WorldWideScience

Sample records for human foods relates

  1. Glucose modulates food-related salience coding of midbrain neurons in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Endres, Felix; Kölle, Markus; Adolph, Oliver; Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Grön, Georg

    2016-12-01

    Although early rat studies demonstrated that administration of glucose diminishes dopaminergic midbrain activity, evidence in humans has been lacking so far. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, glucose was intravenously infused in healthy human male participants while seeing images depicting low-caloric food (LC), high-caloric food (HC), and non-food (NF) during a food/NF discrimination task. Analysis of brain activation focused on the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as the origin of the mesolimbic system involved in salience coding. Under unmodulated fasting baseline conditions, VTA activation was greater during HC compared with LC food cues. Subsequent to infusion of glucose, this difference in VTA activation as a function of caloric load leveled off and even reversed. In a control group not receiving glucose, VTA activation during HC relative to LC cues remained stable throughout the course of the experiment. Similar treatment-specific patterns of brain activation were observed for the hypothalamus. The present findings show for the first time in humans that glucose infusion modulates salience coding mediated by the VTA. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4376-4384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  3. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  4. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  6. Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food related hazards, based on risks for human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science......, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered - based on their characteristics - into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years, multi......-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking...

  7. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  8. Food Security and Human Rights in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    Food is crucial to an adequate standard of living. The acknowledgement of the right to food in government policies is fundamental to the protection of human dignity, particularly in relation to food insecurity. It allows the right-holder to seek redress and hold government accountable for

  9. Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food-related hazards, based on risks for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Van Asselt, E D; Raley, M; Poulsen, M; Korsgaard, H; Bredsdorff, L; Nauta, M; D'agostino, M; Coles, D; Marvin, H J P; Frewer, L J

    2018-01-22

    This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science and socio-economic sciences. The review used a predefined search protocol, and covered the bibliographic databases Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Web of Sciences, and PubMed over the period 1993-2013. All references deemed relevant, on the basis of predefined evaluation criteria, were included in the review, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered-based on their characteristics-into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years (HALY), multi-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking. The method to be used should be selected on the basis of risk manager/assessor requirements, data availability, and the characteristics of the method. Recommendations for future use and application are provided.

  10. Statement on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    day to assess the carcinogenic risks of PAs, and concluded that there is a possible concern for human health related to the exposure to PAs, in particular for frequent and high consumers of tea and herbal infusions. The Panel noted that consumption of food supplements based on PA-producing plants......, including the development of more sensitive and specific analytical methods. A recommendation was also issued on the generation of data to identify the toxic and carcinogenic potency of the PAs commonly found in food.......EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities...

  11. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18 Section 570.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances...

  12. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities...... to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked...

  13. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  14. Millipedes as food for humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; Manno, Nicola; Tchibozo, Sévérin

    2014-01-01

    The first record of millipedes (Diplopoda) being regularly used for food by humans (the Bobo people of Burkina Faso) is given, including information on how the millipedes are prepared. The species in question are Tymbodesmus falcatus (Karsch, 1881) and Sphenodesmus sheribongensis (Schiøtz, 1966...... for the spread of millipedes as an everyday food source. On the other hand, the possibility that benzoquinones may act as insect-repellents, as known from studies on nonhuman primates, and that sublethal cyanide ingestionmay enhance human innate resistance tomalaria, suggests promising ethnomedical perspectives...

  15. Climate Change and Food-Related Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Juan Mirón Pérez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two principal concepts to take into account relating food and climate change: food security and food safety. Most papers linking climate change to food risks deal with the first one: the security of the food supply.The increase of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, together with the rise of the temperatures on a global level would theorically lead to greater yields of crops grown for human and animal consumption. Howevwe, most of these studies have shown that, in general, crop yields are decreasing as this global change also brings about an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. In adition, these weather anomalies would be unevenly spread and affect developing countries, which are less capable of tackling this change, more severely. All these factors would result in greater uncertainty in the supply of food, which consequently would be less predictable and leave it more exposed to market speculation.A rise in average temperatures would be expected to increase the risk of proliferation of foodborne disease-causing microorganisms such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Nevertheless, a trend of this sort has not been detected yet in developed countries, where information systems allow the temporal evolution of the occurrence of those diseases to be tracked, since means for food preservation and food controls are wide spread.

  16. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  17. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  19. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell in vitro system to test the efficacy of food bioactive compounds: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with BMI

    KAUST Repository

    Cifre, Margalida

    2016-11-22

    Scope: To analyse the usefulness of isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to rapidly/easily reflect n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation gene profile, and evaluate if these effects are body mass index (BMI) dependent. Methods and results: PBMC from normoweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) subjects were incubated with physiological doses of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or their combination. PBMC reflected increased beta-oxidation-like capacity (CPT1A expression) in OW/OB but only after DHA treatment. However, insensitivity to n-3 LCPUFA was evident in OW/OB for lipogenic genes: both PUFA diminished FASN and SREBP1C expression in NW, but no effect was observed for DHA in PBMC from high-BMI subjects. This insensitivity was also evident for inflammation gene profile: all treatments inhibited key inflammatory genes in NW; nevertheless, no effect was observed in OW/OB after DHA treatment, and EPA effect was impaired. SLC27A2, IL6 and TNFα PBMC expression analysis resulted especially interesting to determine obesity-related n-3 LCPUFA insensitivity. Conclusion: A PBMC-based human in vitro system reflects n-3 LCPUFA effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation which is impaired in OW/OB. These results confirm the utility of PBMC ex vivo systems for bioactive-compound screening to promote functional food development and to establish appropriate dietary strategies for obese population.

  20. Radioactivity measurement in imported food and food related items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Santos, F.L.; Rosa, A.M. de la; Tangonan, M.C.; Bulos, A.D.; Nuguid, Z.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), formerly Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) undertook the radioactivity monitoring of imported food and food-related products after the Chernobyl Plant accident in April 1986. Food samples were analyzed for 137 Cs and 134 Cs by gamma spectral method of analysis. This report deals with the measurement process and gives the result of the activity covering the period June 1986 to December 1987. (Auth.). 9 tabs., 7 figs., 4 refs

  1. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European ...

  2. Household-food market relations and its implications for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household-food market relations and its implications for food security of farm ... of this relationship and how it affects the dietary supply of the household needs to be ... the rural areas of Imo state using a multi-stage random sampling technique. ... and transportation facilities will in the long run improve market efficiency and ...

  3. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM plants for food use might have the potential to provide benefits in food quality, nutrition, health and environment, GM plants need additional considerations related with biosafety. Despite there is not evidence that GM foods are more dangerous to human health than conventional food it is necessary to test GM food following the best scientific methodology available. This review focuses on the potential effects that GM food might have on human health.

  4. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  5. Habituation as a Determinant of Human Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a…

  6. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell in vitro system to test the efficacy of food bioactive compounds: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifre, Margalida; Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Varela-Calviño, Rubén; Reynés, Bàrbara; Pericás-Beltrán, Jordi; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2017-04-01

    To analyse the usefulness of isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to rapidly/easily reflect n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation gene profile, and evaluate if these effects are body mass index (BMI) dependent. PBMC from normoweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) subjects were incubated with physiological doses of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or their combination. PBMC reflected increased beta-oxidation-like capacity (CPT1A expression) in OW/OB but only after DHA treatment. However, insensitivity to n-3 LCPUFA was evident in OW/OB for lipogenic genes: both PUFA diminished FASN and SREBP1C expression in NW, but no effect was observed for DHA in PBMC from high-BMI subjects. This insensitivity was also evident for inflammation gene profile: all treatments inhibited key inflammatory genes in NW; nevertheless, no effect was observed in OW/OB after DHA treatment, and EPA effect was impaired. SLC27A2, IL6 and TNFα PBMC expression analysis resulted especially interesting to determine obesity-related n-3 LCPUFA insensitivity. A PBMC-based human in vitro system reflects n-3 LCPUFA effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation which is impaired in OW/OB. These results confirm the utility of PBMC ex vivo systems for bioactive-compound screening to promote functional food development and to establish appropriate dietary strategies for obese population. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Agrofuels Production and its Relation with Food Security and Food Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vargas Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agrofuels production as a reason for increasing the dissociation between the human being, the land and the environment, considering the issues involving food security and food sovereignty. By using the deductive method, it aims to demonstrate that the growing distance between men and land is one of the results determined by capitalism, which is based on exploitation and maximized land production in order to obtain profit, interfering thereas in national food security and food sovereignty. Thus, it first deals with the relation between the human being, land, the environment, economy, State and politics, focusing on environmental  human  rights  protagonism  such  as  side  for  recognizing  and  developing /enveloping fundamental rights material. Secondly, it brings agrofuels production scenario and its relation with food security and sovereignty. Finally, it concepts food security and food sovereignty, establishing its differences in order to permit the build up a solid reality that is also able to secure their implement in an economy of family polycultural basis even if there is an opposite side oriented by capitalism and protected by State, specially in which concerns to productions and environmental excessive exploitation. The article concludes that to secure fundamental rights the being needs to recognize oneself as part of the environment in order to develop a significant State behavior which will reflect on economical politics that favors food security and food sovereignty.

  8. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central li...

  9. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central l...

  10. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  11. Food Prints on Human Rights Law Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Ratescu, I.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction between the development of the doctrine on human rights, in general, and on the right to food, in particular. In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which listed the rights that were considered to

  12. Food Pedagogy, Food Symposium - What is food about? A new approach for promoting changes in food related behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Thuv, Sølvi

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines suggest food related competency as a measure to develop better and more sustainable eating habits. Norwegian schools have got a new subject, Food and Health. Our purpose is to exemplify coherence in our teaching program and introduce the concept of Food Pedagogy. METHODS Literature research was used to discuss concepts of nutrition, food and "food culture". We arranged a pilot study and wrote a final teaching program for study Food and Health (60ECTS). We are work...

  13. On the human ethology of food sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefenhövel Wulf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares various explanatory concepts of food sharing in humans. In many animal species, parents share food with their offspring, thus investing into the 50% of their own genes present in each child. Even in modern families of industrialised societies, there is a very significant flow of material goods from the parent to the offspring generation. Sharing food between reproductive partners is also easily explainable in evolutionary terms: „food for sex“ as male strategy is observed in some primate species. Sharing within one’s group in small-scale societies can be explained also as consequence of its members being actually rather closely related to each other; this, among others, gives credit to the concept of group selection which gains attention again after having been discarded by classic sociobiology. The ethos of individual and group sharing can quite readily be transferred to larger groups, i.e. a whole nation or, especially in the case of unusually devastating natural disasters, to members of other societies. Food sharing beyond genetic relationship or reproductive interest has been explained as „tit for tat“ and „reciprocal altruism“. Events of give and take, however, are, how the last example demonstrates, quite often non-symmetrical, i.e. one partner shares much more than the other. „Tolerated theft“, a behavioural trait in non-human primate species thought to be a stepping stone for the typical preparedness of humans to share, does not play a big role in traditional societies, which provide an important base to discuss the topic. The Trobriand Islanders, e.g., have a very complex system of sharing. In the years of competitive harvest, their yield of yam is distributed to close relatives, especially to fathers and elder brothers. The donors keep almost nothing for themselves, are however given as well, so that everybody has enough to live. High rank men receive a partly enormous surplus, by which their

  14. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  15. Food for thought - Communicating food-related risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturloni Giancarlo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a continuous series of food alerts have caught the attention of the media and the public in Europe. First, eggs and pork contaminated with dioxins; then, “mad cow” disease, while, all along in the background, a battle against genetically modified plants has been in progress. These food alerts have had complex repercussions on the perception of risks associated with food production. Experts have often been divided over these issues, and the uncertainty of scientific data has been indicated on more than one occasion as one of the factors that influence risk perception. However, the most important factor seems to be undoubtedly the way in which the risk has been communicated (or not communicated to the public. Therefore, risk communication analysis offers an excellent opportunity to understand the profound changes that are taking place in relations among the scientific community, mass media and other members of civil society now that they are fully aware that scientific and technological innovation, the real driving force of modern industrial society, is a source of development but also a source of risks which are not always acceptable. Within this different context, a debate open to all interested parties appears to have become a dire necessity for the “risk society”, especially as far as food is concerned because food has extremely important psychological, ethical and cultural values.

  16. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  17. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  18. 'Goats that stare at men': dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to human head orientation, but do not spontaneously use head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, comparative research on the mechanisms and species-specific adaptive values of attributing attentive states and using communicative cues has gained increased interest, particularly in non-human primates, birds, and dogs. Here, we investigate these phenomena in a farm animal species, the dwarf goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). In the first experiment, we investigated the effects of different human head and body orientations, as well as human experimenter presence/absence, on the behaviour of goats in a food-anticipating paradigm. Over a 30-s interval, the experimenter engaged in one of four different postures or behaviours (head and body towards the subject-'Control', head to the side, head and body away from the subject, or leaving the room) before delivering a reward. We found that the level of subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the control condition and decreased with a decreasing level of attention paid to the subject by the experimenter. Additionally, goats 'stared' (i.e. stood alert) at the experimental set-up for significantly more time when the experimenter was present but paid less attention to the subject ('Head' and 'Back' condition) than in the 'Control' and 'Out' conditions. In a second experiment, the experimenter provided different human-given cues that indicated the location of a hidden food reward in a two-way object choice task. Goats were able to use both 'Touch' and 'Point' cues to infer the correct location of the reward but did not perform above the level expected by chance in the 'Head only' condition. We conclude that goats are able to differentiate among different body postures of a human, including head orientation; however, despite their success at using multiple physical human cues, they fail to spontaneously use human head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

  19. Food related processes in the insular cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eFrank

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex.In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa. The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex.

  20. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  1. Harmonisation of selected food-related regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, A.; Sperner, B.; Krausse, G.

    1997-01-01

    Many rules concerning food were issued in the European Union during the last few years. The most important of these and especially those which are not yet integrated into German law shall be dealt with in this review. Thus, based on Directive 89/107/EEC, which deals with food additives in general, three specific directives were created, i. e. Directive 94/35/EC about sweetening agents, Directive 94/36/EC concerning colouring agents and the so called Miscellaneous Directive (95/2/EC). The provisions contained in all of these are supposed to be enacted this year via a new national ,,Zusatzstoff-Zulassungsverordnung. In this context, it has to be considered that the time set for the integration of these directives into national rules has already expired. This means that the provisions included therein can already be applied in Germany. This is also the case with Directive 96/33/EC, which leads to a complementation of the Rückstandshöchstmengen-Verordnung, and Directives 94/54/EC and 96/21/EC, which contain additional labelling requirements not yet included in the Lebensmittel-Kennzeichnungsverordnung. Several more changes of the Lebensmittel-Kennzeichnungsverordnung are required until August 1998 in order to integrate Directive 97/4/EC. Further directives for which these deadlines have not yet been reached are Directive 96/8/EC concerning low calory food for weight reduction and Directive 96/93/EC about certificates for animals and animal products. In addition to directives, EC-regulations also have to be considered, which are directly valid in the Member States. Important food-related regulations issued this year are Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 about novel food and novel food ingredients and Regulation (EC) No. 820/97 concerning the registration and labelling of cattle and beef. While the first of these is already valid, the provisions included in the latter have to be implemented in part till the beginning of next year. Further rules in other areas are planned, for

  2. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) has... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0103] Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption...

  4. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology/approach...

  5. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  6. The gourmet ape: evolution and human food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, John R

    2009-09-01

    This review explores the relation between evolution, ecology, and culture in determining human food preferences. The basic physiology and morphology of Homo sapiens sets boundaries to our eating habits, but within these boundaries human food preferences are remarkably varied, both within and between populations. This does not mean that variation is entirely cultural or learned, because genes and culture may coevolve to determine variation in dietary habits. This coevolution has been well elucidated in some cases, such as lactose tolerance (lactase persistence) in adults, but is less well understood in others, such as in favism in the Mediterranean and other regions. Genetic variation in bitter taste sensitivity has been well documented, and it affects food preferences (eg, avoidance of cruciferous vegetables). The selective advantage of this variation is not clear. In African populations, there is an association between insensitivity to bitter taste and the prevalence of malaria, which suggests that insensitivity may have been selected for in regions in which eating bitter plants would confer some protection against malaria. Another, more general, hypothesis is that variation in bitter taste sensitivity has coevolved with the use of spices in cooking, which, in turn, is thought to be a cultural tradition that reduces the dangers of microbial contamination of food. Our evolutionary heritage of food preferences and eating habits leaves us mismatched with the food environments we have created, which leads to problems such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Scientific opinion: Risks for human health related to the presence of 3- and 2-monochloropropanediol (MCPD), and their fatty acid esters, and glycidyl fatty acid esters in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on free and esterified 3- and 2-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD) and glycidyl esters in food. Esters of 3- and 2-MCPD and glycidol are contaminants of processed vegetable oils; free MCPDs are formed in some processed foods. The Panel on Contaminants in

  8. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg...

  9. Food consumption inhibits pain-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Peggy; Foo, H

    2009-07-01

    The function of the endogenous analgesia system under natural circumstances has been little explored. Our recent work shows that animals are significantly less responsive to noxious stimulation during slow wave sleep, micturition, and while eating than during quiet wake. The analgesia associated with eating is dependent on activity in the medullary raphe magnus, the final common brain stem region in endogenous analgesia pathways. Eating analgesia does not depend on energy-depletion due to food deprivation. Further, analgesia accompanies chow-eating even though chow has no sucrose, demonstrating that sucrose is not a necessary component of analgesia-evoking ingestates. Since raphe magnus modulates processing of innocuous as well as nociceptive information, the sensory suppression accompanying eating is likely a more general depression of the response to external stimulation. Such a phenomenon would serve animals well under natural conditions where energy-dense food is scarce but has counterproductive effects, possibly contributing to obesity, in modern human society where energy-dense food is readily available.

  10. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of modified forms of certain mycotoxins in food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human and animal health related to modified forms of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone, nivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and fumonisins were evaluated. Modified (often called “masked”) mycotoxins are metabolites of the parent mycotoxin...... formed in the plant or fungus, e.g. by conjugation with polar compounds. Fumonisins, which are difficult to extract from the plant matrix, are also termed modified mycotoxins. The CONTAM Panel considered it appropriate to assess human exposure to modified forms of the various toxins in addition...... to the parent compounds, because many modified forms are hydrolysed into the parent compounds or released from the matrix during digestion. For modified forms of zearalenone, nivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and fumonisins, 100 %, 30 %, 10 % and 60 % were added, respectively based on reports on the relative...

  11. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell in vitro system to test the efficacy of food bioactive compounds: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with BMI

    KAUST Repository

    Cifre, Margalida; Diaz Rua, Ruben; Varela-Calviñ o, Rubé n; Reyné s, Bà rbara; Pericá s-Beltrá n, Jordi; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2016-01-01

    is impaired in OW/OB. These results confirm the utility of PBMC ex vivo systems for bioactive-compound screening to promote functional food development and to establish appropriate dietary strategies for obese population.

  12. The Center for Advanced Food Technology: Food Related Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-16

    34Molecular Restructuring and Complexation During Extrusion of Cornmeal ," Food Extnusion Scie-nce and Technology pp. 437-448.j J, Kokini, C.-T. Ho, M. Karwe...L-F., and K-Y. Chan (1991) "Molecular Transformations of Starch and Protein During Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Cornmeal ," Food Extrusion

  13. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0853] Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium... dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) as an antimicrobial agent for use in wash water for fruits and vegetables...

  14. Quality related communication approaches for organic food

    OpenAIRE

    Bodini, Antonella; Richter, T.; Felder, R.

    2006-01-01

    As food quality becomes more complex, consumer s are tending to reduce their involvement in the food purchase decision- making process. Consequently, prices are becoming more significant as they represent an easy choice criterion when consumer s have less information about the differences between the product and process quality inherent in food items (including environmental or social issues). The organic food sector provides high, complex food quality profiles and has therefore been seriousl...

  15. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  16. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely

  17. Human Relations Class. A Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Mary A.

    A junior high level human relations class develops human interaction and oral communication skills. A week-by-week syllabus contains the following components: introduction of the students to each other and to the principles of body language, transactional analysis, and group interaction; behavior contracts; group dynamics topics and exercises;…

  18. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  19. Complete genes may pass from food to human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spisák, Sándor; Solymosi, Norbert; Ittzés, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded...... into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal......-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly...

  20. A moveable feast: Contemporary relational food cultures emerging from local food networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Although the globalised food system delivers unparalleled food variety and quantity to most in the developed world it also disconnects consumers from where, how and by whom food is grown. This change in the food system has resulted in an acceptance of an anonymous and homogeneous food supply, which has contributed to over-consumption and the rise in diet-related diseases. 'Nutritionism' responds to this issue by maintaining that a 'healthy diet' can be achieved by consuming the correct balance of energy and nutrients, but with limited success. Yet, some food cultures can moderate the effects of the environmental drivers of increasing global obesity rates. This paper draws on this premise and presents an alternative eco-dietetic response, exploring people's meaning-making of food and food culture through local food networks. This research used narrative inquiry methodology and purposive sampling to gather stories through focus group conversations. Twenty people attended focus groups comprised of food procurers from one of three local food networks in the Canberra region: community gardens, a modified Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and farmers' markets. The findings showed that those using local food networks enjoyed a 'contemporary relational food culture' that highlighted the importance of people, place and time, in their visceral experiences of food. The community gardeners made meaning of food through their connections to the earth and to others. The farmers' market and CSA food procurers valued the seasonal, local and ethical food produced by their beloved farmer(s). This paper provides qualitative evidence that local food networks enable people to enjoy multi-dimensional relationships to food. Further research is required to examine whether experiencing a contemporary relational food culture can lead to improved health outcomes for people and the planet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  2. Categorizing food-related illness: Have we got it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Louise

    2017-06-13

    Since the 1950s food safety hazards have been categorized simply as (micro) biological, chemical or physical hazards with no clear differentiation between those that cause acute and chronic harm. Indeed international risk assessment methods, including hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) use these criteria. However, the spectrum of food related illness continues to grow now encompassing food allergy and intolerance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, stroke, heart disease, cancer as well as food poisoning, foodborne illness and food contamination. Therefore over a half-century later is this the time to redefine the spectrum of what constitutes food related illness? This paper considers whether such "redefinition" of food related intoxicating and infectious agents would provide more targeted policy instruments and lead to better risk assessment and thus mitigation of such risk within the food supply chain.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  4. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  5. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  6. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  7. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' ...

  8. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  9. [Projective identification in human relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göka, Erol; Yüksel, Fatih Volkan; Göral, F Sevinç

    2006-01-01

    Melanie Klein, one of the pioneers of Object Relations Theory, first defined "projective identification", which is regarded as one of the most efficacious psychoanalytic concepts after the discovery of the "unconscious". Examination of the literature on "projective identification" shows that there are various perspectives and theories suggesting different uses of this concept. Some clinicians argue that projective identification is a primitive defense mechanism observed in severe psychopathologies like psychotic disorder and borderline personality disorder, where the intra-psychic structure has been damaged severely. Others suggest it to be an indispensable part of the transference and counter-transference between the therapist and the patient during psychotherapy and it can be used as a treatment material in the therapy by a skillful therapist. The latter group expands the use of the concept through normal daily relationships by stating that projective identification is one type of communication and part of the main human relation mechanism operating in all close relationships. Therefore, they suggest that projective identification has benign forms experienced in human relations as well as malign forms seen in psychopathologies. Thus, discussions about the definition of the concept appear complex. In order to clarify and overcome the complexity of the concept, Melanie Klein's and other most important subsequent approaches are discussed in this review article. Thereby, the article aims to explain its important function in understanding the psychopathologies, psychotherapeutic relationships and different areas of normal human relations.

  10. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  11. Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) 'wanting', as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) 'liking', as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit 'liking' and 'wanting' (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food 'liking' (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of 'liking', and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (pFASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit 'wanting' and 'liking' significantly increased for all food categories. 'Liking' of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED.

  12. Relation between household food insecurity and breastfeeding in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Sarah K; Dachner, Naomi; Frank, Lesley; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2018-03-19

    Qualitative studies have suggested that food insecurity adversely affects infant feeding practices. We aimed to determine how household food insecurity relates to breastfeeding initiation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants in Canada. We studied 10 450 women who had completed the Maternal Experiences - Breastfeeding Module and the Household Food Security Survey Module of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2005-2014) and who had given birth in the year of or year before their interview. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression to examine the relation between food insecurity and infant feeding practices, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mood disorders and diabetes mellitus. Overall, 17% of the women reported household food insecurity, of whom 8.6% had moderate food insecurity and 2.9% had severe food insecurity (weighted percentages). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, women with food insecurity were no less likely than others to initiate breastfeeding or provide vitamin D supplementation to their infants. Half of the women with food insecurity ceased exclusive breastfeeding by 2 months, whereas most of those with food security persisted with breastfeeding for 4 months or more. Relative to women with food security, those with marginal, moderate and severe food insecurity had significantly lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 4 months, but only women with moderate food insecurity had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, independent of sociodemographic characteristics (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.92). Adjustment for maternal mood disorder or diabetes slightly attenuated these relationships. Mothers caring for infants in food-insecure households attempted to follow infant feeding recommendations, but were less able than women with food security to sustain exclusive breastfeeding. Our findings highlight the

  13. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Techane Bosona; Girma Gebresenbet

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and...

  15. Exposure to television food advertising primes food-related cognitions and triggers motivation to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Hollitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment 1) and 124 overweight or obese community-dwelling women (Experiment 2) viewed a series of television commercials advertising either food or non-food products. They then completed the word stem task and also rated their desire to eat. Exposure to televised food advertisements led to the completion of word stems with more food- and eating-related words in both experiments. It also increased self-reported desire to eat, but only for overweight and obese individuals (Experiment 2). In both samples, there was a positive association between accessibility of food-related cognitions and reported desire to eat, following priming with television food advertisements. We conclude that an increased activation of food-related cognitions may provide a mechanism for the link between food advertising and consumption. This has implications for tackling pathological (over)eating.

  16. Determinants of consumer behavior related to organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Magnusson, Maria; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    There have been many studies of what influences consumers in their decisions to purchase or consume organic foods, mainly concerned with fresh organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with people being positive about organic foods but often not purchasing them. This discrepancy seems to be explained by the fact that consumers do not consider "organically produced" to be an important purchase criterion, that organic foods are not perceived to surpass conventional foods regarding taste and shelf life (two qualities rated to be of great importance), and because of the perceived premium prices of organic foods. In two Swedish studies, health benefits were demonstrated to be more strongly related to attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental benefits. A new European Union (EU) project will investigate the influences on both fresh and processed organic foods and investigate the role of moral, ethical, and affective influences on choice across eight EU countries.

  17. Aluminium: Food-related health risk assessment of the consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Bagryantseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the lithosphere, constituting 8 % of the earth's crust. Aluminum enters the food from the various objects of environment such as water, food contact materials (packaging materials, cooking vessels, aluminum-containing food additives. In raw food products the content of aluminum is less than 5.7 mg/kg of the product. Normally, aluminum is not practically found in a human body. However, within the last decade various toxic effects of aluminum on human body have been revealed, and they are able to cause the risk of various diseases. The analysis of the available data has demonstrated that the excessive entry of aluminum in human body with food items is associated first of all with the content of aluminum-containing food additives, as well as with the use of materials and products made of aluminum and its alloys intended for contact with food. High level of aluminum consumption has been also detected among children of all ages. At the same time, today, theprovisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI of aluminum for children is not established. To reduce negative effect of aluminum on human body it is necessary to: * exclude from the list of Annex 2 of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "Requirements for Food Additives, Flavorings and Technological Aids” (TR TS 029/2012 the following food additives – potassium aluminum silicate (E555, bentonite (E558, sodium aluminum silicate (E554, potassium aluminum silicate (E555, calcium aluminum silicate (E556, aluminum silicate (kaolin (E559; * to develop requirements for the aluminum content in food products intended for children nutrition; * to obtain data on aluminum content in food items sold on the domestic market and to assess health risks to consumers.

  18. Oral tolerance induction for human food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jae Ho

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies are classified as IgE-mediated and non-IgE mediated type. The number of successful reports of immunotherapy, namely tolerance induction for food allergy (TIFA) are increasing, bringing hope for meaningful positive and radical treatment of food allergy. Therapeutic characteristics of the clinical course in TIFA for NFA are different from TIFA for IFA. Cytokines including IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ and regulatory cells such as Treg and Breg, are involved in immune tolerance. IFN-γ has been used for tolerance induction of food allergy as an immunomodulatory biologics. A definitive distinction between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies is absolutely essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Original SOTI using IFN-γ is more effective then conventional SOTI without IFN-γ. Especially, IFN-γ is absolutely necessary for the tolerance induction of NFA. This review highlights and updates the advances in the conceptual immunological background and the clinical characteristics of oral tolerance induction for food allergy.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Processing Facilities, Food Contamination, and Human Listeriosis: The Brazilian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Woodward, Joshua John; Call, Douglas Ruben; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that contaminates food-processing environments and persists within biofilms on equipment, utensils, floors, and drains, ultimately reaching final products by cross-contamination. This pathogen grows even under high salt conditions or refrigeration temperatures, remaining viable in various food products until the end of their shelf life. While the estimated incidence of listeriosis is lower than other enteric illnesses, infections caused by L. monocytogenes are more likely to lead to hospitalizations and fatalities. Despite the description of L. monocytogenes occurrence in Brazilian food-processing facilities and foods, there is a lack of consistent data regarding listeriosis cases and outbreaks directly associated with food consumption. Listeriosis requires rapid treatment with antibiotics and most drugs suitable for Gram-positive bacteria are effective against L. monocytogenes. Only a minority of clinical antibiotic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains have been described so far; whereas many strains recovered from food-processing facilities and foods exhibited resistance to antimicrobials not suitable against listeriosis. L. monocytogenes control in food industries is a challenge, demanding proper cleaning and application of sanitization procedures to eliminate this foodborne pathogen from the food-processing environment and ensure food safety. This review focuses on presenting the L. monocytogenes distribution in food-processing environment, food contamination, and control in the food industry, as well as the consequences of listeriosis to human health, providing a comparison of the current Brazilian situation with the international scenario.

  20. Hippocampal leptin signaling reduces food intake and modulates food-related memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Greenwald, Holly S; Fortin, Samantha M; Gianessi, Carol A; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2011-08-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the neural systems controlling food intake; one that extends beyond food intake driven by metabolic need and considers that driven by higher-order cognitive factors. The hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory function, has recently been linked with food intake control. Here we examine whether administration of the adiposity hormone leptin to the dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the hippocampus influences food intake and memory for food. Leptin (0.1 μg) delivered bilaterally to the ventral hippocampus suppressed food intake and body weight measured 24 h after administration; a higher dose (0.4 μg) was needed to suppress intake following dorsal hippocampal delivery. Leptin administration to the ventral but not dorsal hippocampus blocked the expression of a conditioned place preference for food and increased the latency to run for food in an operant runway paradigm. Additionally, ventral but not dorsal hippocampal leptin delivery suppressed memory consolidation for the spatial location of food, whereas hippocampal leptin delivery had no effect on memory consolidation in a non-spatial appetitive response paradigm. Collectively these findings indicate that ventral hippocampal leptin signaling contributes to the inhibition of food-related memories elicited by contextual stimuli. To conclude, the results support a role for hippocampal leptin signaling in the control of food intake and food-related memory processing.

  1. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

  2. Time to eat? The relationship between food security and food-related time use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Timothy K M; Nanney, M Susie; Tuttle, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present analysis, we seek to establish a relationship between time spent on food-related activities and food security status as well as between time spent on these activities and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program) participation and benefit level. After matching similar households using Coarsened Exact Matching, we estimate the relationship between food-related time, food insecurity and SNAP participation and benefit level using a comprehensive data set that combines two subsets of the Current Population Survey from years 2004-2010: the Food Security Supplement and the American Time Use Survey. City, suburban and rural areas of the USA. Non-institutionalized US population over the age of 15 years. Total sample size is 10 247 households. In single households, food insecurity and SNAP participation are associated with 20% more time in meal preparation and 13% less time eating. Similarly, in married households, SNAP participation and benefit level are associated with 32% less time in meal preparation while food insecurity is associated with 17% less time eating and 14% less time in grocery shopping. A significant relationship exists between time spent on food-related activities and food insecurity and SNAP. This implies that federal and state government may need to consider the time constraints many low-income households face when reforming food assistance programmes.

  3. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  4. Swedish Consumers' Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosona, Techane; Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-04-01

    Consumers' demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers' demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test (with alpha value of p price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  5. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  6. Laser metrology in food-related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Patricia; Lopez, Daniel; Kongraksawech, Teepakorn; Vazquez, Pedro; Torres, J. Antonio; Ramirez, Jose A.; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    An optical system was developed using a low-cost semiconductor laser and commercial optical and electronic components, to monitor food processes by measuring changes in optical rotation (OR) of chiral compounds. The OR signal as a function of processing time and sample temperature were collected and recorded using a computer data acquisition system. System has been tested during two different processes: sugar-protein interaction and, beer fermentation process. To study sugar-protein interaction, the following sugars were used: sorbitol, trehalose and sucrose, and in the place of Protein, Serum Albumin Bovine (BSA, A-7906 Sigma-Aldrich). In some food processes, different sugars are added to protect damage of proteins during their processing, storage and/or distribution. Different sugar/protein solutions were prepared and heated above critical temperature of protein denaturation. OR measurements were performed during heating process and effect of different sugars in protein denaturation was measured. Higher sensitivity of these measurements was found compared with Differential Scanning Calorimetry, which needs higher protein concentration to study these interactions. The brewing fermentation process was monitored in-situ using this OR system and validated by correlation with specific density measurements and gas chromatography. This instrument can be implemented to monitor fermentation on-line, thereby determining end of process and optimizing process conditions in an industrial setting. The high sensitivity of developed OR system has no mobile parts and is more flexible than commercial polarimeters providing the capability of implementation in harsh environments, signifying the potential of this method as an in-line technique for quality control in food processing and for experimentation with optically active solutions.

  7. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  8. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed...... benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management.......This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions...

  9. Food related antibodies in headache patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Merrett, J; Peatfield, R C; Rose, F C; Merrett, T G

    1983-01-01

    Highly sensitive and specific methods for assaying IgE and IgG4 for antibodies in serum have been developed in order to test a recent suggestion that food allergy is a major cause of migraine. Sera were collected from 208 adults--74 with dietary migraine, 45 with non-dietary migraine, 29 with cluster headache and 60 controls. No significant differences were identified between any of the groups with the one exception that cluster headache patients had significantly raised levels of total serum...

  10. Towards a concept of food-related life style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Life style has become popular in explaining food choice. In this paper the way life style studies are usually conducted is criticized based on a) that the methods lack a theoretical foundation, b) that the statistical methods are questionable, and c)that the explanatory power with regard to food...... choice remains to be demonstrated. A cognitive deductive approach is presented as a theoretically more well-founded alternative. It defines life style as the system of cognitive categories, scripts, and their associations, which relate a set of products to a set of values. A concept of food-related life...... style should hence contain elements like shopping scripts, meal preparation scripts, desired higher-order food attributes, food usage situations, and desired consequences of food products....

  11. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p < 0.05 as level of significance, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. About 72% of participants have the perception that organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  12. Engineering aspects of rate-related processes in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Many rate-related phenomena occur in food manufacturing processes. This review addresses four of them, all of which are topics that the author has studied in order to design food manufacturing processes that are favorable from the standpoint of food engineering. They include chromatographic separation through continuous separation with a simulated moving adsorber, lipid oxidation kinetics in emulsions and microencapsulated systems, kinetic analysis and extraction in subcritical water, and water migration in pasta.

  13. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dieting and food cue-related working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  15. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n -back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion Part II on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituent(s) not supported by pertinent human data (ID 406, 462, 472, 543, 659, 678, 696, 858, 1381, 1403, 1437, 1438, 1513, 1536, 1537, , 1538, 1539, 1540, 1543, 1613, 1627, 1855, 1860, 1981, 2126, 2514, 3127, 4038, 4501, 4672, 4712, 4718) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to various food(s)/food constituent(s) not supported by pertinent human data. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... evaluated in this opinion. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the food(s)/food constituent(s) and the claimed effects evaluated in this opinion....

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion Part III on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituent(s) not supported by pertinent human data (ID 644, 946, 1717, 1730, 1742, 1760, 1871, 1894, 1910, 1926, 1933, 2000, 2024, , 2028, 2095, 2124, 2127, 2137, 2213, 2332, 2337, 2380, 2435, 2833, 2917, 3072, 3075, 3080, 3129, 3193, 3636, 4037, 4044, 4313) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to various food(s)/food constituent(s) not supported by pertinent human data. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... evaluated in this opinion. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the food(s)/food constituent(s) and the claimed effects evaluated in this opinion....

  18. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  19. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Great Britain, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The British consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their ce...

  20. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  1. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brennan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind—food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world’s population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...

  2. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  3. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99. PMID:29614785

  4. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  5. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. (a) Heretofore, the...

  6. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess nutrient intake in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C A; Curran, S; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-04-01

    To date, there are no food frequency questionnaires that have been validated to assess nutrient intakes in pregnant women in Ireland. The present study aimed to assess the relative validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire during pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire was administered once during pregnancy between 12 and 34 weeks. Participants also completed a 3-day food diary during each trimester of pregnancy (reference method) and intakes from both the food frequency questionnaire and the mean of the 3-day food diaries were compared in a sample of 130 participants from the control arm of an intervention study. Energy-adjusted Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.24 (riboflavin) to 0.59 (magnesium) and were all statistically significant (P food frequency questionnaire tended to report higher energy and nutrient intakes compared to the food diaries. On average, 74% of participants were classified into the same ± 1 quartile and 7% into opposing quartiles by the two methods. Overall, our food frequency questionnaire showed good relative validity. We conclude that a single administration of a food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool for ranking women in accordance with their nutrient intakes during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  8. Momentary Parental Stress and Food-Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela R; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that stress and depressed mood are associated with food-related parenting practices (ie, parent feeding practices, types of food served at meals). However, current measures of parental stress, depressed mood, and food-related parenting practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations across time and context. Identifying momentary factors that influence parent food-related parenting practices will facilitate the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy food-related parenting practices. In this study, we used ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between momentary factors (eg, stress, depressed mood) occurring early in the day and food-related parenting practices at the evening meal. Children aged 5 to 7 years and their families ( N = 150) from 6 racial and/or ethnic groups ( n = 25 each African American, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, American Indian, Somali, and white families) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Higher stress and depressed mood earlier in the day predicted pressure-to-eat feeding practices and fewer homemade foods served at meals the same night. Effect modification was found for certain racial and/or ethnic groups with regard to engaging in pressure-to-eat feeding practices (ie, America Indian, Somali) or serving fewer homemade meals (ie, African American, Hispanic/Latino) in the face of high stress or depressed mood. Clinicians may want to consider discussing with parents the influence stress and depressed mood can have on everyday food-related parenting practices. Additionally, future researchers should consider using real-time interventions to reduce parental stress and depressed mood to promote healthy parent food-related parenting practices. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a

  10. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  11. Relative validity of a short qualitative food frequency questionnaire for use in food consumption surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dekkers, Arnold; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; Ottevaere, Charlene; Van Oyen, Herman; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relative validity of a self-administered qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) applied in the Belgian food consumption survey. Comparison of food consumption data from an FFQ with 7-day estimated diet records (EDR) was made in a sample of 100 participants (aged 15-90 years). The FFQ comprised a total of 50 foods. Both FFQ and EDR foods were categorized into 15 conventional food groups. De-attenuated Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the FFQ and the EDR ranged from -0.16 for potatoes and grains to 0.83 for alcoholic beverages, with a median of 0.40 for all 15 food groups. The proportion of participants classified in the same tertile of intake by the FFQ and EDR ranged from 32% for potatoes and grains to 76% for alcoholic beverages. Extreme classification into opposite tertiles was foods and fats. Notwithstanding the short nature and the absence of portion size questions, the FFQ appears to be reasonably valid in both genders and across different age categories for most food groups. However, for the food groups bread and cereals, potatoes and grains, and sauces, estimates should be interpreted with caution because of poor ranking agreement.

  12. Testing relationships between values and food-related lifestyle:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The value survey developed by Shalom Schwartz (1992) has been applied in many countries with different purposes. In this study we present a new way of analysing the theoretically assumed circumplex structure of Schwartz value survey and its relationships to other constructs, here the instrument...... food-related lifestyle. In two countries; Germany and Spain, data were collected. In each country 1000 interviews were carried out where consumers were asked about their value priorities and about their food-related lifestyle. The study provides new insights into the way values influence peoples' food......-related lifestyle in Germany and Spain, and the results validate both the Schwartz value survey and the food-related lifestyle instrument in a nomological sense, since significant and meaningful relationships were found between the two constructs....

  13. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-07-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies.

  15. Modulation of attentional networks by food-related disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Maike A; Stingl, Krunoslav T; Veit, Ralf; Preissl, Hubert

    2017-07-01

    The risk of weight gain is especially related to disinhibition, which indicates the responsiveness to external food stimuli with associated disruptions in eating control. We adapted a food-related version of the attention network task and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the effects of disinhibition on attentional networks in 19 normal-weight participants. High disinhibition scores were associated with a rapid reorienting response to food pictures after invalid cueing and with an enhanced alerting effect of a warning cue signalizing the upcoming appearance of a food picture. Imaging data revealed activation of a right-lateralized ventral attention network during reorienting. The faster the reorienting and the higher the disinhibition score, the less activation of this network was observed. The alerting contrast showed activation in visual, temporo-parietal and anterior sites. These modulations of attentional networks by food-related disinhibition might be related to an attentional bias to energy dense and palatable food and increased intake of food in disinhibited individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  17. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Results Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one’s political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives. PMID:26808427

  19. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing the Abbreviated Food Technology Neophobia Scale and its relation to satisfaction with food-related life in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Hueche, Clementina; Höger, Yesli

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to test the relationships between food neophobia, satisfaction with food-related life and food technology neophobia, distinguishing consumer segments according to these variables and characterizing them according to willingness to purchase food produced with novel technologies. A survey was conducted with 372 university students (mean aged=20.4years, SD=2.4). The questionnaire included the Abbreviated version of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (AFTNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and a 6-item version of the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Using confirmatory factor analysis, it was confirmed that SWFL correlated inversely with FNS, whereas FNS correlated inversely with AFTNS. No relationship was found between SWFL and AFTNS. Two main segments were identified using cluster analysis; these segments differed according to gender and family size. Group 1 (57.8%) possessed higher AFTNS and FNS scores than Group 2 (28.5%). However, these groups did not differ in their SWFL scores. Group 1 was less willing to purchase foods produced with new technologies than Group 2. The AFTNS and the 6-item version of the FNS are suitable instruments to measure acceptance of foods produced using new technologies in South American developing countries. The AFTNS constitutes a parsimonious alternative for the international study of food technology neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  2. Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources.

  3. Measuring salient food attitudes and food-related values. An elaborated, conflicting and interdependent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mirjam; Jonas, Klaus; Riemann, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    Consumer food choice behaviour in post-industrial countries is complex and influenced by a multitude of interacting variables. This study looked at the antecedents of behaviour and examined salient food-related values and attitudes. To discover personal meanings and patterns of everyday food choices across different situations we used a qualitative approach in the form of repertory grid interviews. An analysis of the personal constructs elicited from a representative sample of 100 Swiss consumers revealed elaborated value systems. The food-related values can be summarised as: authenticity/naturalness, conviviality, health, quality/indulgence, convenience, and price. The salience of these values and their negatively evaluated counterparts differed for various social eating situations and product categories. Consumers' personal values also differed significantly from their perception of current trends in eating culture. In every-day food choices interdependent food-related values compete and are thus a possible cause of ambivalence and conflicts. The findings offer explanations of discrepancies between values/attitudes and behaviour that may be due to situational constraints and habits. Implications for companies include the need for strategic realignment to regain consumers' trust by providing comprehensive value-congruent food solutions that also consider health and ethical criteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winteringham, F P.W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture

    1980-03-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation.

  5. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  6. Seeds, food networks and politics: different ontologies in relation to food sovereignty in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Flores, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    In this thesis I explore the ontological proposal of food sovereignty and I discuss the possibilities offered by studies like this one to the attempts of the social sciences to explain – in a symmetrical fashion - that develop between humans and other entities at

  7. Are energy-dense foods really cheaper? Reexamining the relation between food price and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M

    2009-11-01

    The inverse relation between energy density (kcal/g) and energy cost (price/kcal) has been interpreted to suggest that produce (fruit, vegetables) is more expensive than snacks (cookies, chips). The objective of this study was to show the methodologic weakness of comparing energy density with energy cost. The relation between energy density and energy cost was replicated in a random-number data set. Additionally, observational data were collected for produce and snacks from an online supermarket. Variables included total energy (kcal), total weight (g), total number of servings, serving size (g/serving), and energy density (kcal/g). Price measures included energy cost ($/kcal), total price ($), unit price ($/g), and serving price ($/serving). Two-tailed t tests were used to compare price measures by food category. Relations between energy density and price measures within food categories were examined with the use of Spearman rank correlation analysis. The relation between energy density and energy cost was shown to be driven by the algebraic properties of these variables. Food category was strongly correlated with both energy density and food price measures. Energy cost was higher for produce than for snacks. However, total price and unit price were lower for produce. Serving price and serving size were greater for produce than for snacks. Within food categories, energy density was uncorrelated with most measures of food price, except for a weak positive correlation with serving price within the produce category. The findings suggest the relation between energy density and food price is confounded by food category and depends on which measure of price is used.

  8. Is maternal age at delivery related to childhood food allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioun, Anahita F; Harris, Sion Kim; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2003-08-01

    The prevalence of food allergies is increasing. Concurrently, the average maternal age at birth is also increasing. We conducted a preliminary study to evaluate whether maternal age at the time of delivery is associated with a food allergy in children. Case and control patients were identified among consecutive patients seen by one of us (AD) in the Allergy/Immunology program at the Children's Hospital Boston between 11/1/98 and 2/28/00. Case patients were born in Massachusetts and had evidence of clinical sensitivity and IgE to one or more food allergens (n = 58). Control patients were those born in Massachusetts who had a negative skin test and/or RAST to inhalant and/or food allergens (n = 96). A second comparison group consisted of all live births in Massachusetts in 1999 (n = 80,866). Information on maternal age at birth was missing from 3/58 (5%) of patients with a food allergy and 4/96 (4%) of the control patients, so these patients were not included in the analysis. The proportion of children whose mother was aged 30 and over at their birth was significantly higher in children with a food allergy than control patients (78% vs. 55% p = 0.005) and higher than all births in Massachusetts (78% vs. 53% p = 0.0002). Mothers of children with a food allergy had about three times greater odds of being aged 30 or over at the time of delivery than mothers in either of the comparison groups. Further exploration of the data using logistic regression showed that maternal age over 30 at delivery and being first born were independent predictors of the child having a food allergy. In this study, the presence of a food allergy in children was related to older maternal age at delivery. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate this relationship and its potential implication in preventive strategies for food allergies in children.

  9. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  10. The relation between food price, energy density and diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Bolarić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy density diet, high in fruits and vegetables, is related to lower obesity risk and to better health status, but is more expensive. High energy density diet, high in added sugar and fats, is more affordable, but is related to higher obesity and chronic diseases risk. The aim of this study was to report prices according to energy density (low vs. high of food items and to show how food affordability could affect food choice and consumers’ health. Data was collected for 137 raw and processed foods from three purchase sites in Zagreb (one representative for supermarket, one smaller shop and green market. Results showed that low energy density food is more expensive than high energy density food (for example, the price of 1000 kcal from green zucchini (15 kcal/100 g is 124.20 kn while the price of 1000 kcal from sour cream (138 kcal/100 g is 13.99 kn. Food energy price was significantly different (p<0.05 between food groups with highest price for vegetable products (159.04 ± 36.18 kn/1000 kcal and raw vegetables (97.90 ± 50.13 kn/1000 kcal and lowest for fats (8.49 ± 1.22 kn/1000 kcal and cereals and products (5.66 ± 0.76 kn/1000 kcal. Negative correlation (Spearman r=-0.72, p<0.0001 was observed for energy density (kcal/100 g and price of 1000 kcal. Therefore, it is advisable to develop strategies in order to reduce price of low energy density food and encourage its intake since it would improve diet quality, which could lead to better costumers’ health.

  11. Human body as a food for sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luiz de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article depicts a theoretical walk, based on a historical and cultural narrative, that presents the body as a central element in the formatting and construction of human sexuality. Such walk intuits to show some projections, thoughts and materialization which ascertained the physical beauty as a promoter of desires, intentions and erotic feelings, in favor of an announced sexuality and common sense as ideal. The objective was also discuss, how the physical body aesthetic has been the driving force for configuring standard discourses on sexuality, distorting the idea that only the similar bodies to the hegemonic body models can be considered as object of desire, pleasure, and sexual and erotic practices. Finally, it learns that the body can also be admitted as an instrument to subvert the predetermined logic that body, beauty and sexual practices appear to form a triad in favor of the myth of perfect or performative sexuality. As the bodies (all of them has been recognized by the community as promoters of pleasures, desires and foundation for effective practices and sexual/erotic routines, regardless of their physiological, anatomical and aesthetic formatting.

  12. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  13. Biotransformation of Food Dyes by Human Intestinal Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of food dyes (Tartrazine and Quinoline yellow) by Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal microflora was investigated. Decolourisation of the media containing the dyes was used as an index of biotransformation. Biotransformation was higher under aerobic than under ...

  14. Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Ziesemer, Katrin; Kauf, Peter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Brombach, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background : Scientifically valid descriptions of dietary intake at population level are crucial for investigating diet effects on health and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are the most common dietary tools used in large epidemiological studies. Objective : To examine the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ to be used as dietary assessment tool in epidemiological studies. Design : Validity was evaluated by comparing the FFQ and a 4-day weighed food record (4-d FR) at nutrient and food group levels, Spearman's correlations, Bland-Altman analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used. Fifty-six participants completed a paper format FFQ and a 4-d FR within 4 weeks. Results : Corrected correlations between the two instruments ranged from 0.27 (carbohydrates) to 0.55 (protein), and at food group level from 0.09 (soup) to 0.92 (alcohol). Nine out of 25 food groups showed correlations > 0.5, indicating moderate validity. More than half the food groups were overestimated in the FFQ, especially vegetables (82.8%) and fruits (56.3%). Water, tea and coffee were underestimated (-14.0%). Conclusions : The FFQ showed moderate relative validity for protein and the food groups fruits, egg, meat, sausage, nuts, salty snacks and beverages. This study supports the use of the FFQ as an acceptable tool for assessing nutrition as a health determinant in large epidemiological studies.

  15. NGO Duties in Relation to Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298979446

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the moral duties that human rights NGOs, such as Amnesty International, and development NGOs, such as Oxfam, have in relation to human rights – especially in relation to the human right to a decent standard of living. The mentioned NGOs are powerful new agents on the global

  16. RESPONSIBILITIES OF FOOD BUSINESS OPERATORS RELATED TO FOOD SAFETY: CONCERNS RELATED TO HACCP IN MICRO-BUSINESSES FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    T. Civera; D. Nucera; A. Bellio; M. Botosso; M. Mora; R. Goi; B. Griglio

    2012-01-01

    The research was aimed at collecting information on food safety knowledge by operators of small and less developed food businesses. This will allow to reveal what are the real drawbacks in HACCP application in these realities. Fifty meat producing plants located in Piedmont region were involved. In all the plants a questionnaire with questions on HACCP system was submitted. The analysis of the collected answers, evidenced that 42% of the operators needed to perform structural modifications in...

  17. Attentional bias for craving-related (chocolate) food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated attentional biases for craving-related food cues. A pictorial dot probe task was used to assess selective attentional processing of one particular highly desired food, namely chocolate, relative to that of other highly desired foods. In Experiment 1, we examined biased processing of chocolate cues in habitual (trait) chocolate cravers, whereas in Experiment 2 we investigated the effect of experimentally induced (state) chocolate cravings on such processing. As predicted, habitual chocolate cravers (Experiment 1) and individuals in whom a craving for chocolate was temporarily induced (Experiment 2) showed speeded detection of probes replacing chocolate-related pictures, demonstrating an attentional bias for chocolate cues. Subsequent examination indicated that in both experiments the observed attentional biases stemmed from difficulty in disengaging attention from chocolate cues rather than from a shift of attention toward such cues. The findings have important theoretical and practical implications.

  18. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. A measure of satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.

    2007-01-01

    A measure of satisfaction with food-related life is developed and tested in three studies in eight European countries. Five items are retained from an original pool of seven; these items exhibit good reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha, good temporal stability, convergent validity with two...... related measures, and construct validity as indicated by relationships with other indicators of quality of life, including the Satisfaction With Life and the SF-8 scales. It is concluded that this scale will be useful in studies trying to identify factors contributing to satisfaction with food...

  20. Multivariate representation of food preferences in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Luca; Holzer, Matthias; Mormann, Florian; Weber, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    One major goal in decision neuroscience is to investigate the neuronal mechanisms being responsible for the computation of product preferences. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether similar patterns of brain activity, reflecting category dependent and category independent preference signals, can be observed in case of different food product categories (i.e. chocolate bars and salty snacks). To that end we used a multivariate searchlight approach in which a linear support vector machine (l-SVM) was trained to distinguish preferred from non-preferred chocolate bars and subsequently tested its predictive power in case of chocolate bars (within category prediction) and salty snacks (across category prediction). Preferences were measured by a binary forced choice decision paradigm before the fMRI task. In the scanner, subjects saw only one product per trial which they had to rate after presentation. Consistent with previous multi voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) studies, we found category dependent preference signals in the ventral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but also in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Category independent preference signals were observed in the dorsal parts of mPFC, dACC, and dlPFC. While the first two results have also been reported in a closely related study, the activation in dlPFC is new in this context. We propose that the dlPFC activity does not reflect the products' value computation per se, but rather a modulatory signal which is computed in anticipation of the forthcoming product rating after stimulus presentation. Furthermore we postulate that this kind of dlPFC activation emerges only if the anticipated choices fall into the domain of primary rewards, such as foods. Thus, in contrast to previous studies which investigated preference decoding for stimuli from utterly different categories, the present study revealed some food domain specific aspects of

  1. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender...

  2. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  3. Human relations in SMEs from Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lizandro Arias Gallegos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research settles as aim, to determine the kind of human relations which prevail in small and medium enterprises (SMEs at Paucarpata district from Arequipa City. In order to, we use the Human Relations Questionnaire with acceptable levels of validity and reliability (α = 0,648 and discriminate between four types of human relations: unsecure, collaborative, selfish and hostile. The results point that predominant human relations in SMEs are the hostile type, and make us to suppose that work conditions don’t benefit employees and could even have negative consequences in their job performance and welfare.

  4. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Kim D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95 if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0 in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above. These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  5. RESPONSIBILITIES OF FOOD BUSINESS OPERATORS RELATED TO FOOD SAFETY: CONCERNS RELATED TO HACCP IN MICRO-BUSINESSES FOOD COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Civera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at collecting information on food safety knowledge by operators of small and less developed food businesses. This will allow to reveal what are the real drawbacks in HACCP application in these realities. Fifty meat producing plants located in Piedmont region were involved. In all the plants a questionnaire with questions on HACCP system was submitted. The analysis of the collected answers, evidenced that 42% of the operators needed to perform structural modifications in order to address the HACCP measures, whereas 40% applied modifications in working procedures. The most frequent shortcoming (44% of the answers of the HACCP system was represented by the applicability of Good Manufacturing Practices, and the most difficult control measure to be applied was the prevention of the cross-contaminations (40% of the answers. The information gathered within this project allowed to evidence the real needs of the micro businesses in the application of HACCP plan. These results can be useful for the institutions, which could elaborate HACCP alternative systems, able to better fulfil food safety requirements and Food Business Operator needs.

  6. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggitt, P R; Jaykus, L A

    2000-12-01

    Although viral foodborne disease is a significant problem, foods are rarely tested for viral contamination, and when done, testing is limited to shellfish commodities. In this work, we report a method to extract and detect human enteric viruses from alternative food commodities using an elution-concentration approach followed by detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. To reduce volumes further and remove RT-PCR inhibitors, a secondary PEG precipitation was necessary, resulting in an overall 10- to 20-fold sample size reduction from 50 g to 3 to 5 ml. Virus recoveries in secondary PEG concentrates ranged from 10 to 70% for PV1 and 2 to 4% for HAV as evaluated by mammalian cell culture infectivity assay. Total RNA from PEG concentrates was extracted to a small volume (30 to 40 microl) and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA sequences. Detection limit studies indicated that viral RNA was consistently detected by RT-PCR at initial inoculum levels > or =102 PFU/50-g food sample for PV1 and > or =10(3) PFU/50-g food sample for HAV. In similar studies with the Norwalk virus, detection at inoculum levels > or =1.5 X 10(3) PCR-amplifiable units/50-g sample for both food products was possible. All RT-PCR amplicons were confirmed by subsequent Southern hybridization. The procedure reported represents progress toward the development of methods to detect human enteric viral contamination in foods other than shellfish.

  7. [The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders.

  8. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  9. Insects as human food; from farm to fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Leah Wilson; Pieterse, Elsje; Sigge, Gunnar; Hoffman, Louw Christiaan

    2017-12-30

    Over the course of the last few years, the consumption of insects, known as entomophagy, has sparked increasing interest amongst scientists and environmentalists as a potential solution to the inevitable global food security and sustainability issues humans will be facing in the coming years. Despite the fact that insects have been an integral part of over 2 billion people's diet worldwide, the concept of eating insects is still new to Western culture. As a result, there are many unknowns regarding insects as a food source, and this has led to a number of studies and investigations being done in recent years to create more knowledge and awareness around this new concept in the food industry. This review discusses some of the key topics and new developments published over recent years, such as the nutritional benefits, food safety concerns, functional properties, potential product concepts and the current ideas and attitudes towards insects as a food source in Western culture. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  11. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments... food for human or animal consumption. As required by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), FDA... provide procedures for administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the...

  12. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... associated with specific types of food or specific methods of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding... specific methods of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food. In particular, we welcome input on... controls (e.g., procedures and practices utilized to minimize the risk of contamination) for human food and...

  13. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-contamination in the food production process, FDA investigations concluded that no peanut protein was present... . (c) The ingredient is used in food in accordance with good manufacturing practices under the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No...

  14. Food nitrogen footprint reductions related to a balanced Japanese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Nagano, Ichiro; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    Dietary choices largely affect human-induced reactive nitrogen accumulation in the environment and resultant environmental problems. A nitrogen footprint (NF) is an indicator of how an individual's consumption patterns impact nitrogen pollution. Here, we examined the impact of changes in the Japanese diet from 1961 to 2011 and the effect of alternative diets (the recommended protein diet, a pescetarian diet, a low-NF food diet, and a balanced Japanese diet) on the food NF. The annual per capita Japanese food NF has increased by 55% as a result of dietary changes since 1961. The 1975 Japanese diet, a balanced omnivorous diet that reportedly delays senescence, with a protein content similar to the current level, reduced the current food NF (15.2 kg N) to 12.6 kg N, which is comparable to the level in the recommended protein diet (12.3 kg N). These findings will help consumers make dietary choices to reduce their impacts on nitrogen pollution.

  15. Public opinion on food-related obesity prevention policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-08-01

    The study was designed to determine public acceptability of various forms of regulation to support a healthy eating environment. Telephone interviews were undertaken in June-July 2010 with a random sample of adults in Australia who were the main grocery buyer for their household. Data were analysed for 1,511 adults. A clear majority of participants (80% or more) were in favour of traffic light and kilojoule menu labelling, reformulation to reduce the fat, salt and sugar content of processed foods, and regulation of broadcast and non-broadcast avenues used to market unhealthy food and drinks to children. Relatively less support (two-thirds or more), particularly among lower socioeconomic status participants, was shown for taxation policies and controls on food company sponsorship of sports and education programs. Despite the survey's focus on food marketing avenues and methods directed at children, for the most part non-parents were just as likely as parents to support restrictions. Overall, these findings indicate that there is strong public support for the introduction of policy initiatives aimed at creating a healthier food environment.

  16. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  17. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  18. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, María Carmen; Engen, Phillip A; Bandín, Cristina; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Voigt, Robin M; Green, Stefan J; Naqib, Ankur; Keshavarzian, Ali; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans. Results revealed significant diurnal rhythms in salivary diversity and bacterial relative abundance ( i.e., TM7 and Fusobacteria) across both early and late eating conditions. More importantly, meal timing affected diurnal rhythms in diversity of salivary microbiota toward an inverted rhythm between the eating conditions, and eating late increased the number of putative proinflammatory taxa, showing a diurnal rhythm in the saliva. In a randomized, crossover study, we showed for the first time the impact of the timing of food intake on human salivary microbiota. Eating the main meal late inverts the daily rhythm of salivary microbiota diversity which may have a deleterious effect on the metabolism of the host.-Collado, M. C., Engen, P. A., Bandín, C., Cabrera-Rubio, R., Voigt, R. M., Green, S. J., Naqib, A., Keshavarzian, A., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

  19. Food addiction, orthorexia, and food-related stress among dietetics students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Gkiouras, Konstantinos; Markaki, Anastasia; Theodoridis, Xenophon; Tsakiri, Vasiliki; Mavridis, Pantelis; Dardavessis, Theodore; Chourdakis, Michael

    2018-05-19

    Health sciences, and in particular Nutrition and Dietetics students, have been shown to exhibit an increased prevalence of disordered eating. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFEDs), including stress-related eating, food addiction, and orthorexia, in relation to the dietary intake, among nutrition/dietetics students. A total of 176 undergraduate students from a Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, in Greece, participated in the study. Dietary intake was recorded, and the prevalence of Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotion and Stress (EADES), food addiction (with the modified Yale Food Addition scale mYFAS), and orthorexia were assessed. Chi-square and t tests were performed between sexes, orthorexic and non-orthorexic students, as well as between food-addicted and non-addicted participants. Multiple linear regression analysis assessed relationships between energy intake, BMI or waist circumference, and the food-related psychometric scales. Among participating students, 4.5% had food addiction and 68.2% demonstrated orthorexia. No differences were observed between men and women, concerning the prevalence of food addiction and orthorexia, the sum of mYFAS symptoms, or individual EADES factors. Orthorexic students exhibited increased BMI, reduced energy, and saturated fat intake. In addition, orthorexic men consumed more vegetables. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that orthorexic behavior was associated with increased BMI, waist circumference and energy intake. Lower BMI was associated with increasing ability to cope with emotion-and-stress-related eating and increasing appraisal of ability and resources to cope with emotions and stress. Emotion-and-stress-related eating was negatively associated with BMI. Appraisal of ability and resources to cope with emotions and stress was associated with the energy intake. Finally, age was positively correlated with the appraisal of outside

  20. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... mammalian cells. (See discussion at 71 FR 47729 at 47730). As such, traditional animal testing of the... 51758 at 51759, August 25, 2000). Suitability relates to the effectiveness of the ingredient in... additive be shown to be safe prior to marketing. Under Sec. 170.3(i), a food additive is ``safe'' if...

  1. Cyclodextrins in Food Technology and Human Nutrition: Benefits and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, É; Vikmon, M; Szente, L

    2016-09-09

    Cyclodextrins are tasteless, odorless, nondigestible, noncaloric, noncariogenic saccharides, which reduce the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids. They have low glycemic index and decrease the glycemic index of the food. They are either non- or only partly digestible by the enzymes of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and fermented by the gut microflora. Based on these properties, cyclodextrins are dietary fibers useful for controlling the body weight and blood lipid profile. They are prebiotics, improve the intestinal microflora by selective proliferation of bifidobacteria. These antiobesity and anti-diabetic effects make them bioactive food supplements and nutraceuticals. In this review, these features are evaluated for α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins, which are the cyclodextrin variants approved by authorities for food applications. The mechanisms behind these effects are reviewed together with the applications as solubilizers, stabilizers of dietary lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids and other nutraceuticals. The recent applications of cyclodextrins for reducing unwanted components, such as trans-fats, allergens, mycotoxins, acrylamides, bitter compounds, as well as in smart active packaging of foods are also overviewed.

  2. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  3. Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, M.; Lampila, P.; Shepherd, R.

    2012-01-01

    consumers’ responses to health claims that either promise to reduce a targeted disease risk or improve well-being in comparison to other types of health-related messages, and how attitudes towards nutritionally healthy eating, functional food and previous experience relating to products with health claims...... affect the consumers’ perceptions of nutrition and health claims. The data (N = 2385) were collected by paper and pencil surveys in Finland, the UK, Germany and Italy on a target group of consumers over 35 year old, solely or jointly responsible for the family’s food shopping. The results showed...... risk reduction with detailed information about function and health outcome. Previous experience with products with health claims and interest in nutritionally healthy eating promoted the utility of all claims, regardless of whether they were health or nutrition claims. However, to be influenced...

  4. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-contact animal foods, and the interpretation of test results, when the presence of Salmonella spp. in the... eggs) and direct-human-contact animal foods, and the interpretation of test results, when the presence... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0091...

  5. Food transitions in last 50 years and related environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P.; Reusser, D. E.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Food production is an important driver for global change processes such as land use change and green-house-gas emissions. We analyzed a global, long term data set on food consumption per country to identify typical patterns of diets for the last 50 years. From changes in these patterns, we derived food transitions on a global scale. Subsequently we assessed the environmental consequences from green-house-gas (GHG) emission and anthropogenic inputs. More specifically, we applied Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to identify the dietary patterns based on supply of 12 food groups from FAOSTAT dataset for a period 1961-2007. Using the data on energy output/input ratio for crop production and agricultural emission, we estimated fossil energy and GHG emission associated with the diets. We found 16 typical consumption patterns consisting of high, moderate, low and lowest calorie supply with varied food compositions. The high calorie diets are associated with a higher supply of cereals, animal-products, vegetable-oils and sugar-sweeteners featuring a total supply greater than 2800 kcal/cap/day. During the last 50 years, we observed food transitions from lower calories diets to higher calories diets. On the one hand, food transition towards affluent diet, sometime with shortcuts, occurred in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Some of the developing countries are also stagnated in the low consumption level during the last 50 years. The high calorie diets also embed higher fossil energy (1800-3500 kcal/cap/day) and are associated with higher GHG emissions (3.7-6.1 kg CO2 eq/cap/day). However, their non-CO2 GHG emission intensities per kilo calorie of food are relatively low. Changes in dietary patterns are a part of the global change processes. Identification of past transitions is way to predict possible future transitions. This in turn supports policy processes and negotiations in the fields of climate

  6. Food habits related to osteoporosis in women in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafraf, Maryam; Bazyun, Behnaz

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate food habits and some factors related to osteoporosis in women in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 399 childbearing age women who were attending health centers and 200 healthcare providers in 2007. Food habits and dietary calcium intake was evaluated by food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall method. Weight and height of subjects were also measured. Independent t-test, Mann-withney U test, Pearson, Spearman and Partial correlation coefficient tests were used for analyzing of data. Two groups of women had calcium intake deficiency. Daily frequency of milk, cheese, fruit and coffee consumptions in healthcare providers (0.82±0.82, 0.94±0.49, 2.01±1.28 and 0.84±2.05, Pfood habits compared to women who attending health centers. Educational programs are suggested to improve food habits among women to prevent osteoporosis in later life.

  7. HUMAN RELATIONS LABORATORY TRAINING STUDENT NOTEBOOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springport High School, MI.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS NOTEBOOK IS TO HELP THOSE STUDENTS INTERESTED IN TAKING PART IN THE SPRINGPORT HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN RELATIONS TRAINING LABORATORIES TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THEMSELVES, SOCIETY, AND HUMAN EMOTIONS SO THAT THEY MAY DEVELOP SOCIALLY AND EMOTIONALLY. THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THE NOTEBOOK IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR MAJOR AREAS--(1)…

  8. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus ... The impact of philosophy in the interpretation of African values with particular ... Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

  9. The incidental influence of memories of past eating occasions on consumers' emotional responses to food and food-related behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that

  10. Scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of 3-and 2-monochloropropanediol (MCPD), and their fatty acid esters, and glycidyl fatty acid esters in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on free and esterified 3- and 2-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (MCPD) and glycidyl esters in food. Esters of 3- and 2-MCPD and glycidol are contaminants of processed vegetable oils; free MCPDs are formed in some processed foods. The Panel on Contaminant...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AMONG SELECTED YOUNG CONSUMERS IN POLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zegan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the key factors infl uencing human health. Consuming foods that either naturally contain or have been enriched with bioactive substances may aid the organism’s proper development and functioning and, most importantly, be a vital element in the prophylaxis of many non-communicable diseases as well as improve general sense of well-being. The aim of the study was to compare behaviours related to functional foods among a selected group of young people. The survey was conducted among 153 purposively selected young consumers from Poland and Germany in March/April 2015. An original survey questionnaire was employed. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23 software was used for statistical analysis (chi-squared test p < 0.05. The term “functional foods” was largely unknown among the respondents. A defi nite majority of the survey participants reported having bought and consumed products that, in fact, belong to this group of foods. The main source of information on the topic of functional foods was the Internet. While buying these products, respondents from both countries chiefl y took into account the price, the quality and the list of ingredients. The results point to the need to popularize information about functional foods using trustworthy sources, in order to foster nutritional awareness. Consumer knowledge is the basis for the positive perception and acceptance of health-promoting foods and for making rational dietary choices. 

  12. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  13. Investigating important factors on empowering human resources: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Molaee Ghara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most precious assets for any organization and it is important to empower them as much as possible to create competitive advantage and to cope with rapid changes in organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study on one of food industries in province of Qom, Iran to determine important factors influencing empowering human resources. The proposed study uses factor analysis by choosing a sample of 380 people. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 and validates the overall questionnaire. Based on the results of this survey, there are three important factors including job related, personal related and organizational related issues. The study also uses Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests to rank the factors and the results demonstrate that organizational factor plays the most important role in empowering human resources followed by job related factors and personal factors.

  14. It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  15. Design strategies for human relations in services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Perik, E.M.; Secomandi, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree of control that designers might have over human relations in services. For this purpose, a number of speculative service designs were devised to address work-related stress. We focus on three of the generated designs, where design interventions have made changes to

  16. 31 CFR 585.521 - Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of food to relieve human... Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by.... (b) In general, specific licenses will only be granted for donations of food to be provided through...

  17. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  18. The Incidental Influence of Memories of Past Eating Occasions on Consumers’ Emotional Responses to Food and Food-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that food-related memories have on peoples’ emotional state and how this state is projected in a subsequent evaluation of images pertaining to food and food-related behaviors. Focus is placed on guilt and shame emotions. Through an online survey, three memories were investigated (a positive meal, a routine evening meal, and an overeating occasion) among UK consumers (N = 710). Participants primed with the overeating memory evaluated images related to junk food as conveying more feelings of guilt and shame than did participants primed with the memory of a positive meal. Moreover, this effect was moderated by participants’ dietary restraint status. Participants classified as having a high dietary restraint had stronger associations with the emotions guilt and shame than participants classified as low in dietary restraint. In contrast, a memory of a positive meal did not lead to positive valuations of any of the food-related images shown. Overall, the findings from the present study illustrate the partial impact that personal food memories have on consumers’ emotional response toward food-related issues, which in turn has the potential to affect future behavior. This study therefore contributes to the literature about cognitive effects on food attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that the empirical approach may be tapping into possibly unconscious emotions toward foods and food-related behavior. PMID:27445911

  19. The Incidental Influence of Memories of Past Eating Occasions on Consumers' Emotional Responses to Food and Food-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that food-related memories have on peoples' emotional state and how this state is projected in a subsequent evaluation of images pertaining to food and food-related behaviors. Focus is placed on guilt and shame emotions. Through an online survey, three memories were investigated (a positive meal, a routine evening meal, and an overeating occasion) among UK consumers (N = 710). Participants primed with the overeating memory evaluated images related to junk food as conveying more feelings of guilt and shame than did participants primed with the memory of a positive meal. Moreover, this effect was moderated by participants' dietary restraint status. Participants classified as having a high dietary restraint had stronger associations with the emotions guilt and shame than participants classified as low in dietary restraint. In contrast, a memory of a positive meal did not lead to positive valuations of any of the food-related images shown. Overall, the findings from the present study illustrate the partial impact that personal food memories have on consumers' emotional response toward food-related issues, which in turn has the potential to affect future behavior. This study therefore contributes to the literature about cognitive effects on food attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that the empirical approach may be tapping into possibly unconscious emotions toward foods and food-related behavior.

  20. Relative importance of dissolved and food pathways for lead contamination in shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, F.; Cotret, O.; Teyssie, J.-L.; El-Baradeie, M.; Fowler, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method. Shrimp were exposed to 210 Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of 210 Pb-labelled food, viz. mussels or worms. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Steady state in the uptake was reached after 2 days exposure to dissolved lead, with a resultant estimated concentration factor of 98 ± 3. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels. Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P. varians. Although the transfer of lead to P. varians through the ingestion of contaminated food was low (TF < 1%), it still represented 4 to 8% of the lead content in the prey which is a significant additional contribution of lead to the shrimp body burden. Independent of food type, following ingestion of contaminated food, approximately 23-27% of total lead accumulated in shrimp was located in the edible parts (e.g. muscle). Therefore, the food pathway is suggested to be a significant contributor to the lead transfer to humans through ingestion of contaminated shrimp. After exposure to contaminated food, lead loss kinetics were described by a two-component model, whereas Pb loss following direct uptake from seawater was best described by a three-component model. The additional compartment representing 64% of total Pb

  1. Relative importance of dissolved and food pathways for lead contamination in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, F.; Cotret, O.; Teyssie, J.-L.; El-Baradeie, M.; Fowler, S.W

    2003-12-01

    The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method. Shrimp were exposed to {sup 210}Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of {sup 210}Pb-labelled food, viz. mussels or worms. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Steady state in the uptake was reached after 2 days exposure to dissolved lead, with a resultant estimated concentration factor of 98 {+-} 3. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels. Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P. varians. Although the transfer of lead to P. varians through the ingestion of contaminated food was low (TF < 1%), it still represented 4 to 8% of the lead content in the prey which is a significant additional contribution of lead to the shrimp body burden. Independent of food type, following ingestion of contaminated food, approximately 23-27% of total lead accumulated in shrimp was located in the edible parts (e.g. muscle). Therefore, the food pathway is suggested to be a significant contributor to the lead transfer to humans through ingestion of contaminated shrimp. After exposure to contaminated food, lead loss kinetics were described by a two-component model, whereas Pb loss following direct uptake from seawater was best described by a three-component model. The additional compartment representing 64

  2. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    organizational diagnosis , the group is itself a living human system. A group may be underbounded, overbounded, or optimally bounded. The state of group...very im- portant to understand and to use in order to conduct organizational diagnosis " using group methods. 2 -43 (Alderfer, 1977b). The group...Boundary Relations and Organizational Diagnosis . In H. Meltzer and F.W. Wickert (eds.) Humanizing Organizational Behavior. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas

  3. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  4. Assessment of awareness on food borne zoonosis and its relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zoonosis and its relation with Veterinary Public Health Services in Addis Ababa ... appropriate communication media, and to strengthen the contribution of public .... professionals was considered important in their selection of inspected meat ... inter194 professional role of veterinary medicine in human health promotion and.

  5. Human dignity: intrinsic or relative value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Marie-Jo

    2010-09-01

    Is human dignity an intrinsic value? Or is it a relative value, depending on the perception or assessment of quality of life? History had delineated some of its key features, but the advent of human rights and the Holocaust put special emphasis on this notion, particularly in the field of bioethics. But if modern medicine regards human dignity as crucial, it tends to support this notion while assessing and measuring it. The quality of life becomes the gauge for measuring human dignity, starting from a distinction between a viable and a non-viable existence, which may eventually lead to assisted death, or to letting die. This article argues that the concept of quality of life is of great relevant for medical practice, but on the condition of not being used as a standard to measure the dignity of the individual. Rather, the quality of life should be regarded as an imperative posed by human dignity, which is necessarily intrinsic. If the quality of life measures dignity, humankind is divided into two categories: lives worthy of living, and lives unworthy of living, and society becomes a jungle. Raising the quality of life as a requirement of the inherent human dignity does not solve automatically all problems and does not eliminate a feeling of unworthiness. But it ensures its 'human' value: the equal respect for every human being.

  6. The Marine Food Chain in Relation to Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R.G. Price

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity provides “raw materials” for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y -1 and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world’s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ. This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide is not only the site of coastal “food factories” but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are “species effects”, in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are “ecosystem effects”, such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function.

  7. Food Habits Related To Osteoporosis in Women in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Bazyun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0TBackground: 0TOsteoporosis is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate food habits and 0Tsome factors related to0T osteoporosis in women in Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 399 childbearing age women who were attending health centers and 200 healthcare providers in 2007. Food habits and dietary calcium intake was evaluated by food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall method. Weight and height of subjects were also measured. Independent t-test, Mann-withney U test, 0TPearson, Spearman and 0TPartial0T correlation coefficient tests 0Twere used for analyzing of data.Results: Two groups of women had calcium intake deficiency. Daily frequency of milk, cheese, fruit and coffee consumptions in healthcare providers (0.82±0.82, 0.94±0.49, 2.01±1.28 and 0.84±2.05, P<0.02 were significantly higher than those of women attending health centers(0.58±0.72, 0.84±0.32, 1.50±0.99 and 0.48±1.25. Mean frequency use of dark vegetables, cola and pickles were significantly (P<0.004 higher in women who attending health centers (0.67±0.50, 1.55±2.36 and 1.92±2.03 than those of the other group (0.50±0.44, 1.09±2.65 and 1.49±1.72. In women who were attending health centers, negative and posi-tive significant relationship was found between daily calcium intake with age (P<0.04 and educational level (P<0.001. No significant relationship was found between body mass index with studied variables.Conclusion: Women of health care providers had healthier food habits compared to women who attending health centers. Educational programs are suggested to improve food habits among women to prevent osteoporosis in later life.

  8. Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Wood, A; Lawrence, M; Mhurchu, C N; Albert, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Andrew; Colledge, Sue; Fuller, Dorian; Fyfe, Ralph; Shennan, Stephen; Stevens, Chris

    2017-12-05

    We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources. For the Neolithic, this evidence questions existing models of wholly endogenous demographic boom-bust. For the wider Holocene, it demonstrates that climate-related disruptions have been quasi-periodic drivers of societal and subsistence change. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Review of the inhibition of biological activities of food-related selected toxins by natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Rasooly, Reuven

    2013-04-23

    There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by natural compounds and plant extracts of the biological (toxicological) activity of the following food-related toxins: aflatoxin B1, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A produced by fungi; cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae bacteria; Shiga toxins produced by E. coli bacteria; staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; ricin produced by seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis; and the glycoalkaloid α-chaconine synthesized in potato tubers and leaves. The reduction of biological activity has been achieved by one or more of the following approaches: inhibition of the release of the toxin into the environment, especially food; an alteration of the structural integrity of the toxin molecules; changes in the optimum microenvironment, especially pH, for toxin activity; and protection against adverse effects of the toxins in cells, animals, and humans (chemoprevention). The results show that food-compatible and safe compounds with anti-toxin properties can be used to reduce the toxic potential of these toxins. Practical applications and research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the toxic burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes of animal feed and human food and (b) educate food producers and processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating the undesirable effects of natural toxins that may present in the diet.

  11. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin, -ca...

  12. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  13. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid identification of closely related muscle foods by vibrational spectroscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Clarke, Sarah J; Goodacre, Royston

    2005-12-01

    Muscle foods are an integral part of the human diet and during the last few decades consumption of poultry products in particular has increased significantly. It is important for consumers, retailers and food regulatory bodies that these products are of a consistently high quality, authentic, and have not been subjected to adulteration by any lower-grade material either by accident or for economic gain. A variety of methods have been developed for the identification and authentication of muscle foods. However, none of these are rapid or non-invasive, all are time-consuming and difficulties have been encountered in discriminating between the commercially important avian species. Whilst previous attempts have been made to discriminate between muscle foods using infrared spectroscopy, these have had limited success, in particular regarding the closely related poultry species, chicken and turkey. Moreover, this study includes novel data since no attempts have been made to discriminate between both the species and the distinct muscle groups within these species, and this is the first application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of muscle foods. Samples of pre-packed meat and poultry were acquired and FT-IR and Raman measurements taken directly from the meat surface. Qualitative interpretation of FT-IR and Raman spectra at the species and muscle group levels were possible using discriminant function analysis. Genetic algorithms were used to elucidate meaningful interpretation of FT-IR results in (bio)chemical terms and we show that specific wavenumbers, and therefore chemical species, were discriminatory for each type (species and muscle) of poultry sample. We believe that this approach would aid food regulatory bodies in the rapid identification of meat and poultry products and shows particular potential for rapid assessment of food adulteration.

  15. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community.

  17. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  18. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  19. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on risks for public health related to the presence of chlorate in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human health related to the presence of chlorate in food were assessed by the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel). The presence of chlorate in food can arise from the use of chlorinated water for food processing...... and the disinfection of food-processing equipment. Inhibition of iodine uptake in humans was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to chlorate. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 3 µg chlorate/kg body weight (b.w.) was set by read-across from a TDI of 0.3 µg/kg b.w. derived for this effect...... with mild or moderate iodine deficiency. Mean and 95th percentile acute exposures were below the ARfD for all age groups indicating no concern. Based on the current practices in food industry, application of a hypothetical maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.7 mg/kg for all foodstuffs and drinking water would...

  20. 78 FR 277 - Food and Drug Administration Actions Related to Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Dependence; Public Hearing; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification of public hearing; Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 15 [Docket No...

  1. Legacy and emerging brominated flame retardants in China: A review on food and human milk contamination, human dietary exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-05-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of widely used chemicals, which have been produced and used since 1970s. As a consequence of substantial and long-term usage, BFRs have been found to be ubiquitous in humans, wildlife, and abiotic matrices around the world. Although several reports have reviewed BFRs contamination in general, none have focused specifically on foods and human milk, and the corresponding dietary exposure. Foods (including human milk) have long been recognized as a major pathway of BFRs intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. This review summarizes most available BFRs data in foods and human milk from China in recent years, and emphasizes several specific aspects, i.e., contamination levels of legacy and emerging BFRs, dietary exposure assessment and related health concerns, comparison between various BFRs, and temporal changes in BFRs contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base.

  3. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Relation to Possible Food-Related Risk and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory health outcomes are among the top five causes of child morbidity and mortality around the world. We aimed to investigate possible food-related risk and protective factors for respiratory health outcomes in children. Structured questionnaires completed by primary caregivers of 10-year old children were used to collect information on demographics, socio-economic status, house characteristics and child respiratory health status. Upper (URIs) and Lower (LRIs) respiratory illnesses comprised hay fever, and wheezing, asthma and bronchitis, respectively. Eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, 648 retrieved and 420 completed in full (52.5% response rate). The hay fever 6-month prevalence was 22.4% and wheezing had the highest 6-month prevalence among the LRIs (13.8%). The majority of children ate vegetables (75.5%), fruit (69.3%) and chicken or fish (81.7%) regularly. Nearly half of the children (45.5%) regularly ate processed food. Eating processed food regularly was statistical significantly associated with wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.38-5.08), hay fever (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09-2.64) and bronchitis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-2.56). The study found an association between regular consumption of processed foods and wheeze, hay fever and bronchitis among 10 year old children. The regular consumption of processed food plays a role in adverse respiratory health effects among children and healthy eating is emphasized.

  4. Human errors related to maintenance and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Pyy, P.; Reiman, L.

    1998-01-01

    The focus in human reliability analysis (HRA) relating to nuclear power plants has traditionally been on human performance in disturbance conditions. On the other hand, some studies and incidents have shown that also maintenance errors, which have taken place earlier in plant history, may have an impact on the severity of a disturbance, e.g. if they disable safety related equipment. Especially common cause and other dependent failures of safety systems may significantly contribute to the core damage risk. The first aim of the study was to identify and give examples of multiple human errors which have penetrated the various error detection and inspection processes of plant safety barriers. Another objective was to generate numerical safety indicators to describe and forecast the effectiveness of maintenance. A more general objective was to identify needs for further development of maintenance quality and planning. In the first phase of this operational experience feedback analysis, human errors recognisable in connection with maintenance were looked for by reviewing about 4400 failure and repair reports and some special reports which cover two nuclear power plant units on the same site during 1992-94. A special effort was made to study dependent human errors since they are generally the most serious ones. An in-depth root cause analysis was made for 14 dependent errors by interviewing plant maintenance foremen and by thoroughly analysing the errors. A more simple treatment was given to maintenance-related single errors. The results were shown as a distribution of errors among operating states i.a. as regards the following matters: in what operational state the errors were committed and detected; in what operational and working condition the errors were detected, and what component and error type they were related to. These results were presented separately for single and dependent maintenance-related errors. As regards dependent errors, observations were also made

  5. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Reynolds, John D; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-05-17

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960-2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km(2) killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6-32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1(st)), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries.

  6. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  7. European food cultures: An exploratory analysis of food related preferences and behaviour in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed

    and its potential expansion, the relative importance of national boundaries must be expected to diminish whereas other boundaries will become more apparent. One type of boundaries of vital impo to international marketing is the cultural boundaries dividing Europe into regions with individual cultural...... to the point where some people ta about a 'world cuisine'. However, local, national, and regional differences continue to play a decisive role in the way elements, products, and ingredients are combined, and when, how, with what, and with whom they are eaten. 4. This paper explores information about...... such cultural patterns of food consumption based on information from an exisiting database originating from a 1989 pan-European lifestyle survey questioning around 20.000 people in 16 European countries divided into 79 regions. 5. A factor analysis reduced the number of variables from 138 to 41, discovering...

  8. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  9. Xenobiosis: foods, drugs, and poisons in the human body

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Adrien

    1987-01-01

    .... The current "bandwagon" concern with food additives is treated critically in the light of modern analytical techniques which show that most foods naturally contain many minor constituents of undefined toxicity...

  10. Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    . A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients...... who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods....

  11. Regulations relating to trading of irradiated food in Europe Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    Only recently, the European Union has prepared a new draft of a Directive to harmonize the food laws of the 15 member states with regard to food irradiation. At present 3 members have not regulated food irradiation, 4 other members have a total ban, the remaining 8 members have widely varying clearances. Members of the European Economic Area (zone of associated European states) will have to adopt such a Directive once in force. It is expected that the European Parliament soon will pass the Directive which only provides for spices irradiated up to 10 kGy. However, for a transition period of five years it will allow members states to continue with national regulations. The European Single Market should provide for free trade in any item legally marketed in any member state and, hence, for marketing irradiated food to member states which have not yet a clearance or not for that particular food. Other European countries, i e the former members of the COMECON, have widely varying clearances; some are still in the process of renewing their respective juridical systems, and food irradiation is not a priority. For such reasons, imports of irradiated food from such countries into the E U are difficult and diverse. The main factor causing a lack of commercial application of food irradiation and of inter-E U trade is the low interest of food industry and food trade. Consumer acceptance is of second consideration. The European Directive will fulfill the most prominent demand of consumer organization, the labelling of irradiated food with no exception, even for the most minute ingredient. There is no reliable information about quantities of irradiated food in Europe; for official statistics it is considered not different from other food. (Author)

  12. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food(s), the technical effect(s... within such limitation(s), including the category of food(s), the functional use(s) of the ingredient... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as...

  13. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and evaluation strategies for viral contamination in food products: Risk to human health-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Cho, Hyunjeong; Kwon, O Jun; Chung, Soo Hyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2018-02-11

    Nowadays, viruses of foodborne origin such as norovirus and hepatitis A are considered major causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness with widespread distribution worldwide. A number of foodborne outbreaks associated with food products of animal and non-animal origins, which often involve multiple cases of variety of food streams, have been reported. Although several viruses, including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus, and other enteroviruses, significantly contribute to incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, systematic information on the role of food in transmitting such viruses is limited. Most of the outbreak cases caused by infected food handlers were the source of 53% of total outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and hygiene measures to reduce the frequency of foodborne virus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production site of food products. Pivotal strategies, such as proper investigation, surveillance, and reports on foodborne viral illnesses, are needed in order to develop more accurate measures to detect the presence and pathogenesis of viral infection with detailed descriptions. Moreover, molecular epidemiology and surveillance of food samples may help analysis of public health hazards associated with exposure to foodborne viruses. In this present review, we discuss different aspects of foodborne viral contamination and its impact on human health. This review also aims to improve understanding of foodborne viral infections as major causes of human illness as well as provide descriptions of their control and prevention strategies and rapid detection by advanced molecular techniques. Further, a brief description of methods available for the detection of viruses in food and related matrices is provided.

  15. Development and testing of a cross-culturally valid instrument: food-related life style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    Based on a cognitive perspective, we propose to make life style specific to certain areas of consumption. The specific area of consumption studied here is food, resulting in a concept of food-related life style. We have developed an instrument tha measure food-related life style in a cross...

  16. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy... Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June... sold in a school and purchased with funds from the nonprofit school food service account, other than...

  17. A review of chemosensory perceptions, food preferences and food-related behaviours in subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Haqq, Andrea M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2016-04-01

    Hyperphagia and obsessive preoccupation with food are hallmark characteristics of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Although hyperphagia in PWS is linked to hypothalamic dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms behind this problem are poorly understood. Moreover, our understanding of how chemosensory perceptions and food choice/preferences relate to hyperphagia in individuals with PWS is very limited. This narrative review synthesizes studies that assessed chemosensory perceptions, food choices and food-related behaviours in PWS individuals and highlights knowledge gaps in research for further exploration. Twenty seven publications from relevant databases met inclusion criteria and were organized thematically by study technique in the review. Results suggested that PWS individuals have consistent preferences for sweet tastes and in most studies have exhibited a preference for calorie-dense foods over lower calorie foods. No firm conclusions were drawn concerning the chemosensory perceptions of PWS individuals and their influence on food preferences or choices; chemosensation among PWS individuals is an understudied topic. Current evidence suggests that eating behaviour in PWS is a complex phenomenon that involves a dysfunctional satiation and not excessive hunger. Food preferences, choices, and related behaviours and the impact of these on obesity management in those with PWS remain poorly understood and require further study using validated tools and methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Heuvel, van den E.M.; Boesveldt, S.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the

  19. Understanding complexities in coupled dynamics of human-water and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, M.; Kondal, A.; Lin, L.; Colwell, R. R.; Jutla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional premise of food security is associated with satisfying human hunger by providing sufficient calories to population. Water is the key variable associated with the growth of crops, which is then used as a metric of success for abundance of food across globe. The current framework often negates complex coupled interaction between availability of food nutrients and human well-being (such as productivity, work efficiency, low birth weight, physical and mental growth). Our analysis suggests that 1 in 3 humans suffer from malnutrition across the globe. In last five decades, most of the countries have a decreasing availability trend in at least one of the twenty-three essential food nutrients required for human well-being. We argue that food security can only be achieved if information on use of water for crops and consumption of food must include availability of nutrients for humans. Here, we propose a new concept of "consumptive nutrients" that include constant feedback mechanism between water-human and societal processes- essential for growth, distribution and consumption of food nutrients. Using Ethiopia as a signature rain-fed agricultural region, we will show how decreasing precipitation has led to an increase in crop productivity, but decreased availability of nutrients for humans. This in turn has destabilizing impact on overall regional economy. We will demonstrate why inclusion of nutrients must be a part of discussion for ensuring food security to human population.

  20. Printable food: the technology and its application in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey I

    2017-04-01

    Millions of Americans suffer from diseases and conditions that require careful control of their diet as part of treatment. The current solution is to have each person customize their own food choices. Food production automation can enable consumer specific data to be easily integrated into the food as it is being prepared. This would improve the quality and utility of the food without a cognitive burden on the consumer. 3D Printing is an ideal family of technologies for enabling such mass customization of food. Current efforts in 3D printing food are focused on improving the artistic quality of food in the short term and consumer health in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of food grade and nano-TiO2 particles on a human intestinal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudefoi, William; Moniz, Kristy; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Walker, Virginia K

    2017-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) are used as an additive (E171 or INS171) in foods such as gum, candy and puddings. To address concerns about the potential hazardous effects of ingested NPs, the toxicity of these food-grade NPs was investigated with a defined model intestinal bacterial community. Each titania preparation (food-grade TiO 2 formulations, E171-1 and E171-6a) was tested at concentrations equivalent to those found in the human intestine after sampling 1-2 pieces of gum or candy (100-250 ppm). At the low concentrations used, neither the TiO 2 food additives nor control TiO 2 NPs had an impact on gas production and only a minor effect on fatty acids profiles (C16:00, C18:00, 15:1 w5c, 18:1 w9c and 18:1 w9c, p < 0.05). DNA profiles and phylogenetic distributions confirmed limited effects on the bacterial community, with a modest decrease in the relative abundance of the dominant Bacteroides ovatus in favor of Clostridium cocleatum (-13% and +14% respectively, p < 0.05). Such minor shifts in the treated consortia suggest that food grade and nano-TiO 2 particles do not have a major effect on human gut microbiota when tested in vitro at relevant low concentrations. However, the cumulative effects of chronic TiO 2 NP ingestion remain to be tested. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultra-processed foods in human health: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Michael J; Forde, Ciarán G; Mullally, Deirdre; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-09-01

    The NOVA classification of foods proposes 4 categories: unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFDs). It is argued that the latter relies heavily on modifications to foods, resulting in enhanced amounts of salt, added sugar, and fat as well as the use of additives in an attempt to make this food category highly palatable. It further argues that controlling food processing, rather than examining nutrients, should be foremost in shaping nutrition policy. This commentary challenges many of the basic arguments of using the NOVA food classification system to examine the link between food and health. We believe that there is no evidence to uphold the view that UPFDs give rise to hyperpalatable foods associated with a quasi-addictive effect and that the prevailing European Union and US data fail to uphold the assertion that UPFDs, which dominate energy intake, give rise to dietary patterns that are low in micronutrients. With regard to the use of the NOVA food classification in the development of food-based dietary guidelines, we show that the very broad definition of UPFDs makes this impossible. Finally, the available evidence does not support the view that the globalization of food is the driver of increased intakes of UPFDs in low- to middle-income countries but rather that this is driven by small indigenous companies. On balance, therefore, there seems to be little advantage from the use of the NOVA classification compared with the current epidemiologic approach, which relies on the linkage of nutrient intakes to chronic disease with subsequent identification of foods that merit consideration in public health nutrition strategies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Agri-food supply chains and sustainability-related issues: evidence from across the Scottish agri-food economy

    OpenAIRE

    Leat, Philip M.K.; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of agri-food supply chains on the sustainability-related activities and decisions of Scottish farmers, as well as the treatment of sustainability issues by food processors and retailers themselves. It is based on 8 whole chain case studies covering some of Scotland’s major agricultural products. The cases identify differing levels of understanding and activities related to sustainability, but widespread acknowledgement that sustainability involves the develop...

  4. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food-related lifestyle trends in Germany 1993-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    -oriented and hedonistic in their approach to food, at the expense of aspects that would normally be considered more rational consumer decision-making and behaviour. At the same time, security has become a more important purchasing motive, while self-fulfilment and enhancement of social relationships through food are now...

  6. Factors related to food involvement in the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de ALENCAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate aspects associated with food involvement and to ascertain whether individuals with higher food involvement consume larger amounts of fruits and vegetables. Methods This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted with 301 adults (19-59 years old from the Federal District, Brazil. Sample size calculation was based on numbers from the Brazilian Demographic Census and on consumption data for fruits and vegetables obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Interviews survey. Data were collected in October of 2012. The questionnaire comprised 28 questions and included socio-demographic variables, reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and an adapted food involvement scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed to determine population characteristics . Results Women and older individuals displayed a higher degree of food involvement than did men and younger individuals ( p <0.001. Among the factors included in food involvement, the highest influence was attributed to satisfaction in preparing food (cooking, pre-preparation of food, and pleasure in cooking for other people ( p <0.001. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that food involvement can be stimulated through innovative strategies of communication that go beyond the biological arguments and focus on the cultural expression of the elements of socialization, whose relationship with eating is well established.

  7. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, J.; Hooge, de I.E.; Amani, P.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Oostindjer, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are

  8. Analyzing Human Behaviour Toward Food Waste in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Hussain, Shaema Mohd Hassan

    Food waste is a major issue in many countries due to the impact of waste on the environment and the cost of producing food and water. Food waste not only constitutes a hazard to the environment through the emission of greenhouse gases, but billions of dollars are also lost as a result of production, distribution and waste management costs. In view of this, this study examined factors that have potential to influence intent to waste food and food waste behavior among consumers in Qatar. The main objective of the study was to find a suitable model that explains food waste behavior in Qatar and compare it to an international model in order to understand region specific factors and try to replicate a hypothesized model of the causal effects of some factors (i.e., subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal attitude) on intent to waste food and food waste behavior. Three research questions were developed and answers were provided by random selection of 139 respondents from the Qatar Foundation and Georgetown University Qatar databases gathered through a survey with 139 complete questionnaires in order to test the hypothesized model, which was created based on literature. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was the main statistical tool of the investigation and was used to carry out the path analysis. The findings of the study revealed that factors, including, planning routine, Ramadan, gender task, and personal norm were strong predictors of intention to waste food and food waste behavior.

  9. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation...... as most uncertain aspect in characterization modeling. We analyzed measured half-lives (n=4513) with 95% falling between 0.6 and 29 days. With ~500 pesticides authorized alone in the EU for several hundred crops, however, experimental stud-ies only cover few possible pesticide-crop combinations. Therefore......, we estimated dissipation from measured data and provide reference half-lives for 333 pesticides applied at 20°C under field conditions. Our framework allows for detailed explorations of dietary choices in LCA with respect to human health impacts from pesticide exposure via crop consumption. The next...

  10. Structuring Tensions and Key Relations of Montreal Seasonal Food Markets in the Sustainability Transition of the Agri-Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Audet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In cities across the world, local food networks aim to make food systems more sustainable and secure for all. As part of that effort, some of these networks also seek to introduce social innovation in the mode of selling food, namely as a way to initiate a broader transition of the sector. Based on two years of action research conducted together with promoters of Montreal’s seasonal markets, this article offers an account of the co-constructed narrative of a transition of the agri-food sector. On the one hand, transition theory anticipates that the transition to sustainability of the agri-food sector would depend on the protection and empowerment of innovative ‘niches’ that are facing the locked-in structure of the agri-food ‘sociotechnical regime’. Yet, on the other hand, the seasonal markets do not fit well in this portrait: they are shown to evolve at the intersection of the sociotechnical regime and innovative niches. For this reason, they are subject to regime rules and become difficult to protect as an entity. As such, seasonal markets face ‘structuring tensions’ that generate both practical dilemmas and innovative solutions in their modes of organization. These solutions, however, rely on webs of resources and supports that constitute ‘key relations’ for unlocking the agri-food regime rules. It is through managing these tensions and relations that the seasonal markets end up reconfiguring social and material relations and providing solutions for food security and a more sustainable food system. Therefore, we argue that the structuring tension and key relation concepts are useful for understanding the dynamics of social innovation in the transition to sustainability in food systems.

  11. Modeling Chronic Versus Acute Human Risk from Contaminants in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Jensen, Helen H.; Nusser, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of policies and regulations to address food safety concerns depends critically on appropriate assessment of health risk in foods. This paper evaluates the methods for assessing the population's exposure to a hazardous substance or contaminant in food and some aspects of the quantification of risk. We review current federal programmatic approaches to risk assessment and potential problems with these approaches. After developing procedures for estimating exposures of individuals...

  12. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.

  14. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Kleter, G.A.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for

  15. Advertising of food to children: is brand logo recognition related to their food knowledge, eating behaviours and food preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, C A; Roberts, L M; Adab, P

    2007-12-01

    There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six primary schools in Birmingham, West Midlands. A '20 flashcard' brand logo quiz assessed children's brand logo recognition ability; a self-completed questionnaire collected information on children's socio-demographic characteristics, eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences (n=476). Children demonstrated both high brand logo recognition abilities with 88.4% (420/476) recognizing at least 16/20 brand logos in the quiz and high levels of poor diet. No strong correlation was found between higher brand logo recognition ability and poorer eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences. Although many children are familiar with commonly presented logos of food products, brand awareness does not appear to be a major influence on the consumption of a poor diet amongst children. The regulation or restriction of food advertising to children is unlikely to have a significant impact on obesity rates among children unless combined with measures to address other detrimental influences.

  16. A human rights approach to the health implications of food and nutrition insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Ana; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2017-01-01

    Food and nutrition insecurity continues to pose a serious global challenge, reflecting government shortcomings in meeting international obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, and quality of food and to ensure the highest attainable standard of health of their peoples. With global drivers like climate change, urbanization, greater armed conflict, and the globalization of unhealthy diet, particularly in under-resourced countries, food insecurity is rapidly becoming an even greater challenge for those living in poverty. International human rights law can serve a critical role in guiding governments that are struggling to protect the health of their populations, particularly among the most susceptible groups, in responding to food and nutrition insecurity. This article explores and advocates for a human rights approach to food and nutrition security, specifically identifying legal mechanisms to "domesticate" relevant international human rights standards through national policy. Recognizing nutrition security as a determinant of public health, this article recognizes the important links between the four main elements of food security (i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access) and the normative attributes of the right to health and the right to food (i.e., availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality). In drawing from the evolution of international human rights instruments, official documents issued by international human rights treaty bodies, as well as past scholarship at the intersection of the right to health and right to food, this article interprets and articulates the intersectional rights-based obligations of national governments in the face of food and nutrition insecurity.

  17. Identifying food deserts and swamps based on relative healthy food access: a spatio-temporal Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2015-12-30

    Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.

  18. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  19. Reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral economic demand for food and their relation to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Paluch, Rocco A; Carr, Katelyn A; Temple, Jennifer L; Bickel, Warren K; MacKillop, James

    2018-04-01

    Food is a primary reinforcer, and food reinforcement is related to obesity. The reinforcing value of food can be measured by establishing how hard someone will work to get food on progressive-ratio schedules. An alternative way to measure food reinforcement is a hypothetical purchase task which creates behavioral economic demand curves. This paper studies whether reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral demand approaches are assessing the same or unique aspects of food reinforcement for low (LED) and high (HED) energy density foods using a combination of analytic approaches in females of varying BMI. Results showed absolute reinforcing value for LED and HED foods and relative reinforcing value were related to demand intensity (r's = 0.20-0.30, p's demand elasticity (r's = 0.17-0.22, p's demand task, and the differential role of effort in the two tasks. Examples of how a better understanding of food reinforcement may be useful to prevent or treat obesity are discussed, including engaging in alternative non-food reinforcers as substitutes for food, such as crafts or socializing in a non-food environment, and reducing the value of immediate food reinforcers by episodic future thinking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  1. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  2. Radioecology of human food chains and forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, Aino H.

    2003-01-01

    Ageing of radioactive fallout also signifies that contributions of various foodstuffs to the human ingestion dose will change with time. The long-term contamination of forest vegetation has motivated studies on contribution of wild food to dietary radiocaesium and radiostrontium. Consumption rates of these foodstuffs have shown variation by geographical regions in Finland, the loss of radiocaesium during cooking of mushrooms has been found significant, and the approximation of the loss using survey data on the actual practices in households was also shown important for dietary assessment. Forest industry needs information for planning its own emergency response, particularly concerning production of acceptable timber after contamination of forests by radioactive fallout. In recent years experimental evidence has been obtained for the mitigating effect of forest management methods, namely soil preparation and fertilisation, on radioactive contamination of forest vegetation. Thereby realistic options for intervention have been suggested. Further testing will improve the information on effectiveness of different methods and duration of management influence in different types of forests. Results from systematic field experiments have also provided data and conceptual views for forest modelling, e.g. for RODOS, a European decision support system for off-site emergency preparedness. The future topics in terrestrial radioecology will altogether support production of safe foodstuffs and safe use of forests after contamination of rural areas. Evaluation of practicability of countermeasures will greatly benefit from measured radioecological parameters in the contaminated areas and from additional field tests. Natural radionuclides and their connection to both agricultural and semi-natural dose pathways ought to be studied. Radiation impact due to bioenergy production and use of ash is close to forest ecosystem studies. Returning of wood ash to forests will maintain and

  3. Comparing immediate-type food allergy in humans and companion animals-revealing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, I; De Lucia, M; Jackson, H; Janda, J; Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2017-11-01

    Adverse food reactions occur in human as well as veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in both. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on immediate-type food allergy vs other food adverse reactions in companion animals, and compare this to the human situation. While the prevalence of food allergy in humans has been well studied for some allergens, this remains to be investigated for animal patients, where owner-reported as well as veterinarian-diagnosed food adverse reactions are on the increase. The characteristics of the disease in humans vs dogs, cats, and horses are most often caused by similar, but sometimes species-dependent different pathophysiological mechanisms, prompting the specific clinical symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Furthermore, little is known about the allergen molecules causative for type I food allergy in animals, which, like in human patients, could represent predictive biomarkers for risk evaluation. The definite diagnosis of food allergy relies-as in humans-on elimination diet and provocation tests. Besides allergen avoidance in daily practice, novel treatment options and tolerization strategies are underway. Taken together, numerous knowledge gaps were identified in veterinary food allergy, which need to be filled by systematic comparative studies. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  6. Limits to Ambulatory Displacement of Coconut Mites in Absence and Presence of Food-Related Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also

  7. Organic food and the impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María

    2017-11-30

    In the last decade, the production and consumption of organic food have increased steadily worldwide, despite the lower productivity of organic crops. Indeed, the population attributes healthier properties to organic food. Although scientific evidence is still scarce, organic agriculture seems to contribute to maintaining an optimal health status and decreases the risk of developing chronic diseases. This may be due to the higher content of bioactive compounds and lower content of unhealthy substances such as cadmium and synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in organic foods of plant origin compared to conventional agricultural products. Thus, large long-term intervention studies are needed to determine whether an organic diet is healthier than a diet including conventionally grown food products. This review provides an update of the present knowledge of the impact of an organic versus a conventional food diet on health.

  8. Effects of atomic bomb radiations on human food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, F C

    1956-01-01

    The increase in energy release of atomic weapons has increased the hazard of atomic radiation to food. Products of atomic explosions are probably similar regardless of size. Of the energy released, blast energy accounts for one-half, heat flash for one-third, initial nuclear radiation for one-twentieth, and residual radiation (potential fallout) about one-tenth. Radioactive elements may enter man by inhalation, by open wounds, or by ingestion of contaminated food. Food can become contaminated by direct fallout on unprotected food or through metabolic assimilation by plants or animals. Dust-proof containers and undamaged cans provide protection from the first hazard. Cans, etc. should be washed before opening. Other food could be cleaned and used if subsequent monitoring indicated that the fallout material had been removed.

  9. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0733] Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  10. 21 CFR 110.110 - Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human use that present no health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Defect Action Levels § 110.110 Natural or... natural or unavoidable defects to the lowest level currently feasible. (d) The mixing of a food containing...

  11. Traditional Galactagogue Foods and Their Connection to Human Milk Volume in Thai Breastfeeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntuchai, Ganokwun; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

    2017-08-01

    Thai traditional galactagogue consumption is still observed today. However, there are few scientific studies that describe this practice. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the connection between traditional galactagogue consumption and human milk volume. Self-reported maternal surveys ( N = 36) were conducted of mothers and their infants who breastfeed exclusively. The mothers were interviewed about traditional galactagogue consumption and intake of protein-rich foods using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. They were also assessed for energy and nutrient intake using the 24-hr dietary recall method. Their infants were between 1 and 3 months of age and were test weighed for 24 hr to measure their mother's own milk volume. Partial correlation was used to test the relationship between galactagogue consumption and milk volume by controlling the infants' birth weight, weight-for-age, maternal energy, and carbohydrate intake. The results revealed that consumption of some traditional galactagogues was significantly correlated to human milk volume, including banana flower, lemon basil, Thai basil, bottle gourd, and pumpkin ( p traditional galactagogues and proteins are associated with human milk volume. However, studies related to the active ingredients in these galactagogues are required to secure a recommendation about use of traditional galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers.

  12. An Analysis of Wine Consumption Trends and Food-Related Expenditures in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Makiko; Sakurai, Yuka; Ebihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to understand the mechanism of an upward trend in wine consumption in Japan by analysing its trend and possible correlations with food-related consumptions. Through the panel and time-series analyses of wine consumption and food-item expenditures, and of wine consumption and food-service industry sales, we investigate whether wine consumption is correlated with food westernization in Japan and whether wine is gaining its steady place in daily life of Japanese. Although not...

  13. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... amending the food additive regulations to permit the use of hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent in... Group, 801 N. Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801 filed a food additive petition (FAP 0A4781). The... as an antimicrobial agent in the manufacture of modified whey by ultrafiltration methods. In...

  14. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ravel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. Methods This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Results Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water, whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly ‘protective’ factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant, suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. Conclusions This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  15. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  16. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  17. Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Raposo, Sara E; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-02-09

    The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth's surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per kg food product to data on food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Meal-Q and validated it against a 7-day weighed food record (WFR). 166 male and female volunteers aged 20-63 years completed Meal-Q and the WFR, and their food intake was linked to LCA data. The mean GHGE assessed with Meal-Q was 3.76 kg CO2e per day and person, whereas it was 5.04 kg CO2e using the WFR. The energy-adjusted and deattenuated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, compared to the WFR, Meal-Q provided a good ranking ability, with 90 % of the participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile according to their daily average CO2e. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods and the reproducibility of Meal-Q was high. This is the first study validating the assessment of diet-related GHGE by a questionnaire. The results suggest that Meal-Q is a useful tool for studying the link between food habits and CO2e in future epidemiological studies.

  18. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  19. Food-related life styles in Australia: Testing of the MAPP food-related life style instrument in an Australian context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Grunert, Klaus G.; Li, Elton

    based assets, and creating a stronger consumer focus. This research employs the Food-Related Life Styles (FRL) instrument developed by Grunert, Brunsø & Bisp, (1993) to determine the validity of the instrument in an Australian context, to build an a better understanding of Australian food consumers......, and to compare Australian consumers with their international counterparts. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related life styles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  20. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurofunctional areas related to food appetency in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán José Cervantes-Navarrete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Anorexia Nervosa the observable phenomenon is the suppression of appetite. Little is known about the biological and psychological (top-down bases that maintain this pathological state. However, Anorexia Nervosa is a biological, psychological and social model where the main behavioral characteristic is the inhibition of eating behavior; not by bottom-up but top-down regulation. Objective: To explore the areas of the brain associated with food appetency through functional magnetic resonance in women with anorexia nervosa. Methods: The subjects include 5 female with Restrictive type of Anorexia Nervosa and five controls female with similar in age and low weigh. The subjects were within the MRI scanner and while took fMRI they saw food images that would generate appetite. The subjects were in fasting state and mentally prepare by instruction “imagine you are eating the food presented in the following images”. Results: Compared differences in the activation between subjects four regions were found significant: the anterior cingulate, left front medial region and the left and right midbrain. Conclusions: The patients with Anorexia Nervosa present different activated cerebral areas to those of the controls during the visual exposition to food in hungry state and with evoke cognitions associated with eat food; those regions may be implicated in reward and self-control.

  2. Scientific opinion: Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Hogstrand, Christer; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vleminckx, Christiane; Vollmer, Günter; Chipman, Kevin; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Dinovi, Michael; Mennes, Wim; Schlatter, Josef; Schrenk, Dieter; Baert, Katleen; Dujardin, Bruno; Wallace, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risk to human health of the presence of furan and methylfurans (2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran) in food. They are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co-occur. Furans are produced from several

  3. "Our" food versus "my" food. Investigating the relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial behavior in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Fisher, Maryanne L; Poels, Karolien; Ponnet, Koen

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attentional bias to food-related visual cues: is there a role in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, K J; Breslin, G; Hanna, D; Gallagher, A M

    2015-02-01

    The incentive sensitisation model of obesity suggests that modification of the dopaminergic associated reward systems in the brain may result in increased awareness of food-related visual cues present in the current food environment. Having a heightened awareness of these visual food cues may impact on food choices and eating behaviours with those being most aware of or demonstrating greater attention to food-related stimuli potentially being at greater risk of overeating and subsequent weight gain. To date, research related to attentional responses to visual food cues has been both limited and conflicting. Such inconsistent findings may in part be explained by the use of different methodological approaches to measure attentional bias and the impact of other factors such as hunger levels, energy density of visual food cues and individual eating style traits that may influence visual attention to food-related cues outside of weight status alone. This review examines the various methodologies employed to measure attentional bias with a particular focus on the role that attentional processing of food-related visual cues may have in obesity. Based on the findings of this review, it appears that it may be too early to clarify the role visual attention to food-related cues may have in obesity. Results however highlight the importance of considering the most appropriate methodology to use when measuring attentional bias and the characteristics of the study populations targeted while interpreting results to date and in designing future studies.

  5. Multielement analysis of foods and related materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents FDA's use of prompt- and delayed-gamma thermal neutron activation analysis (PGAA and INAA, respectively), collectively referred to here is NAA, for the analysis of foods. Several elements of nutritional or toxicological importance can be simultaneously determined at levels ranging from trace to percent. Concentrations of aluminum, boron, bromine, calcium, chlorine, hydrogen, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, sodium, and sulfur can be determined in < 1 day in most foods. For INAA, after a few weeks of decay following irradiation, cobalt, cesium, iron, rubidium, scandium, and zinc can also be determined. Other elements that are detectable in only some food types include cadmium, chromium, copper, iodine, phosphorus, antimony, selenium, titanium, and vanadium

  6. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. GAVIRANGAPPA HITHAMANI1 DHANYA KIZHAKAYIL1 KRISHNAPURA SRINIVASAN1. Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR – Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India ...

  7. No Evidence for a Food-Related Attention Bias after Thought Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soetens

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether food-related thought suppression results in an attention bias for food cues. Fifty-nine female students took part in the experiment. All completed a modified exogenous cueing task containing pictures of foods and toys with a similar valence (presentation duration: 250 ms and 1050 ms. Half of the participants were instructed to suppress thoughts about food and the other half was given control instructions, prior to completing the exogenous cueing task. No evidence was found for an enhanced cue validity effect for food cues after food-related thought suppression. Hence, the preliminary results do not provide support for the hypothesis that thought suppression is sufficient to yield an attention bias. Since the study was the first to employ an exogenous cueing task to study the attentional processing of food cues, replication is warranted.

  8. Relative Food Prices and Obesity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1976-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Variyam, Jayachandran N.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of food price on obesity, by exploring the co-occurrence of obesity growth with relative food price reduction between 1976 and 2001. Analyses control for female labor participation and metropolitan outlet densities that might affect body weight. Both the first-difference and fixed effects approaches provide consistent evidence suggesting that relative food prices have substantial impacts on obesity and such impacts were more pronounced among the low-educated. These findings imply that relative food price reductions during the time period could plausibly explain about 18% of the increase in obesity among the U.S. adults in metropolitan areas. PMID:25502888

  9. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  10. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  11. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  12. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. PMID:29389843

  13. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Food Intakes among Flemish Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ applied in a large region-wide survey among 2.5-6.5 year-old children for estimating food group intakes. Parents/guardians were used as a proxy. Estimated diet records (3d were used as reference method and reproducibility was measured by repeated FFQ administrations five weeks apart. In total 650 children were included in the validity analyses and 124 in the reproducibility analyses. Comparing median FFQ1 to FFQ2 intakes, almost all evaluated food groups showed median differences within a range of ± 15%. However, for median vegetables, fruit and cheese intake, FFQ1 was > 20% higher than FFQ2. For most foods a moderate correlation (0.5-0.7 was obtained between FFQ1 and FFQ2. For cheese, sugared drinks and fruit juice intakes correlations were even > 0.7. For median differences between the 3d EDR and the FFQ, six food groups (potatoes & grains; vegetables Fruit; cheese; meat, game, poultry and fish; and sugared drinks gave a difference > 20%. The largest corrected correlations (>0.6 were found for the intake of potatoes and grains, fruit, milk products, cheese, sugared drinks, and fruit juice, while the lowest correlations (<0.4 for bread and meat products. The proportion of subjects classified within one quartile (in the same/adjacent category by FFQ and EDR ranged from 67% (for meat products to 88% (for fruit juice. Extreme misclassification into the opposite quartiles was for all food groups < 10%. The results indicate that our newly developed FFQ gives reproducible estimates of food group intake. Overall, moderate levels of relative validity were observed for estimates of food group intake.

  14. Antibiotic Pollution in Marine Food Webs in Laizhou Bay, North China: Trophodynamics and Human Exposure Implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Zhao, Hongxia; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-02-21

    Little information is available about the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of antibiotics in marine food webs. Here, we investigate the levels and trophic transfer of 9 sulfonamide (SA), 5 fluoroquinolone (FQ), and 4 macrolide (ML) antibiotics, as well as trimethoprim in nine invertebrate and ten fish species collected from a marine food web in Laizhou Bay, North China in 2014 and 2015. All the antibiotics were detected in the marine organisms, with SAs and FQs being the most abundant antibiotics. Benthic fish accumulated more SAs than invertebrates and pelagic fish, while invertebrates exhibited higher FQ levels than fish. Generally, SAs and trimethoprim biomagnified in the food web, while the FQs and MLs were biodiluted. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were 1.2-3.9 for SAs and trimethoprim, 0.3-1.0 for FQs and MLs. Limited biotransformation and relatively high assimilation efficiencies are the likely reasons for the biomagnification of SAs. The pH dependent distribution coefficients (log D) but not the lipophilicity (log K OW ) of SAs and FQs had a significant correlation (r = 0.73; p < 0.05) with their TMFs. Although the calculated estimated daily intakes (EDI) for antibiotics suggest that consumption of seafood from Laizhou Bay is not associated with significant human health risks, this study provides important insights into the guidance of risk management of antibiotics.

  15. Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks in relation to historic food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Kidwell, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks during 1999-2005 was determined from hunter-killed ducks and compared to data from historic food habits file (1885-1985) for major migrational and wintering areas in the Atlantic Flyway. Food selection was determined by analyses of the gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard of 860 ducks and summarized by aggregate percent for each species. When sample size was adequate comparisons were made among age and sex groupings and also among local sites in major habitat areas. Common eiders in Maine and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly (53%) on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Scoters in Massachusetts, Maine, and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly on the blue mussel (46%), Atlantic jackknife clam (Ensis directus; 19%), and Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima; 15%), whereas scoters in the Chesapeake Bay fed predominantly on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum; 42%), the stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius; 22%), and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis; 15%). The amethyst gem clam (Gemma gemma) was the predominant food (45%) of long-tailed ducks in Chesapeake Bay. Buffleheads and common goldeneyes fed on a mixed diet of mollusks and soft bodied invertebrates (amphipods, isopods and polychaetes). No major differences were noticed between the sexes in regard to food selection in any of the wintering areas. Comparisons to historic food habits in all areas failed to detect major differences. However, several invertebrate species recorded in historic samples were not found in current samples and two invasive species (Atlantic Rangia, Rangia cuneata and green crab, Carcinas maenas) were recorded in modem samples, but not in historic samples. Benthic sampling in areas where seaducks were collected showed a close correlation between consumption and availability. Each seaduck species appears to fill a unique niche in regard to feeding ecology, although there is much overlap of prey species selected. Understanding

  16. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  17. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  18. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related...

  19. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa.

  1. Food insecurity as a driver of obesity in humans: The insurance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Integrative explanations of why obesity is more prevalent in some sectors of the human population than others are lacking. Here, we outline and evaluate one candidate explanation, the insurance hypothesis (IH). The IH is rooted in adaptive evolutionary thinking: The function of storing fat is to provide a buffer against shortfall in the food supply. Thus, individuals should store more fat when they receive cues that access to food is uncertain. Applied to humans, this implies that an important proximate driver of obesity should be food insecurity rather than food abundance per se. We integrate several distinct lines of theory and evidence that bear on this hypothesis. We present a theoretical model that shows it is optimal to store more fat when food access is uncertain, and we review the experimental literature from non-human animals showing that fat reserves increase when access to food is restricted. We provide a meta-analysis of 125 epidemiological studies of the association between perceived food insecurity and high body weight in humans. There is a robust positive association, but it is restricted to adult women in high-income countries. We explore why this could be in light of the IH and our theoretical model. We conclude that although the IH alone cannot explain the distribution of obesity in the human population, it may represent a very important component of a pluralistic explanation. We also discuss insights it may offer into the developmental origins of obesity, dieting-induced weight gain, and anorexia nervosa.

  2. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  3. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele

    2017-10-01

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  4. Consumers’ Knowledge Related To Food Products And Their Attitudes To Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 253-258

  5. Consumers’ Knowledge Related To Food Products And Their Attitudes To Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 253-258

  6. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T; Leonards, Pim E G; Småstuen Haug, Line

    2017-10-01

    Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6ng/day, 11ng/day and 0.78ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than

  8. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, Marie Josée J; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122

    2015-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be

  9. 77 FR 14423 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2883] Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and... Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof, DN 2883; the Commission is... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items, and packaging thereof. The...

  10. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Schmidt, Allison; Romanuk, Tamara; Lotze, Heike K

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i) quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii) assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii) compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of food-web analysis

  11. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of

  12. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with succe...

  13. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  14. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  15. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K A; Friend, S; Horning, M L; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Fulkerson, J A

    2016-12-01

    This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8-12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment. Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes. An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores. Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded

  17. Implications of the new Food and Drug Administration draft guidance on human factors engineering for diabetes device manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Stephen B; Drucker, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    This article discusses the implications of the new Food and Drug Administration's draft guidance on human factors and usability engineering for the development of diabetes-related devices. Important considerations include the challenge of identifying users, when the user population is so dramatically broad, and the challenge of identifying use environments when the same can be said for use environments. Another important consideration is that diabetes-related devices, unlike many other medical devices, are used constantly as part of the user's lifestyle--adding complexity to the focus on human factors and ease of use emphasized by the draft guidance. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the hi...

  19. Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, De M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.; Boon, P.E.; Heyndrickx, E.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Lopez, P.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, five strategies to estimate mycotoxin exposure of a (sub-)population via food, including data collection, are discussed with the aim to identify the added values and limitations of each strategy for risk assessment of these chemicals. The well-established point estimate, observed

  20. Food Design to Feed the Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercolini, Danilo; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiome has an enormous impact on the life of the host, and the diet plays a fundamental role in shaping microbiome composition and function. The way food is processed is a key factor determining the amount and type of material reaching the gut bacteria and influencing their growth and

  1. Risk assessment of human intake Nickel from food, feed and water in Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bobcek, Rastislav

    2011-01-01

    Nickel is a metal which is found in nature in the form of compounds with sulfur, arsenic and oxygen. Located in water and many foods (eg offal, soya, various fruits and vegetables, chocolate, cocoa, various kinds of nuts in foods in nickel cans ...). People receive food small amount of nickel, which is necessary for his health. It occurs in soil, air gets influence of volcanic activity. It is used in many alloys and chemical compounds. The main source of human exposure is contaminated food an...

  2. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... for the conceptual meaningfulness and applicability of FRL in non-Western food culture environments, when appropriately adapted....

  3. Staff Food-Related Behaviors and Children's Tastes of Food Groups during Lunch at Child Care in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anundson, Katherine; Sisson, Susan B; Anderson, Michael; Horm, Diane; Soto, Jill; Hoffman, Leah

    2017-10-04

    Young children should consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods to support growth, while limiting added fat and sugar. A majority of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years attend child care in the United States, which makes this environment and the child-care staff influential at meals. The aim was to determine the association between best-practice food-related behaviors and young children's tastes of fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, and high-fat/high-sugar foods at child care. This was a cross-sectional study. A community-based study with 201 children ages 3 to 5 years from 25 early care and education centers, including 11 tribally affiliated centers and two Head Start programs across Oklahoma. Data collection occurred from fall 2011 to spring 2014. Classroom observations used the Environmental Policy Assessment Observation tool to measure the staff behaviors and environment. Staff behavior was compared at three different levels: the composite score of staff nutrition behavior, each constituent staff behavior, and staff behaviors grouped into broader feeding behaviors. Tasted food was measured through the Dietary Observation in Child Care method. The children's meals were categorized into the following food groups: fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, fried vegetable, fried meat, high-fat meat, and high-fat/high-sugar food. Descriptive statistics were calculated for relevant variables. Relationships between the constituent staff behaviors and food groups that children tasted were compared using multilevel mixed-model analysis. The mean number of tasted fruit or vegetable items was higher and the mean number of tasted high-fat/high-sugar food items was lower when staff: 1) determined fullness before plate removal when less than half of food was eaten, 2) ate with the children, 3) and talked about healthy food. The utilization of the three staff behaviors and their association with higher mean tastes of nutrient-dense items and lower mean tastes of high

  4. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  5. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Schmidt, G.D.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  6. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shleien, B; Schmidt, G D; Chiacchierini, R P [Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  7. The cooperative economy of food: Implications for human life history and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2018-04-06

    The human diet has undergone substantial modifications since the emergence of modern humans and varies considerably in today's traditional societies. Despite these changes and cross-cultural differences, the human diet can be characterized by several common elements. These include diverse, high quality foods, technological complexity to acquire and process food, and the establishment of home bases for storage, processing and consumption. Together these aspects of the human diet challenge any one individual to independently meet all of his or her daily caloric needs. Humans solve this challenge through food sharing, labor exchange and the division of labor. The cooperative nature of the human diet is associated with many downstream effects on our life history and physiology. This paper overviews the constellation of traits that likely led to a cooperative economy of food, and draws on ethnographic examples to illustrate its effects on human life history and physiology. Two detailed examples using body composition, time allocation and food acquisition data show how cooperation among Savanna Pumé hunter-gatherers affects activity levels, sexual dimorphism in body fat, maturational pace and age at first birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Human Rights in Sino-American Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Day, Jana

    2002-01-01

    .... Key among these has been human rights, which both countries view differently. Whereas the United States emphasizes individual civil and political liberties, the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  9. [Protocols Related to Food Allergies and Intolerances in Preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrastardottir, Adalheidur Ran; Thordardottir, Frida Run; Torfadottir, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore prevalence of food allergies and intolerances among children in preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland. Also, to investigate how well preschools maintain a safe environment for children with food allergies. In 2014, a questionnaire designed specifically for this study, was sent to 65 preschools. Forty-nine participated (75%) representing a total of 4225 children. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was determined based on medical certificates from physi-cians delivered to the preschools. Descriptive statistics were used to assess whether there were protocols related to food allergy, and if there was a difference between schools based on staff's education and number of children. The prevalence of documented food allergies/intolerances in children aged 2-6 years was 5%, 1% had severe allergy and 1% had multiple food allergies. Lactose intolerance was most frequent (2%), then milk allergy (2%) and egg allergy (1%). Only 41% preschools had a protocol that was activated if food with an allergen was accidentally given. Moreover, only 55% of preschools with children with severe -allergy reported all of their staff to have knowledge of symptoms related to anaphylaxis and only 64% were trained to respond to an anaphylactic shock. The education of preschool principals, kitchen employees and number of children in preschool were not related to having an active protocol at site. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was 5% in preschools in Reykjavik. Strategy for an active protocol related to food allergy was lacking in 59% of pre-schools.

  10. Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, De Ilona E.; Rohm, Harald; Normann, Anne; Bossle, Marilia Bonzanini; Grønhøj, Alice; Oostindjer, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs

  11. Human factors and ergonomics assessment of food pantry work: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nicholas A; Talone, Andrew B; Fraulini, Nicholas W; Smither, Janan A

    2017-01-01

    Research assessing work processes in food pantries has been limited to the client's experience and aspects of food donations [3-5]. Research on food pantries has yet to focus on understanding and evaluating worker-environment interaction. The present case study examined the interaction between workers and their work environment while performing common tasks in a food pantry. Data were collected through naturalistic observations and structured interviews. A task analysis was performed on the data. Several potential issues in the pantry were identified including with the workspace layout, environmental conditions, and signage. Human factors and ergonomics principles were then utilized to provide insights and recommendations (e.g., use of numbered rather than color-coded signage). Recommendations were provided to the case study food pantry for enhancing safety and productivity. Further research is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to other food pantries.

  12. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G J; Fowler, J S; Tomasi, D; Baler, R

    2012-01-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects-partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system-that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug-addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioural inhibition), stress reactivity, and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that shed light on the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity, and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  13. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R.

    2012-12-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  14. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  15. What's NOT to eat--food adulteration in the context of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Cook, Katsi

    2012-01-01

    Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well-studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of Western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage, and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant polychlorinated biphenyls in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in nonurban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  17. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary factors related to colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse; Van Camp, John; Huybrechts, Inge; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Loco, Joris; De Smet, Stefaan; Sterck, Ellen; Rabai, Celine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Peeters, Marc; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged 50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was asses...

  18. Neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in a Go/No-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd D; Garvey, Katherine T

    2013-12-01

    We examined the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in healthy young adults. Event-related potential (ERP) data were collected while 48 participants completed a computerized Go/No-go task consisting of food and nonfood images. Separately, we assessed participants' self-reported levels of external, restrained, and emotional eating behaviors as well as trait impulsivity, behavioral activation/inhibition, and performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test. We found that across participants, food images elicited significantly enhanced P3(00) and slow-wave ERP components. The difference in slow-wave components elicited by food and nonfood images was correlated with Stroop interference scores. Food images also elicited significantly enhanced N2(00) components, but only in female participants. The difference between N2 components elicited by food and nonfood images was related to body mass index and scores of external eating in females. Overall, these data suggest that processing food-related stimuli recruits distinct patterns of cortical activity, that the magnitude of these effects is related to behavioral and cognitive variables, and that the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-cues may be at least partly dissociable between males and females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Review on the Applications of Next Generation Sequencing Technologies as Applied to Food-Related Microbiome Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of next generation sequencing (NGS techniques has enabled researchers to study and understand the world of microorganisms from broader and deeper perspectives. The contemporary advances in DNA sequencing technologies have not only enabled finer characterization of bacterial genomes but also provided deeper taxonomic identification of complex microbiomes which in its genomic essence is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms inhabiting an environment, whether the environment be a particular body econiche (e.g., human intestinal contents or a food manufacturing facility econiche (e.g., floor drain. To date, 16S rDNA sequencing, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics are the three basic sequencing strategies used in the taxonomic identification and characterization of food-related microbiomes. These sequencing strategies have used different NGS platforms for DNA and RNA sequence identification. Traditionally, 16S rDNA sequencing has played a key role in understanding the taxonomic composition of a food-related microbiome. Recently, metagenomic approaches have resulted in improved understanding of a microbiome by providing a species-level/strain-level characterization. Further, metatranscriptomic approaches have contributed to the functional characterization of the complex interactions between different microbial communities within a single microbiome. Many studies have highlighted the use of NGS techniques in investigating the microbiome of fermented foods. However, the utilization of NGS techniques in studying the microbiome of non-fermented foods are limited. This review provides a brief overview of the advances in DNA sequencing chemistries as the technology progressed from first, next and third generations and highlights how NGS provided a deeper understanding of food-related microbiomes with special focus on non-fermented foods.

  20. A Review on the Applications of Next Generation Sequencing Technologies as Applied to Food-Related Microbiome Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Fanning, Séamus; Proos, Sinéad; Jordan, Kieran; Srikumar, Shabarinath

    2017-01-01

    The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques has enabled researchers to study and understand the world of microorganisms from broader and deeper perspectives. The contemporary advances in DNA sequencing technologies have not only enabled finer characterization of bacterial genomes but also provided deeper taxonomic identification of complex microbiomes which in its genomic essence is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms inhabiting an environment, whether the environment be a particular body econiche (e.g., human intestinal contents) or a food manufacturing facility econiche (e.g., floor drain). To date, 16S rDNA sequencing, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics are the three basic sequencing strategies used in the taxonomic identification and characterization of food-related microbiomes. These sequencing strategies have used different NGS platforms for DNA and RNA sequence identification. Traditionally, 16S rDNA sequencing has played a key role in understanding the taxonomic composition of a food-related microbiome. Recently, metagenomic approaches have resulted in improved understanding of a microbiome by providing a species-level/strain-level characterization. Further, metatranscriptomic approaches have contributed to the functional characterization of the complex interactions between different microbial communities within a single microbiome. Many studies have highlighted the use of NGS techniques in investigating the microbiome of fermented foods. However, the utilization of NGS techniques in studying the microbiome of non-fermented foods are limited. This review provides a brief overview of the advances in DNA sequencing chemistries as the technology progressed from first, next and third generations and highlights how NGS provided a deeper understanding of food-related microbiomes with special focus on non-fermented foods. PMID:29033905

  1. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption: (1) Such use must be accomplished in accordance with an appropriate medical rationale; and (2) If... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient, one or more of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food-contact...(s), it shall be used in food-contact surfaces only within such limitation(s), including the category... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed...

  3. Aberrant Food Choices after Satiation in Human Orexin-Deficient Narcolepsy Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holst, Ruth Janke; van der Cruijsen, Lisa; van Mierlo, Petra; Lammers, Gert Jan; Cools, Roshan; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-11-01

    Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneous snack intake in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (n = 24) compared with healthy matched controls (n = 19). In additional analyses, we also included patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 14) to assess sleepiness-related influences. Participants were first trained on a choice task to earn salty and sweet snacks. Next, one of the snack outcomes was devalued by having participants consume it until satiation (i.e., sensory-specific satiety). We then measured the selective reduction in choices for the devalued snack outcome. Finally, we assessed the number of calories that participants consumed spontaneously from ad libitum available snacks afterwards. After satiety, all participants reported reduced hunger and less wanting for the devalued snack. However, while controls and idiopathic hypersomnia patients chose the devalued snack less often in the choice task, patients with narcolepsy still chose the devalued snack as often as before satiety. Subsequently, narcolepsy patients spontaneously consumed almost 4 times more calories during ad libitum snack intake. We show that the manipulation of food-specific satiety has reduced effects on food choices and caloric intake in narcolepsy type 1 patients. These mechanisms may contribute to their obesity, and suggest an important functional role for orexin in human eating behavior. Study registered at Netherlands Trial Register. URL: www.trialregister.nl. Trial ID: NTR4508. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Food insecurity as a driver of obesity in humans: The insurance hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Bateson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Short abstract Common sense says that obesity is the consequence of too much food. Adaptive reasoning says something rather different: individuals should store fat when access to food is insecure, to buffer themselves against future shortfall. Applied to humans, this principle suggests that food insecurity should be a risk factor for overweight and obesity. We provide a meta-analysis of the extensive epidemiological literature, finding that food insecurity robustly predicts high body weight, but only amongst women in high-income countries. We discuss the relevance of food insecurity to understanding the global obesity problem. Long abstract Integrative explanations of why obesity is more prevalent in some sectors of the human population than others are lacking. Here, we outline and evaluate one candidate explanation, the insurance hypothesis (IH). The IH is rooted in adaptive evolutionary thinking: the function of storing fat is to provide a buffer against shortfall in the food supply. Thus, individuals should store more fat when they receive cues that access to food is uncertain. Applied to humans, this implies that an important proximate driver of obesity should be food insecurity rather than food abundance per se. We integrate several distinct lines of theory and evidence that bear on this hypothesis. We present a theoretical model that shows it is optimal to store more fat when food access is uncertain, and we review the experimental literature from non-human animals showing that fat reserves increase when access to food is restricted. We provide a meta-analysis of 125 epidemiological studies of the association between perceived food insecurity and high body weight in humans. There is a robust positive association, but it is restricted to adult women in high-income countries. We explore why this could be in light of the IH and our theoretical model. We conclude that whilst the IH alone cannot explain the distribution of obesity in the human population, it may

  5. Identification of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food products: induce intracellular oxidative stress mediated by TNF and CYP1A genes in human lung fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Al-Hadi, Ahmed M; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    Food grade TiO2 (E171) is a synthetic additive, and widely used as a coloring agent in many foods, pharmaceutical and personal care products. A few reports have highlighted that insoluble particulates (less than 200nm) of food grade TiO2 are found in many foods and confectionary products. However, information regarding the physico-chemical properties (i.e., size and shape)-based food grade TiO2 nanotoxicity related human health issues are limited. The main goal of this study is to examine the presence of nano-sized particulates and its structural characteristics of food grade- TiO2 materials and to assess the acute cellular uptake and metabolic stress induced by these particulates in human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells. The results of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies indicated that about food grade TiO2 sample contains spherical shaped particulate forms in the nano-scale range, S>G0/G1) and changes in the TNF and CYP1A gene expression pattern are linked to cellular stress. Thus, food grade TiO2 as nano-scaled contaminants could not only be potential human health risk factors, suggesting that safety considerations with special respect to a few crucial factors such as size, and shape should be considered and regulated by food regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Television food advertisement exposure and FTO rs9939609 genotype in relation to excess consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Diamond, D; Emond, J A; Lansigan, R K; Rapuano, K M; Kelley, W M; Heatherton, T F; Sargent, J D

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to food advertisements may cue overeating among children, especially among those genetically predisposed to respond to food cues. We aimed to assess how television food advertisements affect eating in the absence of hunger among children in a randomized trial. We hypothesized that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism would modify the effect of food advertisements. In this randomized experiment, 200 children aged 9-10 years were served a standardized lunch and then shown a 34-min television show embedded with either food or toy advertisements. Children were provided with snack food to consume ad libitum while watching the show and we measured caloric intake. Children were genotyped for rs9939609 and analyses were conducted in the overall sample and stratified by genotype. A formal test for interaction of the food advertisement effect on consumption by rs9939609 was conducted. About 172 unrelated participants were included in this analysis. Children consumed on average 453 (s.d.=185) kcals during lunch and 482 (s.d.=274) kcals during the experimental exposure. Children who viewed food advertisements consumed an average of 48 kcals (95% confidence interval: 10, 85; P=0.01) more of a recently advertised food than those who viewed toy advertisements. There was a statistically significant interaction between genotype and food advertisement condition (P for interaction=0.02), where the difference in consumption of a recently advertised food related to food advertisement exposure increased linearly with each additional FTO risk allele, even after controlling for body mass index percentile. Food advertisement exposure was associated with greater caloric consumption of a recently advertised food, and this effect was modified by an FTO genotype. Future research is needed to understand the neurological mechanism underlying these associations.

  7. Numerical modeling of human mastication, a simplistic view to design foods adapted to mastication abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin; Hartmann, Christoph

    2014-01-30

    The human diet contains a large variety of aromas, tastes and textures. The latter is particularly important since it determines whether foods are difficult to process orally and thus can be one source of food avoidance. It has also been reported in recent literature that food texture was a main driver for satiation processes and thus it is of interest for the food manufacturing industry to be able to control textural properties of food within the limits of acceptability for the consumer. For solid foods, fracture force is an important aspect of texture and we were interested in understanding the physiological drivers of this variable.We present a third order lever model of human bite force and the space between teeth based on data from the literature on human oral anatomy. The results from the model are compared with experimental data available in the literature. The model compares well with the experimental data (r2 = 0.95, p = 0.0010, MPE = 0.18), and can thus be used to derive a diagram of how food properties such as piece size or fracture force can be used to define whether foods are close to the limits of what the human jaw is capable of breaking. Such modeling tools can be used to define texture rules for tailor-made nutrition for specific populations based on their mastication abilities. The limitations of this modeling approach are also discussed, particularly the fact that tooth shape should also be considered, as this will ultimately define fracture stress, which is the deterministic factor of food fracture.

  8. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-realaed life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and different cultural setting, to compare results, a...

  9. Food-Related Environmental Beliefs and Behaviours among University Undergraduates: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Arvai, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to document the food-related environmental beliefs and behaviours of undergraduate university students. More specifically, this research was focussed on determining if environmental sustainability is a consideration in students' food choices, identifying the specific choices and behaviours adopted to reduce…

  10. Food-related life styles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...

  11. The uptake of uranium and radium from food and water in relation to calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observed ratios for dietary radium and calcium suggest that at least a 20 to 70 fold discrimination exists against radium uptake in the skeleton relative to calcium. It has been widely shown in many countries around the world that the relative radium to calcium ratio in the human skeleton varies from country to country, but within geographic areas, it appears to be relatively invariant with age. The ratio of radium-226 to calcium in intake, relative to the radium-226 to calcium value in the skeleton, is called the observed ratio, and varies over the world from a value of 0.013 to 0.039, with a mean of 0.024. In 1975, I inferred a mean observed ratio for uranium of 0.057 for the US. These findings suggest that man is in equilibrium with radium-226 with respect to the calcium in food and water. Most of the calcium would be ingested in diet, as would a significant amount, but not necessarily all, of the radium. The role of calcium for intake in water has not been examined

  12. Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2014-07-01

    Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. This study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli (e.g. non-food commercials and television show) and to explore how this response may differ by weight status. The blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging activation was measured in 30 adolescents ranging from lean to obese in response to food and non-food commercials imbedded in a television show. Adolescents exhibited greater activation in regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. occipital gyrus), attention (e.g. parietal lobes), cognition (e.g. temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellar lobe), movement (e.g. anterior cerebellar cortex), somatosensory response (e.g. postcentral gyrus) and reward [e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] during food commercials. Obese participants exhibited less activation during food relative to non-food commercials in neural regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. cuneus), attention (e.g. posterior cerebellar lobe), reward (e.g. ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ACC) and salience detection (e.g. precuneus). Obese participants did exhibit greater activation in a region implicated in semantic control (e.g. medial temporal gyrus). These findings may inform current policy debates regarding the impact of food advertising to minors. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The web-based ASSO-food frequency questionnaire for adolescents: relative and absolute reproducibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Anna Rita; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Breda, João; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Mammina, Caterina; Tabacchi, Garden

    2014-12-17

    A new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been recently developed within the Italian Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project; it was found to be appropriate for ranking adolescents in food and nutrient levels of intake. The aim of this study was to assess the relative and absolute reproducibility of the ASSO-FFQ for 24 food groups, energy and 52 nutrients. A test-retest study was performed on two ASSO-FFQs administered one month apart of each other to 185 adolescents, aged 14-17 and attending secondary schools in Palermo (Italy). Wilcoxon test assessed differences in median daily intakes between the two FFQs. Agreement was evaluated by quintiles comparison and weighted kappa. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman method assessed the relative and absolute reliability respectively. Significant difference (p food, water, soft drinks, carbohydrates and sugar. The subjects classified into the same or adjacent quintiles for food groups ranged from 62% (white bread) to 91% (soft drinks); for energy and nutrients from 64% (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to 90% (ethanol). Mean values of weighted kappa were 0.47 and 0.48, respectively for food groups and nutrients. Fair to good ICC values (>0.40) were assessed for thirteen food groups, energy and forty-three nutrients. Limits of Agreement were narrow for almost all food groups and all nutrients. The ASSO-FFQ is a reliable instrument for estimating food groups, energy and nutrients intake in adolescents.

  14. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.

    , an overarching framework was developed for selection of the appropriate method(s) that could be used for risk ranking of feed and food related hazards, on the basis of human health impact. This framework has the format of a decision tool, with which – given the characteristics of the risk ranking question...... at hand - the most appropriate method(s) can be selected. Application of this overall framework to several case studies showed it can be a useful tool for risk managers/assessors to select the most suitable method for risk ranking of feed/food and diet related hazards, on the basis of expected human......This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies...

  15. Behind human milk and breastfeeding: not only food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo; Pepaj, Orsiol; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2017-12-26

    After birth, breastfeeding should not be considered only a normal and physiological event; in fact, it encloses both physical and the psychological aspects. Human milk cannot be compared to any formula milk. Specifically, human milk has immunological and nutritional properties and it is considered the best available option which guarantees an adequate growth and an optimal development of a child. Differences in term of mediators and hormones have been shown between infants who were breastfed and ones who were not. A key point is represented by unmeasurable environmental and psycho-affective factors. So, it may be simplistic to consider human milk only as a nutrient; since it encompasses much more. The aim of our commentary is to review clinical studies about breastfeeding, analysing its consequences on the neuro-developmental achievement, growth and risk of obesity within a holistic view.

  16. Development of functional food products in relation to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The development of new eating habits, as well as actual trends in production and consumption,has a health, environmental and social impact. The entire world is fighting diseases characteristic of the modern age such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies, and dental problems. With a global increase in the prevalence of obesity, both nutrition and exercise play key roles in its prevention and treatment. Natural product (nutraceutical interventions are currently being investigated on a large-scale basis as potential treatments for obesity and weight management. With advancing nutritional sciences, several nutrients such as; low-glycemic-indexcarbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium have been shown topromote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24 hrenergy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled, in efficacious doses, into a new functional food product and described in this review. Each component has already been shown to promote weight loss independently in clinical trials.

  17. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  18. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  19. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... 10 Judyma Street, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland. (Received 1 ... Increasing interest in oat utilization for human consumption has been stimulated by the need for ... Helium was used as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.4 cm3/min.

  20. Food Environments: What is the Role of Demographics in Figians' Decision Making Related to Food Choice and Overall Nutrition Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Due to the recent increased quantity of nutrition-related diseases worldwide, current research recommends exploring environmental factors that influence this trend. The Islands of Fiji are of particular concern because of the growing number of non- communicable diseases. On the same small island, nutrition problems vary according to demographic. Thus, the different environments of each demographic constitute diverse food environments, which are manifested in varied nutrition concerns. This st...

  1. Functional Foods for Health: The Interrelated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs, Spices and Cocoa in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Peluso, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of plant food-based diets could be related to both integrated antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms exerted by a wide array of phytochemicals present in fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. Therefore, there is mounting interest in identifying foods, food extracts and phytochemical formulations from plant sources which are able to efficiently modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This paper reviews available evidence about the effect of supplementation with selected fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and their extracts or galenic formulation on combined markers of redox and inflammatory status in humans. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Taste-related factors and food neophobia: Are they associated with nutritional status and teenagers' food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Previato, Helena Dória Ribeiro; Behrens, Jorge Herman

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of taste-related factors (craving for sweets, using food as a reward and pleasure) and food neophobia with nutritional status and food intake among teenagers. This was a cross-sectional study with 132 teenagers 15 to 19 y of age. Food behavior, anthropometrics, body composition, and lifestyle measurements were obtained and analyzed. Craving for sweets was associated with overweight, adiposity, meal skipping, physical inactivity, and intake of sweets (P Teenage girls had a higher craving for sweets (22.88 ± 4.77) and higher pleasure scores (21.50 ± 3.82), body fat (25.33 ± 6.60), meal skipping (63.2%), and physical inactivity (64.7%) than their male counterparts (P teenagers. However, this was a cross-sectional study and further cohort studies should be performed for in-depth investigation of a causal relationship between the findings of this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human dietary δ(15)N intake: representative data for principle food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsemann, F; Koehler, K; Braun, H; Schaenzer, W; Flenker, U

    2013-09-01

    Dietary analysis using δ(15)N values of human remains such as bone and hair is usually based on general principles and limited data sets. Even for modern humans, the direct ascertainment of dietary δ(15)N is difficult and laborious, due to the complexity of metabolism and nitrogen fractionation, differing dietary habits and variation of δ(15)N values of food items. The objective of this study was to summarize contemporary regional experimental and global literature data to ascertain mean representative δ(15)N values for distinct food categories. A comprehensive data set of more than 12,000 analyzed food samples was summarized from the literature. Data originated from studies dealing with (1) authenticity tracing or origin control of food items, and (2) effects of fertilization or nutrition on δ(15)N values of plants or animals. Regional German food δ(15)N values revealed no major differences compared with the mean global values derived from the literature. We found that, in contrast to other food categories, historical faunal remains of pig and poultry are significantly enriched in (15)N compared to modern samples. This difference may be due to modern industrialized breeding practices. In some food categories variations in agricultural and feeding regimens cause significant differences in δ(15)N values that may lead to misinterpretations when only limited information is available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Food-related life style segments in Australia: What's the trend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    and adjusting marketing strategies, building superior market-based assets, and creating a stronger consumer focus for product development and communication purposes. This research employs the Food-Related LifeStyles (FRL) instrument developed by Grunert, Brunsø & Bisp (1997) to determine the validity...... of the instrument in an Australian context, to build a better understanding of Australian food consumers, and to compare Australian consumers with their international counterparts. The research represents an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related life styles and linking...

  6. An empirical test of competing theories of hazard-related trust: the case of GM food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, Nick

    2007-08-01

    Few scholars doubt the importance of trust in explaining variation in public perception of technological risk. Relatively little, however, is known about the particular types of judgments that people use in granting or withholding trust. This article presents findings from an empirical study that explores several dimensions of trust relevant for citizens' judgments of scientists involved in the development of GM food. The relationship between particular dimensions of trust and perceptions of GM food risk is also explored, using structural equation modeling. Results suggest that trust judgments based on the perception of shared values are most important in relation to GM food risk, but that judgments about scientists' technical competence are also important.

  7. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  8. Food and human gut as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eRolain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome that could be mobilized and transferred from these sources to human pathogens. AR is a natural phenomenon developed by bacteria to protect antibiotic-producing bacteria from their own products and also to increase their survival in highly competitive microbial environments. Although antibiotics are used extensively in humans and animals, there is also considerable usage of antibiotics in agriculture, especially in animal feeds and aquaculture. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the sources of AR and the use of antibiotics in these reservoirs as selectors for emergence of AR bacteria in humans via the food chain.

  9. Energy and nutrient density of foods in relation to their carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Martin, Agnes; Verger, Eric O; Voinnesson, Marc; Imbert, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A carbon footprint is the sum of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) associated with food production, processing, transporting, and retailing. We examined the relation between the energy and nutrient content of foods and associated GHGEs as expressed as g CO2 equivalents. GHGE values, which were calculated and provided by a French supermarket chain, were merged with the Composition Nutritionnelle des Aliments (French food-composition table) nutrient-composition data for 483 foods and beverages from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety. Foods were aggregated into 34 food categories and 5 major food groups as follows: meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, frozen and processed fruit and vegetables, grains, and sweets. Energy density was expressed as kcal/100 g. Nutrient density was determined by using 2 alternative nutrient-density scores, each based on the sum of the percentage of daily values for 6 or 15 nutrients, respectively. The energy and nutrient densities of foods were linked to log-transformed GHGE values expressed per 100 g or 100 kcal. Grains and sweets had lowest GHGEs (per 100 g and 100 kcal) but had high energy density and a low nutrient content. The more-nutrient-dense animal products, including meat and dairy, had higher GHGE values per 100 g but much lower values per 100 kcal. In general, a higher nutrient density of foods was associated with higher GHGEs per 100 kcal, although the slopes of fitted lines varied for meat and dairy compared with fats and sweets. Considerations of the environmental impact of foods need to be linked to concerns about nutrient density and health. The point at which the higher carbon footprint of some nutrient-dense foods is offset by their higher nutritional value is a priority area for additional research. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Integration of homeostatic signaling and food reward processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joe J; Wetzel, Anne; Sinno, Maria Hamze; Skunde, Mandy; Bendszus, Martin; Preissl, Hubert; Enck, Paul; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2017-08-03

    Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward. Every participant was scanned twice in a counterbalanced fashion, both during a fasted state (after 24 hours fasting) and satiety. A functional connectivity analysis was performed to investigate the influence of satiety signaling on activation in neural reward networks. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal satiety signaling. Fasting was associated with sensitization of the striatal reward system to the anticipation of food reward irrespective of reward magnitude. Furthermore, during satiety, individual ghrelin levels were associated with increased neural processing during the expectation of food-related reward. Our findings show that physiological hunger stimulates food consumption by specifically increasing neural processing during the expectation (i.e., incentive salience) but not the receipt of food-related reward. In addition, these findings suggest that ghrelin signaling influences hedonic-driven food intake by increasing neural reactivity during the expectation of food-related reward. These results provide insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of motivational processing and hedonic evaluation of food reward. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03081585. This work was supported by the German Competence Network on Obesity, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ 01GI1122E).

  11. Logical Relation of Human Rights and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Talebi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Before establishing any kind of rights for human being, the man should be first known. The best approach to know human being is to utilize the knowledge and teachings that God has given us as the Creator of man. He knows better than anyone else the man whom He has created. This article tries to show that the Man who has (human rights is not that human being as we are used to know him by popular experimental view, but is an existent that is constantly moving on the path of absolute perfection with the aim of achieving the status of the perfect man. To prove this, at this writing, first the concept of right has been studied with an epistemological and ontological look, and look then the concepts of human and religion will be considered.and investigated. Finally, different kinds of the rights of right owners, which one of these rights is human rights, are discussed. Human rights are those rights that belong to every individual because he/she is a human being. -free framework, which has constituted the basis of mainstream conceptions of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Criticizing the deontological view, this article defends the teleological approach toward the universality of human rights, based on contemporary philosophical hermeneutics specially Paul Ricoeur’s outlook. I argue that this approach can provide the philosophical requirements for interaction between the universality of human rights on one hand and the cultural and local contents of various societies on the other hand and offers a “thick” conception of human rights principles. قبل از اثبات هر نوع حق برای بشر باید ابتدا بشر را شناخت. بهترین شیوه شناسایی بشر استفاده از معارفی است که خدای متعال به عنوان خالق بشر در اختیار ما قرار داده است. او بهتر از هرکس بشری را که ساخته است می‌شناسد. این مقاله درصدد

  12. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Renes, R.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers’ perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate

  13. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodgson, Ernest

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the human-metabolism and metabolic interactions of a subset of deployment-related chemicals, including chlorpyrifos, DEET, permethrin, pyridostigmine bromide, and sulfur mustard metabolites...

  14. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  15. Multidimensional Assessment of Impulsivity in Relation to Obesity and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBroek-Stice, Lauren; Stojek, Monika K.; Beach, Steven R. H.; vanDellen, Michelle R.; MacKillop, James

    2017-01-01

    Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in “food addiction,” a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains. PMID:28087369

  16. Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in relation to obesity and food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBroek-Stice, Lauren; Stojek, Monika K; Beach, Steven R H; vanDellen, Michelle R; MacKillop, James

    2017-05-01

    Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  18. Health-related quality of life in food hypersensitive schoolchildren and their families: parents' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marklund Birgitta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance. Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%. Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a

  19. Measurement of Fructose-Asparagine Concentrations in Human and Animal Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jikang; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Metz, Thomas O; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Gopalan, Venkat; Behrman, Edward J; Wysocki, Vicki H; Ahmer, Brian M M

    2018-01-10

    The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the nonenzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules that contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these end derivatives is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potatoes. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn. However, F-Asn would need to be packaged with the FraB inhibitor or available in human foods. To determine if there are foods that have sufficient F-Asn, we measured F-Asn concentrations in a variety of human and animal foods. The 400 pmol/mg F-Asn found in mouse chow is sufficient to intoxicate a Salmonella fraB mutant in mouse models of salmonellosis, and several human foods were found to have F-Asn at this level or higher (fresh apricots, lettuce, asparagus, and canned peaches). Much higher concentrations (11 000-35 000 pmol/mg dry weight) were found in heat-dried apricots, apples, and asparagus. This report reveals possible origins of F-Asn as a nutrient source for Salmonella and identifies foods that could be used together with a FraB inhibitor as a therapeutic agent for Salmonella.

  20. Measurement of fructose-asparagine concentrations in human and animal foods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jikang; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Metz, Thomas O.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Gopalan, Venkat; Behrman, Edward J.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Ahmer, Brian

    2018-01-10

    The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the non-enzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules which contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potato products. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn. However, F-Asn would need to be packaged with the FraB inhibitor, or available in human foods. To determine if there are foods that have sufficient F-Asn, we measured F-Asn concentrations in a variety of human and animal foods. The 399 pmol/mg F-Asn found in mouse chow is sufficient to intoxicate a Salmonella fraB mutant in mouse models of salmonellosis, and several human foods were found to have this concentration or higher (fresh apricots, lettuce, asparagus, and in canned peaches). Much higher concentrations (11,000 to 35,000 pmol/mg dry weight) were found in heat-dried apricots, apples, and asparagus. This report clarifies the origins of F-Asn as a nutrient source for Salmonella, and identifies foods that could be used in concert with a FraB inhibitor as a therapeutic agent for Salmonella.

  1. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Analyzing Food-Related Life Satisfaction and other Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus; Sepúlveda, José; Mora, Marcos; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-06-17

    This study aimed to assess the effect of satisfaction with food-related life on life satisfaction among inhabitants of the main municipalities of central Chile. A survey was applied to a sample of 1,277 people, distributed proportionally by municipality. The questionnaire included the following scales: SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the Health-Related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL). Questions were asked regarding eating habits inside and outside the home, time available for meals at home, the assessment of five sources of happiness and the demographic characteristics of those surveyed. An ordered logit model was proposed, in which the dependent variable was satisfaction with life. Satisfaction with life was significantly related to the respondent's socioeconomic status, self-perception of health, degree of satisfaction with food-related life, monthly food expenditure, time available for supper with the family (p health problems, frequency of supper with the family, the degree of agreement with respect to family being an important source of happiness (p food consumption in fast food outlets (p health, family and eating, and the family interaction associated with eating may play an important role in overall satisfaction with life.

  3. Protocol to monitor trade agreement food-related aspects: the Fiji case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-04-26

    Despite the growing rates of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, globally, public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade agreements and the nutritional risks associated with it. Specific trade agreements appear to have played an influential role in the volume and types of foods entering different countries, yet there is currently no systematic and objective monitoring of trade agreements for their impacts on food environments. Recently, INFORMAS was set up to monitor and benchmark food environments, government policies and private sector actions within countries and globally. One of its projects/modules focuses on trade policy and in particular the food-related aspects of trade agreements. This paper describes the INFORMAS trade protocol, an approach to collecting food-related information about four domains of trade: trade in goods; trade in services and foreign direct investment; domestic supports, and policy space. Specifically, the protocol is tested in Fiji. The development and testing of this protocol in Fiji represents the first effort to set out a framework and process for objectively monitoring trade agreements and their impacts on national food supply and the wider food environment. It has shown that entry into WTO trade agreements contributed to the nutrition transition in Fiji through the increased availability of imported foods with varying nutritional quality. We observed an increase in imports of both healthy and less healthy foods. The application of the monitoring protocol also highlights challenges for data collection associated with each trade domain that should be considered for future data collection and analysis in other low and middle income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was poor HIV preventive practices; indicating ... Gyawali, et al.: HIV related knowledge, risk perception and practices among married women. Annals of Medical .... of this study correspond to the Indian, Nigerian and Iranian studies cited ...

  5. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Free-ranging dogs prefer petting over food in repeated interactions with unfamiliar humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; Sau, Shubhra; Das, Jayjit; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-12-15

    Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) are the first species to have been domesticated and, unlike other domesticated species, they have developed a special bond with their owners. The ability to respond to human gestures and language, and the hypersocial behaviours of dogs are considered key factors that have led them to become man's best friend. Free-ranging dogs provide an excellent model system for understanding the dog-human relationship in various social contexts. In India, free-ranging dogs occur in all possible human habitations. They scavenge among garbage, beg for food from humans, give birth in dens close to human habitations, and establish social bonds with people. However, there is ample dog-human conflict on the streets, leading to morbidity and mortality of dogs. Hence, the ability to assess an unfamiliar human before establishing physical contact could be adaptive for dogs, especially in the urban environment. We tested a total of 103 adult dogs to investigate their response to immediate social and long-term food and social rewards. The dogs were provided a choice of obtaining food either from an experimenter's hand or the ground. The dogs avoided making physical contact with the unfamiliar human. While immediate social reward was not effective in changing this response, the long-term test showed a strong effect of social contact. Our results revealed that these dogs tend to build trust based on affection, not food. This study provides significant insights into the dynamics of dog-human interactions on the streets and subsequent changes in behaviour of dogs through the process of learning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzogara, S G

    2000-05-01

    into humans, increased crop yield, improvement in agriculture through breeding insect, pest, disease, and weather resistant crops and herbicide tolerant crops, use of GM plants as bio-factories to yield raw materials for industrial uses, use of GM organisms in drug manufacture, in recycling and/or removal of toxic industrial wastes. The potential risks and benefits of the new technology to man and the environment are reviewed. Ways of minimizing potential risks and maximizing the benefits of GM foods are suggested. Because the benefits of GM foods apparently far outweigh the risks, regulatory agencies and industries involved in GM food business should increase public awareness in this technology to enhance worldwide acceptability of GM foods. This can be achieved through openness, education, and research.

  9. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, E M; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers' perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate their individual product choice in response to a scenario. Scenarios varied as a between-subject factor in terms of whether information on the time gap till the next meal occasion (favorite main dish) was provided or not, and whether this meal would be eaten after one hour or four hours. To get a better understanding of consumer terminology a repertory grid task was used to elicit consumer attributes relating to satiety. This research shows that, when consumers are confronted with situations that vary in satiety requirements, they do not make significantly different snack products choices. But they do have specific ideas about the product features that influence the perceived satiety level of a product. Products perceived as fat, high in protein, with a savory taste and in one piece are expected to have a higher level of satiety compared to sweet products and products that exist of multiple small items. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 70166 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a public docket for information pertaining to FDA's... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1090...

  11. Food insecurity is related to glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawadi, Hiba Ahmad; Ammari, Fawaz; Abu-Jamous, Dima; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Bataineh, Safa'a; Tayyem, Reema Fayez

    2012-04-01

    Poor glycemic control has been shown to play a major role in the development and progression of diabetes complications. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that food insecurity may deteriorate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among type 2 diabetics in a major hospital that serves the area of northern Jordan, and to investigate its relation to glycemic control. A sample of 843 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Socioeconomic and health data were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by a trained nutritionist. Dietary assessment was done using food frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were processed using food processor software. Food insecurity was assessed by the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. Glycemic control was assessed by measuring glycosyated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Statistical procedures used to analyze the data were chi-square, and post-hoc analysis of variance. About 22% of the tested sample were food secure (FS); 51% were moderately food insecure (MFIS); and 27% were severely food insecure (SFIS). Higher BMI was associated with SFIS patients. After adjusting for age, gender, income, education, and duration of diabetes, body mass index, and caloric consumption; moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with poor glycemic control (p = 0.04). food insecurity may be associated with glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Anthropogenic Food Subsidy to a Commensal Carnivore: The Value and Supply of Human Faeces in the Diet of Free-Ranging Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. A. Butler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, particularly human faeces (i.e., coprophagy have not previously been fully quantified. In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy. Free-ranging dog diets, body condition, and sociology were studied amongst 72 dogs over 18 months using scat analysis and direct observations. Human faeces constituted the fourth most common item in scats (56% occurrence and contributed 21% by mass to the observed diet. Human faeces represented a valuable resource because relative to other food items it was consistently available, and of higher nutritional value than ‘sadza’ (maize porridge, the human staple and primary human-derived food, yielding 18.7% crude protein and 18.7 KJ/kg gross energy, compared to 8.3% and 18.5 KJ/kg for sadza, respectively. Human faeces had protein and energy values equivalent to mammal remains, another important food item. Dog condition was generally good, with 64% of adult females and 74% of adult males in the highest two body condition scores (on a five point scale, suggesting a plentiful and high quality food supply. Dogs largely fed alone, perhaps as a consequence of the small, inert, and spatially dispersed items that comprise their diet, and its abundance. We discuss the relationships between sanitation, human development, the supply of human faeces, female dog fertility, and population control.

  13. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the   RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.

  14. Establishing Food Traceability System Using Nuclear and Related Techniques in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Salmah Moosa; Roslanzairi Mostapha

    2015-01-01

    Determination of food traceability is important in quality control and safety of food. The dramatic increase in the volume of global trade and complexity of supply chains has caused a number of issues concerning food authenticity and safety. Commodities that attract premium prices are subject to fraud such as adulteration and counterfeit. This poses serious health risks due to unknown origin of the counterfeit. In addition to safety concern, the capability to certify food origin is becoming significant economic importance. In several countries, the use of geographical indications allows producers to obtain market recognition and often a premium price. In addressing food safety issues in Malaysia, the Food Hygiene Regulations (2009) has provision for traceability but mechanism on how traceability can be achieved is not prescribed. Present mechanism is mainly paper-based system that passes information along with the commodity. However, such system is subject to failure either inadvertently or deliberately (fraud). Thus there is a need to establish a science-based traceability system to support the food safety surveillance program in Malaysia. This paper presents the concept and use of nuclear and related techniques involving isotopic and elemental fingerprinting in determining the geographical origin of various food products and its potential application for traceability of Malaysian agricultural produce. (author)

  15. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  17. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  18. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative validity of a tool to measure food acculturation in children of Mexican descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure food acculturation in young Mexican-origin children. In 2006, Spanish-speaking staff interviewed mothers in a community-based sample of households from Ventura, California (US) (n = 95) and Guanajuato, Mexico (MX) (n = 200). Data included two 24-h dietary recalls (24-DR); a 30-item FFQ; and anthropometry of the children. To measure construct, convergent, and discriminant validity, data analyses included factor analysis, Spearman correlations, t-test, respectively. Factor analysis revealed two constructs: 1) a US food pattern including hamburgers, pizza, hot dogs, fried chicken, juice, cereal, pastries, lower fat milk, quesadillas, and American cheese and 2) a MX food pattern including tortillas, fried beans, rice/noodles, whole milk, and pan dulce (sweet bread). Out of 22 food items that could be compared across the FFQ and mean 24-DRs, 17 were significantly, though weakly, correlated (highest r = 0.62, for whole milk). The mean US food pattern score was significantly higher, and the MX food pattern score, lower in US children than in MX children (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for child's age and gender; mother's education; and household size, the US food pattern score was positively related to body mass index (BMI) z-scores (beta coefficient: +0.29, p = - 0.004), whereas the MX food pattern score was negatively related to BMI z-scores (beta coefficient: -0.28, p = 0.002). This tool may be useful to evaluate nutrition education interventions to prevent childhood obesity on both sides of the border. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  1. Cyborg intentionality : rethinking the phenomenology of human- technology relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the types of intentionality involved in human-technology relations. It aims to augment Don Ihde's analysis of the relations between human beings and technological artifacts, by analyzing a number of concrete examples at the limits of Ihde's analysis. The article

  2. Microbial control of food-related surfaces: Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of photosensitization as surface sanitation alternative using model systems when food pathogens, their spores and biofilms were attached to the food-related surface (polyolefine). In addition it was important to compare antibacterial efficiency of Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization with conventional sanitizers. Obtained results indicate that Bacilluscereus ATCC 12826 and Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 7644 as well as their thermoresistant strains B.cereus SV90 and L.monocytogenes 56LY were effectively inactivated (7 log) by Na-Chl-based photosensitization in vitro. Inactivation rate of thermoresistant strains was slower. The number of attached to the surface B.cereus ATCC 12826 and L.monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was reduced from 4-4.5 log to 0 log after photosensitization treatment. To achieve adequate inactivation of thermoresistant strains the higher Na-Chl concentration and longer illumination times had to be used. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveal that photosensitization is much more effective against all surface-attached B.cereus and L.monocytogenes strains than washing with water or 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite. It is important to note, that surface-attached B.cereus spores and L.monocytogenes biofilms can be eliminated from it by photosensitization as well. Our data support the idea that Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization has high antibacterial potential which may serve in the future for the development of human and environment friendly, non-thermal surface decontamination technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The principles of ultrasound and its application in freezing related processes of food materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinfeng; Zhang, Min; Xu, Baoguo; Adhikari, Benu; Sun, Jincai

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing is a novel and promising technology in food industry. The propagation of ultrasound in a medium generates various physical and chemical effects and these effects have been harnessed to improve the efficiency of various food processing operations. Ultrasound has also been used in food quality control as diagnostic technology. This article provides an overview of recent developments related to the application of ultrasound in low temperature and closely related processes such as freezing, thawing, freeze concentration and freeze drying. The applications of high intensity ultrasound to improve the efficiency of freezing process, to control the size and size distribution of ice crystals and to improve the quality of frozen foods have been discussed in considerable detail. The use of low intensity ultrasound in monitoring the ice content and to monitor the progress of freezing process has also been highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana

    2011-08-01

    Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.

  5. Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands...... resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were......%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact...

  6. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary factors related to colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse; Van Camp, John; Huybrechts, Inge; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Loco, Joris; De Smet, Stefaan; Sterck, Ellen; Rabâi, Céline; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Peeters, Marc; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was assessed by co...

  7. Relative importance of food and water pathways in the bio-accumulation of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.; Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative importance of the food versus water pathway as a source of radionuclides to aquatic organisms is studied through laboratory experiments allowing groups of animals to accumulate 65 Zn from the two pathways simultaneously in the same simulated ecosystem. Mean whole body concentration factors of 65 Zn and stable zinc in shrimp, crab, fish and mussels are recorded. In shrimp and fish accumulation of 65 Zn through the food pathway is reported more than the water pathway though fluctuations in food quality and feeding rates could alter zinc absorption kinetics

  8. Iron phosphate nanoparticles for food fortification: Biological effects in rats and human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, Lea M; Schneider, Mirjam; Hilty, Florentine M; Hilbe, Monika; Arnold, Myrtha; Ziegler, Nathalie; Mato, Diogo Sales; Winkler, Hans; Tarik, Mohamed; Ludwig, Christian; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B; Sturla, Shana J; Trantakis, Ioannis A

    2017-05-01

    Nanotechnology offers new opportunities for providing health benefits in foods. Food fortification with iron phosphate nanoparticles (FePO 4 NPs) is a promising new approach to reducing iron deficiency because FePO 4 NPs combine high bioavailability with superior sensory performance in difficult to fortify foods. However, their safety remains largely untested. We fed rats for 90 days diets containing FePO 4 NPs at doses at which iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ), a commonly used food fortificant, has been shown to induce adverse effects. Feeding did not result in signs of toxicity, including oxidative stress, organ damage, excess iron accumulation in organs or histological changes. These safety data were corroborated by evidence that NPs were taken up by human gastrointestinal cell lines without reducing cell viability or inducing oxidative stress. Our findings suggest FePO 4 NPs appear to be as safe for ingestion as FeSO 4 .

  9. Satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Lapo, María Del Carmen; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-02-01

    To distinguish typologies of seniors according to their levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to the importance assigned to family, health-related aspects, eating habits, nutritional status and sociodemographic characteristics. A survey was administered to a non-probabilistic sample of 817 seniors aged 60 years and over, of both genders, resident in urban and rural zones of the province of Guayas, Ecuador. The instrument included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), the Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4) and the Family Importance Scale (FIS). Eating habits, sociodemographic variables, approximate weight and height were asked about. A cluster analysis was used to distinguish three typologies that differed significantly in the scores on the SWLS, SWFL, FIS, number of days with mental health problems, self-perception of health status, body mass index, eating habits and zone of residence. Two typologies presented high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, although the variables associated with overall well-being and in the food domain were different in each typology. The results suggest that high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian seniors are associated with both healthful eating habits and having lunch in company, fewer mental health problems and greater importance assigned to family.

  10. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  11. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  12. Time for food: The impact of diet on gut microbiota and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Ju, Zhongjie; Zuo, Tao

    There is growing recognition of the role of diet on modulating the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota, which in turn influence health. Dietary ingredients and food additives have a substantial impact on the gut microbiota and hence affect human health. Updates on current understanding of the gut microbiota in diseases and metabolic disorders are addressed in this review, providing insights into how this can be transferred from bench to bench side as gut microbes are integrated with food. The potency of microbiota-targeted biomarkers as a state-of-art tool for diagnosis of diseases was also discussed, and it would instruct individuals with healthy dietary consumption. Herein, recent advances in understanding the effect of diet on gut microbiota from an ecological perspective, and how these insights might promote health by guiding development of prebiotic and probiotic strategies and functional foods, were explored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    A methodology based on descriptive analysis techniques used in the evaluation of human food has been successfully refined to allow for a human taste panel to profile the flavour and texture of a range of cat food products (CFP) and their component parts. Included in this method is the development of evaluation protocols for homogeneous products and for binary samples containing both meat chunk (MC) and gravy/gel (GG) constituents. Using these techniques, 18 flavour attributes (sweet, sour/acid, tuna, herbal, spicy, soy, salty, cereal, caramel, chicken, methionine, vegetable, offaly, meaty, burnt flavour, prawn, rancid and bitter) and four texture dimensions (hardness, chewiness, grittiness and viscosity) were generated to describe the sensations elicited by 13 commercial pet food samples. These samples differed in intensity for 16 of the 18 flavour attributes, which allows for individual CFP flavour profiles to be developed. Principal components analysis (PCA) could successfully discriminate between samples within the PCA space and also reveal some groupings amongst them. While many flavour attributes were weakly correlated, a large number (describing both taste and retro-nasal aroma qualities) were required to adequately differentiate between samples, suggesting considerable complexity in the products assessed. For both MC and GG, differences between samples for each of the texture dimensions were also found. For MC, grittiness appears to be the most discriminating textural attribute, while for GG viscosity discriminates well between samples. Meat chunks and gravy/gels differed significantly from each other in both flavour and texture. Cat food products differed in their liking ratings, although no differences were found between homogeneous, MC and GG samples, and eight flavour attributes were correlated with overall liking scores. It is now necessary to determine the usefulness and limits of sensory data gathered from human panels in describing and predicting

  14. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Evandro Leite de; Stamford,Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Lima,Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  15. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  16. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  17. Cold plasma inactivation of human pathogens on foods and regulatory status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of foods with human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and other pathogens is an ongoing challenge for growers and processors. In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut...

  18. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  19. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  20. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-03-11

    For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  1. Isolation of tannin-degrading lactobacilli from humans and fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, R; Kuroiso, K; Goto, S; Shimizu, A

    2000-07-01

    Lactobacilli with tannase activity were isolated from human feces and fermented foods. A PCR-based taxonomic assay revealed that the isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, and L. pentosus. Additional studies on a range of Lactobacillus species from established culture collections confirmed that this enzymatic activity is a phenotypic property common to these three species.

  2. Detecting contaminating microorganism in human food and water from Raman mapping through biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting microbial growth can help experts determine how to prevent the outbreaks especially if human food or water has been contaminated. Biofilms are a group of microbial cells that can either grow on living surfaces or surrounding themselves as they progress. Biofilms are not necessarily uniform...

  3. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food...) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  4. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  5. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg, while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  6. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other...

  7. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relative price of healthy and less healthy foods available in Australian school canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billich, Natassja; Adderley, Marijke; Ford, Laura; Keeton, Isabel; Palermo, Claire; Peeters, Anna; Woods, Julie; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-04-12

    School canteens have an important role in modelling a healthy food environment. Price is a strong predictor of food and beverage choice. This study compared the relative price of healthy and less healthy lunch and snack items sold within Australian school canteens. A convenience sample of online canteen menus from five Australian states were selected (100 primary and 100 secondary schools). State-specific canteen guidelines were used to classify menu items into 'green' (eat most), 'amber' (select carefully) and 'red' (not recommended in schools). The price of the cheapest 'healthy' lunch (vegetable-based 'green') and snack ('green' fruit) item was compared to the cheapest 'less healthy' ('amber/red') lunch and snack item, respectively, using an un-paired t-test. The relative price of the 'healthy' items and the 'less healthy' items was calculated to determine the proportion of schools that sold the 'less healthy' item cheaper. The mean cost of the 'healthy' lunch items was greater than the 'less healthy' lunch items for both primary (AUD $0.70 greater) and secondary schools ($0.50 greater; p snack was cheaper than the 'healthy' snack. These proportions were greatest for primary schools located in more, compared to less, disadvantaged areas. The relative price of foods sold within Australian school canteens appears to favour less healthy foods. School canteen healthy food policies should consider the price of foods sold.

  9. Food-related advertising on preschool television: building brand recognition in young viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M

    2006-10-01

    This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 am to 1 pm) were recorded in spring 2005 from each of 3 stations airing programming aimed specifically at toddlers and preschool-aged children (Public Broadcasting Service, Disney, and Nickelodeon). All content that aired in the spaces between programs was examined. Data recorded for food-related advertisements included the primary appeals used to promote products or brands, whether advertisements were aimed at children or adults, whether advertisements used primarily animation or live action, whether advertisements showed food, and whether licensed characters were used. In 96 half-hour blocks of preschool programming, the 3 stations had a total of 130 food-related advertisements (1.354 food advertisements per half-hour). More than one half of all food advertisements (76 of 130 advertisements) were aimed specifically at children, and the majority of those were for fast food chains (50 advertisements) or sweetened cereals (18 advertisements). The primary advertising appeals used associated products with fun and happiness and/or with excitement and energy. Fast food advertisements in particular seemed to focus on building brand recognition and positive associations, through the use of licensed characters, logos, and slogans. The majority of child-oriented food advertisements viewed seemed to take a branding approach, focusing on creating lifelong customers rather than generating immediate sales. Promotional spots on advertisement-supported (Nickelodeon) and sponsor-supported (Public Broadcasting Service and Disney) networks took similar approaches and used similar appeals, seeming to promote the equation that food equals fun and happiness.

  10. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.

  11. Reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an adult population of Rosario, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Zapata; Romina Buffarini; Nadia Lingiardi; Ana Luiza Gonçalves-Soares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary assessment of nutrients and food groups by food frequency questionnaire needs to be validated in each population. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire among adults of Rosario, Argentina.Material and Methods: Two food frequency questionnaires and four 24-hour dietary recalls were applied in a sample of 88 adults. Reproducibility of food frequency questionna...

  12. Challenging conventional risk assessment with respect to human exposure to multiple food contaminants in food: A case study using maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R; Connolly, L; Frizzell, C; Elliott, C T

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins and heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment and contaminate many foods. The widespread use of pesticides in crop production to control disease contributes further to the chemical contamination of foods. Thus multiple chemical contaminants threaten the safety of many food commodities; hence the present study used maize as a model crop to identify the severity in terms of human exposure when multiple contaminants are present. High Content Analysis (HCA) measuring multiple endpoints was used to determine cytotoxicity of complex mixtures of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides. Endpoints included nuclear intensity (NI), nuclear area (NA), plasma membrane permeability (PMP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial mass (MM). At concentrations representing legal limits of each individual contaminant in maize (3ng/ml ochratoxin A (OTA), 1μg/ml fumonisin B1 (FB1), 2ng/ml aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 100ng/ml cadmium (Cd), 150ng/ml arsenic (As), 50ng/ml chlorpyrifos (CP) and 5μg/ml pirimiphos methyl (PM), the mixtures (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As) and (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) were cytotoxic for NA and MM endpoints with a difference of up to 13.6% (p≤0.0001) and 12% (p≤0.0001) respectively from control values. The most cytotoxic mixture was (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) across all 4 endpoints (NA, NI, MM and MMP) with increases up to 61.3%, 23.0%, 61.4% and 36.3% (p≤0.0001) respectively. Synergy was evident for two endpoints (NI and MM) at concentrations contaminating maize above legal limits, with differences between expected and measured values of (6.2-12.4% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) and 4.5-12.3% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) for NI and MM, respectively. The study introduces for the first time, a holistic approach to identify the impact in terms of toxicity to humans when multiple chemical contaminants are present in foodstuffs. Governmental regulatory bodies must begin to contemplate how to safeguard the population when

  13. Absolute and relative densities of fast-food versus other restaurants in relation to weight status: Does restaurant mix matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Jane Y; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H; Booth, Gillian L

    2016-01-01

    Given the continuing epidemic of obesity, policymakers are increasingly looking for levers within the local retail food environment as a means of promoting healthy weights. To examine the independent and joint associations of absolute and relative densities of restaurants near home with weight status in a large, urban, population-based sample of adults. We studied 10,199 adults living in one of four cities in southern Ontario, Canada, who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 2005, 2007/08, 2009/10). Multivariate models assessed the association of weight status (obesity and body mass index) with absolute densities (numbers) of fast-food, full-service and other restaurants, and the relative density (proportion) of fast-food restaurants (FFR) relative to all restaurants within ~10-minute walk of residential areas. Higher numbers of restaurants of any type were inversely related to excess weight, even in models adjusting for a range of individual covariates and area deprivation. However, these associations were no longer significant after accounting for higher walkability of areas with high volumes of restaurants. In contrast, there was a direct relationship between the proportion of FFR relative to all restaurants and excess weight, particularly in areas with high volumes of FFR (e.g., odds ratio for obesity=2.55 in areas with 5+ FFR, 95% confidence interval: 1.55-4.17, across the interquartile range). Policies aiming to promote healthy weights that target the volume of certain retail food outlets in residential settings may be more effective if they also consider the relative share of outlets serving more and less healthful foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-04

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  15. Impact of Culture on Meat and Related Food Preferences in Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of meat and related food products marketing in Akwa Ibom State is conditioned by the specifics of culture. In this study, cultural effect on meat consumption is examined. A sample of 568 respondents were analysed with OLS regression. The results reveal that meat consumption and preferences for related ...

  16. Feeling full and being full : how gastric content relates to appetite, food properties and neural activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This thesis aimed to further determine how gastric content relates to subjective experiences regarding appetite, how this relation is affected by food properties and whether this is visible in neural activation changes.

    Method: This was studied using

  17. 77 FR 75187 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-835] Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an... containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of U.S...

  18. Evolutionary distance from human homologs reflects allergenicity of animal food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John A; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, E N Clare

    2007-12-01

    In silico analysis of allergens can identify putative relationships among protein sequence, structure, and allergenic properties. Such systematic analysis reveals that most plant food allergens belong to a restricted number of protein superfamilies, with pollen allergens behaving similarly. We have investigated the structural relationships of animal food allergens and their evolutionary relatedness to human homologs to define how closely a protein must resemble a human counterpart to lose its allergenic potential. Profile-based sequence homology methods were used to classify animal food allergens into Pfam families, and in silico analyses of their evolutionary and structural relationships were performed. Animal food allergens could be classified into 3 main families--tropomyosins, EF-hand proteins, and caseins--along with 14 minor families each composed of 1 to 3 allergens. The evolutionary relationships of each of these allergen superfamilies showed that in general, proteins with a sequence identity to a human homolog above approximately 62% were rarely allergenic. Single substitutions in otherwise highly conserved regions containing IgE epitopes in EF-hand parvalbumins may modulate allergenicity. These data support the premise that certain protein structures are more allergenic than others. Contrasting with plant food allergens, animal allergens, such as the highly conserved tropomyosins, challenge the capability of the human immune system to discriminate between foreign and self-proteins. Such immune responses run close to becoming autoimmune responses. Exploiting the closeness between animal allergens and their human homologs in the development of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy will need to consider the potential for developing unanticipated autoimmune responses.

  19. Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse; Van Camp, John; Huybrechts, Inge; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Loco, Joris; De Smet, Stefaan; Sterck, Ellen; Rabâi, Céline; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Peeters, Marc; Lachat, Carl

    2017-11-17

    Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing FFQ1 against the 3-day diary method (3 DD). A total of 162 respondents (mean age 57.5 years) provided data for the FFQ, of whom 156 also participated in the validity assessment. Mean differences in the intake of foods and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were, overall, small and statistically insignificant. However, a higher estimation was observed by FFQ1 as compared to the 3-DD method for the majority of food groups and nutrient intake in the validity assessment. A systematic mean difference (g/day) was observed for eight food groups in the Bland-Altman agreement test; the largest was for fruit intake. Regarding the nutrients, a systematic mean difference was observed in calcium, fat, and vitamin D intake. Overall, the reproducibility of the FFQ was good, and its validity could be satisfactory for estimating absolute food and nutrient intakes and ranking individuals according to high and low intake categories.

  20. Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2. The validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing FFQ1 against the 3-day diary method (3 DD. A total of 162 respondents (mean age 57.5 years provided data for the FFQ, of whom 156 also participated in the validity assessment. Mean differences in the intake of foods and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were, overall, small and statistically insignificant. However, a higher estimation was observed by FFQ1 as compared to the 3-DD method for the majority of food groups and nutrient intake in the validity assessment. A systematic mean difference (g/day was observed for eight food groups in the Bland–Altman agreement test; the largest was for fruit intake. Regarding the nutrients, a systematic mean difference was observed in calcium, fat, and vitamin D intake. Overall, the reproducibility of the FFQ was good, and its validity could be satisfactory for estimating absolute food and nutrient intakes and ranking individuals according to high and low intake categories.

  1. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Energy efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-07-01

    The opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system, i.e. at, or in relation to, the points of consumption are identified. Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterised by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. (author).

  3. Beverage Consumption in Relation to Discretionary Food Intake and Diet Quality among US Adults, 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    A majority of Americans consume beverages and discretionary foods-foods that are typically low in nutrient value but high in sugar, sodium, fats, and cholesterol-as part of their daily diet, which profoundly impacts their energy balance and nutritional status. This study examined consumption of different types of beverages in relation to discretionary food intake and diet quality among US adults. Nationally representative sample of 22,513 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012 waves were analyzed. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products that do not necessarily provide essential nutrients that the human body needs, but can add variety. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables (eg, eating habits, taste preferences) by using within-individual variations in diet and beverage consumption between 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Approximately 21.7%, 42.9%, 52.8%, 26.3%, and 22.2% of study participants consumed diet beverage, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), coffee, tea, and alcohol, respectively, and 90.1% consumed discretionary foods on any given day. Across beverage types, alcohol (384.8 kcal) and SSB (226.2 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily total calorie intake; coffee (60.7 kcal) and diet-beverage (48.8 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily calorie intake from discretionary foods, and SSB consumption was associated with the largest reduction in daily overall diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The impact of beverage consumption on daily calorie intake (overall and from discretionary foods) and diet quality differed across individual sociodemographics and body-weight status. The incremental daily calorie intake from discretionary foods associated with diet-beverage consumption was highest in obese adults, and that associated with SSB was highest in

  4. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for

  5. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  6. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  7. Beauty and Vanity in Relation to New Food Types: A Study on the Nutricosmetics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Soffner Mashorca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian market has shown growth in some sectors, due to increased consumer purchasing power over the years. Among these markets are the food market that passes through the search for healthy foods trend, and cosmetics market, whose products have become increasingly important in people’s lives, who constantly seek improvement of beauty. These markets have given rise to a new, the nutricosmetics market, that is food that aim to improve the beauty from the inside out. The nutricosmetics meet both the need for food as beauty, so this article aims to identify the values ​​associated with these two needs together, aiming to capture the perceptions of individuals about this product. For this, a literature review on the subject was made in addition to the implementation of the Focus Group, the Laddering and Conjoint Analysis, appropriate techniques to analyze new products. The results showed that consumers have sought to improve the beauty as a lifestyle, through the adoption of attitudes and healthy habits, since it makes them feel better about themselves and makes them more successful in social relations. It was observed that the most valued aspect in relation to nutricosmetics is the scientific basis, indicating a difficulty of launching new products. It was considered, finally, that the nutricosmetics represent that there is a fine line between the values ​​related to food and related to beauty.

  8. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  9. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2009-08-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.

  10. Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, S M

    2013-04-01

    Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of β-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley β-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48 ± 33 mmol · min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the β-glucan dose alone (r(2)=0.48, Pfoods containing 4 g of β-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27 ± 3 mmol · min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of β-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose.

  11. Percieved resources as a predictor of satisfaction with food-related life among Chilean elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobos, G.; Schnettler, B.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785...... participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. Results: The results led to different considerations: First, older adults’ perceived levels of resources...... are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as ‘highly important’ to explain older adults’ satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity...

  12. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  13. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  15. Ageing diminishes the modulation of human brain responses to visual food cues by meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y S; Lee, S; Ashoor, G; Nathan, Y; Reed, L J; Zelaya, F O; Brammer, M J; Amiel, S A

    2014-09-01

    Rates of obesity are greatest in middle age. Obesity is associated with altered activity of brain networks sensing food-related stimuli and internal signals of energy balance, which modulate eating behaviour. The impact of healthy mid-life ageing on these processes has not been characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate changes in brain responses to food cues, and the modulatory effect of meal ingestion on such evoked neural activity, from young adulthood to middle age. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed subjects, aged 19.5-52.6 years, were studied on separate days after an overnight fast, randomly receiving 50 ml water or 554 kcal mixed meal before functional brain magnetic resonance imaging while viewing visual food cues. Across the group, meal ingestion reduced food cue-evoked activity of amygdala, putamen, insula and thalamus, and increased activity in precuneus and bilateral parietal cortex. Corrected for body mass index, ageing was associated with decreasing food cue-evoked activation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precuneus, and increasing activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral temporal lobe and posterior cingulate in the fasted state. Ageing was also positively associated with the difference in food cue-evoked activation between fed and fasted states in the right DLPFC, bilateral amygdala and striatum, and negatively associated with that of the left orbitofrontal cortex and VLPFC, superior frontal gyrus, left middle and temporal gyri, posterior cingulate and precuneus. There was an overall tendency towards decreasing modulatory effects of prior meal ingestion on food cue-evoked regional brain activity with increasing age. Healthy ageing to middle age is associated with diminishing sensitivity to meal ingestion of visual food cue-evoked activity in brain regions that represent the salience of food and direct food-associated behaviour. Reduced satiety sensing may have a role in the greater risk of

  16. Food-related practices and beliefs of rural US elementary and middle school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Shannon, Jackilen; Nguyen, Thuan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects rural populations; therefore, promoting healthy eating among rural children is essential. Teachers are important role models for children and can influence children's eating behaviors through their own behaviors and beliefs about food. This study examined the food-related practices and beliefs of rural elementary and middle school teachers. Data were used from the SNACZ study, a school- and community-based trial conducted in rural Oregon. Kindergarten through eighth-grade teachers (n=87), teaching students usually aged 5-14 years, from eight rural school districts completed a baseline survey in November 2012 concerning their classroom food practices, eating behaviors at school, beliefs about the school food environment, and nutrition knowledge. Frequencies of responses to each item were calculated. Nearly all teachers (97.6%) agreed that a healthy school food environment is important, but fewer agreed that teachers' behaviors and the foods available at school influence students' eating behaviors (71.0% and 67.0%, respectively). Nearly 86% of teachers used candy as a reward for students, while 78.2% consumed unhealthy snacks and 42.5% consumed sweetened beverages in the classroom. The results suggest that most rural teachers recognize that having a healthy school food environment is important, but are less aware of factors within the school that influence students' eating behaviors - including their own eating behaviors and classroom food practices - and, perhaps for this reason, many rural teachers engage in classroom practices and behaviors that do not promote healthy eating. Teacher training and expanded school policies that focus on teacher behavior may be needed to ensure a healthier rural school food environment.

  17. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... in several databases and conference proceedings for 2002 – 2014. Definitions of HBM and biomarkers, HBM techniques and requirements, and the possible application to the different steps of risk assessment were described. The usefulness of HBM for exposure assessment of chemical substances from food source...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  18. State of expectancy modulates the neural response to visual food stimuli in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Saima; McGlone, Francis; Dagher, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Human brain imaging studies demonstrate distributed activation of limbic, paralimbic and sensory systems to food and food-associated cues. Activity in this circuit may be modulated by internal factors, such as hunger, and cognitive factors. Anticipation to eat is one such factor, which likely impacts consummatory behavior. Here, the neural substrates of food expectancy were identified in 10 healthy male participants who underwent two whole-brain functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans on separate days. Fasted subjects viewed images of food and scenery, in two counterbalanced states. During one condition, subjects were 'expecting' to eat right after the scan and during the other they were 'not expecting' to eat for 1 h after the scan. Food pictures compared with scenery yielded bilateral activation in visual areas as well as in the left insula and amygdala in both conditions. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and putamen were additionally activated in the 'not expecting' condition while right orbitofrontal cortex activity was enhanced in the 'expecting' condition. These data suggest that cognitive manipulations affect the response to food cues in the prefrontal cortex, in areas involved in the planning and control of motivated behaviors, while the amygdala and insula responded equally in both conditions, consistent with a more basic role in homeostatically driven appetitive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations.

  20. Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire for national health and nutrition monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftenberger Marjolein

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ is important as incorrect information may lead to biased associations. Therefore the relative validity of an FFQ developed for use in the German Health Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS was examined. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of food consumption data from the FFQ and from two 24-hour recalls were made in a sample of 161 participants (aged 18 to 80 years of an ongoing nationwide survey, the German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT. The data collection took place from November 2008 to April 2009. Results Spearman rank correlations between the FFQ and the 24-hour dietary recalls ranged from 0.15 for pizza to 0.80 for tea, with two third of the correlation coefficients exceeding 0.30. All correlation coefficients were statistically significant except those for pizza and cooked vegetables. The proportion of participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile of intake assessed by both methods varied between 68% for cooked vegetables and 94% for coffee. There were no statistically significant differences in food consumption estimates between both methods for 38% of the food groups. For the other food groups, the estimates of food consumption by the FFQ were not generally higher or lower than estimates from the 24-hour dietary recalls. Conclusions The FFQ appears to be reasonably valid in the assessment of food consumption of German adults. For some food groups, such as raw and cooked vegetables, relative risks estimates should be interpreted with caution because of the poor ranking agreement.

  1. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E Schartel

    Full Text Available Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable. We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1 mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2 consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3 consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  2. Accurate measurement of stable isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca in human feces, plasma, and urine in relation to human nutrition of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Sundaresan, A.; Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method based on Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is described which allows simultaneous measurement of two stable isotopes of calcium, 46 Ca and 48 Ca, in human feces, plasma, and urine for the purpose of studying human nutrition and metabolism of calcium. It is shown that these measurements can be made with relative analytical precision of 1-5% depending on the particulars of a given experiment. The method has been applied in humans and data are given showing that kinetics of plasma appearance of 46 Ca administered orally with food can be readily investigated. This method allows investigation of a number of important nutritional and metabolic issues in all human population groups without regard to radioisotope safety considerations, and should prove especially helpful in relation to studies of calcium bioavailability from different foods in a variety of population groups for whom use of radiocalcium is not warranted. (Auth.)

  3. Transfer of radionuclides by terrestrial food products from semi-natural ecosystems to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential radiological significance of radionuclide transfer to humans via foodstuffs derived from semi-natural ecosystems has become apparent since the Chernobyl accident. Foodchain models developed before this time usually did not take such transfers into account. The processes leading to contamination of food in these environments are complex and current understanding of the transfer mechanisms is incomplete. For these reasons the approach adopted in Chapter 3 is to represent, by means of aggregated parameters, the empirical relationships between ground deposits and concentration in the food product. 107 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  4. What Should Be Taught in Secondary Schools’ Nutrition and Food Systems Education? Views from Prominent Food-Related Professionals in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Sadegholvad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Education can help young people to attain the knowledge and the skills that they need to make proper food choices and develop lifelong healthy eating patterns. This study explored the perspectives of prominent food-related professionals in Australia regarding essential nutrition and food systems (N&FS education programs for adolescents during formal education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 prominent food-related professionals in Australia. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Four essential areas for N&FS education programs were identified. (1 Key nutrition messages to a healthy lifestyle; (2 Skill development programs to enhance health and wellbeing; (3 Ethical food-related lessons to support environmental sustainability, farm animal welfare, local producers, and food security; and, (4 Introductory lessons about foods from farm to plate to facilitate more informed food choices. Findings of this study may provide new insights for curriculum developers in Australia for further assessment of the current gaps in N&FS components of secondary school curriculum. Integration of these four areas into secondary school curricula has the potential to enhance adolescents’ knowledge of important scientific and ethical issues in a range of N&FS fields, and enable them to develop fundamental food-related life skills that are supportive of health and wellbeing.

  5. What Should Be Taught in Secondary Schools' Nutrition and Food Systems Education? Views from Prominent Food-Related Professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-11-02

    Education can help young people to attain the knowledge and the skills that they need to make proper food choices and develop lifelong healthy eating patterns. This study explored the perspectives of prominent food-related professionals in Australia regarding essential nutrition and food systems (N&FS) education programs for adolescents during formal education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 prominent food-related professionals in Australia. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Four essential areas for N&FS education programs were identified. (1) Key nutrition messages to a healthy lifestyle; (2) Skill development programs to enhance health and wellbeing; (3) Ethical food-related lessons to support environmental sustainability, farm animal welfare, local producers, and food security; and, (4) Introductory lessons about foods from farm to plate to facilitate more informed food choices. Findings of this study may provide new insights for curriculum developers in Australia for further assessment of the current gaps in N&FS components of secondary school curriculum. Integration of these four areas into secondary school curricula has the potential to enhance adolescents' knowledge of important scientific and ethical issues in a range of N&FS fields, and enable them to develop fundamental food-related life skills that are supportive of health and wellbeing.

  6. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Quaglio, Gianluca; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-10-27

    This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed from organic or conventional production impacts in different ways on growth and development. In organic agriculture, the use of pesticides is restricted, while residues in conventional fruits and vegetables constitute the main source of human pesticide exposures. Epidemiological studies have reported adverse effects of certain pesticides on children's cognitive development at current levels of exposure, but these data have so far not been applied in formal risk assessments of individual pesticides. Differences in the composition between organic and conventional crops are limited, such as a modestly higher content of phenolic compounds in organic fruit and vegetables, and likely also a lower content of cadmium in organic cereal crops. Organic dairy products, and perhaps also meats, have a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids compared to conventional products. However, these differences are likely of marginal nutritional significance. Of greater concern is the prevalent use of antibiotics in conventional animal production as a key driver of antibiotic resistance in society; antibiotic use is less intensive in organic production. Overall, this review emphasises several documented and likely human health benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated

  7. A comparison of physical properties, screening procedures and a human efficacy trial for predicting the bioavailability of commercial elemental iron powders used for food fortification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Lynch, S.R.; Bothwell, T.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify staple foods. This paper summarizes physical and chemical measurements that were conducted to assess the bioavailability of these iron powders relative to ferrous sulfate, along with validation of these assessments from a study with human subjects.

  8. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  9. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  10. Analysis for Human-related Events during the Overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Min Chull; Choi, Dong Won; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The event frequency due to human error is decreasing among 20 operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) excluding the NPP (Shin-Kori unit-1) in the commissioning stage since 2008. However, the events due to human error during an overhaul (O/H) occur annually (see Table I). An analysis for human-related events during the O/H was performed. Similar problems were identified for each event from the analysis and also, organizational and safety cultural factors were also identified

  11. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  12. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03 and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01 negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004. The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03. Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03, social support (P = 0.03, and perceived severity (P = 0.045. Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  13. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  14. High molecular weight PEGylation of human pancreatic polypeptide at position 22 improves stability and reduces food intake in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, V; Jolly, N; Madsen, A N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) is known to suppress appetite and food intake, thereby representing a potential therapeutic approach against obesity and associated metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to improve hPP stability by covalent PEGylation with diverse...... fasting-induced food intake and bioavailability. KEY RESULTS: In human epithelia and colonic mucosal preparations, activity of the modified hPP peptides depended on the core sequence and latency of the peptides was related to PEG size. Peptides modified with a 22 kDa PEG (PEG22) remained intact in blood...... plasma and on incubation with liver homogenates for more than 96 h. Finally, hPP2-36 , [K(22) (PEG22)]hPP2-36 and [K(22) (PEG22),Q(34) ]hPP significantly reduced cumulative food intake in mice over 16 h after s.c. administration. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Modification with PEG22 at position 22...

  15. Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; de Voogt, P.; De Coen, W.; Bervoets, L.; de Voogt, P.

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, which persist and may bioaccumulate through the food chain (Haukås et al. 2007; Martin et al. 2004b; Taniyasu et al. 2003). As a consequence, several PFCs have been detected in different biota worldwide. In recent years, an

  16. Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Deschner, Tobias; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel in cooperative exchanges between unrelated individuals. Although this trait is fundamental to the success of our species, its evolution and mechanisms are poorly understood. Other social mammals also build long-term cooperative relationships between non-kin, and recent evidence shows that oxytocin, a hormone involved in parent–offspring bonding, is likely to facilitate non-kin as well as kin bonds. In a population of wild chimpanzees, we measured urinary oxytocin levels following a rare cooperative event—food sharing. Subjects showed higher urinary oxytocin levels after single food-sharing events compared with other types of social feeding, irrespective of previous social bond levels. Also, urinary oxytocin levels following food sharing were higher than following grooming, another cooperative behaviour. Therefore, food sharing in chimpanzees may play a key role in social bonding under the influence of oxytocin. We propose that food-sharing events co-opt neurobiological mechanisms evolved to support mother–infant bonding during lactation bouts, and may act as facilitators of bonding and cooperation between unrelated individuals via the oxytocinergic system across social mammals. PMID:24430853

  17. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  18. Implications for the human food chain of models of cadmium accumulation in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prankel, S.H.; Nixon, R.M.; Phillips, C.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which is a major source of cadmium to some sectors. The kidney is the first organ of sheep to reach the limit of fitness for human consumption. A model (based on a meta-analysis) predicts that this would occur after a mean of just 130 days of feeding sheep the maximum permitted cadmium concentration in feed (in the European Union) in the organic form. Thus it is not surprising that sheep organs are found routinely to exceed cadmium limits. Since reduction of maximum cadmium levels in sheep feed or of the duration of their exposure are not economically viable measures of control, routine removal of liver and kidney from older sheep from the food chain is recommended as the best option to reduce human dietary cadmium intake from sheep origin

  19. Development of a ECOREA-II code for human exposures from radionuclides through food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, D. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    The release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities following an accident into air results in human exposures through two pathways. One is direct human exposures by inhalation or dermal absorption of these radionucles. Another is indirect human exposures through food chain which includes intakes of plant products such as rice, vegetables from contaiminated soil and animal products such as meet, milk and eggs feeded by contaminated grasses or plants on the terrestial surface. This study presents efforts of the development of a computer code for the assessment of the indirect human exposure through such food chains. The purpose of ECOREA-II code is to develop appropriate models suitable for a specific soil condition in Korea based on previous experimental efforts and to provide a more user-friendly environment such as GUI for the use of the code. Therefore, the current code, when more fully developed, is expected to increase the understanding of environmental safety assessment of nuclear facilities following an accident and provide a reasonable regulatory guideline with respecte to food safety issues

  20. Journal of Religion and Human Relations: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus on religious and ... Peer Review Process ... that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  1. Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderer, Brigitte; Matthes, Jörg; Binder, Alice; Marquart, Franziska; Mayrhofer, Mira; Obereder, Agnes; Spielvogel, Ines

    2018-01-01

    Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such as parental food-related mediation or BMI. The current study combines data from an experiment involving children with a survey of their parents. We exposed children to a cartoon either containing no food placements, placements of mandarins (i.e., snack high in nutritional value), or placements of fruit gums (i.e., snack low in nutritional value). Afterwards, food consumption was measured by giving children the option to choose between fruit gums or mandarins. Children in both snack placement conditions showed stronger preference for the snack low in nutritional value (i.e., fruit gum) compared to the control group. Interestingly, neither restrictive nor active food-related mediation prevented the effects of the placements on children's choice of snacks low in nutritional value. Compared to children with a low BMI, children with high BMI levels had a stronger disposition to choose the fruit gums if a snack high in nutritional value (i.e., mandarin) was presented. Thus, making snacks high in nutritional attractive for children through media presentation might need stronger persuasive cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Change of awareness level of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and relation with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of those who are unaware of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide). A longitudinal study was conducted using an Internet-based questionnaire with 1,012 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 10.0 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from registrants of a Japanese social research company. Conducted between November 2007 (T1) and December 2008 (T2), the survey included items on awareness level ("I know the contents." "I have heard of this Guide." or "I have not heard of this Guide.") of the Food Guide as the dependent variable, and demographics factors (e.g., age, education status, marital status, household income, and employment status) and health-related characteristics (obesity, abdominal obesity, and insufficient physical activity) as the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between awareness level and each variable. The relation between change of awareness level (T1-T2) and each variable was analyzed using a chi-square test. All the analyses were stratified by gender. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for all variables, men with a household income of 5,000,000-10,000,000 yen (OR=1.78; 95% CI=1.10-2.88) were positively associated with awareness level ("I have heard of this Guide."). In contrast, unmarried women were negatively associated with awareness level in T1 ("I know the contents"; OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.17-0.70. "I have heard of this Guide"; OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.27-0.92). In men, the awareness level of the Food Guide increased from T1 to T2, change of awareness level (T1; "I have not heard of this Guide") and education status being related (P=0.023). In women, the awareness levels overall did not improve from T1 to T2, but change of awareness level (T1; "I have heard of this Guide") was associated with household income (Plevel was not associated with health-related characteristics. The results

  3. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  4. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  6. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, Ppermissive feeding style (-1.04, Ppermissive feeding style (0.14, Pparent's use of food restriction (0.21, Ppermissive feeding style (0.16, Pparenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flavours of Thought: Towards A Phenomenology of Food-Related Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Hok-Eng Tan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenology, as the study of structures of subjective experiences and consciousness, finds itself in the persistent struggle to claim its rightful place in contemporary research. Accordingly, this article will point out the relevance of first person reports for interdisciplinary investigations of the brain and mind. This is done by exploring the multidisciplinary field of food studies as a novel platform for discussion. The phenomenological inquiry is thus proposed as the vehicle and method to access food-related experience. By highlighting the important surplus, essential to grasping the process of pristine inner experience we adjoin a new perspective to the common focus on the content of experience. Consequently, this will extend the current insights pertinent to food-related research and moreover, give vital implications to our overall construction of concepts in science.

  8. A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Vose, D.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused...... salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting.......8-10.4%) of the cases, respectively. Taken together, imported foods were estimated to account for 11.8% (95% CI: 5.0-19.0%) of the cases. Other food sources considered had only a minor impact, whereas 25% of the cases could not be associated with any source. This approach of quantifying the contribution of the various...

  9. One health and food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Schlundt, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Many, if not most, of all important zoonoses relate in some way to animals in the food production chain. Therefore food becomes an important vehicle for many zoonotic pathogens. One of the major issues in food safety over the latest decades has been the lack of cross-sectoral collaboration across...... the food production chain. Major food safety events have been significantly affected by the lack of collaboration between the animal health, the food control, and the human health sector. One Health formulates clearly both the need for, and the benefit of cross-sectoral collaboration. Here we will focus...... on the human health risk related to zoonotic microorganisms present both in food animals and food derived from these animals, and typically transmitted to humans through food. Some diseases have global epidemic- or pandemic-potential, resulting in dramatic action from international organizations and national...

  10. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (consume these insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Survey of Self-Reported Food Allergy and Food-Related Anaphylaxis among Young Adult Students at Kuwait University, Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a survey on self-reported food allergy to milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, and sesame, as well as reported food-related anaphylaxis and epinephrine prescription practices among Kuwaiti students attending Kuwait University. One thousand questionnaires that included data on age, gender, presence of food allergies, and associated details were distributed. All participants reporting an allergy were categorized as having a perceived food allergy. Those with a convincing clinical history and history of undergoing diagnostic food allergy testing were further categorized as having a probable food allergy. Of the 1,000 questionnaires, 865 (86.5%) were completed. Of the 865 students, 104 (12.02%) reported food allergy (perceived), and 47 of these (45.19%) were probable food allergies. For milk (46.7%), peanut (35.7%), fish (60%), and sesame (50%), probable food allergy occurred in early childhood (≤5 years) while those of egg (44.4%) and wheat (57.1%) occurred in late childhood (6-10 years), and shellfish (40%) occurred in early adolescence (11-15 years). Of the 47 students with a probable food allergy, 28 (59.6%) were moderate to severe: 20 (71%) of these moderate-to-severe allergy cases reported at least 1 food-related anaphylactic episode while 8 (29%) denied such episodes. Equally important, of the 28 students, 6 (21%) received an autoinjectable epinephrine prescription, while 22 (79%) did not receive any. In this study the reported occurrence of perceived food allergy was low and probable food allergy occurred mostly in early childhood. Milk, egg, and nut allergies were the most commonly reported in both groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A hospital cafeteria-related food-borne outbreak due to Bacillus cereus: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, L M; Gaia, S M; Griffin, R; Hudson, R

    1986-09-01

    Although Bacillus cereus is a well-known cause of food-borne illness, hospital-related outbreaks of food-borne disease due to B. cereus have rarely been documented. We report a hospital employee cafeteria outbreak due to foods contaminated with B. cereus in which an outside caterer was employed to prepare the suspect meals. Data were collected from 249 of 291 employees who had eaten either of the two meals. With a mean incubation period of 12.5 hours, 64% (160 of 249) of employees manifested illness. Symptoms, which averaged 24.3 hours in duration, included diarrhea (96.3%), abdominal cramps (90%), nausea (50.6%), weakness (24.7%), and vomiting (13.8%). Eighty-seven employees sought medical attention, 84 of whom were seen in an emergency room. Although a significant difference was not demonstrated in food-specific attack rates, B. cereus was cultured from both rice and chicken items that were served at both meals. Sixty-three employees submitted stools for culture that grew no enteric pathogens, but none were examined for B. cereus. This food-borne outbreak demonstrates: the need for hospital kitchen supervisors to ensure proper handling of food when outside caterers are employed; that significant differences in food-specific attack rates may not be demonstrated in outbreaks, which may be related to several factors; and the importance of notifying microbiology laboratory personnel when B. cereus is a suspect enteric pathogen, since many laboratories do not routinely attempt to identify this organism in stool specimens.

  13. Relative influences of climate change and human activity on the onshore distribution of polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Atwood, Todd C.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Miller, Susanne; Divoky, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is altering habitat for many species, leading to shifts in distributions that can increase levels of human-wildlife conflict. To develop effective strategies for minimizing human-wildlife conflict, we must understand the relative influences that climate change and other factors have on wildlife distributions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land during summer and autumn due to sea ice loss, leading to higher incidents of conflict and concerns for human safety. We sought to understand the relative influence of sea ice conditions, onshore habitat characteristics, and human-provisioned food attractants on the distribution and abundance of polar bears while on shore. We also wanted to determine how mitigation measures might reduce human-polar bear conflict associated with an anthropogenic food source. We built a Bayesian hierarchical model based on 14 years of aerial survey data to estimate the weekly number and distribution of polar bears on the coast of northern Alaska in autumn. We then used the model to predict how effective two management options for handling subsistence-harvested whale remains in the community of Kaktovik, Alaska might be. The distribution of bears on shore was most strongly influenced by the presence of whale carcasses and to a lesser extent sea ice and onshore habitat conditions. The numbers of bears on shore were related to sea ice conditions. The two management strategies for handling the whale carcasses reduced the estimated number of bears near Kaktovik by > 75%. By considering multiple factors associated with the onshore distribution and abundance of polar bears we discerned what role human activities played in where bears occur and how successful efforts to manage the whale carcasses might be for reducing human-polar bear conflict.

  14. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  15. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: relationships between absolute and relative intake of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, LA; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-01-01

    Children’s appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5y olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from .78 to .91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child’s choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  16. Relational adaptivity - enacting human-centric systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2016-01-01

    Human centered design approaches places the experiencing human at the center of concern, situated in relation to the dynamics of the environmental condition and the variables of the system of control and sensing. Taking the approach of enacted design methods to enforce the experience...... of the inhabitant as core in human-centered design solutions, the intelligence of the connected sensors is suggested to be developed as an actual learning and self-adjusting adaptive environment, where the adaptive system is part of a negotiation with users on the qualities of the environment. We will present...... a fully functional sketching environment for adaptive sensor-control systems, which enable integration of the complex situation of everyday activities and human well-being. The proposed sketching environment allows for the development of sensor systems related to lighting conditions and human occupancy...

  17. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  19. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as Animal Feed and Human Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shiang; Shelomi, Matan

    2017-10-18

    Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  20. Relative validity of the geisinger rural aging study food frequency questionniare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the relative validity of a population specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument for assessing nutritional risk in older adults. Design: A cross-over design with participants completing two different dietary assessment inst...

  1. Relative price changes as a tool to stimulate more healthy food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of lifestyle-related illnesses particularly in western countries calls for public action. A poor diet is a key explanatory factor to this development. Previous research has addressed the problem of unhealthy food consumption behavior by looking at how taxes may function...

  2. Relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickiness of semisolid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnewind, B.; Janssen, A.M.; Vliet, T. van; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickness of semisolid foods was investigated using a texture analyzers. Products included commercial mayon-naises, custard desserts and warm sauces which varied in apparent viscosity between 0.3 and 18.3 Pa.s. It was observed that the

  3. Relative validity of a web-based food frequency questionnaire for Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne A.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Kampmann, Freja B

    2018-01-01

    . Median intake of beverages, dairy, bread, cereals, the mean total energy and carbohydrate intake did not differ significantly between the two methods. The relative validity of the FFQ compared with the 3x24HRs showed that the ranking ability differed across food groups and nutrients with best ranking...

  4. Work-Related Lifelong Learning for Entrepreneurs in the Agri-Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Thomas; Wesselink, Renate; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepreneurial competencies will become of increasing…

  5. Work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Wesselink, R.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and

  6. Children’s food-related consumer socialization: Parental goals and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Gram, Malene

    We study food-related consumer socialization through family interviews in a qualitative study. Parents socialize children for healthy eating, but other concerns, such as preserving family cohesion, are perceived as more important. The findings suggest that family dynamics, parents’ goals......, strategies and context are important for understanding children’s healthy eating socialization....

  7. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  8. Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Warner, Lisa R; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wall, Christine E; Wray, Gregory A

    2011-04-07

    There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to integrate the results of new genomic studies within this well-developed anthropological context. We then review the current evidence for adaptation related to diet, both at the level of sequence changes and gene expression. Finally, we propose some ways in which new technologies can help identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in metabolic and morphological differences between humans and non-human primates.

  9. Pink slimed: Media framing of novel food technologies and risk related to ground beef and processed foods in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Kristin K; Chung, Jennifer H; Su, Leona Yi-Fan; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2018-09-01

    In March 2012 ABC World News Report aired a series of reports on lean finely textured beef (LFTB) that resulted in a 10-year low for beef prices and the bankruptcy of a major firm that produced LFTB. Using a random sample survey, we tested the effects of the media frame "pink slime" and industry frame "lean finely textured beef," alongside media use, food-related knowledge, trust in food-related institutions and preference for local, fresh, organic and GMO-free foods on perceptions of risk related to ground beef containing pink slime/LFTB, processed foods and red meat. The "pink slime" frame was strongly and positively associated with risk related to ground beef, but not risk related to red meat or processed foods. Attention to news stories about pink slime/LFTB was strongly associated with risk related to ground beef and processed foods, but not red meat. We found varying effects of food values, knowledge and trust on all three dependent variables. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human food preferences and cultural identity: the case of Aragón (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Luis; Espeitx, Elena; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Martín, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between sociocultural values and human food preferences. The latter, as shown in this paper, are greatly influenced by cultural identity. This work stems from a theoretical context that originated in Europe and the United States towards the mid-twentieth century, within the field of the anthropology of food. A qualitative and quantitative analysis has been performed in the Comunidad Autónoma de Aragón (Spain). Research methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and a questionnaire that was handed out to a representative sample of the Aragonese population (816 people over 21 years of age; confidence level of 95.5% and error margin of ±3.5). Regarding the research outcome, a highly significant qualitative and quantitative connection has been found between food selection and cultural identity. In other words, people prefer to consume foods that are symbolically associated with their own culture, in order to reinforce their sense of belonging. Although this study has been carried out in Aragón, it is our belief that the results can be generalized to other areas. The originality and interest of our findings are notable considering that, to date, few works have analyzed the sociocultural factors motivating food behavior. Moreover, these results could be used by public and private organizations to meet objectives such as health promotion and product marketing.

  11. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Impacts of Verotoxigenic and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Vtec and Ehec on Animal, Human and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verotoxigenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC and EHEC are strains that produce a toxin on the Vero cells in vitro, therefore the toxin called verotoxin. Strain VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from human and various animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The prevalence of VTEC in cattle is 35%, milk 10%, cheese 1.5%. In beef meat, pork, poultry, goat and sheep is 3.7, 1.5, 1.5, 2 and 2.5%, respectively. In contrast, the human prevalence in United States, Spain and France 5 – 10, 2.5 and 3.4%, respectively. In Indonesia, nine cases of VTEC were reported by Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital and four out of nine cases were died. The verotoxin also named Shiga toxins (Stx, is active in vivo as a pathogen on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro intestinal mucosa, kidneys, brain and other tissues of human and piglets. Verotoxin in human, ruminants and piglets causes bloody diarrhea so with ruminants. In the adult ruminants, verotoxin results in clinical signs and they act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains but in human, it produced haemorrhagic colitis (HC, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and thrombocytopenia purpura (TPP. Infection in human by the most famous EHEC strain belongs to the O157:H7 serotype, through faecal contamination or environment of either food of animal origin, or other foodstuffs (fruits and vegetables. Infection from EHEC strains could be prevented by avoiding food of animal origin and unpasteurized milk, and by taking care of food hygiene for comsumption.

  13. The relative validity of a retrospective estimate of food consumption based on a current dietary history and a food frequency list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkum, A; Bloemberg, B; van Staveren, W A; Verschuren, M; West, C E

    1988-01-01

    The relative validity of information and food consumption in the distant past was assessed by combining a dietary history (referring to the recent past) with a food frequency list (monitoring major changes over the past 12-14 years). This approach was evaluated in a study of two groups of apparently healthy elderly people (mean age 80 years) who had participated in a food consumption study 12-14 years before the start of the present study. One group consisted of 18 harbor employees who retired subsequent to the initial assessment of food intake. On the average, each member of this group had reduced his food consumption by about 1,000 kcal. The other group consisted of 46 elderly men and women who had retired before their food consumption was measured initially. This group had not markedly changed their food intake. The results showed that both groups overestimated changes in their food intake and that the systematic overestimation and random error were similar for both groups. If the men in both groups were combined to form one group, a valid ranking of subjects in small and large consumers of energy and most of the selected nutrients was possible. However, current food intake influenced the accuracy of the measurement of past food intake.

  14. Spotted hyaena space use in relation to human infrastructure inside a protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Lydia E; Cameron, Elissa Z; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park. Home range size was smaller for the dominant female of a clan living in close