identify multilevel developmental and contextual trajectories that might facilitate or impede the willingness…

  13. Mind Mapping on Development of Human Resource of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Human resources in the field of education consists of students, teachers, administrative staff, university students, lecturers, structural employees, educational bureaucrats, stakeholders, parents, the society around the school, and the society around the campus. The existence of human resources need to be cultivated and developed towards the…

  14. Biology, Culture and Society: An Explanation of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Barbara

    Traditional sociological conceptions of human group development and early human group behavior are critiqued in light of anthropological, biological, and physiological data. The objective of the study was to identify shortcomings of sociological research when non-sociological data is consistently ignored. Review of sociological studies of human…

  15. The human spleen. Development and role in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, Willem

    1988-01-01

    In the present thesis an extensive in situ characterization is given of cellular constituents of the human spleen, that play a role in the human immune system. The development of immunocompetent cells in their micro-environment was studied in early embryonic life, fetal life, infancy and childhood,

  16. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  17. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  18. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  19. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  20. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in…

  1. Global analysis of overweight prevalence by level of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D Ng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less developed countries are increasingly afflicted with over–nutrition, and the escalating overweight prevalence has become a global problem. However, a problem as global as this may not be amenable to a general set of remedial interventions applicable to all countries. I use data from various sources, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank, to test the association of overweight prevalence with economic, social, and demographic indicators. I then split the countries up by human development index to investigate to what extent these associations vary between development levels. On a global scale, overweight prevalence is most associated with gross domestic product (GDP per capita, the proportion of a country that is rural, the proportion of elderly in a country's population, and the average years of schooling. At what magnitude, and even in which direction, these relationships go vary with a country's level of development. Generally, GDP per capita has a positive association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of very high human development more than twice of that for countries of low human development. However, proportion rural has a negative association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of low human development nearly twice of that for countries of very high human development. All four of these variables have statistically significant association with overweight prevalence in countries with low human development. I make policy suggestions to combat increasing overweight prevalence, based on the models that are developed, paying special attention to the differences in magnitude and direction of the regressors between human development levels.

  2. Global analysis of overweight prevalence by level of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carmen D

    2015-12-01

    Less developed countries are increasingly afflicted with over-nutrition, and the escalating overweight prevalence has become a global problem. However, a problem as global as this may not be amenable to a general set of remedial interventions applicable to all countries. I use data from various sources, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank, to test the association of overweight prevalence with economic, social, and demographic indicators. I then split the countries up by human development index to investigate to what extent these associations vary between development levels. On a global scale, overweight prevalence is most associated with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the proportion of a country that is rural, the proportion of elderly in a country's population, and the average years of schooling. At what magnitude, and even in which direction, these relationships go vary with a country's level of development. Generally, GDP per capita has a positive association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of very high human development more than twice of that for countries of low human development. However, proportion rural has a negative association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of low human development nearly twice of that for countries of very high human development. All four of these variables have statistically significant association with overweight prevalence in countries with low human development. I make policy suggestions to combat increasing overweight prevalence, based on the models that are developed, paying special attention to the differences in magnitude and direction of the regressors between human development levels.

  3. Projecting human development and CO2 emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    We estimate cumulative CO2 emissions during the period 2000 to 2050 from developed and developing countries based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita emissions of individual countries we make three assumptions which are detailed below. First, we use logistic regressions to fit and extrapolate the HDI on a country level as a function of time. This is mainly motivated by the fact that the HDI is bounded between 0 and 1 and that it decelerates as it approaches 1. Second, we employ for individual countries the correlations between CO2 per capita emissions and HDI in order to extrapolate their emissions. This is an ergodic assumption. Third, we let countries with incomplete data records evolve similarly as their close neighbors (in the emissions-HDI plane, see Fig. 1 in the main text) with complete time series of CO2 per capita emissions and HDI. Country-based emissions estimates a...

  4. The Asymmetric Impact of Growth Fluctuation on Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Bedir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we re-examine the impact of economic growth fluctuation on human development indicators. Using the per capita growth rate and human development indicators for 131 countries between 1974 and 2007, we find that growth acceleration and deceleration have significant impact on the human development indicators. We also find that the effects are asymmetric. This asymmetric effect is valid both in terms of acceleration and deceleration periods and countries which are classified according to human development. Namely, the negative impact of economic deceleration on human development outcomes is greater than the positive impact of economic acceleration for all countries. The same is true for medium and low human development countries. The positive impact of economic acceleration and negative impact of economic deceleration are greater than the impacts on very high and high development countries. Therefore, economic growth must be provided, which will reach everyone and ensure everyone's utilization of economic opportunities in order to achieve the 2023 Millennium Goals.

  5. 1 Philosophy, Human Development and National Question John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socrates considers human development as a more basic and more important .... social stability and good governance in Nigerian nation building. Here, the ..... chooses what he or she feels that brings him maximum happiness. Sometimes ...

  6. Human Capital Development: A Strategy for Moving Nigeria into the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Capital Development: A Strategy for Moving Nigeria into the ... Countries without abundant resources have been excelling because of the emphasis on ... building because she has not been treating education as a priority sector.

  7. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  8. Metabolic gene profile in early human fetal heart development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iruretagoyena, J I; Davis, W; Bird, C; Olsen, J; Radue, R; Teo Broman, A; Kendziorski, C; Splinter BonDurant, S; Golos, T; Bird, I; Shah, D

    2014-01-01

    .... In order to describe normal cardiac development during late first and early second trimester in human fetuses this study used microarray and pathways analysis and created a corresponding 'normal' database...

  9. Hiperautofluorescencia foveal como factor predictor de recuperación visual en pacientes con desprendimiento regmatógeno de retina

    OpenAIRE

    Brieke, Anne Charlotte; Tovar Cuevas, Jose Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: una de las causas de pobre ganancia visual luego de un tratamiento exitoso de desprendimiento de retina, sin complicaciones, es el daño de los fotoreceptores, reflejada en una disrupción de la capa de la zona elipsoide y membrana limitante externa (MLE). En otras patologías se ha demostrado que la hiperautofluorescencia foveal se correlaciona con la integridad de la zona elipsoide y MLE y una mejor recuperación visual. Objetivos: evaluar la asociación entre la hiperautofluor...

  10. The global cancer burden and human development: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Bray, Freddie; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    This review examines the links between human development and cancer overall and for specific types of cancer, as well as cancer-related risk-factors and outcomes, such as disability and life expectancy. To assess human development, the Human Development Index was utilized continuously and according to four levels (low, medium, high, very high), where the low and very high categories include the least and most developed countries, respectively. All studies that assessed aspects of the global cancer burden using this measure were reviewed. Although the present cancer incidence burden is greater in higher Human Development Index countries, a greater proportion of the global mortality burden is observed in less developed countries, with a higher mean fatality rate in the latter countries. Further, the future cancer burden is expected to disproportionally affect less developed regions; in particular, it has been estimated that low and medium Human Development Index countries will experience a 100% and 81% increase in cancer incidence from 2008 to 2030, respectively. Disparities were also observed in risk factors and average health outcomes, such as a greater number of years of life lost prematurely and fewer cancer-related gains in life expectancy observed in lower versus higher Human Development Index settings. From a global perspective, there remain clear disparities in the cancer burden according to national Human Development Index scores. International efforts are needed to aid countries in social and economic transition in order to efficiently plan, implement and evaluate cancer control initiatives as a means to reduce the widening gap in cancer occurrence and survival worldwide.

  11. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  12. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  13. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  14. Essential technologies for developing human and robot collaborative system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    In this study, we aim to develop a concept of new robot system, i.e., `human and robot collaborative system`, for the patrol of nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the two essential technologies developed for the system. One is the autonomous navigation program with human intervention function which is indispensable for human and robot collaboration. The other is the position estimation method by using gyroscope and TV image to make the estimation accuracy much higher for safe navigation. Feasibility of the position estimation method is evaluated by experiment and numerical simulation. (author)

  15. Using emotions for the development of human-agent societies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J A RINCON; J BAJO; A FERNANDEZ; V JULIAN; C CARRASCOSA

    2016-01-01

    Human-agent societies refer to applications where virtual agents and humans coexist and interact transparently into a fully integrated environment. One of the most important aspects in this kind of applications is including emotional states of the agents (humans or not) in the decision-making process. In this sense, this paper presents the applicability of the JaCalIVE (Jason Cartago implemented intelligent virtual environment) framework for developing this kind of society. Specifically, the paper presents an ambient intelligence application where humans are immersed into a system that extracts and analyzes the emotional state of a human group. A social emotional model is employed to try to maximize the welfare of those humans by playing the most appropriate music in every moment.

  16. Developing a code of ethics for human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, J; Graber, G

    2000-01-01

    Under what conditions might the cloning of human beings constitute an ethical practice? A tendency exists to analyze human cloning merely as a technical procedure. As with all revolutionary technological developments, however, human cloning potentially exists in a broad social context that will both shape and be shaped by the biological techniques. Although human cloning must be subjected to technical analysis that addresses fundamental ethical questions such as its safety and efficacy, questions exist that focus our attention on broader issues. Asserting that cloning inevitably leads to undesirable consequences commits the fallacy of technological determinism and untenably separates technological and ethical evaluation. Drawing from the Report of the National Bioethics Advisory Committee and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, we offer a draft "Code of Ethics for Human Cloning" in order to stimulate discussion about the ethics of the broader ramifications of human cloning as well as its particular technological properties.

  17. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Discussion Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. Summary To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area. The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an

  18. Muscle Patterning in Mouse and Human Abdominal Wall Development and Omphalocele Specimens of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Peter F.; Corliss, Robert F.; Yamada, Shigehito; SHIOTA, KOHEI; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and p...

  19. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  20. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  1. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  2. A WAVELET-BASED MODEL FOR FOVEAL DETECTION OF SPATIAL CONTRAST WITH FREQUENCY DEPENDENT APERTURE EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hooshangnejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to build a Computational model based on ModelFest dataset which is able to predict contrast sensitivity while it benefits from simplicity, efficiency and accuracy, which makes it suitable for hardware implementation, practical uses, online tests, real-time processes, an improved Standard Observer and retina prostheses. It encompasses several components, and in particular, frequency dependent aperture effect (FDAE which is used for the first time on this dataset, which made the model more accurate and closer to reality. Shortcomings of previous models and the necessity of existence of FDAE for more accuracy led us to develop a new model based on Wavelet Transform that gives us the advantage of speed and the capability to process each frequency channels output. Considering our goal for building an efficient model, we introduce a new formula for modeling contrast sensitivity function, which generates lower RMS error and better timing performance. Eventually, this new model leads to having as yet lowest RMS error and solving the problem of long execution time of prior models and reduces them by almost a factor of twenty.

  3. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  5. Modelling human actions on lightweight structures: experimental and numerical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent, numerical and experimental, developments in modelling dynamic loading generated by humans. As modern structures with exposure to human-induced loading, such as footbridges, building floors and grandstands, are becoming ever lighter and more slender, they are increasingly susceptible to vibration under human-induced dynamic excitation, such as walking, jumping, running and bobbing, and their vibration serviceability assessment is often a deciding factor in the design process. While simplified modelling of the human using a harmonic force was sufficient for assessment of vibration performance of more robust structures a few decades ago, the higher fidelity models are required in the contemporary design. These models are expected not only to describe both temporal and spectral features of the force signal more accurately, but also to capture the influence, psychological and physiological, of human-structure and human-human interaction mechanisms on the human kinematics, and consequently on the force generated and the resulting vibration response. Significant advances have been made in both the research studies and design guidance. This paper reports the key developments and identifies the scope for further research.

  6. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Serghini, Mansour

    2006-12-28

    The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators) are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High). Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal mortality and infant mortality which are really challenging health

  7. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  8. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  9. Differential prefrontal white matter development in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tomoko; Mikami, Akichika; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsui, Mie; Suzuki, Juri; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-08-23

    A comparison of developmental patterns of white matter (WM) within the prefrontal region between humans and nonhuman primates is key to understanding human brain evolution. WM mediates complex cognitive processes and has reciprocal connections with posterior processing regions [1, 2]. Although the developmental pattern of prefrontal WM in macaques differs markedly from that in humans [3], this has not been explored in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that the prefrontal WM volume in chimpanzees was immature and had not reached the adult value during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rate of prefrontal WM volume increase during infancy was slower in chimpanzees than in humans. These results suggest that a less mature and more protracted elaboration of neuronal connections in the prefrontal portion of the developing brain existed in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, and that this served to enhance the impact of postnatal experiences on neuronal connectivity. Furthermore, the rapid development of the human prefrontal WM during infancy may help the development of complex social interactions, as well as the acquisition of experience-dependent knowledge and skills to shape neuronal connectivity.

  10. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  11. Human Factors in Software Development Processes: Measuring System Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahão, Silvia; Baldassarre, Maria Teresa; Caivano, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction look at the development process from different perspectives. They apparently use very different approaches, are inspired by different principles and address different needs. But, they definitively have the same goal: develop high quality software...

  12. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  13. The Role of Higher Education in Equitable Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-01-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's…

  14. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  15. The Role of Higher Education in Equitable Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-01-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's…

  16. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  17. The Development of Human Capital in Young Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…

  18. Education, Human Resources, and Development in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, New York, NY.

    This report combined all information and research data compiled by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Latin American Institute for Economic and Social Planning about human resources, education, and development for Latin America. The first section examines the demands of development on the educational system in terms of training…

  19. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  20. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  1. Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Farley (Alison); L.X. Morris (Lucy); E.M. Vroegindeweij (Eric); M.L.G. Depreter (Marianne); H. Vaidya (Harsh); F.H. Stenhouse (Frances); S.R. Tomlinson (Simon); R.A. Anderson (Richard); T. Cupedo (Tom); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); B.C. Clare (Blackburn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe thymus is the central site of T-cell development and thus is of fundamental importance to the immune system, but little information exists regarding molecular regulation of thymus development in humans. Here we demonstrate, via spatial and temporal expression analyses, that the genet

  2. Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later…

  3. Adult Education, Basic Human Needs, and Integrated Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Reginald Herbold

    1976-01-01

    This paper argues for an integrated approach to adult education which would require an examination of basic human needs and national development planning each in its own terms. The paper's argument is centered on liberation and participation as ends, not means: Education, development, and planning must be seen and acted on as an integrated whole.…

  4. Human capital development and a Social License to Operate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Coco C. A.; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy...... are the two fundamental principles on which a Social License to Operate is based, these are being examined more closely. On the basis of three case studies, this manuscript explores how human capital development can contribute to the legitimacy of Arctic energy development and trust building between various...

  5. Human capital development and a Social License to Operate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Coco; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy...... are the two fundamental principles on which a Social License to Operate is based, these are being examined more closely. On the basis of three case studies, this manuscript explores how human capital development can contribute to the legitimacy of Arctic energy development and trust building between various...

  6. Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Gómez (Oscar); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Many important aspects of human development relate also to people’s security: loosely defined as people’s freedom from fear and freedom from want in a broad sense. Applying a human security approach offers an opportunity to analyse many issues in an informative way.

  7. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  8. Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Gómez (Oscar); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Many important aspects of human development relate also to people’s security: loosely defined as people’s freedom from fear and freedom from want in a broad sense. Applying a human security approach offers an opportunity to analyse many issues in an informative way. This note

  9. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  10. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  11. Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shidhani, Thuraya Ahmed; Arora, Vinita

    2012-08-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin, with an estimated overall worldwide prevalence of 5-10% of the population. It is characterised by difficulties in reading, accuracy, fluency, spelling and decoding abilities. The majority of publications reviewed indicated that screening is performed at the preschool level. Screening can also be conducted at birth or the first year of life. Understanding human development theory, for example, Piaget's human development theory, may help determine at which stage of childhood development dyslexia is more detectable, and therefore guide the management of this disability. The objective of this review is to provide a brief and updated overview of dyslexia and its management in children through human development issues.

  12. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  13. Uncovering foveal crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Yehezkel, Oren; Polat, Uri

    2014-02-12

    Visual crowding, as context modulation, reduce the ability to recognize objects in clutter, sets a fundamental limit on visual perception and object recognition. It's considered that crowding does not exist in the fovea and extensive efforts explored crowding in the periphery revealed various models that consider several aspects of spatial processing. Studies showed that spatial and temporal crowding are correlated, suggesting a tradeoff between spatial and temporal processing of crowding. We hypothesized that limiting stimulus availability should decrease object recognition in clutter. Here we show, for the first time, that robust contour interactions exist in the fovea for much larger target-flanker spacing than reported previously: participants overcome crowded conditions for long presentations times but exhibit contour interaction effects for short presentation times. Thus, by enabling enough processing time in the fovea, contour interactions can be overcome, enabling object recognition. Our results suggest that contemporary models of context modulation should include both time and spatial processing.

  14. Strategies to support human oocyte development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Evelyn E; McLaughlin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many young cancer patients are now being given the option to store ovarian cortical biopsies before undergoing potentially damaging chemo- or radiotherapy. This tissue mainly contains large numbers of immature primordial follicles. Currently the only option to restore fertility using this tissue is by transplantation which may not be a viable option for all patients. Greater options to realise the potential of this tissue to restore fertility could be achieved by the development of in vitro systems that support oocyte development. The ability to develop human oocytes from the most immature stages of follicles (primordial) through to maturation and fertilisation in vitro would revolutionise fertility preservation practice. This has been achieved in mouse where in vitro grown (IVG) oocytes from primordial follicles have resulted in the production of live offspring. However, developing IVG systems to support complete development of human oocytes has been more difficult because of differences in scale of timing and size. Our lab has been working on a multi-step culture system to support growth and development of bo-vine and human oocytes from primordial through to fully grown, using fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue. This review outlines the approaches being taken to obtain complete in vitro development of human oocytes and strategies for assessing the health and viability of IVG oocytes.

  15. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  16. Digital technology and human development: a charter for nature conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffey, Georgina; Homans, Hilary; Banks, Ken; Arts, Koen

    2015-11-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development-which holds parallels with the nature conservation sector-has seen a proliferation of innovation in technological development. Throughout this Perspective, we consider what nature conservation can learn from the introduction of digital technology in human development. From this, we derive a charter to be used before and throughout project development, in order to help reduce replication and failure of digital innovation in nature conservation projects. We argue that the proposed charter will promote collaboration with the development of digital tools and ensure that nature conservation projects progress appropriately with the development of new digital technologies.

  17. Human organomics: a fresh approach to understanding human development using single-cell transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J Gray; Treutlein, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Innovative methods designed to recapitulate human organogenesis from pluripotent stem cells provide a means to explore human developmental biology. New technologies to sequence and analyze single-cell transcriptomes can deconstruct these 'organoids' into constituent parts, and reconstruct lineage trajectories during cell differentiation. In this Spotlight article we summarize the different approaches to performing single-cell transcriptomics on organoids, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of applying these techniques to generate organ-level, mechanistic models of human development and disease. Together, these technologies will move past characterization to the prediction of human developmental and disease-related phenomena. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  19. Chromosome conformation elucidates regulatory relationships in developing human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hyejung; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Stein, Jason L; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Huang, Jerry; Opland, Carli K; Gandal, Michael J; Sutton, Gavin J; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Lu, Daning; Lee, Changhoon; Eskin, Eleazar; Voineagu, Irina; Ernst, Jason; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2016-10-27

    Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease. Our analyses identify hundreds of genes that physically interact with enhancers gained on the human lineage, many of which are under purifying selection and associated with human cognitive function. We integrate chromatin contacts with non-coding variants identified in schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS), highlighting multiple candidate schizophrenia risk genes and pathways, including transcription factors involved in neurogenesis, and cholinergic signalling molecules, several of which are supported by independent expression quantitative trait loci and gene expression analyses. Genome editing in human neural progenitors suggests that one of these distal schizophrenia GWAS loci regulates FOXG1 expression, supporting its potential role as a schizophrenia risk gene. This work provides a framework for understanding the effect of non-coding regulatory elements on human brain development and the evolution of cognition, and highlights novel mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. The Effect of Human Resources Development on Organizational Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.C. Okoye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is “The Effect of Human resource Development on organizational productivity.” The study aims to determine the extent at which effective human resource development can enhance productivity in order to reduce poor performance in organization, to determine the efficiency of human resource training and development in organization growth, to ascertain if human resource development have any significant impact on organizational profitability, to determine and identify the factors affecting human resource development and organizational productivity and to ascertain the attitude of the senior management and other employees on the need for proper utilization of available human resources which have tremendous effect on the firm’s profitability. The five research questions and three hypotheses were formulated in line with the objectives of the study. To achieve the aims of the study, data were collected from both primary and secondary source. Data collected were analyzed by use of means, variance and standard deviation and the three hypothesis formulated were tested using z-test statistical tool. Based on the analysis, the study found that human resource development is very vital to any organizations ranging from small to large scare enterprise since it is well known that no business can exist entirely without human being also that one of the major functions of human resource development is the engagement of people to work in order to achieve sales growth and profitability another finding is that the method of training and development as gathered from interview contracted by the researcher are just by reason of the problems the company has due to lack of fund. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that organization should inculcate the habit of attending seminars and conference, the company should make sure that the effort of employers are appraised from time to time to find out how they contribute to the achievement

  1. Prophetic Best Practices in Business for Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Akmar Abu Samah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human capital has been the most crucial current topic of this modern life. Competition in business and industry requires human resource that spells excellence, knowledgeable, discipline and visionary. With the rise of conscious market-driven community, many have concluded that to achieve the highest stake in business is to simultaneously reconstruct the moral consciousness. Henceforth, learning from past leaders, their legacy has been left with much to be desired by shortcomings, conflicts of interest and at times, destructions. In promoting the virtuous awareness, education has to take the lead through human capital development. In the attempt to apply the landmark practices of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh, and his management principles, this discursive overview intends to provide the application of the prophetic tradition in the management field as the foundation for application in aspects of discipline which include business, law, education, just to state a few. Therefore, this paper intends to study the Islamic management elements of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh by providing insights to the following questions. The first question is, how does human capital development raise moral consciousness in terms of business practices set forth by prophetic tradition? Can current situations apply such emulations of managing human capital and hence, enhance the quality of our life within the family, in the community and for the nation? With the increasingly diverse expectations, management practices and skills of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh contribute to provide the pathway of managing the human capital development presented as answers to the above questions.

  2. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danu Prasetyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the efficiency level of government expenditure in 82 countries towards the human development and peace index of the respective countries by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach during 2007-2011. We found that only few countries that always being positioned in the efficient frontier during the sample period, namely: Japan, Nigeria, and Norway.  By using Malmquist index approach, we also found that Cyprus has the largest government expenditure efficiency improvement.Keywords: Government Expenditure Efficiencies, Human Development Index, Global Peace Indexdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3 How to cite this article:Prasetyo, A.D., and Pudjono, A.N.S. (2013. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 82-91. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3

  3. Childbirth care: contributing to the debate on human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Lima Parada, Cristina Maria; Leite Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate care during childbirth and neonatal development in the interior of São Paulo in order to support managers responsible for formulating public policies on human development and allocating public resources to the women's healthcare. This epidemiological study focused on the evaluation of health services based on the observation of the assistance delivered by the Single Health System in 12 maternities and 134 delivers. The Brazilian Health Ministry or World Health Organization standards were adopted for comparison. The results revealed problems related to the structure of some maternities, where some well-proven practices in normal childbirth are still little used, whereas other prejudicial or ineffective ones are routinely used. Reversing this picture is essential in order to offer humanized quality care to women with consequent reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality rates, in such a way that the region achieves the millennium goals established for improving human development.

  4. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  5. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor

  6. Integration of culture and biology in human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of integrating biology and culture is addressed in this chapter by emphasizing human development as involving mutually constitutive, embodied, and epigenetic processes. Heuristically rich constructs extrapolated from cultural psychology and developmental science, such as embodiment, action, and activity, are presented as promising approaches to the integration of cultural and biology in human development. These theoretical notions are applied to frame the nascent field of cultural neuroscience as representing this integration of culture and biology. Current empirical research in cultural neuroscience is then synthesized to illustrate emerging trends in this body of literature that examine the integration of biology and culture.

  7. Human development report 2010: Changes in parameters and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Manju

    2011-01-01

    Human Development Report (HDR) 2010 in its 20 th year contains several significant changes. Indicators to measure the three dimensions of Human Development Index (HDI) have been changed: Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Index have been replaced by Gender Inequality Index (GII) and Human Poverty Index has been replaced by Multi-dimensional Poverty Index. Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) has been introduced for the first time. Between 1980 and 2010, India's HDI rose by 1.6% annually from 0.320 to 0.519. While India's HDI value has improved over time, the rank has not improved as much as compared to other developing countries. On GII, India ranked at 122 with a GII value of 0.748 (ranges between 0 and 1) in 2010 HDR (based on data of 2008), revealing considerable loss in achievements in three dimensions of human development - reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market - due to inequality between genders. Multi-dimensional Poverty Index was 0.296 (2000-2008) and IHDI was 0.365 (2000-2007).

  8. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  9. [The development of public health strategy with the purpose to develop human capital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, A I; Bravve, Iu I; Tomchuk, A L; Babenko, E A

    2012-01-01

    The article substantiates the necessity to develop public health strategy considering the processes of demographic, social, economic progression of society. The core issue in these conditions is human capital and its component--health capital as an integral reflection of different characteristics of population. The definitions of these notions in a social hygienic aspect are presented. The main stages of development of the health strategy such as formation of strategic planning elements, human capital valuation, population health and health capital losses, evaluation of potential demand in medical technologies, medical organizational measures implementation and their input into development of human capital are considered. These positions are supported as determinants of effectiveness of health strategy.

  10. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  11. Evolution of the Human Nervous System Function, Structure, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, André M M; Meyer, Kyle A; Santpere, Gabriel; Gulden, Forrest O; Sestan, Nenad

    2017-07-13

    The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits. We also discuss the developmental mechanisms and underlying genetic and molecular changes that generate these structural and functional differences. As relevant new information and tools materialize at an unprecedented pace, the field is now ripe for systematic and functionally relevant studies of the development and evolution of human nervous system specializations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  13. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  14. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  15. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  16. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  17. Human resource development: new assessments and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Iain W; Kolehmainen-Aitken, Riitta-Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The National Health Plan (NHP) 2001-2010 required a health workforce situation analysis and strategy to match the NHP's priorities and strategies. This paper is based on the work that was done in 2001 to support the preparation of a Health Human Resource Development Strategy for Papua New Guinea (PNG). The analysis showed that changes in health sector financing, population growth and changing health needs had created many human resource problems and challenges. This paper focuses on the main categories of health worker in PNG: doctors, health extension officers, nurses and community health workers. It presents analyses of workforce numbers and costs, and discusses future health system and human resource strategies based on the 2001 study and subsequent developments.

  18. Thyroid hormone metabolism and the developing human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, R; Richard, K; Kaptein, E; Stanley, E L; Visser, T J; Coughtrie, M W

    2001-05-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of fetal lung development, and maturation is accelerated in animal models by antepartum exposure to raised concentrations of the receptor-active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine and glucocorticoids. It is essential that the nature of the regulation of the spatial and temporal metabolism of iodothyronines in the human fetus and infant is known before effective therapies can be developed to modify human lung maturation. Thyroid hormone bioavailability to the human fetus is regulated in part by enzymatic deiodination and reversible sulfation of iodothyronines, with contributions from other factors such as fetomaternal and fetoamniotic hormone transfers, fetal thyroid gland production, and the activities of plasma membrane transporters mediating uptake of iodothyronines from plasma into tissues. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system.

  20. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  1. Human resource development in rural health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, human resource development problems facing rural health care facilities are identified and it is recognised that, particularly in the face of escalating demands for training arising from environmental pressures such as implementation of the structural efficiency principle, a coordinated approach to meet these problems is desirable. Such coordination is often sought via a regional staff development service. Accordingly, using the organisational life cycle as a conceptual framework, staff development services in five NSW health regions are examined. Ranging from a cafeteria style to a results-orientation, a diversity of strategic approaches to staff development is reflected.

  2. Modeling the effects of physician emigration on human development.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of physician emigration on human development indicators in developing countries. First, the geographical distribution of physician brain drain was documented for the period 1991–2004. Second, random and fixed effects models were employed to investigate the effects of physicians in the home countries and abroad on child mortality and vaccination rates. Third, models were estimated to investigate migration-induced incentives in the medical sector that would increase the ...

  3. 人类发展报道%Human Development Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jill Moss

    2003-01-01

    @@ The United Nations Human Development Program has released its yearly study on the quality of life for people around the world. The U-N report was started in 1990 to measure the progress of nations based on the lives of their citizens.

  4. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  5. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  6. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  7. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  8. An Emerging Theoretical Perspective for Research in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The emergence of a new theoretical framework for research in human development is discussed. The theoretical perspective is contrasted with the classical laboratory experiment, which produces ecologically invalid research because of the restrictions of the artificial laboratory environment. The emerging framework enhances ecological validity by…

  9. The Ecology of Human Development in Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    In attempting to define the "ecology" of human development, the term's history and connotations are discussed. The ecological approach requires that the person, the environment, and the relations between them be conceptualized in terms of systems, and subsystems within systems. The experimental situation is not limited to being…

  10. THE QUEST FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONCEPT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    On this note, it suffices to argue that, the essence of government is to better the lots ... Human development is a concept that was popularized by the arguments and .... introduction of quota system has encouraged laxity and lack of commitment ...

  11. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  12. Book review: Understanding human development in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2008-01-01

    Isn't that development new?" is perhaps the phrase most frequently uttered by people who live in the western US. The West, it seems, is sucking Americans into its precious places at a rate that is unparalleled in recent US history. As humans continue to diffuse into the western landscape, they bring their corresponding demands for energy, transportation,...

  13. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  14. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  15. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  16. Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Crespo, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    By applying Amartya Sen's capability approach, this article questions the functionalist idea that suggests that education can precipitate economic growth and development. It will be argued that the freedom-centred perspective advances the concept of human capital and that it allows a deeper understanding of the relationship between higher…

  17. Social networks and human development / Redes sociales y desarrollo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gallego Trijueque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is a brief introduction to the concept of social networks and their importance in society. Social networks have been responsible over the centuries to preserve community values, in addition to being facilitators of social interaction in human development processes, through communication and relationships between individuals.

  18. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  19. Integrating Action Theory and Human Agency in Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P.

    2002-01-01

    Paper discusses and analyzes the correlation between action theory and the notion of human agency in a life career development context. Theoretical and research background of the two perspectives are discussed. Connections between the two perspectives are identified. Career counseling implications that enhance integration of individuals' action…

  20. Promoting Human Development through the Global Poverty Project

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2010-01-01

    The Global Poverty Project has been launched in Australia with the aim of promoting human development through the eradication of global poverty. Enjoying the support of the Australian government and the UN, the project has been enthusiastically covered by the media. Franklin Obeng-Odoom asks how the project proposes to end global poverty and questions the effectiveness of its framework?

  1. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  2. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  3. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  4. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  5. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  6. 28 The Theatre and Sustainable Human Development: Fumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comprise Theatre Arts, Music, Dance and Choreography and the electronic media of ... both as a professional enterprise and an academic discipline, and all it entails. This is .... biology, humanity, psychology, politics, economics and so many others which are ... development through the fight for independence and improved.

  7. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  8. Subplate in the developing cortex of mouse and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Zhi; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Oeschger, Franziska M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The subplate is a largely transient zone containing precocious neurons involved in several key steps of cortical development. The majority of subplate neurons form a compact layer in mouse, but are dispersed throughout a much larger zone in the human. In rodent, subplate neurons are amon...

  9. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  10. Continuous Creation: Developing a Scientific and Humane Personal Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styers, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    Human beings must develop both a rational acceptance of unfolding scientific knowledge and an attitude of caring and tolerance for all lives. Supernatural conceptions are almost always exclusive concerning some aspects of reality and have often been the basis for inhumane conduct. Everyday we create our lives. (CS)

  11. Developing a Working Code of Ethics for Human Resource Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Kuldip R.

    1991-01-01

    To develop codes of ethics for their profession, college human resources personnel must first understand their primary job-related responsibilities. These include being alert to evolving organizational needs; coordinating needed training of employees; appreciating the nuances of psychology, communication, and motivation; and observing employee…

  12. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  13. An experience of virtual leadership development for human resource managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Problem Strong leadership and management skills are crucial to finding solutions to the human resource crisis in health. Health professionals and human resource (HR managers worldwide who are in charge of addressing HR challenges in health systems often lack formal education in leadership and management. Approach Management Sciences for Health (MSH developed the Virtual Leadership Development Program (VLDP with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID. The VLDP is a Web-based leadership development programme that combines face-to-face and distance-learning methodologies to strengthen the capacity of teams to identify and address health challenges and produce results. Relevant changes The USAID-funded Leadership, Management and Sustainability (LMS Program, implemented by MSH, and the USAID-funded Capacity Project, implemented by IntraHealth, adapted the VLDP for HR managers to help them identify and address HR challenges that ministries of health, other public-sector organizations and nongovernmental organizations are facing. Local settings Three examples illustrate the results of the VLDP for teams of HR managers: 1. the Uganda Protestant and Catholic Medical Bureaus 2. the Christian Health Association of Malawi 3. the Developing Human Resources for Health Project in Uganda. Lessons learnt The VLDP is an effective programme for developing the management and leadership capacity of HR managers in health.

  14. Human Sustainable Development in the Context of Europa 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human development is a constant concern at European level. Thus, various programs have been proposed with the main objective of developing skills of citizens and informing them about training courses as part of lifelong learning and of employment in the labour market. The article highlights the evolution of European Union through the investments in human capital. The objective of this paper is represented by the analysis of the impact of sustainable human development through trans-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education in the context of the European Union strategy proposed for the following period up to 2020. Europe 2020 represents a strategic plan for European Union development until 2020, having as main objective raising the standard of living and the quality of life for European citizens. Europe 2020 strategy promotes a new vision for the economy of European Union. For the following period until 2020 there is a major concern for creating favourable conditions for development of a sustainable intelligent economy that promotes inclusion. Some of the main activities with a major impact on creating such conditions are investments in education, research and innovation. The article analyses the current and recent past years’ situation in terms of sustainable development from educational and economic perspectives at European Union level. The analysis was done based on Eurostat data, using specific statistical methods.

  15. Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Peter F; Corliss, Robert F; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and predicted that we would observe delays in myoblast maturation and an arrest in secondary abdominal wall development. To look for evidence in support of our hypothesis, we performed a histological analysis of normal human abdominal wall development and compared this to mouse. We also conducted the first histological analysis of two human specimens with omphalocele. In these two omphalocele specimens, secondary abdominal wall development appears to have undergone an arrest around Carnegie Stage 19. In both specimens disruptions in the unidirectional orientation of myofibers were observed in the external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis but not in the transversus abdominis. These latter findings support a model of normal abdominal wall development in which positional information instructs the orientation of myoblasts as they organize into individual muscle groups.

  16. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  17. Human resource management - development tendencies and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Thom

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics with which changes are taking place in companies has led many managers to better appreciate the necessity and the advantages of comprehensive human resource management. This pressure to change has also helped to generate numerous social innovations within the field of human resource management. The call for each sub-area to play its part in increasing the value of the enterprise is setting new accents in human resource management. The main starting points for increasing the value of an enterprise lie in improving productivity, employee creativity, and motivation. The author bases his ideas on a model of the sub-functions of human resource management used at his own institute, which is subdivided into three basic categories: process functions, cross-section functions, and meta-functions. The human resource management functions discussed can have a positive impact on the above aims. Productivity, for example, is increased through personnel development and personnel placement measures. Personnel retention instruments (incentive systems are almost certain to have an impact on motivation. Ways to influence creativity include selection measures (looking out for candidates with creative potential during the recruitment process and personnel development measures (consciously enhancing a person’s capacity for interdisciplinary thinking, practicing creative techniques.

  18. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marijne Heeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception. Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development.

  19. Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Chugani, Harry T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Sherwood, Chet C; Leonard, William R; Lange, Nicholas

    2014-09-09

    The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain's glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain-body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body's resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate.

  20. Review on the Development of Human Resource Accounting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEZongjie

    2002-01-01

    A review through the origination,development and prospect of Human resource accounting(HPA) is presented based on the study of plentiful literatures about if.HRA is defined as an accounting procedure and method to discriminate and meaure the data of human resources,aiming to provide information which is concerned with the change of human resources for the outside people to serve human resource management,It is experiencing a nearly frozen period following its hot time in 1970s after its origination in America in 1960s.The theoretic foundation of HRA is classical plutonomy dated back to 17th century,There were two preeminent persons in the higtory of HRA,One was Theodore Schultz who established his human capital theory relating education that improves the human capital value with economy;the other was Eric G.Flamholtz who enriched the concept,research methods and application of HRA,In China,the research on HRA started i 1980s beginning with introducing overseas achievements.Multiple views coexist i the academy on whether human resources should be taken as accounting assets and on where to put the HRA information in financial statements.The application of HRA is constrained by the absence of ull-blown theories and methodological systems about it as well as difficulties in evaluating human resources and the obstacle of conventional understandings,However,with the coming of intellective economy,the globalization of competition and the entry of China into WTO.The day of HRA will surely come.

  1. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  2. Impact of Human Resources Management on Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasan Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decisive role played by Human Resources Management (HRM in the emergence and sustenance of entrepreneurship development in an organisation cannot be misplaced as it ensures optimum deployment and development of personnel towards the actualization of set organisational objectives. Using a primary data sourced through a well-structured and self- administered questionnaires served to sixty HR managers and supervisors, and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, this study investigates the role of (HRM in entrepreneurship development. The tested hypotheses revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.44 which indicate the existence of a moderate positive relationship between Human Resources Management (HRM and entrepreneurship development. This indicates that HRM can facilitate entrepreneurship development in an organization. Hence HR managers must seek as much as possible measures that will ensure that their human resource are adequately compensated, rewarded and motivated to enhance their performance which will translate to improved performance that will influence the overall performance of the organisation.

  3. [Development of Human Resources to Solve Psychiatric Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric research is important to answer daily clinical questions, clarify the etiopathology, and develop diagnostic methods and treatments based on the etiopathology. Therefore, the goal of departments of psychiatry in universities is to train the next generation of leaders in psychiatry who can promote innovative and personalized care for patients. In terms of the development of research-oriented human resources, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of prioritizing patients' demands and education regarding the following points:1) After the critical appraisal of papers, we have to elucidate what we know and what we do not know to clearly determine the purpose of research (Social or scientific value). 2) We have to use accepted methods, including statistical techniques, to produce reliable and valid data (Scientific validity). In addition, we should introduce ethical considerations into clinical research, including informed consent. The development of research-oriented human resources is indispensable for future research focused on the needs of psychiatric patients and their families.

  4. Human rights and development - an international political economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lucena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note provides a critical review of the recent literature on the consequences of development and democratization for the protection of human rights. It identifies common lessons and grounds for further research in the field. This literature takes a series of paradoxes that challenge conventional wisdom regarding the relationship between development and democratization as its starting point, on one hand, and the protection of human rights, on the other. To that effect, several unintended adverse consequences of economic development and movements toward democracy for the protection of civil and political rights are identified. The literature focuses on rights to physical integrity, leaving important questions unanswered when it comes to civil liberties and second-generation rights. The article systematizes new knowledge produced by this literature, translates it into recommendations for research and identifies opportunities for new investigations.

  5. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  6. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Morgane; Godefroy, David; Couly, Gérard; Malone, Samuel A; Collier, Francis; Giacobini, Paolo; Chédotal, Alain

    2017-03-23

    Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G S

    2008-02-01

    Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. At the mycotoxin contamination levels generally found in food products traded in these market economies, adverse human health effects have largely been overcome. However, in the developing world, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. The extent to which mycotoxins affect human health is difficult to investigate in countries whose health systems lack capacity and in which resources are limited. Aflatoxin B(1), the toxin on which major resources have been expended, has long been linked to liver cancer, yet its other effects, such as immune suppression and growth faltering previously observed in veterinary studies, are only now being investigated and characterized in human populations. The extent to which factors such as immune suppression contribute to the overall burden of infectious disease is difficult to quantify, but is undoubtedly significant. Thus, food safety remains an important opportunity for addressing current health problems in developing countries.

  9. On culture and human development: Interview with Barbara Rogoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2011-01-01

    child and participating, from early on, in their various rituals and practices. Building on and enriching cultural psychological sources, Professor Rogoff offers us a comprehensive framework with which to understand both cultural and developmental phenomena and, above all, their multiple intersections......In this interview Professor Barbara Rogoff explores the many ways in which culture shapes the course of human development, and illustrates this with several findings from her past as well as most recent work. These reveal the vital importance of growing up in a family and a community for the human...

  10. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  11. On Latest Developments in China's Human Rights Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG CHENG; TAN MINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's human rights cause has undergone a new phase of development under the reform and opening-up policy that became official in the late 1970s.The changes include a shift from protection of human rights by law to Constitutional protection, an expansion of protection in scope not only for social rights but also for the right to freedoms, an extension from domestic protection to international protection, an increase in the intensity of protection, and a practice for protecting not only protection of the collective but also protection of the individual.

  12. Humanization of students' education development in modern high school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogevnikova L.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Directions of fundamental preparation, self-education and self-perfection of intellectual and physical possibilities of student are considered. Reasons of athletic activity of students are presented. It is marked that humanizing of education is the obligatory condition of pedagogical technologies of education and education of modern youth. Recommended as psychological pedagogical principle of organization of educational process to utillize the personality oriented approach. It becomes firmly established that physical education has considerable potential possibilities of pedagogical influence on development and becoming of personality in accordance with the high norms of humanism moral.

  13. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  14. Practice skill development through the use of human patient simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Kathryn A

    2011-11-10

    Human patient simulation (HPS) is used in health care education to enhance the transition from classroom learning to competent performance. It has been used frequently in nursing and medical schools and less often in pharmacy and other allied health professions. HPS is used to improve the development of pharmacy practice skills such as physical assessment, pharmacotherapy plan development, and monitoring plans. Engaging multiple health care disciplines in simulations enables participants to practice teamwork and communication skills that are essential in preventing errors and events of harm to patients. This article reviews current literature and use of simulation in pharmacy curricula for the development, enhancement, and assessment of pharmacy practice skills.

  15. Single-cell RNA sequencing: revealing human pre-implantation development, pluripotency and germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, S; Panula, S P; Schell, J P; Lanner, F

    2016-09-01

    Early human development is a dynamic, heterogeneous, complex and multidimensional process. During the first week, the single-cell zygote undergoes eight to nine rounds of cell division generating the multicellular blastocyst, which consists of hundreds of cells forming spatially organized embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. At the level of transcription, degradation of maternal RNA commences at around the two-cell stage, coinciding with embryonic genome activation. Although numerous efforts have recently focused on delineating this process in humans, many questions still remain as thorough investigation has been limited by ethical issues, scarce availability of human embryos and the presence of minute amounts of DNA and RNA. In vitro cultures of embryonic stem cells provide some insight into early human development, but such studies have been confounded by analysis on a population level failing to appreciate cellular heterogeneity. Recent technical developments in single-cell RNA sequencing have provided a novel and powerful tool to explore the early human embryo in a systematic manner. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques utilized to specifically investigate human development and consider how the technology has yielded new insights into pre-implantation development, embryonic stem cells and the establishment of the germ line.

  16. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  17. Can biodiversity, human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators be linked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mainka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A mission to reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity as a contribution to poverty reduction was agreed as part of the Strategic Plan for the Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted by the Conference of the Parties in 2002. As 2010 draws to a close it is clear that this target will not be met. To continue and build on momentum generated by the 2010 target, the conservation community has been discussing a potential post-2010 framework that again includes explicit reference to the link between human wellbeing and conservation, and also considers the links with human wellbeing and sustainable development. Given this agreement, we reviewed several human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators compared to existing biodiversity status and trends indicators to determine if clear correlations can be found that could be used to track progress in a new framework. We undertook this review at both the global and continental levels. The indicators for protected area and forest cover showed significant positive correlation across all continents. We found a significant negative correlation between changes in protected area (PA cover and tonnage of greenhouse gas emissions released (GHGe between 1990 and 2005 for all the continents. At the global level we found no other correlation across the indicators reviewed. However, we found that correlations between the biodiversity and human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators varied across continents. As the only indicators for which global level correlations exist, we suggest that either protected area coverage or forest cover may be relevant biodiversity indicators for global analyses of biodiversity-human wellbeing or sustainable development relationships, and that the relationship between protected area cover and greenhouse gases could be one indicator for links between biodiversity and sustainable development. More research is needed to better understand factors involved in the

  18. Anatomical and physiological development of the human inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2016-08-01

    We describe the development of the human inner ear with the invagination of the otic vesicle at 4 weeks gestation (WG), the growth of the semicircular canals from 5 WG, and the elongation and coiling of the cochlea at 10 WG. As the membranous labyrinth takes shape, there is a concomitant development of the sensory neuroepithelia and their associated structures within. This review details the growth and differentiation of the vestibular and auditory neuroepithelia, including synaptogenesis, the expression of stereocilia and kinocilia, and innervation of hair cells by afferent and efferent nerve fibres. Along with development of essential sensory structures we outline the formation of crucial accessory structures of the vestibular system - the cupula and otolithic membrane and otoconia as well as the three cochlea compartments and the tectorial membrane. Recent molecular studies have elaborated on classical anatomical studies to characterize the development of prosensory and sensory regions of the fetal human cochlea using the transcription factors, PAX2, MAF-B, SOX2, and SOX9. Further advances are being made with recent physiological studies that are beginning to describe when hair cells become functionally active during human gestation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Reviews 2016>.

  19. ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF TERRITORIAL HUMAN RESOURCES POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Моkronosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate the need for eliminating the excessive spatial polarization of territorial socio-economic development as a necessary condition for advanced development of human resources potential. The authors explore the basic problems and contradictions of modern regional and local labor markets in Russia. Based on generalization and systematization of foreign and domestic research outcomes, the paper reveals the main condition for eliminating the territorial polarization threats, which implies formation of a new institutional environment in order to provide co-operation of participants in the territorial interest zone in personnel training and new jobs creating.The research findings demonstrate the increased disproportions between the workforce and labor markets of municipal formations in Sverdlovsk region, and emphasize the need for territorial industrial educational clusters maximizing the network co-operation of the involved parties.The scientific novelty combines adaptation of theoretical concepts of the “new economic geography” applied to reorganization processes in the Russian economy; and elaboration of the cluster model of advanced development of territorial human resources potential by means of territorial centers coordinating the interests of administration, business society, and households.Practical significance of the research results is related to facilitating the administrative efficiency of regional and municipal formations, employers, territorial employment centers, and thereby the advanced development of human resources potential.

  20. ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF TERRITORIAL HUMAN RESOURCES POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Моkronosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate the need for eliminating the excessive spatial polarization of territorial socio-economic development as a necessary condition for advanced development of human resources potential. The authors explore the basic problems and contradictions of modern regional and local labor markets in Russia. Based on generalization and systematization of foreign and domestic research outcomes, the paper reveals the main condition for eliminating the territorial polarization threats, which implies formation of a new institutional environment in order to provide co-operation of participants in the territorial interest zone in personnel training and new jobs creating.The research findings demonstrate the increased disproportions between the workforce and labor markets of municipal formations in Sverdlovsk region, and emphasize the need for territorial industrial educational clusters maximizing the network co-operation of the involved parties.The scientific novelty combines adaptation of theoretical concepts of the “new economic geography” applied to reorganization processes in the Russian economy; and elaboration of the cluster model of advanced development of territorial human resources potential by means of territorial centers coordinating the interests of administration, business society, and households.Practical significance of the research results is related to facilitating the administrative efficiency of regional and municipal formations, employers, territorial employment centers, and thereby the advanced development of human resources potential.

  1. CCM2 expression during prenatal development and adult human neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Gamze; Sozen, Berna; Gunel, Murat; Demir, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is one of the most common types of vascular malformations of the central nervous system, affecting nearly one in 200 people. CCM lesions are characterized by grossly dilated vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelium. Genetic linkage analyses have mapped three CCM loci to CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. All three causative genes have now been identified allowing new insights into CCM pathophysiology. We focused on the CCM2 protein that might take place in blood vessel formation; we report here the expression patterns of CCM2 in prenatal development and adult human neocortex by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. CCM2 was obviously detected in vascular endothelium and neuroglial precursor cells during development and also observed in arterial endothelium, neurons, some of the glial cells in adult neocortex. The expression patterns suggest that it could be one of the arterial markers whether this is a cause or a consequence of an altered vascular identity. CCM2 might play a role during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during human brain development. Furthermore, with this study, CCM2 have been described for the first time in developing human neocortex.

  2. Human Development – Qualitative Dimensions of a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Pirtea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available “The human development” concept was born in a period characterized by an important number of events that have caused important changes of the geo-political factors as well as essential mutations at economic and social level. This period is known as the “post-war era”. In this era, the world economy has registered considerable progress. The international cooperation and economic development have permitted the significant increase of merchandise and services world-wide commerce as well as the increase of foreign investments. Both the global production structure and the labour force structure have changed. The rapid technological progress changes all activity fields as well as human lives. Unfortunately, this global economic development is doubled by the persistence of economic and social differences and by the occurrence of set-backs. In the present paper, we are trying to present the Romanian position towards the human development as well as the development perspectives of this position in the context of Romania’s integration in the European Union.

  3. Developing a General Framework for Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Automation has entered nearly every aspect of our lives, but it often remains hard to understand. Why is this? Automation is often brittle, requiring constant human oversight to assure it operates as intended. This oversight has become harder as automation has become more complicated. To resolve this problem, Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) has been proposed. HAT looks to make automation act as more of a teammate, by having it communicate with human operators in a more human, goal-directed, manner which provides transparency into the reasoning behind automated recommendations and actions. This, in turn, permits more trust in the automation when it is appropriate, and less when it is not, allowing a more targeted supervision of automated functions. This paper proposes a framework for HAT, incorporating two key tenets: bi-directional communication, and operator directed authority. We have successfully applied these tenets to integrating the autonomous constrained flight planner (an aide for planning diverts) into a dispatch station. We propose the development of general design patterns that may allow these results to be generalized to domains such as photography and automotive navigation. While these domains are very different, we find application of our HAT tenets provides a number of opportunities for improving interaction between human operators and automation.

  4. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  5. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34(+)CD45RA(+) hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The central role of RNA in human development and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, John S

    2011-06-06

    It appears that the genetic programming of humans and other complex organisms has been misunderstood for the past 50 years, due to the assumption that most genetic information is transacted by proteins. However, the human genome contains only about 20,000 protein-coding genes, similar in number and with largely orthologous functions as those in nematodes that have only 1000 somatic cells. By contrast, the extent of non-protein-coding DNA increases with increasing complexity, reaching 98.8% in humans. The majority of these sequences are dynamically transcribed, mainly into non-protein-coding RNAs, with tens if not hundreds of thousands that show specific expression patterns and subcellular locations, as well as many classes of small regulatory RNAs. The emerging evidence indicates that these RNAs control the epigenetic states that underpin development, and that many are dysregulated in cancer and other complex diseases. Moreover it appears that animals, particularly primates, have evolved plasticity in these RNA regulatory systems, especially in the brain. Thus, it appears that what was dismissed as 'junk' because it was not understood holds the key to understanding human evolution, development, and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  8. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-D-0589] Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  9. 76 FR 60934 - Proposal Review Panel for Human Resource Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Human Resource Development; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... Person: Kelly Mack, Division of Human Resource Development, Room 815, National Science Foundation... following meeting: Name: ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Site Visit; Proposal Review Panel Human...

  10. 76 FR 60933 - Proposal Review Panel for Human Resource Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Human Resource Development; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... Person: Kelly Mack, Division of Human Resource Development, Room 815, National Science Foundation... following meeting: Name: ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Site Visit, Proposal Review Panel Human...

  11. Expression of aquaporin isoforms during human and mouse tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felszeghy, S; Módis, L; Németh, P; Nagy, G; Zelles, T; Agre, P; Laurikkala, J; Fejerskov, O; Thesleff, I; Nielsen, S

    2004-04-01

    Previously, we described the development of hyaluronan (HA) deposition in human tooth germ tissues that are consistent with water transport in different stages of tooth development. The aquaporins (AQP) constitute a family of membrane water channels that are expressed in many organs. However, there are no data available about the expression pattern of aquaporin water channels in dental structures. In the present study we have characterised the expression of six different aquaporin isoforms (AQP1-5, AQP-9) in developing human and mouse tooth germs by immunohistochemistry using isoform specific antibodies. In the "bell stage" AQP1 was expressed in endothelial cells of small vessels whereas no other structures of the tooth primordial were labeled. AQP2, AQP3 and AQP9 immunoreactivity was not observed in tooth germs, whereas strong AQP4 and AQP5 expression was observed in dental lamina, inner enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium, stellate reticulum and the outer enamel epithelium. Oral epithelium also exhibited AQP4 and AQP5 immunolabeling. During development of the matrices of the dental hard tissues AQP4 and AQP5 immunostaining was observed in the odontoblasts and their processes, as well as in the secretory ameloblast and their apical processes. Immunolabeling controls were negative. In conclusion, AQP4 and AQP5 are expressed in tooth germ tissues in early development in cells that previously have been shown to express HA and/or CD44, indicating that AQP water channels may play a role for ECM hydration during tooth development.

  12. [Development of human embryonic stem cell model for toxicity evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-yan; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Hong-wei; Peng, Shuang-qing; Deng, Xu-liang; Li, Sheng-lin; Liu, He; Zou, Xiao-hui; Fu, Xin; Peng, Hui; Wang, Xiao-ying; Zhan, Yuan

    2013-02-18

    The current international standard for toxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials recommend the use of immortalized cell lines because of their homogeneous morphologies and infinite proliferation which provide good reproducibility for in vitro cytotoxicity screening. However, most of the widely used immortalized cell lines are derived from animals and may not be representative of normal human cell behavior in vivo, in particular in terms of the cytotoxic and genotoxic response. Therefore, It is vital to develop a model for toxicity evaluation. In our studies, two Chinese human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as toxicity model were established. hESC derived tissue/organ cell model for tissue/organ specific toxicity evaluation were developed. The efficiency and accuracy of using hESC model for cytoxicity, embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation were confirmed. The results indicated that hESCs might be good tools for toxicity testing and biosafety evaluation in vitro.

  13. A Study on Human Resources Development in Nuclear Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Keehwan; Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Nam, J. H.; Won, B. C.; Lee, D. S; Hwang, I. A.; Seo, M. W.

    2011-11-15

    The study encompasses 4 major parts, each results being described here under: Various policy alternatives through supply-demand analysis of domestic nuclear skilled manpower are suggested. Human resources development programs of main educational organizations in domestic and overseas are comprehensively reviewed. Establishment of 'Integrated Management Organization' which can combine and manage domestic educational organizations' educational functions is necessary to efficiently deal with the increased educational demand and the shift of educational paradigm from supply-driven to needs-driven education and to make nuclear energy export sustainable. And road map on human resource development to efficiently accomplish 'Integrated Management Organization's mission is suggested. It is provided that an overall strategies for the reasonable educational program reflecting the good practices with their implications in overseas nuclear education programs.

  14. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  15. Development of a Teaching Methodology for Undergraduate Human Development in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Espinoza, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a teaching methodology for the undergraduate Psychology course Human Development II in a private university in Lima, Peru is described. The theoretical framework consisted of an integration of Citizen Science and Service Learning, with the application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), specifically Wikipedia and…

  16. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  17. [Development and the developmental disorders of human brain. I. Early development of the cerebrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Wesseling, P.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Renier, W.O.; Mullaart, R.A.; Thijssen, H.O.M.

    2001-01-01

    The recent discovery of many genes that regulate brain development is revolutionizing our knowledge of neuroembryology and, moreover, our understanding of how gene defects cause human birth defects. The first 8 weeks of the development of the cerebrum can be subdivided into 23 stages, with early

  18. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  19. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  20. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  1. Human capital gaps in vaccine development: an issue for global vaccine development and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawein, Andrea; Emini, Emilio; Watson, Michael; Dailey, Joanna; Donnelly, John; Tresnan, Dina; Evans, Tom; Plotkin, Stanley; Gruber, William

    2017-02-23

    Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies.

  2. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Victoria Wobber; Kelly Hughes; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In th...

  3. The recovery process utilizing Erikson's stages of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Scibilia, Suzanne E; McNulty, Kathryn Cohan; Baxter, Beth; Miller, Steve; Dine, Max; Frese, Frederick J

    2009-12-01

    Of current interest to the field are clinical frameworks that foster recovery. The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson's theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps. Understanding recovery in this context allows the client and the practitioner of psychiatric rehabilitation to design and implement a coherent treatment strategy.

  4. [Teaching experience in integrated course of human development and genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guang-Rong; Li, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Fang-Jie; Li, Chun-Yi; Liu, Hong; Li, Fu-Cai; Jin, Chun-Lian; Sun, Gui-Yuan; Liu, Cai-Xia; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of integrated course system in human development and genetics is an important part of course reformation, and the improvement of this system is achieved by integrating the content of course, stabilizing teaching force, building teaching materials and applying problem-based learning. Integrity-PBL teaching model is founded and proved to be feasible and effective by teaching practice. Therefore, it maybe play an important role in improving teaching effect and cultivating ability of students to analyse and solve problems.

  5. Professional development and human resources management in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniy Rudnev

    2016-01-01

    Social networks occupy more places in development of people and organizations. Confidence in institutions and social networking are different and based on referentiality in Internet. For communication in network persons choose a different strategies and behavior in LinkedIn, resources of whom may be in different degree are interesting in Human Resources Management for organizations. Members of different social groups and cultures demonstrate some differences in interaction with Russian identi...

  6. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  7. Health, Human Capital, and Behavior Change: Essays in Development Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Angeli Elise

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation combines three empirical studies of household behaviors as they relate to investment in health and human capital in developing countries. The first explores how changes in children's nutrition in Uganda correspond to composition of a household's income. The second studies measurement activities in a cookstove intervention in Darfur, Sudan, with insights into what may be missed in traditional evaluation approaches as well as how technology adoption may benefit from an uninten...

  8. Human growth hormone and the development of osteochondritis dissecans lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Waqas M; Hussain, Haroon M; Hussain, Mohammed S; Ho, Sherwin S W

    2011-12-01

    No single etiology regarding the cause of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions is unanimously accepted. This report documents a novel case of multiple OCD lesions affecting the left knee and a solitary defect of the right elbow in a patient with acquired human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency and supplementation. hGH deficiency and hormone replacement may be related to the development of OCD lesions.

  9. Human Centered Design and Development for NASA's MerBoard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the design and development process for NASA's MerBoard. These devices are large interactive display screens which can be shown on the user's computer, which will allow scientists in many locations to interpret and evaluate mission data in real-time. These tools are scheduled to be used during the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) expeditions. Topics covered include: mission overview, Mer Human Centered Computers, FIDO 2001 observations and MerBoard prototypes.

  10. Human temporomandibular joint disc: anatomy and measurements in prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Luis A; Brunotto, Mabel N; de Ferraris, María E Gómez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine morphological characteristics and measurements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc in human fetuses between 16 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life, and correlate it with oral-facial neuro-muscular maturing. Scanner images were used to record the length of the disc (D) and the thickness of its anterior middle and posterior bands in TMJ anteroposterior vertical sections from human fetuses of 16, 18 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life (WIL). Mean disc length was 1.98 mm, 2.69 mm and 2.90 mm at 16, 18 and 20 WIL respectively, and measurements differed significantly between those ages. The thicknesses of the anterior, middle and posterior bands also differed significantly. The results give normal morphological data for D between 16 and 20 WIL. TMJ anatomy and measurements appear to be related and agree with the neuro-muscular maturation time at which sucking and swallowing reflexes begin before birth. It is known that these functions, as well as the neuro-muscular capacity to perform prenatal mandibular movements (opening and closing), begin at 14 to 15 weeks of prenatal development and are fully attained at about 20 weeks of development. Knowledge of this reference pattern may be of major importance to future research, for assessing jaw biomechanics and detecting alterations of TMJ and prenatal development of a vital human function - suckling in preterm infants.

  11. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  12. MODERN AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: DISCURSIVE ELEMENTS AND CONTROVERSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Aranguren Álvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the discussion about modernity, postmodernism and liquid modernity and its relationship to human development, as an emerging element of the development model represented by modernity. This is done for a theoretical and documentary research, analyzing the discursive and controversial parts of the contributions of important authors in the field, arising mainly from sociology. It ends with contributions of useful ideas to continue the analysis and discussion on the subject, as part of a pending agenda that requires research and care in the field of social sciences.

  13. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  14. [Evolutionary development of human psyche in Wilber's integral psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberda, Przemysław

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's evolution theory is fundamental for modern biology. But the logic of evolutionary development seems to have a wider context. Several observations and psychological investigations show convincingly that the extent of the development of human psyche is a continuation of the biological evolution. Developmental levels of consciousness, seen both from the individual and collective perspective, are discussed in the writings by the American investigator and philosopher Ken Wilber. His integral model, which has evoIved into integral psychology, forms a logical and inspiring basis for further scientific deliberations in the fields of psychology and medical sciences.

  15. Professional development and human resources management in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Rudnev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social networks occupy more places in development of people and organizations. Confidence in institutions and social networking are different and based on referentiality in Internet. For communication in network persons choose a different strategies and behavior in LinkedIn, resources of whom may be in different degree are interesting in Human Resources Management for organizations. Members of different social groups and cultures demonstrate some differences in interaction with Russian identity native. There are gender differences behavior in networks. Participating in groups need ethical behavior and norms in social networking for professional development and communication in future.

  16. Founding Editorial — Child Health and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of life called childhood is of worldwide interest, and is nicely illustrated by numerous stories about children’s life around the globe in a recent series of books published by John Wiley & Sons as part of the Open University course on “Childhood”[1,2]. Adolescence and later adulthood are also important parts of the human development that shape us and our future generations. In addition to genetics, the conditions and environment during our first few years of life will have a binding impact on the development taking place years ahead concerning our achievements in life, our accomplishments, and our health.

  17. The Human Resource function contribution to human development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Abbott

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article discusses the extent to which human under-development in South Africa and the consequent societal problems of poverty and inequality are addressed by the work of HR practitioners. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence of the appropriateness of current HR practice in South African socio-economic conditions and to make suggestions for improvement. Motivation for the study: Societal problems caused by human under-development are impacting more and more on organisations in South Africa. It is currently not known to what extent and in what way HR work contributes to the improvement of this situation. Research design and method: An interpretive approach was adopted. Qualitative methods within a basic qualitative study strategy were used, including interviewing and a focus group. A sample of 50 individual HR practitioners at various organisational levels was interviewed. Data were analysed by means of thematic analysis. Main findings: Societal problems caused by human under-development impact tremendously on the daily work of HR practitioners. Many HR practitioners do play an Employee Advocate role within the workplace but do not see this role as extending further to any degree. Some role models of more strategic responses were found. Practical/managerial implications: HR practitioners would better fulfil their mandate to work for the success of their organisation if they took pro-active steps to accelerate human development outside their organisations. Contribution/value-add: Empirical evidence is presented to support efforts to broaden the focus of HR work to human development. This linkage has not previously been researched.

  18. The role of higher education in equitable human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-04-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's achievements are increasingly dependent upon personal effort, choice and initiative rather than predetermined characteristics such as race, gender and socioeconomic background. As such, equity becomes an issue of moral equality based on the belief that people should be treated as equals, with equal access to life chances. This ideal pursues equal access to public services, infrastructure and rights for all citizens, including the right to education. While evidence suggests that education builds healthier, richer, more equitable societies, research on this has focused predominantly on primary and secondary schooling. The authors of this paper begin with an extensive review of existing research and relevant literature. In the second part of their article, they then report on their own study which furthers the discussion by exploring connections between tertiary education and development using equity as a reflection of human development - a holistic extension of economic development. After extracting relevant data from a number of available world reports by the United Nations, the World Bank and other organisations, they carried out a cross-national statistical analysis designed to examine the relationship between tertiary enrolment levels and a composite equity variable. Their results indicate a strong association between higher post-secondary education levels and higher levels of social equity.

  19. Human Resources Development (HRD) of Public Entities in the Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Anghel Panait; Morariu Alunica; PhD. Stusent Bejan Marius

    2010-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is the frameworks for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills and knowledge. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and definition, assistance in training, and at the same time organization development. The link between human resources development and managerial practice, as ...

  20. Stepwise development of MAIT cells in mouse and human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Martin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells display two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell receptor (TCRalpha (iTCRalpha chain and restriction by the nonpolymorphic class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule, MHC-related molecule 1 (MR1. MR1 expression on thymus epithelial cells is not necessary for MAIT cell development but their accumulation in the gut requires MR1 expressing B cells and commensal flora. MAIT cell development is poorly known, as these cells have not been found in the thymus so far. Herein, complementary human and mouse experiments using an anti-humanValpha7.2 antibody and MAIT cell-specific iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic mice in different genetic backgrounds show that MAIT cell development is a stepwise process, with an intra-thymic selection followed by peripheral expansion. Mouse MAIT cells are selected in an MR1-dependent manner both in fetal thymic organ culture and in double iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic RAG knockout mice. In the latter mice, MAIT cells do not expand in the periphery unless B cells are added back by adoptive transfer, showing that B cells are not required for the initial thymic selection step but for the peripheral accumulation. In humans, contrary to natural killer T (NKT cells, MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype in the thymus as well as in cord blood where they are in low numbers. After birth, MAIT cells acquire a memory phenotype and expand dramatically, up to 1%-4% of blood T cells. Finally, in contrast with NKT cells, human MAIT cell development is independent of the molecular adaptor SAP. Interestingly, mouse MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype and do not express the ZBTB16 transcription factor, which, in contrast, is expressed by NKT cells and the memory human MAIT cells found in the periphery after birth. In conclusion, MAIT cells are selected by MR1 in the thymus on a non-B non-T hematopoietic cell, and acquire a memory phenotype and expand in the

  1. Development and implication of a human-volcano system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Monreal, Matthias; Sartohadi, Junun

    2014-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the complexity of human-environment systems, models help to define, quantify, describe, or simulate complex interactions. With regards to the human-volcano system, we develop a conceptual model in order to assist analysis of its two basic elements, the physical and the social environment. A field survey of the human environment interaction of two of the most active volcanic areas in Indonesia (Mt. Merapi and Mt. Bromo) and a corresponding literature review from other case studies was carried out. A differentiated understanding of human interaction with hazard potential elements within the human-volcano system is the main focus of the model development. We classified volcanic processes and effects as three pairs of dichotomies: positive or negative impacts, on society or environment in an indirect or direct way. Each volcanically induced process or effect characterized accordingly leads to eight distinct process/effect classes. They are positive direct effects on society (PDS); positive direct effects on natural resources (PDN); positive indirect effects on society (PIS); positive indirect effects on natural resources (PIN); negative direct effects on society (NDS); negative direct effects on natural resources (NDN); negative indirect effects on society (NIS) and lastly negative indirect effects on natural resources (NIN). Such differentiated view of volcanic process/effects bears several advantages. First, whereas volcanic processes have hitherto been viewed as hazards only, it becomes possible now to describe a particular process/effect in a particular context as negative or positive. Secondly, such a categorization makes it possible to account for processes of the human-volcano system that do not have a direct physical expression but are of socio-cultural relevance. Thirdly, the greater degree of differentiation that is made possible when evaluating volcanic processes has significant repercussions on the way volcanic risk must be

  2. [Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-12-31

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  3. (Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  4. Proteoglycan and collagen expression during human air conducting system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Godoy-Guzmán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The lung is formed from a bud that grows and divides in a dichotomous way. A bud is a new growth center which is determined by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions where proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM might be involved. To understand this protein participation during human lung development, we examined the expression and distribution of proteoglycans in relation to the different types of collagens during the period in which the air conducting system is installed. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry we evaluate the expression of collagens (I, III and VI and proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan and lumican between 8 to 10 weeks post fertilization and 11 to 14 weeks of gestational age of human embryo lungs. We show that decorin, lumican and all the collagen types investigated were expressed at the epithelium-mesenchymal interface, forming a sleeve around the bronchiolar ducts. In addition, biglycan was expressed in both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle of the blood vessels. Thus, the similar distribution pattern of collagen and proteoglycans in the early developmental stages of the human lung may be closely related to the process of dichotomous division of the bronchial tree. This study provides a new insight concerning the participation of collagens and proteoglycans in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface during the period in which the air conducting system is installed in the human fetal lung.

  5. Development of Human Membrane Transporters: Drug Disposition and Pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Miriam G; Nies, Anne T; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Schaeffeler, Elke; Tibboel, Dick; Schwab, Matthias; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2016-05-01

    Membrane transporters play an essential role in the transport of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and consequently they mediate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of many drugs. The clinical relevance of transporters in drug disposition and their effect in adults have been shown in drug-drug interaction and pharmacogenomic studies. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of human membrane transporters and their roles in pediatric pharmacotherapy. As they are involved in the transport of endogenous substrates, growth and development may be important determinants of their expression and activity. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge on human membrane transporters in pediatric drug disposition and effect. Existing pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data on membrane substrate drugs frequently used in children are presented and related, where possible, to existing ex vivo data, providing a basis for developmental patterns for individual human membrane transporters. As data for individual transporters are currently still scarce, there is a striking information gap regarding the role of human membrane transporters in drug therapy in children.

  6. The Necessity of the Development of the Human Capital Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Trifu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Capital is considered an investment, but of a special and qualitative kind. We emphasize that there are levels of defining the concept: investments in health, education, training and specializing, and the upper level, the stock of skills, talent, knowledge, embodied in the human personality as a participant to the economic, social, cultural, activities; micro and macro approaches. In this period, we can speak about a global overview regarding the two or more levels of human capital. This is mostly pointed when discussing the educational and the health capital and, on the other hand, the biological capital. We have to understand the concept in the inter-relation between the two levels and with the business and natural environments. Important is the causal chain in the construction of Human Capital: investments in health care and education → the impulse to ensure the formation and the modeling of the capabilities, skills and other specific biological stocks → the effective action of labour power, creating new values added → economic development within a structure (in our case, EU.

  7. Similar patterns of cortical expansion during human development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Inder, Terrie; Neil, Jeffrey; Dierker, Donna; Harwell, John; Van Essen, David

    2010-07-20

    The cerebral cortex of the human infant at term is complexly folded in a similar fashion to adult cortex but has only one third the total surface area. By comparing 12 healthy infants born at term with 12 healthy young adults, we demonstrate that postnatal cortical expansion is strikingly nonuniform: regions of lateral temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex expand nearly twice as much as other regions in the insular and medial occipital cortex. This differential postnatal expansion may reflect regional differences in the maturity of dendritic and synaptic architecture at birth and/or in the complexity of dendritic and synaptic architecture in adults. This expression may also be associated with differential sensitivity of cortical circuits to childhood experience and insults. By comparing human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex, we infer that the pattern of human evolutionary expansion is remarkably similar to the pattern of human postnatal expansion. To account for this correspondence, we hypothesize that it is beneficial for regions of recent evolutionary expansion to remain less mature at birth, perhaps to increase the influence of postnatal experience on the development of these regions or to focus prenatal resources on regions most important for early survival.

  8. Ten years development of human resources in Serbian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Maja; Grozdanov, Jasmina; Ivanovic, Ivan; Korac, Vesna; Vasic, Milena

    2010-01-01

    A key component of any healthcare reform process is to ensure that the services are delivered by the right numbers of staff with appropriate skills and training. In 2007, public health institutions in Serbia had 2% more employees than before the economic transition. Nevertheless, the trend of the total number of employees in the Serbian health care system still preserved a mild rising trend. The most prominent changes in the structure of human resources were effectuated in the total numbers of physicians, nurses and administrative and technical staff. Development of medical science and practice in Serbia is characterized by more intensive processes of specializations, resulting in increased number of specialists among medical doctors. Health care provided in in-patient institutions still employs most of the doctors. The number of unemployed physicians, dentists and pharmacists has been rising since 2000. Another aspect that explains the rise of unemployed, university educated human resources is the rising number of graduated physicians, dentist and pharmacists. Health care policy makers may recognize the need for more integrated planning of human resources in health care, in particular, making management of human resources responsive to system needs and design, instead of vice versa.

  9. Nuclear Human Resources Development Program using Educational Core Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu Sun; Hong, Soon Kwan [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KHNP-CRI(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.-Central Research Institute) has redesigned the existing Core Simulator(CoSi) used as a sort of training tools for reactor engineers in operating nuclear power plant to support Nuclear Human Resources Development (NHRD) Program focusing on the nuclear department of Dalat university in Vietnam. This program has been supported by MOTIE in Korea and cooperated with KNA(Korea Nuclear Association for International Cooperation) and HYU(Hanyang University) for enhancing the nuclear human resources of potential country in consideration with Korean Nuclear Power Plant as a next candidate energy sources. KHNP-CRI has provided Edu-CoSi to Dalat University in Vietnam in order to support Nuclear Human Resources Development Program in Vietnam. Job Qualification Certificates Program in KHNP is utilized to design a training course for Vietnamese faculty and student of Dalat University. Successfully, knowhow on lecturing the ZPPT performance, training and maintaining Edu-CoSi hardware are transferred by several training courses which KHNP-CRI provides.

  10. Preclinical development of HIvax: Human survivin highly immunogenic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter R; Panigada, Maddalena; Soprana, Elisa; Terry, Frances; Bandar, Ivo Sah; Napolitano, Andrea; Rose, Aaron H; Hoffmann, Fukun W; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Belcaid, Mahdi; Moise, Lenny; De Groot, Anne S; Carbone, Michele; Gaudino, Giovanni; Matsui, Takashi; Siccardi, Antonio; Bertino, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work involved the development of a recombinant fowlpox virus encoding survivin (FP-surv) vaccine that was evaluated for efficacy in mesothelioma mouse models. Results showed that FP-surv vaccination generated significant immune responses, which led to delayed tumor growth and improved animal survival. We have extended those previous findings in the current study, which involves the pre-clinical development of an optimized version of FP-surv designed for human immunization (HIvax). Survivin-derived peptides for the most common haplotypes in the human population were identified and their immunogenicity confirmed in co-culture experiments using dendritic cells and T cells isolated from healthy donors. Peptides confirmed to induce CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells activation in humans were then included in 2 transgenes optimized for presentation of processed peptides on MHC-I (HIvax1) and MHC-II (HIvax2). Fowlpox vectors expressing the HIvax transgenes were then generated and their efficacy was evaluated with subsequent co-culture experiments to measure interferon-γ and granzyme B secretion. In these experiments, both antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were activated by HIvax vaccines with resultant cytotoxic activity against survivin-overexpressing mesothelioma cancer cells. These results provide a rationale for clinical testing of HIvax1 and HIvax2 vaccines in patients with survivin-expressing cancers.

  11. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  12. Hematopoietic development from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerke, Claudia; Grauer, Matthias; Niebuhr, Nina I; Riedt, Tamara; Kanz, Lothar; Park, In-Hyun; Daley, George Q

    2009-09-01

    A decade of research on human embryonic stem cells (ESC) has paved the way for the discovery of alternative approaches to generating pluripotent stem cells. Combinatorial overexpression of a limited number of proteins linked to pluripotency in ESC was recently found to reprogram differentiated somatic cells back to a pluripotent state, enabling the derivation of isogenic (patient-specific) pluripotent stem cell lines. Current research is focusing on improving reprogramming protocols (e.g., circumventing the use of retroviral technology and oncoproteins), and on methods for differentiation into transplantable tissues of interest. In mouse ESC, we have previously shown that the embryonic morphogens BMP4 and Wnt3a direct blood formation via activation of Cdx and Hox genes. Ectopic expression of Cdx4 and HoxB4 enables the generation of mouse ESC-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) capable of multilineage reconstitution of lethally irradiated adult mice. Here, we explore hematopoietic development from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated in our laboratory. Our data show robust differentiation of iPS cells to mesoderm and to blood lineages, as shown by generation of CD34(+)CD45(+) cells, hematopoietic colony activity, and gene expression data, and suggest conservation of blood patterning pathways between mouse and human hematopoietic development.

  13. Tourism development and Human Resources challenges (Gjirokastra Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Qiqi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of many countries in general, depends on a large extent on the development of the tertiary sector and tourism is one of the most important components of this sector. Tourism significantly affects GDP growth, export growth, environmental protection and also employs many people. As a result, many developing countries promote tourism as a tool for economic and social development. In our country tourism development tends to be one of the main ways to alleviate the problem of high unemployment.Human resources play a vital role as an important element in the organization's performance for achieving its economic objectives. This role is increased even more in the case of organizations that provide services. This means that it is necessary to ensure high standards of quality and efficiency of HR. Intendedobjectives can only be achieved by defining the specific needs of human resources development in various segments of the sector.Keyword: Human Resources, Tourism, Training, Education system, Gjirokastra1. The Importance of Tourism DevelopmentTourism is an important economic activity worldwide. There is a direct and anindirect impact of this sector in the economic development and in the number ofemployees. This paper is mainly based on the national and international institution’s databut we must mention that the revenues of this sector are higher than statistic data shows.There are practical difficulties in the right collection of this sector’s data because of thediverse structure of its services and it’s all inclusive nature. However, based on the reportmade by WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council, we can mention that in Albania thetotal contribution of Tourism & Travel in GDP for 2013 was 68.1 bn ALL or 4,8% ofGDP and it is predicted to grow by 5.5% up to 71.9 bn ALL in 2014. The forecast for2024 shows a growth up to 123.6 bn ALL or 6.1% of GDP.1An element with great importance in the sector of tourism is the number of

  14. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification.

  15. ROLE OF HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TĂNASE DIANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the role of education in the growth of economic competitiveness and efficiency of human capital, in accordance with the quality of education and investments in human resources, in order to enhance labour productiveness. The paper starts by a brief analysis of Romania’s educational system, by comparison with the EU countries, analysing the number of high school students / college students per teacher, the percentage of education expenditure in the GDP, the correlation between the labour force’s training level and insertion into the labour market. The paper also presents the EU countries’ ranking related to higher education and professional training, pointing out the importance of lifelong professional training at the place of work. The paper draws conclusions regarding the importance of the labour force training, as the operation of a modern economy requires the existence of a well-trained labour force, education representing one of the fundamental pillars of any society’s development.

  16. Bioethics as a stage in development of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ketova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers humanistic substance of bioethics - a discipline which originated in 1960's. Bioethics has an interdisciplinary character and presents itself as a reflection on problematic situations, which can appear as a result of biomedical progress. Bioethics in a wider sense can be viewed as ethics of life, which highlights its ecological substance. This article analyses the problem of consequences of radical human transformation and also the article shows significance of leading principle of «personal autonomy of the patient». In the article functions and goals of ethical committees, existing in various countries, are highlighted. In conclusion, the article highlights specifics of bioethics as a syncretic discipline, which assists development of humanism and responds to modern civilization's challenges.

  17. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  18. Looking at human development through the lens of Christian mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi O. Alawode

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one billion people live in extreme poverty, with another two billion people surviving on less than $1 per day. Many of them, living in abject poverty, struggle with ill health, limited access to clean water, hygienic sanitation, poor quality housing, hunger, illiteracy and premature death. However, improving the lives of the poor is a complex undertaking with often little agreement as to how can this be best achieved. The intrinsic goal of development is to advance human dignity, freedom, social equity and self-determination. Moreover, there is no univocal definition of development. In this article my own understanding will be discussed more extensively. My conviction that development, in general in the context of Christian mission, finds its roots in Christian empathy with people in dire need will be stated.

  19. A VISION OF QUANTIFICATION OF SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibáñez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to propose new measurement components of sustainable human development based on the historical and theoretical development path. The research assumes ontoepistemological position based on positivism, addressing technical survey and instrument of written questionnaire administered to thirty-one (31 experts in the field of knowledge, and whose analysis allowed us to conclude that traditional models to measure development are insufficient to demonstrate the reality of nations. Therefore, the proposed measure is derived in seven components: ethical, spiritual and cultural addition to the formally established by Munasinghe (1993, 2011 and the UN (2012: economic, social, environmental, institutional constituted in total, by selecting one hundred fifty five (155 variables.

  20. Transcriptome dynamics during human erythroid differentiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yadong; Wang, Hai; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Qu, Hongzhu; Zhang, Zhaojun; Xiong, Qian; Qi, Heyuan; Cui, Peng; Lin, Qiang; Ruan, Xiuyan; Yang, Yaran; Li, Yajuan; Shu, Chang; Li, Quanzhen; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Jiangwei; Hu, Songnian; Fang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms controlling erythroid differentiation and development, we analyzed the genome-wide transcription dynamics occurring during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) into the erythroid lineage and development of embryonic to adult erythropoiesis using high throughput sequencing technology. HESCs and erythroid cells at three developmental stages: ESER (embryonic), FLER (fetal), and PBER (adult) were analyzed. Our findings revealed that the number of expressed genes decreased during differentiation, whereas the total expression intensity increased. At each of the three transitions (HESCs-ESERs, ESERs-FLERs, and FLERs-PBERs), many differentially expressed genes were observed, which were involved in maintaining pluripotency, early erythroid specification, rapid cell growth, and cell-cell adhesion and interaction. We also discovered dynamic networks and their central nodes in each transition. Our study provides a fundamental basis for further investigation of erythroid differentiation and development, and has implications in using ESERs for transfusion product in clinical settings.

  1. The Development of Human Resources and Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ymer Havolli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an overview of the need of knowledge management in the organization, as well as understanding the preconditions and obstacles for the openness of economic and education system in Kosovo with systems in the region as a factor in human resource development. Kosovo has some demographical features that have major influence in the overall development. Due to dominance of young population, the demand for education is high in comparison with the absorption capacity of the economy. Also, the requirements of businesses and institutions are ongoing for the applied knowledge, achievement of which requires continuous increase of mobility of the students as well as teachers. Hence, this paper highlights the importance of completion in the education as a way for convergence and sustainable economic development.

  2. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Medina Mayrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  3. Microbial community succession on developing lesions on human enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Torlakovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in the world. However, our understanding of how the microbial community composition changes in vivo as caries develops is lacking.An in vivo model was used in a longitudinal cohort study to investigate shifts in the microbial community composition associated with the development of enamel caries.White spot lesions were generated in vivo on human teeth predetermined to be extracted for orthodontic reasons. The bacterial microbiota on sound enamel and on developing carious lesions were identified using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM, which permits the detection of about 300 of the approximate 600 predominant bacterial species in the oral cavity.After only seven weeks, 75% of targeted teeth developed white spot lesions (8 individuals, 16 teeth. The microbial community composition of the plaque over white spot lesions differed significantly as compared to sound enamel. Twenty-five bacterial taxa, including Streptococcus mutans, Atopobium parvulum, Dialister invisus, and species of Prevotella and Scardovia, were significantly associated with initial enamel lesions. In contrast, 14 bacterial taxa, including species of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Kingella, and Capnocytophaga, were significantly associated with sound enamel.The bacterial community composition associated with the progression of enamel lesions is specific and much more complex than previously believed. This investigation represents one of the first longitudinally-derived studies for caries progression and supports microbial data from previous cross-sectional studies on the development of the disease. Thus, the in vivo experiments of generating lesions on teeth destined for extraction in conjunction with HOMIM analyses represent a valid model to study succession of supragingival microbial communities associated with caries development and to study efficacy of prophylactic and restorative treatments.

  4. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  5. Development of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Zhu, Hua; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Ashwell, K W S; Paxinos, G

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve plays an integral part in the control of visceral function. The aim of the present study was to correlate structural and chemical changes in the developing nucleus with available data concerning functional maturation of human viscera and reflexes. The fetal development (ages 9 to 26 weeks) of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve has been examined with the aid of Nissl staining and immunocytochemistry for calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase. By 13 weeks, the dorsal vagal nucleus emerges as a distinct structure with at least two subnuclei visible in Nissl stained preparations. By 15 weeks, three subnuclei (dorsal intermediate, centrointermediate and ventrointermediate) were clearly discernible at the open medulla level with caudal and caudointermediate subnuclei visible at the level of the area postrema. All subnuclei known to exist in the adult were visible by 21 weeks and cytoarchitectonic differentiation of the nucleus was largely completed by 25 weeks. The adult distribution pattern of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons was also largely completed by 21 weeks, although morphological differentiation of labeled neurons continued until the last age examined (26 weeks). The structural development of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve appears to occur in parallel with functional maturation of the cardiovascular and gastric movements, which the nucleus controls.

  6. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  7. Thymic Epithelial Cell Development and Its Dysfunction in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are the key components in thymic microenvironment for T cells development. TECs, composed of cortical and medullary TECs, are derived from a common bipotent progenitor and undergo a stepwise development controlled by multiple levels of signals to be functionally mature for supporting thymocyte development. Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR family members including the receptor activator for NFκB (RANK, CD40, and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR cooperatively control the thymic medullary microenvironment and self-tolerance establishment. In addition, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, Wnt, and Notch signals are essential for establishment of functional thymic microenvironment. Transcription factors Foxn1 and autoimmune regulator (Aire are powerful modulators of TEC development, differentiation, and self-tolerance. Dysfunction in thymic microenvironment including defects of TEC and thymocyte development would cause physiological disorders such as tumor, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In the present review, we will summarize our current understanding on TEC development and the underlying molecular signals pathways and the involvement of thymus dysfunction in human diseases.

  8. Gene expression profiles of the developing human retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; LI Huiming; LIU Wenwen; XU Ping; HU Gengxi; CHENG Yidong; JIA Libin; HUANG Qian

    2004-01-01

    Retina is a multilayer and highly specialized tissue important in converting light into neural signals. In humans, the critical period for the formation of complex multiplayer structure takes place during embryogenesis between 12 and 28 weeks. The morphologic changes during retinal development in humans have been studied but little is known about the molecular events essential for the formation of the retina. To gain further insights into this process, cDNA microarrays containing 16361 human gene probes were used to measure the gene expression levels in retinas. Of the 16361 genes, 68.7%, 71.4% and 69.7% showed positive hybridization with cDNAs made from 12-16 week fetal, 22-26 week fetal and adult retinas. A total of 814 genes showed a minimum of 3-fold changes between the lowest and highest expression levels among three time points and among them, 106 genes had expression levels with the hybridization intensity above 100 at one or more time points. The clustering analysis suggested that the majority of differentially expressed genes were down-regulated during the retinal development. The differentially expressed genes were further classified according to functions of known genes, and were ranked in decreasing order according to frequency: development, differentiation, signal transduction, protein synthesis and translation, metabolism, DNA binding and transcription, DNA synthesis-repair-recombination, immuno-response, ion channel- transport, cell receptor, cytoskeleton, cell cycle, pro-oncogene, stress and apoptosis related genes. Among these 106 differentially expressed genes, 60 are already present in NEI retina cDNA or EST Databank but the remaining 46 genes are absent and thus identified as "function unknown". To validate gene expression data from the microarray, real-time RT-PCR was performed for 46 "function unknown" genes and 6 known retina specific expression genes, and β-actin was used as internal control. Twenty-seven of these genes showed very similar

  9. TRAINING IN ETHICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to interpret training in ethics for action business students an introduction to the economy of the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Carabobo, as part of professional development in business studies. The investigation was addressed within the paradigm post positivist using ethnographic and hermeneutic method, descriptive mode of scientific research and technique participant-observation. It concludes that training in ethics management must transcend the economic theories located in the teleological by financial or economic interests toward the teleological including humanism.

  10. A methodology for coupling a visual enhancement device to human visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Aleksandar; Black, John A., Jr.; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2009-02-01

    The Human Variation Model views disability as simply "an extension of the natural physical, social, and cultural variability of mankind." Given this human variation, it can be difficult to distinguish between a prosthetic device such as a pair of glasses (which extends limited visual abilities into the "normal" range) and a visual enhancement device such as a pair of binoculars (which extends visual abilities beyond the "normal" range). Indeed, there is no inherent reason why the design of visual prosthetic devices should be limited to just providing "normal" vision. One obvious enhancement to human vision would be the ability to visually "zoom" in on objects that are of particular interest to the viewer. Indeed, it could be argued that humans already have a limited zoom capability, which is provided by their highresolution foveal vision. However, humans still find additional zooming useful, as evidenced by their purchases of binoculars equipped with mechanized zoom features. The fact that these zoom features are manually controlled raises two questions: (1) Could a visual enhancement device be developed to monitor attention and control visual zoom automatically? (2) If such a device were developed, would its use be experienced by users as a simple extension of their natural vision? This paper details the results of work with two research platforms called the Remote Visual Explorer (ReVEx) and the Interactive Visual Explorer (InVEx) that were developed specifically to answer these two questions.

  11. Social education, human rights and sustainability in community development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio CARIDE GÓMEZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article places its contributions in a reflection of a pedagogical and social nature about the links that are established between social education, human rights and sustainability in community development. In this regard, in a historical and prospective key, it places emphasis on the need to promote educational actions that, being consistent with the principles of equity and justice, make it possible to build a more democratic, inclusive and cohesive local-global society.A future expectation that must be confined to educational theories and practices where local communities assume the role they play in their own development processes, with an alternative vision to the ways of educating people and themselves on a daily basis, respectful of human and ecological rights. A line of action that coincides with the commitments made at the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development, adopted by UNESCO, and Resolution A/70/1 adopted by the General Assembly in 2015, Transform our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, guaranteeing lifelong learning for all.In this objective beats a decisive, although not explicit, of a pedagogical-social vocation: to train citizens that, individually and collectively being aware of their role in socio-environmental changes, assume the responsibilities inherent to the values that sustain life in all its diversity. Social education and community development that, by projecting initiatives in different times and social spaces, allows formative opportunities to be expanded beyond the school system and its curricular practices. The Environmental Education and the Local Agenda 21 continue being two references main for the reflection-action educational and community.

  12. Development of the Unsteady Coanda Effect in Human Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2003-11-01

    Human speech is initiated as air passing through the glottis triggers self-sustained oscillations of the vocal folds. These oscillations, caused by aerodynamic air pressures, glottal geometry and tissue properties, result in the glottis cyclically forming into a converging, straight, then diverging passage and finally closing. The varying shape of the glottis throughout the cycle causes different coherent structures to form. One such phenomenon evident in quasi-steady flow experiments is the skewing of the glottal jet towards one wall and attachment, i.e. the Coanda effect. It is not understood if the high frequency oscillations inherent in human phonation allow sufficient time for this oscillating jet to attach to the glottal wall, and thereby influence sound production. Unsteady flow through a high aspect ratio slot with an adjacent plate angled at 30 degrees to the streamwise direction was investigated. The driven, unsteady flow oscillation through the slot was chosen to represent known in-vivo velocity wave forms. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the phase-averaged development of the Coanda effect. The evolution of the unsteady Coanda effect over a range of frequencies typical of human phonation will be discussed.

  13. Development of enhanced piezoelectric energy harvester induced by human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y; Nakamachi, E

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a high frequency piezoelectric energy harvester converted from the human low vibrated motion energy was newly developed. This hybrid energy harvester consists of the unimorph piezoelectric cantilever and a couple of permanent magnets. One magnet was attached at the end of cantilever, and the counterpart magnet was set at the end of the pendulum. The mechanical energy provided through the human walking motion, which is a typical ubiquitous presence of vibration, is converted to the electric energy via the piezoelectric cantilever vibration system. At first, we studied the energy convert mechanism and the performance of our energy harvester, where the resonance free vibration of unimorph cantilever with one permanent magnet under a rather high frequency was induced by the artificial low frequency vibration. The counterpart magnet attached on the pendulum. Next, we equipped the counterpart permanent magnet pendulum, which was fluctuated under a very low frequency by the human walking, and the piezoelectric cantilever, which had the permanent magnet at the end. The low-to-high frequency convert "hybrid system" can be characterized as an enhanced energy harvest one. We examined and obtained maximum values of voltage and power in this system, as 1.2V and 1.2 µW. Those results show the possibility to apply for the energy harvester in the portable and implantable Bio-MEMS devices.

  14. Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J

    1992-01-01

    Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology.

  15. Method development for proteome stabilization in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua; Wong, David T W

    2012-04-13

    Human saliva is a biological fluid with emerging early detection and diagnostic potentials. However, the salivary proteome suffers from rapid degradation and thus compromises its translational and clinical utilities. Therefore, easy, reliable and practical methods are urgently required for the storage of human saliva samples. In this study, saliva samples from healthy subjects were collected and stored at room temperature (RT) and 4 °C for different lengths of time with and without specific protein stabilization treatments. SDS-PAGE was run to compare the protein profiling between samples. Reference proteins, β-actin and interleukin-1 β (IL1β), were chosen to evaluate salivary protein stability. Immunoassay was used for the detection of these target proteins. All data was compared with the positive control that had been kept at -80 °C. The results show that the salivary proteome that has been stored at 4 °C with added protease inhibitors was stable for approximately two weeks without significant degradation. By adding ethanol to the samples, the salivary proteome was stabilized at RT. After optimization, a simple, robust and convenient method is developed for the stabilization of proteins in human saliva that does not affect the downstream translational and clinical applications. The salivary proteome could be stabilized without significant degradation by adding ethanol at RT for about two weeks. This optimized method could greatly accelerate the clinical usage of saliva for future diagnosis.

  16. Chronic Heat Stress and Cognitive Development: An Example of Thermal Conditions Influencing Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2006-01-01

    Although thermal conditions influence the development of living organisms in a wide variety of ways, this topic has been recently ignored in humans. This paper reintroduces thermal conditions as a topic of importance for developmentalists by presenting an example of how thermal conditions are hypothesized to influence a particular developmental…

  17. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  18. Women's human rights at the World Summit for Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S

    1995-01-01

    The Copenhagen Hearing on Economic Justice and Women's Human Rights was held on March 7, 1995 in conjunction with the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum during the UN World Summit on Social Development (the Social Summit). During the Copenhagen Hearing, 10 women from around the world testified on a wide range of topics connected with the issue of providing tangible meaning to the indivisibility of women's human rights. Also emphasized was the complexity of the US government in perpetrating abuses against women's human rights, either directly or indirectly. The NGO Forum resulted in several hundred NGOs signing The Quality Benchmark for the Social Summit and The Copenhagen Alternative Declaration, which pointed out the need to critique conventional economic and social policies. While many of the concerns raised at the NGO Forum were not reflected in the Summit's Programme of Action, one of the Programme's 10 commitments called for the promotion of gender equality and improvement in the status of women. The Programme also recognized the burden placed on women by poverty and social disintegration; accepted a broad definition of "family"; called for a quantitative consideration of the value of unremunerated work; and advanced the rights of workers in general, migrant workers, and indigenous people. The capacity of NGOs and other grassroots groups to demand implementation of international agreements and adherence to international human rights standards was also strengthened. Specifically, such groups may urge governments to 1) meet with women's NGOs to discuss implementation of the Social Summit Declaration and Programme of Action; 2) make a national commitment to implement the Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women; and 3) commit to the Pledge to Gender Justice, particularly to the implementation of international agreements in local and national laws and policies.

  19. Human Persuasion Integration in Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakeel Faridi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Of course, people have different opinions about what is attractive. They have different views of whats attractive; designers need to understand the aesthetics of their target audiences when creating a persuasive technology product. The more visually attractive the product is to its target audience, the more likely it is to be persuasive. Similarly during development software product, software engineers are facing lot of problems. End user feels reluctant to provide the whole his persuasion during requirement gathering phase. In this paper the author tried to propose a human persuasion (HP model that will embed during the software development lifecycle (SDLC. In this way a powerful solution can be achieved within available resources.

  20. Programmed cell death in developing human fetal CNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of programmed cell death (PCD) in developing central nervous system (CNS) of human fetuses ranging from 12 to 39 weeks of gestation were investigated using techniques of flow cytometry and terminal transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL). The results showed that PCD did occur in every representative brain region of all fetuses examined in different stages. It was found that there were two peaks of PCD appearing at the 12th and 39th weeks respectively, which suggested that the first peak of apoptosis may be involved in the selective elimination of neurons overproduced during the early development and the second may play an important role in establishing the correct neuronal circuitry.

  1. Molecular mechanism of size control in development and human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolong Yang; Tian Xu

    2011-01-01

    How multicellular organisms control their size is a fundamental question that fascinated generations of biologists.In the past 10 years, tremendous progress has been made toward our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying size control. Original studies from Drosophila showed that in addition to extrinsic nutritional and hormonal cues, intrinsic mechanisms also play important roles in the control of organ size during development. Several novel signaling pathways such as insulin and Hippo-LATS signaling pathways have been identified that control organ size by regulating cell size and/or cell number through modulation of cell growth, cell division, and cell death. Later studies using mammalian cell and mouse models also demonstrated that the signaling pathways identified in flies are also conserved in mammals. Significantly, recent studies showed that dysregulation of size control plays important roles in the development of many human diseases sucha as cancer,diabetes,and hypertrophy.

  2. The Humanized Development Trend of Modern Packaging Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹诒芝

    2014-01-01

    “humanization” design is a modern design, especially the development of a theme of modern packaging design. Over the past twenty years, the designer is not satisfied with the beautiful sex of commodity packaging and quality security, but more to con-sider the nature of consumer goods more requirements:use convenience, dexterity and packaging for the people and the environ-ment coordination. This kind of pay attention to environmental protection and resource recycling, emphasis on"people-oriented", consider the spiritual needs of packaging design. We call it "humanized design". Convenience, dexterity, safety in commodity packaging design considerations are fully embodies the thought of"people-oriented", and become the dominant trend in the de-velopment of modern commodity packaging design.

  3. A Multicultural Competencies Approach to Developing Human Capital Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliscroft, Paul; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš; Šefčíková, Miriam; Kamenova, Joana Valery

    2012-12-01

    The globalisation phenomenon has been prevalent since the last decade of 20th century and remains a significant factor influencing both organisations and individuals today. Within a globalised business environment the effective management of multicultural aspects and differences has become imperative to ensure success. It is increasingly evident there is a need to develop a clear understanding of multicultural competencies in order to fully develop a strategic approach to human capital management (HCM). The adoption of a strategic approach is necessary to ensure a focus on the issues critical to success and competitive advantage including multicultural management, professional skills and knowledge management. This paper aims to identify the importance of intercultural management and the impact of globalisation upon international business.

  4. Developing Climate Change Literacy With the Humanities: A Narrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siperstein, S.

    2015-12-01

    Teaching the science and policy of climate change is necessary but insufficient for helping students to develop a robust climate literacy. Climate change educators must also teach students how to evaluate historical trends, to unpack the assumptions in shared cultural narratives, to grapple with ethical dilemmas, and more generally to traverse the turbulence of feeling that is a hallmark of living in a time of global climate chaos. In short, climate literacy must include the skills and strategies of the humanities, and specifically literary and cultural studies. After providing an overview of how literary and cultural studies scholars from around the world are developing innovative pedagogical methods for addressing climate change (drawing on the presenter's experience editing the forthcoming volume Teaching Climate Change in the Humanities), the presentation will then report on a specific Literary Genres course taught at the University of Oregon. The course, offered to undergraduate non-majors who entered the class with little or no knowledge of climate change, constituted a case study of action research into the transdisciplinary teaching of climate change. The presentation will thus draw on quantitative course assessments, student coursework, and the instructor's own experiences in arguing that three key narratives underpin the work we do as multidisciplinary climate change educators: narratives of observation, narratives of speculation, and narratives of conversion. That is, we guide students through the processes of witnessing climate change, imagining more just and sustainable futures, and by so doing, transforming themselves and their communities. In the particular Literary Genres course under consideration, students used the tools of literary and cultural studies first to analyze existing versions of these narratives and then to compose their own versions of these narratives based on their local communities and ecologies. In the context of multidisciplinary

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Carlson, Susan E

    2014-12-01

    Humans evolved a uniquely large brain among terrestrial mammals. Brain and nervous tissue is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Docosahexaenoic acid is required for lower and high order functions in humans because of understood and emerging molecular mechanisms. Among brain components that depend on dietary components, DHA is limiting because its synthesis from terrestrial plant food precursors is low but its utilization when consumed in diet is very efficient. Negligible DHA is found in terrestrial plants, but in contrast, DHA is plentiful at the shoreline where it is made by single-celled organisms and plants, and in the seas supports development of very large marine mammal brains. Modern human brains accumulate DHA up to age 18, most aggressively from about half-way through gestation to about two years of age. Studies in modern humans and non-human primates show that modern infants consuming infant formulas that include only DHA precursors have lower DHA levels than for those with a source of preformed DHA. Functional measures show that infants consuming preformed DHA have improved visual and cognitive function. Dietary preformed DHA in the breast milk of modern mothers supports many-fold greater breast milk DHA than is found in the breast milk of vegans, a phenomenon linked to consumption of shore-based foods. Most current evidence suggests that the DHA-rich human brain required an ample and sustained source of dietary DHA to reach its full potential.

  6. Human Development Index and Efficiency level of Social Security Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehrdost

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN DIGNITY: TWO DIMENSIONS OF THE LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Diesel Sebastiany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the concept of development as freedom and its implications in the enlargement of the human life dignity, especially when refers to the possible choices, from two contemporary economists theories who with different dimensions of the language agree in the interpretation of the theme. Amartya Sen and Sebastião Salgado bend over the same historical context; they try to catch the faces of the development and its repercussions in people's life. Knowing a little their trajectory the challenge of this text is to understand the complementarity in the words and the pictures used by the authors. By using the images produced by Sebastião Salgado, we consider them as historical sources of multidisciplinar abrangence, that facilitate new approaching analysis from its registrations, as well as Amartya Sen's words induce us to multiple reflections The reffered author consider health, the education and the social insurance as a fundamental relationship tool for a dignified existence of the humanity. However, the provision of them does not constitute an end in itself; that provision only acquires a real sense when its goal is the expansion of the people´s capacities and freedom that this way start to act as changes condition.

  8. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics.

  9. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates.

  10. Women's rights are human rights -- why development has failed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Oxfam UK/I believes that all women have the right to a livelihood, reproductive choice, health care, education, and employment. Access to resources, decision-making, political and religious freedom of expression, and freedom from all forms of violence are also equally important. Oxfam UK/I recognizes that women worldwide from a diversity of cultures and religions are arguing for similar rights, but continuing efforts to create women's equality and empowerment have had only limited success. There has been no significant improvement in women's lifestyles, the feminization of poverty is increasing, growing religious fundamentalism threatens advances made toward equality, and there has been an increasing violation of women's individual human rights to development in the last decade. Human rights instruments to tackle gender inequality exist, but they are not implemented. The rights approach to development recognizes that unless inequalities at local, national, and international levels are seen and challenged, women will continue to face poverty, inadequate representation of their needs and views, and policies which are contrary to their interests. The rights approach encompasses all aspects of women's lives, recognizing that women's rights in the civil, political, social, economic, and cultural spheres are indivisible from one another in the realities of daily life. Oxfam UK/I acknowledges the complexity of the rights debate.

  11. From stem cells to human development: a distinctly human perspective on early embryology, cellular differentiation and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, April M; Johnson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Over 100 scientists with common interests in human development, disease and regeneration gathered in late September 2016 for The Company of Biologists' second 'From Stem Cells to Human Development' meeting held in historic Southbridge. In this Meeting Review, we highlight some of the exciting new findings that were presented, and discuss emerging themes and convergences in human development and disease that arose during these discussions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male Contraceptive Development. Date: December 2... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  13. [Development, human rights and woman's condition: a new age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, S L

    1989-06-01

    After World War II (WWII) concern grew about the economic and social development of Third World countries. Most countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East were European colonies while Latin America, even though independent was completely dominated by the US. These countries are characterized by: 1) a poor majority ruled by a small rich minority; 2) large rural populations migrating to the cities resulting in bottlenecks and unemployment; 3) bad health status with deteriorating nutritional states; 4) large families; 5) low levels of education (2/3 of the women in the world are illiterate and 90% live in 17 countries); 5) high levels of corruption in public positions; 6) governments ruled by a military dictator; 7) women in the lowest positions with limited legal rights. After WWII the Marshall Plan was instituted in developing countries (LDCs) to provide economic aid to development a model that used per capita income to measure a country's progress. During the 70's and 80's this model was questioned and more emphasis was put on the need for social and institutional development before investing in economic development. The World Bank and USAID have been promoting the role of the public sector, a strategy that has lowered inflation but has also affected the poor in many countries. For example, infant mortality in Brazil is higher now than 10 years ago. A wise development policy should recognize the need of LDCs to develop their own models while emphasizing agricultural development rather than industrial. Development is never accomplished until every citizen participates in their community. Improving the status of women is not only a human right but a high priority in achieving development. Women in LDCs only have partial rights--they cannot own land, nor inherit, and are not given any credit. Development is not only increasing the per capita income, it includes improving health, education, nutrition, and the quality of life of all its citizens. International law

  14. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitova, Dinara

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

  15. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jack C; Merkle, Andrew C; Carneal, Catherine M; Voo, Liming M; Johannes, Matthew S; Paulson, Jeff M; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  16. The Thai-Canadian nuclear human resources development linkage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares [Chulalongkorn university (Thailand); Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the ''Project'') was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)

  17. [Embryonic mechanisms in development of spina bifida in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostrikov, O V; Zotov, V A; Nikitenko, E V

    2004-01-01

    The study of 86 human embryos and fetuses beginning from 23rdday of development up to 18th week after fecundation has detected 23 cases of pathologic development which correspond to the modern definition of spina bifida (SB). It is shown that the cause of various forms of the anomaly is the disturbance or temporary delay of a movement of caudal neurulation wave forming the spinal cord. The anomaly size and type are determined by the time and duration of a pathogenic action on neurulation. Postnatal or the 1st type of SB develops in neurulation wave disturbance not longer than 4-6 hours. Anomaly consequence may be compensated surgically. The 2nd or fetal type of SB arises when neurulation delay is from 6 to 20 hours. If the delay occurs on the 22-24th day of development, embryos die by the neurulation end. If the delay takes place on the 26-28th day embryos may survive till the late fetal period. In embryonal or type III of SB embryos die by the end of the 8th week and do not enter the medical statistics. Their death is associated with delayed movement of the caudal neurulation wave for 24 hours and longer. This results in a spontaneous abortion.

  18. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  19. Ipsilateral inhibition and contralateral facilitation of simple reaction time to non-foveal visual targets from non-informative visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, G; Biscaldi, M; Marzi, C A; Berlucchi, G

    1989-05-01

    Orienting to an extrafoveal light cue without foveating it induces a temporary inhibition of responses to subsequent targets presented in the same visual hemifield, as evinced from the fact that reaction time (RT) to targets ipsilateral to the cue relative to fixation is longer than RT to targets contralateral to the cue. This study has tested the hypothesis that ipsilateral RT inhibition is associated with contralateral RT facilitation by attempting to divide the difference between ipsilateral and contralateral RTs into costs and benefits. A neutral condition suited to this purpose should involve a cue that does not require a lateral orientation. Such neutral condition was provided by measuring RT to lateralized light targets following a central overhead auditory cue (experiment 1) or a foveal visual cue (experiment 2). In both experiments RT in the neutral condition was intermediate between ipsilateral and contralateral RTs, and the differences reaches significance in the second experiment. Benefits over the neutral condition measured in the contralateral condition were thus associated with costs in the ipsilateral condition. These results suggest that a reciprocal antagonism between opposite turning tendencies underlies the organization of covert orienting. They also agree with general multi-channel theories of selective attention according to which the facilitation of given channels is an obligatory accompaniment of the inhibition of other competing channels and vice versa.

  20. Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Marpeau, Olivier; Guibourdenche, Jean; Ferreira, Fatima; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Frendo, Jean-Louis

    2007-11-01

    Placental development is markedly abnormal in women bearing a fetus with trisomy 21, with defective syncytiotrophoblast (ST) formation and function. The ST occurs from cytotrophoblast (CT) fusion and plays an essential role by secreting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is essential to placental development. In trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21) pregnancies, CTs do not fuse and differentiate properly into STs, leading to the secretion of an abnormal and weakly bioactive hCG. In this study we report for the first time, a marked decrease in the number of mature hCG receptor (LH/CG-R) molecules expressed at the surface of T21-affected CTs. The LH/CG-R seems to be functional based on sequencing that revealed no mutations or deletions and binding of recombinant hCG as well as endogenous hCG. We hypothesize that weakly bioactive hCG and lower LH/CG-R expression may be involved in the defect of ST formation. Interestingly, the defective ST formation is mimicked in normal CT cultures by using LH/CG-R small interfering RNA, which result in a lower hCG secretion. Furthermore, treatment of T21-affected CTs with recombinant hCG overcomes in vitro the T21 phenotype, allowing CTs to fuse and form a large ST. These results illustrate for the first time in trisomy 21 pathology, how abnormal endogenous hCG signaling impairs human placental development.