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Sample records for human food ingredient

  1. FOOD AS VECTOR FOR NUTRACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days people consumption habits are changing they are inclined to buy healthy food that fulfills the need of essential nutrients in the body. With increasing educational level, people are becoming ready to accept different types of food & beverages that have added nutritional ingredient. Hence with this change, nutraceutical ingredient is gaining importance. Nutraceutical are those that combine technological and health properties. Nutraceutical Ingredients are substances with clinically confirmed health benefits and have broad applications in foods, beverages, dietary supplements and nutritional preparations. There are huge numbers of ingredients which are still unexplored. They have still not gained popularity in food industry. In this review paper a brief introduction of nutraceutical ingredient, its market and detailed knowledge of- Ginseng, Pine Bark Extract, Seabuckthorn, Buckwheat is mentioned.

  2. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  3. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to maintaining the quality of the food, they help control contamination that can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening ... still be considered safe. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing ... limit the amount of food ingredients used in foods to the amount necessary ...

  4. Ultrasonic Recovery and Modification of Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkhu, Kamaljit; Manasseh, Richard; Mawson, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    There are two general classes of effects that sound, and ultrasound in particular, can have on a fluid. First, very significant modifications to the nature of food and food ingredients can be due to the phenomena of bubble acoustics and cavitation. The applied sound oscillates bubbles in the fluid, creating intense forces at microscopic scales thus driving chemical changes. Second, the sound itself can cause the fluid to flow vigorously, both on a large scale and on a microscopic scale; furthermore, the sound can cause particles in the fluid to move relative to the fluid. These streaming phenomena can redistribute materials within food and food ingredients at both microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  5. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was

  6. Identification of nanoscale ingredients in commercial food products and their induction of mitochondrially mediated cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman A

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (E171) and silicon dioxide (E551) are common additives found in food products, personal-care products, and many other consumer products used in daily life. Recent studies have reported that these food additives (manufactured E171 and E551) contain nanosized particles of less than 100 nm. However, the particle size distribution and morphology of added TiO2 and SiO2 particles are not typically stated on the package label. Furthermore, there is an increasing debate regarding health and safety concerns related to the use of synthetic food additives containing nanosized ingredients in consumer products. In this study, we identified the size and morphology of TiO2 and SiO2 particles in commercially available food products by using transmission electron microscope (TEM). In addition, the in vitro toxicological effects of E171 and E551 on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), an adult stem cell-based model, were assessed using the MTT assay and a flow cytometry-based JC-1 assay. Our TEM results confirmed the presence of nanoscale ingredients in food products, and the in vitro toxicology results indicated that the nanoscale E171 and E551 ingredients induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity, changes in cellular morphology, and the loss of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential in hMSCs. These preliminary results clearly demonstrated that the nanoscale E171 and E551 particles had adverse effects on hMSCs by inducing oxidative stress-mediated cell death. Accordingly, further studies are needed to identify the specific pathway involved, with an emphasis on differential gene expression in hMSCs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-01-01

    Foods contain a wide range of food ingredients that serve numerous technical functions. Per capita consumer exposure to most of these food ingredients is rather low with a few notable exceptions such as sugar and starch. Some food ingredients including edible oils, hydrolyzed proteins, lecithin, starch, lactose, flavors and gelatin may, at least in some products, be derived from sources commonly involved in IgE-mediated food allergies. These ingredients should be avoided by consumers with allergies to the source material if the ingredient contains detectable protein residues. Other food ingredients, including starch, malt, alcohol and vinegar, may be derived in some cases from wheat, rye or barley, the grains that are implicated in the causation of celiac disease. If these ingredients contain gluten residues, then they should be avoided by celiac sufferers. A few food ingredients are capable of eliciting allergic sensitization, although these ingredients would be classified as rarely allergenic. These ingredients include carmine, cochineal extract, annatto, tragacanth gum and papain. Food manufacturers should declare the presence of allergenic food ingredients in the ingredient listings on product labels so that allergic consumers can know to avoid these potentially hazardous products.

  8. Microalgae as healthy ingredients for functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J; Cardoso, C; Bandarra, N M; Afonso, C

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae are very interesting and valuable natural sources of highly valuable bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, enzymes and fibre. Due to their potential, microalgae have become some of the most promising and innovative sources of new food and functional products. Moreover, microalgae can be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foods and, thus, to favourably affect human health by improving the well-being and quality of life, but also by curtailing disease and illness risks. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of microalgae, bioactive compounds, functional ingredients, and health foods.

  9. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  10. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  11. Results with Complementary Food Using Local Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, Munirul; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Iqbal; Huq, Sayeeda; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Sarker, Shafiqul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate complementary food is a must for optimum growth of infants and children. The food should be diverse and be given in sufficient quantities 2-4 times a day depending upon age. Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of awareness regarding the choice of nutritious food ingredients are deterrents to optimum complementary feeding. In Bangladesh, 77% of children do not receive appropriate complementary food and, hence, the high prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We developed ready-to-use complementary foods (RUCFs) using locally available food ingredients, rice/lentil and chickpea, which conform to standard specifications. These foods were found to be acceptable by children and their mothers compared to the Pushti packet, the cereal-based supplement used in the erstwhile National Nutrition Program of Bangladesh. In a cluster-randomized community-based trial in rural Bangladesh among more than 5,000 children, the efficacy of rice/lentil- and chickpea-based RUCFs was compared with another commonly used supplementary food called wheat-soy blend++ (WSB++) and a commercial product called Plumpy'doz. Deceleration in length for age was significantly lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the rice/lentil, Plumpy'doz, and chickpea groups compared to the control group at 18 months of age. Weight-for-length z-score decline was lower only in Plumpy'doz and chickpea groups. WSB++ was not different from the control group. In children who received chickpea RUCF or Plumpy'doz, the prevalence of stunting was 5-6% lower at 18 months. These foods can be used to prevent or treat malnutrition among children, particularly those from food-insecure households. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  13. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Karina De Carli; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Pires, Achicine Furno; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Colnago, Geraldo Luiz; Lucas, Wendius Henrique; Gama, Gabriela Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food) in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry ...

  15. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  16. Techniques for nanoencapsulation of food ingredients

    CERN Document Server

    Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation has the potential to improve human health through its capacity to both protect bioactive compounds and release them at a specific time and location into various substances, including food. Numerous nanoencapsulation technologies have emerged in recent years, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The goal of this Brief is to discuss the various nanoencapsulation technologies, such as emulsification, coacervation, inclusion encapsulation, anti-solvent precipitation, nanoprecipitation, freeze drying, and spray drying, including their limitations. Recent safety and regulatory issues concerning the various nanoencapsulation technologies will also be covered.

  17. Phenolic Compounds as Nutraceuticals or Functional Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the functional foods represent one the most promising, interesting and innovative areas in the food industry. Various components are being added to foods in order to render them functional. One example of these components are plant naturally occurring phenolic compounds, which are associated with a high antioxidant capacity and thus with benefits in relation to human health. However, despite the huge number of scientific studies and patents on this topic and their natural presence in foods, namely in the ones from plant origin, there are still few marketable products enriched with these compounds. The commercialization of this type of functional products needs to go through various regulations, proving that they are safe and present the ascribed health benefits, conquering the target audience. In this review the growing interest of industry and consumers' appetence for functional foods and nutraceuticals is highlighted, focusing especially on phenolic compounds. Although several published works show the multitude of bioactive properties of these compounds, ensuring their use as bioactive ingredients in food, they present inherent stability issues needing to be solved. However, considerable research is presently ongoing to overcome this problem, making viable the development of new products to be launched in the market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  19. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  20. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M

    2010-11-01

    Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.

  1. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2013-01-01

    The increasing awareness that dried fish protein can be applied for food fortification and production of value added/functional foods has encouraged the food industry to examine different methods for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh. Quality and acceptability of FPP depend on several factors. The...

  2. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, Flora J.; Madode, Yann E.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M.; Ayosso, Juvencio O.G.; Honfo, S.H.; Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional

  3. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... information sources, such as the Child Nutrition Database, USDA Foods nutrition fact sheets, and information... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information...

  4. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina De Carli Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry matter. Ten adult dogs were distributed in double Latin block squares (5x5 with five treatments and five periods, totalling ten repetitions per treatment. The residue sirloin steak presented the highest levels of essential (414.2g kg-1 of dry matter and non-essential (399.0g kg-1 of dry matter amino acids in tested ingredients. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter - ADCDM (907g kg-1, ADCOM (930g kg-1, ADCCP (841g kg-1, ADCAEE (954g kg-1 values, and DE (5069kcal kg-1 and ME (4781kcal kg-1 values between testicle, residue sirloin steak, and liver. The trachea presented lower digestibility and energy values (digestible and metabolizable than the other ingredients. This lower trachea digestibility resulted in higher faecal volume for natural and dry matter (P0.05 in faecal score between ingredients. Ingredients tested in this study can be used in feeds for adult dogs; however, their nutritional levels and digestibility values should be considered for correct diet balance.

  5. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  8. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Risk management of allergenic food ingredients in hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov-Raljić Jovanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens have appeared in the last two decades as a concealed form of threat which significantly endangers public health, and their labelling on food products, drinks, and non pre-packed gastro-products is clearly defined with legal regulations. In practice, the chemical risk management is faced with several unexpected problems. Some of them are declarations or statements about allergenic ingredients, where a nutritional allergen that the food contains is labelled with an unusual name, or similar products from different manufacturers where one is safe and the other contains allergens. A hospitality facility which deals with production and distribution of unpackaged foods should, in addition to a developed HACCP concept and standardized recipes for food preparation, prepare a detailed, precise, and clearly defined plan for management of chemical risks.

  10. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadare, Flora J; Madode, Yann E; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M; Ayosso, Juvencio Og; Honfo, S Hermann; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Linnemann, Anita R; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional value. The selected foods encompass 347 food resources, namely 297 plant products from home gardens or collected from natural vegetation and 50 animals, either domesticated or from the wild. The compiled data reveal that the distribution of the available food resources was unbalanced between agro-ecological zones. Only a few animal ingredients are obtainable in northern Benin. Most resources are seasonal, but their availability may be extended. A high variation was observed in energy and nutrient contents. Antinutritional factors were identified in some resources, but processing techniques were reported to reduce their presence in meals. In general, ingredients from local tree foods (Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa) were adequate as sources of nutrients for complementary infant foods. Based on this review, local foods for the development of complementary food formulas for Beninese infants and children may be selected for each agro-ecological zone. The approach used is exemplary for other sub-Saharan African countries in need of complementary infant foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  12. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  13. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Laurie; Matulka, Ray; Worn, Jeffrey; Nizio, John

    2015-01-01

    Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermitt...

  14. Placing on the market of novel foods or novel ingredients in Europe “novel food procedure”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Carole

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available « Novel Foods » concerned foods and food ingredients that have not been used for human consumption to a significant degree within the Community before 15 May 1997. Regulation (EC No 258/97 of 27 January 1997 lays out detailed rules for the authorisation of novel foods and novel food ingredients. In order to ensure the highest level of protection of human health, novel foods must undergo a safety assessment before being placed on the EU market. The application must be in accordance with Commission Recommendation 97/618/EC concerning the scientific information and the safety assessment. A proposal of the revision of this regulation of has been adopted in order to reflect the fact that genetically modified (GM food no longer falls under its scope, to create a more favourable legislative environment for innovation in the food industry, and to better facilitate foodstuffs trade between Europe and the rest of the world. The consumer would also benefit from a wider choice of safe novel foods.

  15. Probiotics and novel digestion models for functional food ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Karoly; Kiss, Attila [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). EgerFood Regional Knowledge Center (EgerFood-RKC); Szarvas, Jozsef [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Naar, Zoltan [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). Department of Botany

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A number of factors compromise the health of modern people: stressful lifestyle, unbalanced nourishment, excessive consumption of refined foods with a big measure, admission of different chemical agents into the human body. These factors harm directly or indirectly the intestinal activity, that forms a considerable part of the immune system, including the production of essential substances that have beneficial effects on the human body. The role of the so-called prebiotics (e.g. inulin, various oligosaccharides, raffinose, resistant starch etc.) is to prevent and reduce the damage of useful microbes, which are termed as probiotics. These substances selectively facilitate the propagation of probiotic bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus), therefore increase the rate of the synthesis of vitamin B and of beneficial short chain fatty acids, improve the absorption of minerals, decrease the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, ammonia and uric acid and improve the functioning of the immune system. The majority of the examination results about prebiotics are based on clinical dietary and animal experiments. In contrast to this we simulated the process of digestion and the effect of prebiotics on probiotic and non-probiotic bacteria selected by us in an artificial digestion model, the Atlas Potassium reactor system. The instrument enabled the control of pH, temperature, dosage of digestion enzymes and juices (saliva, gastric juice, bile and duodenal juice) and anaerobity in the course of the experiment. In our experiments we investigated different bakery products and biscuits containing various prebiotic ingredients, e.g. inulin and other fructo oligosaccharides. In the digestion model the different bakery products and biscuits got through the simulated oral cavity (pH=6.8), stomach (pH=2-3) and intestine (pH=6.5-7) and might be modified in the

  16. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such ...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    . With the exceptions of SDA and GLA, these FAs are widely present in common foods. The NFI is intended to be used in a range of foods and food supplements to provide approximately 200 mg of SDA per day. Upon digestion, FAs are used primarily as an energy source. ALA and SDA can be elongated and desaturated to produce......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... eicosapentaenoic acid. In human studies using various sources of SDA, no increase or small increases in SDA were observed in blood cell membranes or in total plasma. The proposed specifications for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and erucic acid, which are undesirable substances,do not give rise to concern in view...

  18. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  19. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2015-02-01

    The increasing awareness that dried fish protein can be applied for food fortification and production of value added/functional foods has encouraged the food industry to examine different methods for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh. Quality and acceptability of FPP depend on several factors. The fat content of the FPP is a critical issue because when it is oxidized a strong and often rancid flavour is produced. Protein content of FPP depends on the raw materials, amount of additives and moisture content, but it contains at least 65 % proteins. FPP is used in the food industry for developing re-structured and ready-to-eat food products. The FPP maintains its properties for 6 months at 5 °C but loses them rapidly at 30 °C. Deterioration of the FPP during storage is prevented by lowering the moisture content of the product and eliminating of oxygen from the package. The FPP can be applied as a functional ingredient for developing formulated ready-to-eat products. This article reviews methods for extracting fish proteins, drying methods, characteristics and applications of FPP and factors affecting FPP quality.

  20. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous

  1. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  2. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  3. Commercial processed food may have endocrine-disrupting potential: soy-based ingredients making the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Kabiersch, Grit; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Processed and packaged food items as well as ready-to-eat snacks are neglected and poorly characterised sources of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study we investigated the presence of xenoestrogens in commercially processed and packaged Finnish foods, arising from substances deliberately added or inadvertently contaminating the food, substances formed as a result of food processing, or substances leaching from food packaging materials. Samples were obtained in three separate batches of equivalent products from both a supermarket and a local representative of a global chain of hamburger restaurants and extracted by a solid-phase extraction method. Their endocrine-disrupting potential was determined by yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. In this test system, the majority of samples (both foodstuffs and wrappers) analysed proved negative. However, all batches of industrially prepared hamburgers (but not those obtained from a hamburger restaurant) as well as pepper salami significantly induced luciferase activity in the BMAEREluc/ERα yeast strain indicating the presence of xenoestrogens, with estradiol equivalents of these products ranging from 0.2 to 443 pg g(-1). All three products contained soy-based ingredients, which apparently accounted for, or at least contributed to, their high estrogenic activity, since no signal in the assay was observed with extracts of the packaging material, while two different soy sauces tested yielded an intense signal (28 and 54 pg ml(-1) estradiol-equivalent). These findings imply that by and large chemicals arising in the processing or packaging of foodstuffs in Finland constitute an insignificant source of xenoestrogens to consumers. However, soy-derived ingredients in certain food items might render the entire products highly estrogenic. The estrogenic activity of soy is attributed to isoflavones whose

  4. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient shall be a specific name and not a collective (generic) name, except that: (1) Spices, flavorings..., concentrated milk, reconstituted milk, and dry whole milk may be declared as “milk”. (5) Bacterial cultures may...

  5. Is barley malt safe as a food ingredient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Olesen, P. A.

    hydrocarbons (PAH) are such process contaminants previously identified in e.g. smoked fish [3]. Germinated barley is smoke treated and for many whisky malt dried over peat-fuelled furnace for flavour addition probably with increased health risks for spent grain consumers as a result. To evaluate our concern we...... for animal feed and recently the high nutritive value has made it feasible as bread flour supplement [1] and therefore human food. Process contamination such as the genotoxic acrylamide formed due to Maillard reactions between reducing sugars and amino acids at raised temperature could appear during drying...

  6. A Cooking Recipe Recommendation System with Visual Recognition of Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yanai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a cooking recipe recommendation system which runs on a consumer smartphone as an interactive mobile application. The proposed system employs real-time visual object recognition of food ingredients, and recommends cooking recipes related to the recognized food ingredients. Because of visual recognition, by only pointing a built-in camera on a smartphone to food ingredients, a user can get to know a related cooking recipes instantly. The objective of the proposed system is to assist people who cook to decide a cooking recipe at grocery stores or at a kitchen. In the current implementation, the system can recognize 30 kinds of food ingredient in 0.15 seconds, and it has achieved the 83.93% recognition rate within the top six candidates. By the user study, we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  7. Method for manufacturing carrier containing e.g. proteins for human during oral drug delivery operation for food and drug administration application in pharmaceutical industry, involves providing active ingredient to core layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    NOVELTY - The method involves preparing a multi-layered film comprising a core layer and a barrier layer, where the core layer comprises active ingredient. The multi-layered film is subjected to a hot embossing step using an embossing stamp including protrusions that allows for generation...... delivery operation for a food and drug administration (FDA) application in a pharmaceutical industry. ADVANTAGE - The method enables allowing an individual micro-structure stuck in an embossing stamp to be demolded under the conditions such that demolding operation is done by treating elastically...

  8. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  9. Line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging for authentication of powdered foods and ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulteration and fraud for powdered foods and ingredients are rising food safety risks that threaten consumers’ health. In this study, a newly developed line-scan macro-scale Raman imaging system using a 5 W 785 nm line laser as excitation source was used to authenticate the food powders. The system...

  10. Consumers’ response to genetically modified ingredients in processed food in an emerging economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. For thi......Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...

  11. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  12. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  13. The use of irradiated ingredients in food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.; Zachariev, G.; Farkas, J.; Szabad, J.; Toth-Pesti, K.

    1978-01-01

    The microbe-count reducing effects of gamma radiation and of ethylene oxide were compared in ground paprika and dried onion flakes. It was established that the commercially applied ethylene oxide gas treatment has the same bactericidal effect (2-3 log cycles reduction of the total viable bacterial count) as a 5kGy radiation dose. However, ethylene oxide treatment of paprika was practically ineffective in relation to the mould count, while irradiation with 5kGy destroyed the moulds very effectively. The colour and pigment content of paprika powder were not diminished by this radiation dose. A dry mixture intended for use in canned luncheon meat was treated with 5kGy. The canned meat product produced with the radiation-decontaminated ingredients was microbiologically stable even when heat-sterilized by a sterilization equivalent of F 0 =1.1. Considering the organoleptic features and microbiological safety, a heat treatment of about F 0 =3 is suggested when using irradiated ingredients. This is about the half of the F 0 value generally proposed for completely stable canned meat products. Besides the saving of energy, a good quality can be achieved by using radiation-decontaminated ingredients. (author)

  14. Food product models developed to evaluate starch as a food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Three highly reproducible food models have been developed to evaluate rheological and functional properties of starches. The food models are dutch vla, dressing, and white sauce, and they vary in pH, serving temperature, oil content, and content of other functional ingredients than starch (milk...... with starch concentration in dutch vla. In dressing and white sauce most of the rheological parameters depended on the starch concentration. In addition, it was found that results from the empirical rheological method (USDA consistometer) correlate well with fundamental rheological parameters. Syneresis...... was measured for a period of time up to 15 days. The degree of syneresis of dressing was highly dependent on starch concentration, while the syneresis of the white sauce was dependent on time but not on starch concentration. The dutch vla showed no syneresis at all....

  15. Natural Ingredients and Foods: A Practical Approach for Qualification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.L.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Hübner, F.; Wassink, G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “natural” in food labelling is increasingly used by producers to indicate that their products are “natural”. The use of this term is not well regulated in many countries, leading to confusion among consumers as well as food producers and legislators and to a lack of guidance for food

  16. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Laurie; Matulka, Ray; Worn, Jeffrey; Nizio, John

    2016-01-01

    Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermittent decreases in food efficiency (150 000 ppm males only) that were not biologically relevant. All animals survived and no adverse clinical signs or functional changes were attributable to the test material. There were no toxicologically relevant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters or organ weights in rats ingesting pecan shell fiber. Any macroscopic or microscopic findings were incidental, of normal variation and/or of minimal magnitude for test substance association. Pecan shell fiber was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic in a mouse peripheral blood micronucleus test. Based on these results, pecan shell fiber has an oral subchronic (13-week) no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 150 000 ppm in rats and is not genotoxic at the doses analyzed.

  17. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Dolan

    Full Text Available Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control, 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermittent decreases in food efficiency (150 000 ppm males only that were not biologically relevant. All animals survived and no adverse clinical signs or functional changes were attributable to the test material. There were no toxicologically relevant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters or organ weights in rats ingesting pecan shell fiber. Any macroscopic or microscopic findings were incidental, of normal variation and/or of minimal magnitude for test substance association. Pecan shell fiber was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic in a mouse peripheral blood micronucleus test. Based on these results, pecan shell fiber has an oral subchronic (13-week no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL of 150 000 ppm in rats and is not genotoxic at the doses analyzed. Keywords: Pecan shell, Fiber, Rat, Diet, Toxicity, Mutagenicity

  18. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight

  19. Responses of dogs with food allergies to single-ingredient dietary provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, J G; Meyer, E K; Sosis, E J

    1996-08-01

    To characterize specific food ingredients causing allergic reactions in dogs and to assess cross-reactivity between proteins derived from a single animal source or from different plant products. Prospective study. 25 dogs with histories and cutaneous signs consistent with food-allergic dermatitis. Dogs were fed a food-elimination diet until resolution of clinical signs and then challenged with their original diet. A diagnosis of food allergy was made if there was complete return of pruritus within 14 days of challenge exposure. After diagnosis, dogs were fed the food-elimination diet until signs related to dietary challenge abated. The dogs then were fed beef, chicken, chicken eggs, cows' milk, wheat, soy, and corn in single-ingredient provocation trials for 1 week. Any cutaneous reactions to these food ingredients were recorded by their owners. Beef and soy most often caused adverse cutaneous reactions, although all ingredients induced clinical signs in at least 1 dog. Mean number of allergens per dog was 2.4, with 80% reacting to 1 or 2 proteins and 64% reacting to 2 or more of the proteins tested. A significant difference was found between dogs reacting to beef versus cows' milk and between dogs reacting to soy versus wheat; thus, the hypothesis of cross-reactivity to ingredients derived from a single animal source or to different plant products was not supported. Similar differences between chicken meat and eggs were not identified. Long-term management of dogs with food allergies is facilitated by identification of the most commonly encountered food allergens. Because cross-reactivity cannot be verified, each protein source should be included separately in food-provocation trials.

  20. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much...

  1. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  2. Research Gaps in the Use of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional interventions to help prevent stunting, particularly in the first 1000 days from conception to 2 years of a child's life, are a major focus of numerous food aid organizations worldwide. Dairy ingredients can play an important role in enhancing the nutritional value and effectiveness of food products used in food aid. This article addresses gaps in research on malnutrition from both a broad perspective and specific to dairy ingredients. Narrative review. From a broad perspective, there is a need for gaining a consensus by the research community and funders of research on best practices for protocol development, outcomes measured, and reporting of study outcomes. Identification of biomarkers and rapid screening methods and consistent application of their use would expedite future research. A better understanding of nutritional requirements for malnourished populations, including the effects of energy deficits and disease on those requirements, is needed. More specific to dairy ingredients, a key research question is: Does dairy protein or the package of nutrients provided by dairy ingredients have a unique impact on growth, and if so, how? Also, data on the optimal levels of dairy ingredients based on the effective cost of treatment are needed, particularly in the treatment and prevention of moderate acute malnutrition and during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of a functional food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    Objectives: The consumer part of the EU project NOFORISK compares laypeople and experts' understanding of benefits and risks associated with the functional food ingredient Phytosterol. The Council of the European Union has recently authorised the marketing of Phytosterol-enriched rye bread...

  4. Functional food ingredients against colorectal cancer. An example project integrating functional genomics, nutrition and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Burgemeister, R.; Helvoort, van A.; Peijnenburg, A.; Schütze, K.; Seidelin, M.; Vang, O.; Ommen, van B.

    2001-01-01

    Functional Food Ingredients Against Colorectal Cancer is one of the first European Union funded Research Projects at the cross-road of functional genomics [comprising transcriptomics, the measurement of the expression of all messengers RNA (mRNAs) and proteomics, the measurement of expression/state

  5. Validation of growth as measurand for bacterial adhesion to food and feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Galletti, S.; Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: A miniaturized adhesion test was designed to study the binding capacity of food and feed ingredients for bacterial cells. Methods and Results: Bacteria were allowed to adhere to different fibrous materials supplied as well coatings in microtitration plates. The amount of bacteria retained on

  6. Nano- and micro-structured assemblies for encapsulation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Hemar, Yacine

    2009-04-01

    This tutorial review provides an overview of the science of food materials and encapsulation techniques that underpin the development of delivery vehicles for functional food components, nutrients and bioactives. Examples of how the choice of materials, formulation and process affect the structure of micro- and nano-encapsulated ingredients and the release of the core are provided. The review is of relevance to chemists, material scientists, food scientists, engineers and nutritionists who are interested in addressing delivery challenges in the food and health industries.

  7. A systematic review on nanoencapsulation of food bioactive ingredients and nutraceuticals by various nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-06-08

    Today, there is an ever-growing interest on natural food ingredients both by consumers and producers in the food industry. In fact, people are looking for those products in the market which are free from artificial and synthetic additives and can promote their health. These food bioactive ingredients should be formulated in such a way that protects them against harsh process and environmental conditions and safely could be delivered to the target organs and cells. Nanoencapsulation is a perfect strategy for this situation and there have been many studies in recent years for nanoencapsulation of food components and nutraceuticals by different technologies. In this review paper, our main goal is firstly to have an overview of nanoencapsulation techniques applicable to food ingredients in a systematic classification, i.e., lipid-based nanocarriers, nature-inspired nanocarriers, special-equipment-based nanocarriers, biopolymer nanocarriers, and other miscellaneous nanocarriers. Then, application of these cutting-edge nanocarriers for different nutraceuticals including phenolic compounds and antioxidants, natural food colorants, antimicrobial agents and essential oils, vitamins, minerals, flavors, fish oils and essential fatty acids will be discussed along with presenting some examples in each field.

  8. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne S

    2010-03-01

    A number of naturally occurring dietary substances may exert physiological benefits. The production of enhanced levels or particularly tailored versions of such candidate functional compounds can be targeted by enzymatic catalysis. The recent literature contains examples of enhancing bioavailability of iron via enzyme-catalyzed degradation of phytate in wheat bran, increasing diacyl-glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid levels by lipase action, enhancing the absorption of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin via rhamnosidase treatment, and obtaining solubilized dietary fiber via enzymatic modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much-needed improved understanding of the physiological benefits of complex natural substances.

  9. The use of rapid spectroscopic screening methods to detect adulteration of food raw materials and ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-01-01

    with chemometrics appears to be an efficient first choice for testing incoming raw materials and ingredients in the food production. However, in order to realize its full potential, it is necessary to move away from the current thoughts at the Parnassus, namely the targeted approach. This review will focus......International trade in food commodities will continue to increase and the complex food supply chains make adulteration detection and traceability a technical, logistical and financial challenge. There is no magic solution for adulteration testing, but NIR spectroscopy in combination...... on the exploitation of the capability of NIR spectroscopy to fingerprint incoming raw materials and ingredients as an integrated part of the industry's self-monitoring program typically called process analytical technology....

  10. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyejeong [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lacroix, Monique [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Science Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Qebec (Canada); Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10{sup 6} CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients. - Highlights: > Several food ingredients increased the efficiency of irradiation sterilization. > Different forms of food ingredients may affect the efficiency. > The increase of efficiency decreased the required irradiation dose, thereby avoiding sensory impairments of food.

  11. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lacroix, Monique; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10 6 CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients. - Highlights: → Several food ingredients increased the efficiency of irradiation sterilization. → Different forms of food ingredients may affect the efficiency. → The increase of efficiency decreased the required irradiation dose, thereby avoiding sensory impairments of food.

  12. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Functional Ingredients of Barley Grass for Chronic Diseases in Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD, K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E, dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.

  13. Applicability of in silico genotoxicity models on food and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Bellion, Phillip; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of food and feed ingredients is required in the development of new substances and for their registration. In addition to in vitro and in vivo assays, in silico tools such as expert alert-based and statistical models can be used for data generation. These in silico models are commonly used among the pharmaceutical industry, whereas the food industry has not widely adopted them. In this study, the applicability of in silico tools for predicting genotoxicity was evaluated, with a focus on bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome damage assays. For this purpose, a test set of 27 food and feed ingredients including vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals with experimental genotoxicity data was constructed from proprietary data. This dataset was run through multiple models and the model applicability was analyzed. The compounds were generally within the applicability domain of the models and the models predicted the compounds correctly in most of the cases. Although the regulatory acceptance of in silico tools as single data source is still limited, the models are applicable and can be used in the safety evaluation of food and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of ingredients in dry dog foods on the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita W; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2006-01-01

    Using dry dog food label information, the hypothesis was tested that the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) increases with an increasing number of soy and cereal ingredients and a decreasing number of animal-protein ingredients among the first four ingredients. A nested case-control study was conducted with 85 GDV cases and 194 controls consuming a single brand and variety of dry food. Neither an increasing number of animal-protein ingredients (P=0.79) nor an increasing number of soy and cereal ingredients (P=0.83) among the first four ingredients significantly influenced GDV risk. An unexpected finding was that dry foods containing an oil or fat ingredient (e.g., sunflower oil, animal fat) among the first four ingredients were associated with a significant (P=0.01), 2.4-fold increased risk of GDV. These findings suggest that the feeding of dry dog foods that list oils or fats among the first four label ingredients predispose a high-risk dog to GDV.

  15. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  16. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Tang, Sou Teng; Lim, See Meng

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables. Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content. Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins. Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants. The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant. The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure. In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases. Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases. These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health. Abbreviations : CVD: Cardiovascular disease VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.

  18. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  19. Development of an improved local-ingredient-based complementary food and technology transfer to rural housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Traoré, Tahirou; Zèba, Augustin; Tiemtoré, Saïdou; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Donnen, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    Food technology transfer to rural households, based on local ingredients, is a relevant and sustainable strategy to ensure better nutrition of young children. Objective. To develop an improved mush based on local ingredients and evaluate the potential for transferring its technology to rural housewives. We developed a flour-based food using Alicom software and performed laboratory trials to evaluate its actual nutritional quality. Then we recruited housewives from each of the 27 project villages and trained them in flour production and mush preparation twice daily, 6 days a week, for 26 weeks. Mush was sampled during the training session and at weeks 4, 12, and 22 and evaluated for actual flow distance and dry matter content, which served to estimate energy density and iron and zinc contents. The laboratory trials reported average energy densities of 103 kcal/l00 g, iron contents of 2.6 mg/100 kcal, and zinc contents of 1.2 mg/100 kcal. The average (+/- SD) energy densities of the mush samples obtained during the training session and at weeks 4, 12, and 22 were 103.0 +/- 5.6, 103.3 +/- 5.2, 107.9 +/- 11.5, and 101.3 +/- 8.7 kcal/100 g, respectively. The average iron contents were 2.3 +/- 0.5, 2.3 +/- 0.5, 2.6 +/- 0.3, and 1.8 +/- 0.8 mg/ 100 kcal, respectively, and the average zinc contents were 1.6 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.1, 1.7 +/- 0.1, and 1.6 +/- 0.2 mg/100 kcal. Developing a suitable complementary food from local ingredients and educating households in nutrition and use of local products are feasible. Such education should come with measures aimed at improving the accessibility of some ingredients to ensure feasibility and sustainability.

  20. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  1. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, M Iqbal; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Islam, M Munirul; de Pee, Saskia; Steiger, Georg; Fuli, Rachel; Sarker, Shafiqul A M; Parveen, Monira; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-06-27

    Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6-18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice-lentil and chickpea-based RUSF are well accepted

  3. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  4. 21 CFR 340.10 - Stimulant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stimulant active ingredient. 340.10 Section 340.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE STIMULANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredient § 340.10...

  5. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lacroix, Monique; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10 6 CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients.

  6. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-05-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. The prospects of Jerusalem artichoke in functional food ingredients and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linxi; He, Quan Sophia; Corscadden, Kenneth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2015-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke, a native plant to North America has recently been recognized as a promising biomass for bioeconomy development, with a number of advantages over conventional crops such as low input cultivation, high crop yield, wide adaptation to climatic and soil conditions and strong resistance to pests and plant diseases. A variety of bioproducts can be derived from Jerusalem artichoke, including inulin, fructose, natural fungicides, antioxidant and bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke, derivation of bioproducts and applicable production technologies, with an expectation to draw more attention on this valuable crop for its applications as biofuel, functional food and bioactive ingredient sources.

  8. The prospects of Jerusalem artichoke in functional food ingredients and bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxi Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke, a native plant to North America has recently been recognized as a promising biomass for bioeconomy development, with a number of advantages over conventional crops such as low input cultivation, high crop yield, wide adaptation to climatic and soil conditions and strong resistance to pests and plant diseases. A variety of bioproducts can be derived from Jerusalem artichoke, including inulin, fructose, natural fungicides, antioxidant and bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke, derivation of bioproducts and applicable production technologies, with an expectation to draw more attention on this valuable crop for its applications as biofuel, functional food and bioactive ingredient sources.

  9. Hypersensitivity to certain food and food ingredients in the function of age and employment of customers on a cruise ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been a tendency to use the word 'allergy' to describe all kinds of unexpected reactions to certain foods and food ingredients. The recent literature is plentiful and discusses food allergens and people who are hypersensitive to certain foods. The literature suggests the prevalence of food allergy to specific allergens to be changing with age. The aim of this empirical research was to examine the hypersensitivity to certain foods in relation to age and employment of the population consisting of customers on cruise ships. The study included 404 tourists on a cruise ship who voluntarily filled food sensitivity questionnaires and submitted them to the ship staff. These questionnaires were used to analyze the allergy trends and their connection to age and employment. The procedures of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to process the obtained data. The results of the research suggested that there was a statistically significant relationship between the persons who were hypersensitive to certain foods relative to employment and age.

  10. Electron-beam and combined e-b and microwave processing of dried food ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.; Martin, D.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Oproiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There are summarized and presented the results on the irradiated dried food ingredients, as starches, flour, spices, enzymes, pigments. It has investigated the electron-beam and microwave processing to achieve the hygienic and microbiological quality requirements for these materials. There are presented the results regarding the e-b and microwave effects on the main specific parameters (nutritional; microbiological; physical and chemical) for each item. Irradiation has carried out to different electron accelerators, mainly to ALIN-7 linac (W e ∼6 MeV) and using a special designed microwave equipment (2.45 GHz magnetron of 850 W maximum output power). The samples have been irradiated up to 25 kGy (dose rate ∼ 2.0 kGy/min) and there were treated by microwaves (250 W-550 W) for different exposure time. There have analyzed and presented the influence of these two physical fields on some common physical, biochemical and microbiological properties (mainly the total germ count, CFU/g) of these food materials. The main technological and physical characteristics of the materials are preserved, under irradiation up to 10 kGy and microwave treatment in the case of satisfying the national requirements for food and food grade additives microbiological load. The combined treatment seems to be present a synergistic effect arising on non-thermal basis. From these results it could be pointed out that electron-beam and microwave treatment is feasible and represents an alternative to other hygienization techniques for the dried food ingredients. It should be considered that combined treatments lead to reducing irradiation dose without losing the microbicidal effects

  11. Nutrient digestibility in food waste ingredients for Pekin and Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, A; Normand, L; Chavez, E R; Touchburn, S P

    1998-09-01

    Food wastes are valuable resources to be recycled into new added-value products through animal production. The determination of energy and digestibility values of these wastes is essential for feed formulation. Corn, soybean meal (SBM), and a total of nine industrial food waste ingredients were tested in a comparative metabolic study in Pekin and Muscovy ducklings at two different ages during growth. The "precision-feeding" technique was employed to establish DM, fat, and fiber digestibility as well as retention of N and energy (AME, AMEn in Pekins; and AME, AMEn, TME, TMEn in Muscovies) for the 11 ingredients. For Pekin at 3 wk of age, the AMEn of peanuts, tofu, pogo, granola, waste diet, bread, corn, SBM, okara, and brewers grains were 5,141, 4,019, 3,971, 3,908, 3,141, 2,279, 1,572, and 1,442 kcal/kg, respectively. For Pekin at 6 wk of age, the AMEn of peanuts, pogo, tofu, granola, waste diet, bread, corn, SBM, and okara were 5,340, 4,327, 4,254, 4,079, 3,567, 3,302, 3,201, 2,416, and 1,562 kcal/kg, respectively. For Muscovy at 7 wk of age, the TMEn of peanuts, pogo, granola, waste diet, corn, tofu, bread, SBM, okara, and peanut skin were 5,207, 4,321, 4,057, 3,733, 3,233, 3,180, 3,084, 2,236, 1,575, and 904 kcal/kg, respectively. For Muscovy at 11 wk of age, the TMEn of peanuts, pogo, granola, tofu, waste diet, corn, bread, SBM, okara, and brewers grains were 5,077, 4,137, 4,025, 3,921, 3,586, 3,254, 3,123, 2,245, 2,007, and 1,392 kcal/kg, respectively. Nitrogen retention was significantly (P waste diet and lower for bread, corn, granola, brewers grains, and peanut skin. Dry matter digestibility was high for granola, pogo, corn, bread, and the food waste diet. Fat digestibility was generally the same for all the ingredients and was consistently over 97%. Bread neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was significantly (P waste ingredients as well as corn and SBM in both Pekin and Muscovy ducklings at two different ages during growth to market weight.

  12. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  13. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  14. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  15. Experimental approaches to study the nutritional value of food ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Harmon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods that have been applied to study the nutrient value or quality of specific ingredients fed to dogs, cats and comparable species (i.e. foxes, minks, rats, etc.. Typically, the nutritional value or utilization of a specific ingredient is measured by total tract digestibility and has been expanded through the measurement of total nutrient balance (i.e. nitrogen or energy. However, to better understand digestion it is necessary to obtain a more accurate measurement of nutrients entering and leaving the small intestine. Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestion is crucial in dogs and cats because nutrient digestion and absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine. Measuring small intestinal digestibility requires access to digesta leaving the small intestine and can be obtained by placing a cannula at the terminal ileum. This approach also necessitates the use of markers (e.g. chromic oxide to monitor flow of digesta. Specifically, this approach has been used for the direct measurement of intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and amino acids. It also permits a separate measurement of large intestinal digestion which is particularly useful for the study of fiber fermentation. Passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract is also an important component of utilization and these methods are reviewed.

  16. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-contamination in the food production process, FDA investigations concluded that no peanut protein was present... . (c) The ingredient is used in food in accordance with good manufacturing practices under the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No...

  17. Diatomite Photonic Crystals for Facile On-Chip Chromatography and Sensing of Harmful Ingredients from Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Yu, Qian; Li, Erwen; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Alan X

    2018-03-31

    Diatomaceous earth-otherwise called diatomite-is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), by which the photonic crystal-features could enhance the optical field intensity. The on-chip separation performance of the device was confirmed by separating and detecting industrial dye (Sudan I) in an artificial aqueous mixture containing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), where concentrated plasmonic Au colloid was casted onto the analyte spot for SERS measurement. The plasmonic-photonic hybrid mode between the Au nanoparticles (NP) and the diatomite layer could supply nearly 10 times the increment of SERS signal (MBA) intensity compared to the common silica gel chromatography plate. Furthermore, this lab-on-a-chip photonic crystal device was employed for food safety sensing in real samples and successfully monitored histamine in salmon and tuna. This on-chip food sensor can be used as a cheap, robust, and portable sensing platform for monitoring for histamine or other harmful ingredients at trace levels in food products.

  18. Diatomite Photonic Crystals for Facile On-Chip Chromatography and Sensing of Harmful Ingredients from Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatomaceous earth—otherwise called diatomite—is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, by which the photonic crystal-features could enhance the optical field intensity. The on-chip separation performance of the device was confirmed by separating and detecting industrial dye (Sudan I in an artificial aqueous mixture containing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA, where concentrated plasmonic Au colloid was casted onto the analyte spot for SERS measurement. The plasmonic-photonic hybrid mode between the Au nanoparticles (NP and the diatomite layer could supply nearly 10 times the increment of SERS signal (MBA intensity compared to the common silica gel chromatography plate. Furthermore, this lab-on-a-chip photonic crystal device was employed for food safety sensing in real samples and successfully monitored histamine in salmon and tuna. This on-chip food sensor can be used as a cheap, robust, and portable sensing platform for monitoring for histamine or other harmful ingredients at trace levels in food products.

  19. Effects of reducing processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed foods in the Brazilian diet: a cardiovascular modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Vl; Hyseni, Lirije; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Martins, Ana Paula B; Baraldi, Larissa G; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Guzman-Castillo, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the impact of reducing saturated fat, trans-fat, salt and added sugar from processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed foods in the Brazilian diet on preventing cardiovascular deaths by 2030. A modelling study. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey 2008/2009. All food items purchased were categorized into food groups according to the NOVA classification. We estimated the energy and nutrient profile of foods then used the IMPACT Food Policy model to estimate the reduction in deaths from CVD up to 2030 in three scenarios. In Scenario A, we assumed that the intakes of saturated fat, trans-fat, salt and added sugar from ultra-processed foods and processed culinary ingredients were reduced by a quarter. In Scenario B, we assumed a reduction of 50 % of the same nutrients in ultra-processed foods and processed culinary ingredients. In Scenario C, we reduced the same nutrients in ultra-processed foods by 75 % and in processed culinary ingredients by 50 %. Approximately 390 400 CVD deaths might be expected in 2030 if current mortality patterns persist. Under Scenarios A, B and C, CVD mortality can be reduced by 5·5, 11·0 and 29·0 %, respectively. The main impact is on stroke with a reduction of approximately 6·0, 12·6 and 32·0 %, respectively. Substantial potential exists for reducing the CVD burden through overall improvements of the Brazilian diet. This might require reducing the penetration of ultra-processed foods by means of regulatory policies, as well as improving the access to and promotion of fresh and minimally processed foods.

  20. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2004-01-01

    E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from......The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties...... of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food(s), the technical effect(s... within such limitation(s), including the category of food(s), the functional use(s) of the ingredient... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as...

  2. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ingredient: (a) Benzocaine 5 to 20 percent. (b) Benzyl alcohol 1 to 4 percent. (c) Dibucaine 0.25 to 1...

  3. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attempts to elaborate detection methods for some irradiated food and dry ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabassy, S.; Sharif, M.; Farkas, J.; Felfoeldi, J.; Koncz, A.; Formanek, Z.; Kaffka, K.

    1996-01-01

    In many countries ionising radiation is increasingly used for microbial decontamination of dry food ingredients, such as spices and herbs, because this treatment causes minimal chemical alteration and few, if any, detectable changes in the flavour of spices. However, many health authorities and consumer organisations demand unequivocal tests for identification of irradiated foods. Due to the diversity and delicate chemical composition of spices, there is very little chance of developing routine chemical methods to detect a specific radiolytic product in dry spices and herbs, physical methods appear to have greater potential. Significant reduction of the gel-forming capability after irradiation could be observed in several spices. Degradation caused by ionising radiation in the volatile oils, lipids, carotenoids and starch is indicated in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region by changes in the reflectance spectrum. The low doses of ionising radiation (for inhibition of the sprouting of tubers and bulbs) as a consequence of some histological characteristics, induce changes in the electrical impedance and derived quantities. (author)

  5. Extensive profiling of three varieties of Opuntia spp. fruit for innovative food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Bruno; Pereira, Eliana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Garcia-Castello, Esperanza M; Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio D; Sokovic, Marina; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-11-01

    Consumer interest in the use of natural ingredients is creating a growing trend in the food industry, leading to research into the development of natural products such as colorants, antimicrobials and antioxidant compounds. This work involves an extensive morphological (using physico-chemical assays), chemical (antioxidant activity assays) and microbiological (Gram-positive and negative strains) characterization of prickly peras (Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) var. sanguigna, gialla and Opuntia engelmannii) fruits. Through chromatographic assays, these species have shown interesting contents of hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and betalains) and lipophilic (tocopherols and fatty acids) compounds. While Opuntia engelmannii exhibited higher content of betacyanins and mucilage, OFI varieties sanguigna and gialla displayed greater organic acid content. The sanguigna variety also showed the highest α-tocopherol content. All this compounds could be the responsible of enhancing the bioactivity of this variety, which can be observed in its antimicrobial potential, tested in the studied strains too. Results revealed that Opuntia spp. could be used as a nutraceutical and/or food additive, maintaining and promoting health and life quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Semiliquid Ingredients from Grape Skins and Their Potential Impact on the Reducing Capacity of Model Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape skins (GS, which can be considered as reusable coproducts of winemaking, were processed to develop semiliquid ingredients for functional foods, as an alternative to powdered GS, which needs high energy input for drying. Processing of semiliquid GS ingredients included blanching, dilution to obtain dispersions with 2% or 10% of dry solids, milling, homogenization, and pasteurization. The individual phenolic contents and in vitro ferric ion reducing capacity (FRAP of semiliquid GS ingredients were compared with those of air-dried and freeze-dried GS. With respect to freeze-dried GS, the recovery of FRAP values was ~75% for both air-dried GS and 2% GS dispersion and 59% for 10% GS dispersion. The average particle size diameters of solids in semiliquid GS ingredients were similar to those observed in commercial apple skin products. Possible applications of GS semiliquid ingredients to increase the reducing capacity of food 10 times include formulation into beverages and ice-type desserts and use in bakery products.

  7. Soybean and Processed Soy Foods Ingredients, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Soybeans contain various components with potential health benefits effects, but the impact of soy foods and processed soy foods on human health has gone progressively characterized. Soy foods are the traditional Asian diets; however because of their intended health benefits they have gone popular in Westerners, especially postmenopausal women. There are lots of biologically active soybean constituents that might lead to the possible health benefits of soy, and almost consideration has concentrated on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal activities. The various other constituents of soybeans (saponins, soy protein or peptides, lecithin, and flavonoids) have differing biological activities. These include hormonal, immunological, bacteriological and digestive effects. This review is the broad assessment of the literature comprehensive the health effects of soy constituents that are of superlative interest. The health benefits of soy foods on four diseases-cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and diabetes-are the focus of the review.

  8. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  9. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from chili bo, a Malaysian food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J J; Pot, B; Christensen, H; Rusul, G; Olsen, J E; Wee, B W; Muhamad, K; Ghazali, H M

    1999-02-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28 degreesC with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg-1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682.

  11. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Jørgen J.; Pot, Bruno; Christensen, Henrik; Rusul, Gulam; Olsen, John E.; Wee, Bee Wah; Muhamad, Kharidah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg−1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682. PMID:9925588

  12. Comparative differences in the behavior of TiO2 and SiO2 food additives in food ingredient solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Ridhwan; Nguyen, Luong T. H.; Chiew, Paul; Wang, Zheng Ming; Ng, Kee Woei

    2018-03-01

    Nanotechnology is widely used in the food industry to improve the color, taste, and texture of food products. However, concerns regarding potential undesirable health effects remain. It is expected that interaction of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with food ingredients will influence their behavior and the resulting corona. Nonetheless, there are limited systematic studies conducted to clarify this understanding to date. Herein, we investigated the behavior and corona formation of food grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) in solutions of model food ingredients including bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sucrose. Measurements using dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that both TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles displayed a decrease in agglomerate sizes in the presence of both food ingredients. Both particles were negatively charged in all the conditions tested. Corona adsorption studies were carried out using multiple complementary methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Comparative investigation showed that sucrose could disperse both particles more effectively than BSA and that SiO2 displayed greater adsorption capacity for both BSA and sucrose, compared to TiO2. Taken collectively, this study demonstrated the importance of considering food ingredient effects when mapping the behavior of ENMs in food products. Such understanding could be significant in the evaluation of biological effects, such as toxicity, of ENMs used in food products.

  13. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  14. Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey C; Spink, John; Lipp, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general media, organize into a database, and review and analyze the data to identify trends. The results summarized are a database that will be published in the US Pharmacopeial Convention's Food Chemicals Codex, 8th edition, and includes 1305 records, including 1000 records with analytical methods collected from 677 references. Olive oil, milk, honey, and saffron were the most common targets for adulteration reported in scholarly journals, and potentially harmful issues identified include spices diluted with lead chromate and lead tetraoxide, substitution of Chinese star anise with toxic Japanese star anise, and melamine adulteration of high protein content foods. High-performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were the most common analytical detection procedures, and chemometrics data analysis was used in a large number of reports. Future expansion of this database will include additional publically available articles published before 1980 and in other languages, as well as data outside the public domain. The authors recommend in-depth analyses of individual incidents. This report describes the development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud issues from publicly available references. The database provides baseline information and data useful to governments, agencies, and individual companies assessing the risks of specific products produced in specific regions as well as products distributed and sold in other regions. In addition, the report describes current analytical technologies for detecting food fraud and identifies trends and developments. © 2012 US Pharmacupia Journal of Food Science

  15. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  16. Solid lipid dispersions: potential delivery system for functional ingredients in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Mensah, Aboagyewa; Smith, Kevin W; Ribeiro, Henelyta S

    2013-07-01

    Structured solid lipid (SL) systems have the advantages of long-term physical stability, low surfactant concentrations, and may exhibit controlled release of active ingredients. In this research work, the potential use of high-melting SLs for the production of the above structured SL carrier systems was investigated. Dispersions containing either SL or blend of solid lipid and oil (SL+O) were produced by a hot melt high-pressure homogenization method. Experiments involved the use of 3 different SLs for the disperse phase: stearic acid, candelilla wax and carnauba wax. Sunflower oil was incorporated in the disperse phase for the production of the dispersions containing lipid and oil. In order to evaluate the practical aspects of structured particles, analytical techniques were used including: static light scattering to measure particle sizes, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for investigating particle morphology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the crystallization behavior of lipids in bulk and in dispersions. Results showed different mean particle sizes depending on the type of lipid used in the disperse phase. Particle sizes for the 3 lipids were: stearic acid (SL: 195 ± 2.5 nm; SL+O: 138 ± 6.0 nm); candelilla wax (SL: 178 ± 1.7 nm; SL+O: 144 ± 0.6 nm); carnauba wax (SL: 303 ± 1.5 nm; SL+O: 295 ± 5.0 nm). TEM results gave an insight into the practical morphology, showing plate-like and needle-like structures. DSC investigations also revealed that SL dispersions melted and crystallized at lower temperatures than the bulk. This decrease can be explained by the small particle sizes of the dispersion, the high-specific surface area, and the presence of a surfactant. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  18. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  19. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient, one or more of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food-contact...(s), it shall be used in food-contact surfaces only within such limitation(s), including the category... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed...

  20. The use of a molecular technique for the detection of porcine ingredients in the Malaysian food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Abd-ElAziem; Batcha, Mohamed F; Greiner, Ralf; Salleh, Hamzah M; Salleh, Mohamad R; Sirajudin, Abdur R

    2006-09-01

    To develop a molecular technique that is fast and reliable in detecting porcine contamination or ingredients in foods. The method applied involved DNA amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Thus, the sequence of a certain gene found uniquely in pork was identified and its sequence was used to design specific primers for the PCR. The extraction of DNA was optimized in respect to PCR and detection limits were established. The optimized method was then used to identify pork in food products obtained from various local hypermarkets. The latest results were confirmed in triplicates on the 20th April 2006 at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, International Islamic University, Malaysia. The method was shown to be robust and reliable. Out of 30 food samples not expected to contain pork material, 3 samples were shown to be contaminated with pork material; 2 chocolates and one chicken nugget. We observed that 2 food products that were labeled as halal showed positive for porcine ingredients, while another that did not have any halal logo but originated from outside Malaysia and exported to many Middle Eastern nations also showed positive.

  1. Post-launch monitoring of novel foods/ingredients (revised version) : Methodology applied to additive stevia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens M; Hendriksen M; Niekerk EM; Temme EHM; van Raaij JMA; P&V; V&Z

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport is de herziene versie van het oorspronkelijke rapport (mei 2014). Op pagina 3 staat een erratum met uitleg over de wijzigingen

    Het RIVM heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee in kaart kan worden gebracht welke producten een bepaald ingrediënt bevatten, en zo ja in welke

  2. Broccoli glucosinolate degradation is reduced performing thermal treatment in binary systems with other food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambanelli, E.; Verkerk, R.; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.; Antuono, D' L.F.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolate (GL) stability has been widely studied in different Brassica species. However, the matrix effect determined by the presence of other ingredients occurred in many broccoli-based traditional recipes may affect GL thermal degradation. In this study, the matrix effect on GL thermal

  3. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  4. Development and acceptability of ready-to-use supplementary food made of local food ingredients for preventing and treating moderate acute malnutrition (contributed paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, M Iqbal; Alam, Md. Shafiqul Alam; Schumacher, Britta; De Pee, Saskia; Muiruri, Juliana; Fuli, Rachel; Parveen, Monira; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; West, Keith; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and objectives: Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in many developing countries including Bangladesh, particularly in food insecure communities. Locally produced ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) can improve growth, development and micronutrient status of children. The study was conducted to develop recipes for RUSF based on locally available food ingredients and to test their acceptability among children. Methods: A checklist was prepared of available and commonly consumed food ingredients that have the potential of being used for RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and required micronutrient premix composition, and samples were prepared in the icddr,b food-processing lab. To test the acceptability of the RUSF recipes compared to Pushti-packet (a cereal based food-supplement), an acceptability trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6-18 months in a slum in Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The mothers were asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely, 2 = dislike moderately, 3 = dislike, 4 = neither dislike nor like, 5 = like slightly, 6 = like moderately, 7 = like extremely). Results: Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice and lentils and the other one on chickpea. Mean response for each sensory quality of all products was more than 6. The two RUSFs scored significantly better compared to Pushti-packet in terms of ‘overall liking’. Children were offered 50g of food and they consumed (mean+SD) 26.1±15.1g RUSF and 17.1±14.3g Pushti-packet which took them 20.9±9.6 minutes. There was no significant difference between two RUSF consumption, but there was a significant difference between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti-packet (28.4 vs.17.1g) consumption. Conclusions: Locally available food ingredients were used to develop RUSFs for preventing and

  5. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food Made From Locally Available Food Ingredients Is Well Accepted by Children Having Severe Acute Malnutrition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, M Munirul; Sarker, Shafiqul A; Zeilani, Mamane; Clemens, John David

    2018-03-01

    With a prevalence of 3.1%, approximately, 450 000 children in Bangladesh are having severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There is currently no national community-based program run by government to take care of these children, one of the reasons being lack of access to ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). To develop RUTF using locally available food ingredients and test its acceptability. A checklist was prepared for all food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for developing a RUTF. Linear programming was used to identify the combinations of nutrients that would result in an ideal RUTF. To test the acceptability of 2 local RUTFs compared to the prototype RUTF, Plumpy'Nut, a clinical trial with a crossover design was conducted among 30 children in the Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The acceptability was determined by using the mean proportion of offered food consumed by the children themselves. Two RUTFs were developed, one based on chickpea and the other on rice-lentils. The total energy content of 100 g of chickpea and rice-lentil-based RUTF were 537.4 and 534.5 kcal, protein 12.9 and 13.5 g, and fat 31.8 and 31.1 g, respectively, without any significant difference among the group. On an average, 85.7% of the offered RUTF amount was consumed by the children in 3 different RUTF groups which implies that all types of RUTF were well accepted by the children. Ready-to-use therapeutic foods were developed using locally available food ingredients-rice, lentil, and chickpeas. Chickpea-based and rice-lentil-based RUTF were well accepted by children with SAM.

  7. Extrusion conditions affect chemical composition and in vitro digestion of select food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust, Jolene M; Gajda, Angela M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Burkhalter, Toni M; Merchen, Neal R; Fahey, George C

    2004-05-19

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of extrusion conditions on chemical composition and in vitro hydrolytic and fermentative digestion of barley grits, cornmeal, oat bran, soybean flour, soybean hulls, and wheat bran. Extrusion conditions altered crude protein, fiber, and starch concentrations of ingredients. Organic matter disappearance (OMD) increased for extruded versus unprocessed samples of barley grits, cornmeal, and soybean flour that had been hydrolytically digested. After 8 h of fermentative digestion, OMD decreased as extrusion conditions intensified for barley grits and cornmeal but increased for oat bran, soybean hulls, and wheat bran. Total short-chain fatty acid production decreased as extrusion conditions intensified for barley grits, soybean hulls, and soybean flour. These data suggest that the effects of extrusion conditions on ingredient composition and digestion are influenced by the unique chemical characteristics of individual substrates.

  8. Use of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: sensory and color characteristics of low-fat Turkey bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2012-07-01

    The potential of using poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient to substitute either soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna was investigated. PPI was prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat using pH-shift technology and the prepared PPI was added to turkey bologna at 2 different concentrations (1.5% and 2% dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared with those prepared with the addition of 2% SPI, 11% meat protein (control-1), or 13% meat protein (control-2). All the 5 treatments were subjected to sensory analysis to evaluate aroma, appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, firmness, and overall acceptability of the turkey bologna samples using 9-point hedonic scales. A turkey bologna control sample with 11% meat protein appeared to be softer compared to other treatments as revealed by texture profile analysis while purge loss during storage in a retail display case was significantly (P Sensory analysis concluded that 1.5% PPI and 2% PPI could be used as substitute of SPI or lean meat and the treatments could be improved by increasing saltiness and decreasing firmness. The study revealed that with slight modifications in saltiness, turkey bologna can be prepared with the addition of poultry protein isolates as an acceptable substitute for soy protein isolate or meat protein. This will help to avoid usage of nonmeat ingredients (as SPI substitute) and to reduce the cost of production (as meat protein substitute) of low-fat turkey bologna. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Using the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to determine an appropriate reduction of certain ingredients in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian

    2010-01-01

    As the desire to promote health increases, reductions of certain ingredients, for example, sodium, sugar, and fat in food products, are widely requested. However, the reduction is not risk free in sensory and marketing aspects. Over reduction may change the taste and influence the flavor of a product and lead to a decrease in consumer's overall liking or purchase intent for the product. This article uses the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to determine an appropriate reduction. Calculations of BMD and one-sided lower confidence limit of BMD are illustrated. The article also discusses how to calculate BMD and BMDL for over dispersed binary data in replicated testing based on a corrected beta-binomial model. USEPA Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) were used and S-Plus programs were developed. The method discussed in the article is originally used to determine an appropriate reduction of certain ingredients, for example, sodium, sugar, and fat in food products, considering both health reason and sensory or marketing risk.

  10. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients. The...

  11. Millipedes as food for humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; Manno, Nicola; Tchibozo, Sévérin

    2014-01-01

    The first record of millipedes (Diplopoda) being regularly used for food by humans (the Bobo people of Burkina Faso) is given, including information on how the millipedes are prepared. The species in question are Tymbodesmus falcatus (Karsch, 1881) and Sphenodesmus sheribongensis (Schiøtz, 1966...... for the spread of millipedes as an everyday food source. On the other hand, the possibility that benzoquinones may act as insect-repellents, as known from studies on nonhuman primates, and that sublethal cyanide ingestionmay enhance human innate resistance tomalaria, suggests promising ethnomedical perspectives...

  12. Consumer wants and use of ingredient and nutrition information for alcoholic drinks: A cross-cultural study in six EU countries Food Quality and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...... and the Netherlands. The results have implications for both marketers of alcoholic drinks and for policies regarding information provision....

  13. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 2. ESR analysis of mechanically recovered poultry meat and TL analysis of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocols EN 1786 and EN 1788 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) were not conceived for the detection of irradiated ingredients included in low concentration in nonirradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at

  14. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 1. Extraction and ESR analysis of bones from mechanically recovered poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocol EN 1786 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was not conceived for the detection of irradiated bone-containing ingredients included in low concentration in non-irradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at 55 degrees C, has been

  15. Ingredients for Success: Strategies to Support Local Food Use in Health Care Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Emily; Keller, Heather; Duizer, Lisa

    2018-06-12

    There is growing interest in use of local food within health care institutions such as hospitals and long-term care homes. This study explored stakeholder perspectives on (i) influences on local food use and (ii) strategies that support success and sustainability of use in health care institutions. Fifteen participants who were institutional leaders with experience in implementing or supporting local food use in health care institutions in Ontario were recruited through purposeful and snowball sampling. A semi-structured interview was conducted by telephone and audio-recorded. Qualitative content analysis identified that influences on local food use were: product availability, staff and management engagement, and legislation and resources (e.g., funding, labour). Several strategies were offered for building and sustaining success including: setting goals, requesting local food availability from suppliers, and more clearly identifying local foods in product lists. The influences and potential strategies highlighted in this paper provide a greater understanding for dietitians and food service managers on how local foods can be incorporated into health care institutions.

  16. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    or fertilizers. Learn more about the costs and benefits of going organic for you and your family. To Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure veggies? Federal Pesticide Regulation Pesticides and Human Health Regulating Organic Food Production

  17. Detection of irradiation history for health foods. Calcium salt of organic acid and its basic ingredient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Yunoki, Shunji; Ohyabu, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbonate and calcium salt of organic acid are well-known food additives used for the improvement of the shelf life and eating quality of health food. Calcium carbonate is a precursor in the synthesis of calcium salts of organic acid. Certain calcium carbonates made of natural limestone mined from very old stratum have silicate minerals exposed to a low level of natural radiation over a long period of time and food additives derived from calcium carbonates contained of such silicate minerals are possible to classify as irradiated foods by PSL and TL analysis in spite of non-irradiation. The study of calcium carbonates and calcium salts of organic acid obtained from different producers were allow to provided appropriate decisions by using the information of both the TL response (Glow1 peak temperature and TL ratio) and PSL ratio. ESR measurements of radicals in such food additives caused by gamma- irradiation were effective tool for correctly determining for irradiation history of those because the measurements were not affected by silicate minerals contained in those. (author)

  18. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  19. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  20. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages.

  1. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  2. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 352.20 Section 352.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effective date was stayed until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the text is set forth as...

  3. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 352...

  4. 21 CFR 333.320 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 333.320 Section 333.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Note: At 75 FR 9776, Mar. 4, 2010, § 333.320 was revised, effective Mar. 4, 2011. For the convenience...

  5. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alcohol 95 percent in an anhydrous glycerin 5 percent base. [65 FR 48905, Aug. 10, 2000] ...

  6. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in th...

  7. Solvent-free lipase catalysed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Luis eVazquez

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short and medium chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its re-synthesis in th...

  8. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Dalene de; Schulze, Alexandra; Joubert, Elizabeth; Villiers, André de; Malherbe, Christiaan; Stander, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlin...

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . S tatement on the safety of ' Cetyl Myristoleate Complex ' as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of „Cetyl Myristoleate Complex‟ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of a new repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study in mice. In its p...

  10. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products. (a...

  11. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and Their Ingredients: Positioning Options for Innovations at the Borderline Between Foods and Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer acceptance is pivotal for the market success of new functional food products. Thereby, the acceptance is mainly influenced by three factors: consumer characteristics, purchasing situation and products characteristics. The study at hand analyses these influence factors using the example of

  12. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  13. An Overview on Citrus aurantium L.: Its Functions as Food Ingredient and Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Suntar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae, commonly known as bitter orange, possesses multiple therapeutic potentials. These biological credentials include anticancer, antianxiety, antiobesity, antibacterial, antioxidant, pesticidal, and antidiabetic activities. The essential oil of C. aurantium was reported to display marked pharmacological effects and great variation in chemical composition depending on growing locations but mostly contained limonene, linalool, and β-myrcene. Phytochemically, C. aurantium is rich in p-synephrine, an alkaloid, and many health-giving secondary metabolites such as flavonoids. Animal studies have demonstrated a low affinity of p-synephrine for adrenergic receptors and an even lower affinity in human models. The present review focuses on the different biological activities of the C. aurantium in animal and human models in the form of extract and its pure secondary metabolites. Finally, it is concluded that both the extract and isolated compounds have no unwanted effects in human at therapeutic doses and, therefore, can confidently be used in various dietary formulations.

  14. Heavy Metal In Food Ingredients In Oil Refi nery Industrial Area, Dumai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial waste generally contains a lot of heavy metals such as Plumbum (Pb, Arsenic (As, Cadmium(Cd and Mercury (Hg, which can contaminate the surrounding environment and cause health problems. Bioaccumulation ofheavy metals from the environment can occur in foodstuffs. The study aims to determine levels of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Asand Hg in foodstuffs in the oil refi nery industry. Methods: The analytical method used Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(AAS. Samples were taken from two locations, namely: the exposed area and non exposed area. The sample consisted ofcassava, papaya leaves, fern leaves, cassava leaves, guava, papaya and catfi sh. Results: The analysis showed levels ofmetals As in all samples at exposed locations is below the maximum limit of SNI, the location is not exposed only in catfi shlevels of As (2.042 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Cd levels of both locations are not detected. Pb levels in catfi sh in exposedlocations (1,109 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Hg levels in leaves of papaya, cassava leaves, fern leaves, cassava and fruitpapaya exceed SNI. Conclusion: There has been a heavy metal contamination in foodstuffs. Recommendation: Thelocal people are advised to be careful when consuming food stuffs from oil refi nery industrial area.

  15. Drying/encapsulation of red wine to produce ingredients for healthy foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmari Jasel Alvarez Gaona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of coronary disease, atherosclerosis, and platelet aggregation. Wine is very rich in antioxidant compounds because of their phenolic components. However, many people for ethnic, social or religious reasons do not consume wine. Drying/encapsulation of red wine in the presence of adequate carbohydrates leads to water and more than 99% of alcohol removal; a glassy amorphous microstructure is obtained in which the wine’s phenolic compounds are entrapped. The resulting product is a free flowing powder which could be used for the polyphenol enrichment of healthy foods and/or drink powders, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The wine industry may take advantage of the dried/encapsulated red wine using as a raw material red wines which have little commercial value for different reasons; i.e. poor quality due to raw material, unfavourable climatic conditions, or wines that suffered some alteration during the wine making process. Dry encapsulated wine may be a new alternative to red wines that cannot be sold as such for different reasons, and open new opportunities to diversify wine products.

  16. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Zhang, Sheng; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black soldier fly larvae and pupae, six spot roach, death's head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, fish meal and soyabean meal. Substrates were analysed for DM, N, crude fat, ash and amino acid (AA) contents and for in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OM) and N. The nutrient composition, AA scores as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility varied considerably between insect substrates. For the AA score, the first limiting AA for most substrates was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. The pupae of the housefly and black soldier fly were high in protein and had high AA scores but were less digestible than other insect substrates. The protein content and AA score of house crickets were high and similar to that of fish meal; however, in vitro N digestibility was higher. The cockroaches were relatively high in protein but the indispensable AA contents, AA scores and the in vitro digestibility values were relatively low. In addition to the indices of protein quality, other aspects such as efficiency of conversion of organic side streams, feasibility of mass-production, product safety and pet owner perception are important for future dog and cat food application of insects as alternative protein source.

  17. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  18. Food ingredient extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Schulze, Alexandra E; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Villiers, André; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Stander, Maria A

    2012-12-07

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP) content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin), flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin), a flavone (scolymoside), a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside) and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside). Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  19. Solvent-free lipase catalysed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVazquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short and medium chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its re-synthesis in the enterocyte and its metabolism and absorption by the enterocyte are limited in comparison with the TAG, reducing chylomicron formation. In this work these two effects were combined to synthesize short and medium chain 1,3 diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase catalysed transesterification reactions were performed between short and medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the conversion intopercentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica, other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei with 52% and 60.7% of DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8% and 20.9%, respectively and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp. (35.9% and 19.3%, respectively. By adding 1% (w/w of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7% to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  20. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients (AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10) as novel food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    /day. Mean and high-level (95th percentile) daily intakes of 0.106 mg/kg bw and 0.256 mg/kg bw astaxanthin from the NFIs were estimated, based on European consumption data of the proposed food categories. The consumption of the NFIs is not considered to be nutritionally disadvantageous. There are no safety....... The Panel notes that the maximum recommended intake of 4 mg astaxanthin per day (0.06 mg/kg bw) and the estimated mean intake based on the use levels in the proposed food categories (0.106 mg/kg bw per day) exceed the ADI by approximately two- and three-fold, respectively. The Panel therefore concludes......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10 as novel food ingredients (NFIs) in the context of Regulation...

  2. Phenolic and physicochemical stability of a functional beverage powder mixture during storage: effect of the microencapsulant inulin and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Pauck, Claire E; Aucamp, Marique; Liebenberg, Wilna; Stieger, Nicole; van der Rijst, Marieta; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    The need for a convenience herbal iced tea product with reduced kilojoules merited investigation of the shelf-life of powder mixtures containing a green Cyclopia subternata Vogel (honeybush) extract with proven blood glucose-lowering activity and alternative sweetener mixture. Prior to long-term storage testing, the wettability of powder mixtures containing food ingredients and the compatibility of their components were confirmed using the static sessile drop method and isothermal microcalorimetry, respectively. The powders packed in semi-sealed containers remained stable during storage at 25 °C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 6 months, except for small losses of specific phenolic compounds, namely mangiferin, isomangiferin, 3-β-d-glucopyranosyliriflophenone, vicenin-2 and 3',5'-di-β-d-glucopyranosylphloretin, especially when both citric acid and ascorbic acid were present. These acids drastically increased the degradation of phenolic compounds under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C/75% RH). Accelerated storage also caused changes in the appearance of powders and the colour of the reconstituted beverage solutions. Increased moisture content and a w of the powders, as well as moisture released due to dehydration of citric acid monohydrate, contributed to these changes. A low-kilojoule honeybush iced tea powder mixture will retain its functional phenolic compounds and physicochemical properties during shelf-life storage at 25 °C for 6 months. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of marinated chicken breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, Zied; Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    The possibilities of replacing soy protein isolate (SPI) and reducing the amount of phosphate in marinated chicken breasts using poultry protein isolate (PPI) were investigated. PPI, prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat through the pH-shift technology, was used as a marinade ingredient for chicken breasts at 2 different concentrations (1.0% and 1.5%, w/w on a dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared to samples marinated with salt, phosphate, or SPI. All the 5 treatments were subjected to instrumental and sensory analyses. Tumbling yield, drip, and cooking losses as well as expressible moisture showed that PPI can be used as a substitute for SPI in brine. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no differences among treatments in terms of appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the marinated chicken breasts. However, chicken breasts marinated with phosphate had significantly higher aroma acceptability scores than those treated with 1% PPI. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  5. An Overview of Novel Dietary Supplements and Food Ingredients in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva Figueiredo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is characterized by interconnected factors related to metabolic disturbances, and is directly related to the occurrence of some diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. MetS is described as one or both of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity, considered the initial causes of abnormalities that include hyperglycemia, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and prothrombotic state, as well as polycystic ovarian syndrome in women. Other than in MetS, visceral adiposity and the pro-inflammatory state are also key in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in modern society. Both MetS and NAFLD are related to diet and lifestyle, and their treatment may be influenced by dietary pattern changes and the use of certain dietary supplements. This study aimed to review the role of food ingredients and supplements in the management of MetS and NAFLD specifically in human clinical trials. Moreover, bioactive compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs may be used as strategies for preventing the onset of and treatment of metabolic disorders, such as MetS and NAFLD, improving the inflammatory state and other comorbidities, such as obesity, dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD.

  6. A review of mammalian carcinogenicity study design and potential effects of alternate test procedures on the safety evaluation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A W; Dayan, A D; Hall, W C; Kodell, R L; Williams, G M; Waddell, W D; Slesinski, R S; Kruger, C L

    2011-06-01

    of test procedures, dose selection, histopathology procedures, application of historical control data, statistical evaluations and whether statistical extrapolations are supported by, or are beyond the limits of, the data generated. Without due consideration, there can be result conflicting data interpretations and uncertainty about the relevance of a study's results to human risk. This paper discusses the critical elements of rodent (rat) carcinogenicity studies, particularly with respect to the study of food ingredients. It also highlights study practices and procedures that can detract from the appropriate evaluation of human relevance of results, indicating the importance of adherence to international consensus protocols, such as those detailed by OECD. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Speciation of arsenic in baby foods and the raw fish ingredients using liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, P.; Lopez-Garcia, I.; Merino-Merono, B.; Campillo, N.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    The speciation of arsenic in different baby foods and the raw fish ingredients using the direct hybridisation of liquid chromatography (LC) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is described. Good resolution of the species, arsenic(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsenic acid (MMAA) and arsenic(V) is achieved using an anion-exchange column with potassium phosphate as the mobile phase and gradient elution. Arsenobetaine (AsB) is determined by on-line oxidation using peroxydisulphate and hydride generation. The arsenicals were extracted by an enzymatic digestion procedure based on the action of trypsin or pancreatin. Arsenobetaine was the only arsenic species detected. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analyzing the total arsenic content of the samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with microwave-oven digestion and by analyzing a certified reference material. The arsenic content in the baby foods comes from the raw fish ingredients and is highest when plaice is used. (orig.)

  8. Food Security and Human Rights in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    Food is crucial to an adequate standard of living. The acknowledgement of the right to food in government policies is fundamental to the protection of human dignity, particularly in relation to food insecurity. It allows the right-holder to seek redress and hold government accountable for

  9. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  10. The growing importance of staple foods and condiments used as ingredients in the food industry and implications for large-scale food fortification programs in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Larson, Melanie; Maurin, Clémence; Laillou, Arnaud; Capanzana, Mario; Garrett, Greg S

    2013-06-01

    Food fortification is a viable strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations. In Southeast Asia, recent growth and consolidation of the food industry provides an opportunity to explore whether certain widely consumed processed foods could contribute to micronutrient status if they are made with adequately fortified staples and condiments. To estimate the potential contribution certain processed foods can make to micronutrient intake in Southeast Asia if they are made with fortified staples and condiments; e.g., via the inclusion of iodized salt in various processed foods in the Philippines, fortified wheat flour in instant noodles in Indonesia, and fortified vegetable oil in biscuits in Vietnam. For Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, a review of consumption trends, relevant policies, and industry practices was conducted using publicly available sources,food industry market data and research reports, and oral communication. These informed the estimates of the proportion of the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) that could be delivered via select processed foods. In the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the processed food industry is not always required to use fortified staples and condiments. In the Philippines, dried salted fish with iodized salt would provide 64% to 85% of the iodine RNI for women of reproductive age and 107% to 141% of the iodine RNI for children 1 to 6 years of age. In Indonesia, a 75-g pack of instant noodles (a highly consumed product) with fortified wheat flour would provide 45% to 51% of the iron RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 10% to 11% of the iron RNI for women of reproductive age. In Vietnam, biscuits containing vegetable oil are increasingly popular. One 35-g biscuit serving with fortified vegetable oil would provide 13% to 18% of the vitamin A RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 12% to 17% of the vitamin A RNI for women of reproductive age. Ensuring that fortified staples and condiments such as flour

  11. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  12. Innovative Natural Ingredients-Based Multiple Emulsions: The Effect on Human Skin Moisture, Sebum Content, Pore Size and Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugne Cizauskaite

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in natural cosmetics has resulted in a higher market demand for preservative-free products based on herbal ingredients. An innovative W/O/W type emulsions containing herbal extracts were prepared directly; its cation form was induced by an ethanolic rosemary extract and stabilized using weak herbal gels. Due to the wide phytochemical composition of herbal extracts and the presence of alcohol in the emulsion system, which can cause skin irritation, sensitization or dryness when applied topically, the safety of the investigated drug delivery system is necessary. The aim of our study was to estimate the potential of W/O/W emulsions based on natural ingredients for skin irritation and phototoxicity using reconstructed 3D epidermis models in vitro and to evaluate in vivo its effect on human skin moisture, sebum content and pigmentation by biomedical examination using a dermatoscopic camera and corneometer. According to the results obtained after in vitro cell viability test the investigated emulsion was neither irritant nor phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes. W/O/W emulsion did not cause skin dryness in vivo, despite the fact that it contained ethanol. We can conclude that the emulsion is safe for use as a leave-on product due to the positive effect on human skin characteristics or as a semisolid pharmaceutical base where active compounds could be encapsulated.

  13. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form FDA...

  14. Uso de ingredientes provenientes de OGM em rações e seu impacto na produção de alimentos de origem animal para humanos Use of ingredients from OGM in feed and its impact on the production of food of animal origin for human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal E. Vercesi

    2009-07-01

    engineering to develop and supplying tools for the accomplishment of specific alterations in the genome considerably. The products of these alterations are denominated transgenic or organisms genetically modified (OGM and they present high application potential in several areas of the human activity as: agriculture, medicine, health, production and processing of foods, biochemical production and control of diseases. Nowadays, transgenic plants, originating from technology of the DNA recombinant, brought new varieties cultivated already in more than 100 million hectares in 23 countries, including Brazil, where 8 varieties were already approved for the National Technical Commission of Biosafety (CTNBio. That method of genetic improvement facilitated the introduction of desirable characteristics in plants, such as, resistance to biotic and non-biotic stress and optimization of the composition of some essential nutrients to the animal and human health. While these progresses of the biotechnology open new perspectives for the solution of problems in areas as the agriculture, the transgenic liberation for use in the nature brings concerns as for possible problems of ecological nature and for the human and animal health. These concerns brought the creation of government agencies to control the use of this technology and to regulate the safety of transgenic foods and yours derived. Until the moment, the scientific studies show that the transgenic liberated commercially are so safe or more to the environment and the animal and human health that the conventional ones.

  15. Fruitflow®: the first European Food Safety Authority-approved natural cardio-protective functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kennedy, Niamh; Raederstorff, Daniel; Duttaroy, Asim K

    2017-03-01

    Hyperactive platelets, in addition to their roles in thrombosis, are also important mediators of atherogenesis. Antiplatelet drugs are not suitable for use where risk of a cardiovascular event is relatively low. It is therefore important to find alternative safe antiplatelet inhibitors for the vulnerable population who has hyperactive platelets in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Potent antiplatelet factors were identified in water-soluble tomato extract (Fruitflow ® ), which significantly inhibited platelet aggregation. Human volunteer studies demonstrated the potency and bioavailability of active compounds in Fruitflow ® . Fruitflow ® became the first product in Europe to obtain an approved, proprietary health claim under Article 13(5) of the European Health Claims Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Fruitflow ® is now commercially available in different countries worldwide. In addition to its reduction in platelet reactivity, Fruitflow ® contains anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme and anti-inflammatory factors, making it an effective and natural cardio-protective functional food.

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Statement on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of additional information submitted by the applicant. In its previous...... 90-day study cannot serve as a reliable source of information supporting the absence of adverse effects of CMC. The dossier of this new mandate contains three new references which were not submitted and hence not considered in the previous assessments. The Panel notes that two references do...

  17. Description of Paralactobacillus selangorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new lactic acid bacterium isolated from chili bo, a Malaysian food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J J; Vancanneyt, M; Goris, J; Christensen, H; Rusul, G

    2000-01-01

    Paralactobacillus selangorensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is described. This organism, isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient called chili bo, is an obligatory homofermentative, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium. The G+C content is 46.1-46.2+/-0.3 mol%. Earlier 16S rRNA studies showed that this organism constitutes a new taxon distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei-Pediococcus group. A phenotypic description that distinguishes Paralactobacillus selangorensis from other genera of lactic acid bacteria is presented. The type strain of Paralactobacillus selangorensis is LMG 17710T.

  18. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  19. College students identify university support for basic needs and life skills as key ingredient in addressing food insecurity on campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Watson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A recent University of California (UC systemwide survey showed that 42% of UC college students experience food insecurity, consistent with other studies among U.S. college students. As part of UC's efforts to understand and address student food insecurity, we conducted 11 focus group interviews across four student subpopulations at UC Los Angeles (n = 82. We explored student experiences, perceptions and concerns related to both food insecurity and food literacy, which may help protect students against food insecurity. Themes around food insecurity included student awareness about food insecurity, cost of university attendance, food insecurity consequences, and coping strategies. Themes around food literacy included existing knowledge and skills, enjoyment and social cohesion, and learning in the dining halls. Unifying themes included the campus food environment not meeting student needs, a desire for practical financial and food literacy “life skills” training, and skepticism about the university's commitment to adequately address student basic needs. The results of this study broadly suggest there is opportunity for the university to address student food insecurity through providing food literacy training, among other strategies.

  20. Food Prints on Human Rights Law Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Ratescu, I.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction between the development of the doctrine on human rights, in general, and on the right to food, in particular. In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which listed the rights that were considered to

  1. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A natural food ingredient based on ergosterol: optimization of the extraction from Agaricus blazei, evaluation of bioactive properties and incorporation in yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Rúbia C G; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Sokovic, Marina; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, mycosterols have emerged as potential functional ingredients for the development of sterol-enriched food products and dietary supplements. Agaricus blazei is a mushroom rich in bioactive compounds. For commercial purposes, their fruiting bodies must obey rigid morphological criteria. Those not conforming to these criteria are usually discarded, although this does not mean impairment of their content in bioactives. The aim of the present work was to propose the use of commercially discarded A. blazei fruiting bodies for obtaining an extract rich in ergosterol as a fortifier ingredient for yogurts. For extraction, the Soxhlet technology was used and the highest ergosterol yield (around 12%) was achieved in the 5 th cycle, yielding 58.53 ± 1.72 µg of ergosterol per 100 g of mushroom (dry weight). The ergosterol rich extract presented notable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, besides showing no hepatotoxicity. When added to the yogurts it significantly enhanced their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, it did not significantly alter the nutritional or the individual fatty acid profiles of the final dairy products. Thus, A. blazei fruiting bodies that do not conform to the commercial requirements of the market and are normally discarded could be exploited for obtaining a natural high added-value food additive, following the circular bioeconomy concept.

  3. Wild blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients produced by three drying methods: Comparative physico-chemical properties, phytochemical content, and stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Roberta; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-15

    Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  5. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Statement on the safety of lacto-N-neotetraose and 2'-O-fucosyllactose as novel food ingredients in food supplements for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of lacto-N-neotetraose and 2'‑O-fucosyllactose as novel food ingredients in food supplements for children (excluding infants...... of 1.5 g for LNnT and 3 g for 2’-FL for children (4–18 years of age). In this scientific assessment, maximum daily intakes from food supplements for toddlers, children and teenagers are presented and two scenarios are calculated in which the maximum daily intakes from food supplements are added...... in intake levels which were reported to cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms in adults....

  7. 77 FR 26706 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. Under this proposal, new uses of these substances in meat or poultry products would continue to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  8. 78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is amending the Federal meat and poultry products... substances that the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. New uses of these substances in...

  9. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  10. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... mammalian cells. (See discussion at 71 FR 47729 at 47730). As such, traditional animal testing of the... 51758 at 51759, August 25, 2000). Suitability relates to the effectiveness of the ingredient in... additive be shown to be safe prior to marketing. Under Sec. 170.3(i), a food additive is ``safe'' if...

  11. A Quantitative ADME-base Tool for Exploring Human Exposure to Consumer Product Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to a wide range of chemicals through our daily habits and routines is ubiquitous and largely unavoidable within modern society. The potential for human exposure, however, has not been quantified for the vast majority of chemicals with wide commercial use. Creative advanc...

  12. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions (DS) at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm) as compared to the larger (2.5 mm) ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides) used in the development of functional foods.

  13. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO, chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS or duodenum secretions (DS at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm as compared to the larger (2.5 mm ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides used in the development of functional foods.

  14. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  15. Comparison of protocols for measuring cosmetic ingredient distribution in human and pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstel, D; Jacques-Jamin, C; Schepky, A; Cubberley, R; Eilstein, J; Grégoire, S; Hewitt, N; Klaric, M; Rothe, H; Duplan, H

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmetics Europe Skin Bioavailability and Metabolism Task Force aims to improve the measurement and prediction of the bioavailability of topically-exposed compounds for risk assessment. Key parameters of the experimental design of the skin penetration studies were compared. Penetration studies with frozen human and pig skin were conducted in two laboratories, according to the SCCS and OECD 428 guidelines. The disposition in skin was measured 24h after finite topical doses of caffeine, resorcinol and 7-ethoxycoumarin. The bioavailability distribution in skin layers of cold and radiolabelled chemicals were comparable. Furthermore, the distribution of each chemical was comparable in human and pig skin. The protocol was reproducible across the two laboratories. There were small differences in the amount of chemical detected in the skin layers, which were attributed to differences in washing procedures and anatomical sites of the skin used. In conclusion, these studies support the use of pig skin as an alternative source of skin should the availability of human skin become a limiting factor. If radiolabelled chemicals are not available, cold chemicals can be used, provided that the influence of chemical stability, reactivity or metabolism on the experimental design and the relevance of the data obtained is considered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city.

  17. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  18. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romacho, Tania; Glosse, Philipp; Richter, Isabel; Elsen, Manuela; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; van Tol, Eric A.; Eckel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA) upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes. PMID:25629558

  19. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Romacho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes.

  20. Time for food: The impact of diet on gut microbiota and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Ju, Zhongjie; Zuo, Tao

    There is growing recognition of the role of diet on modulating the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota, which in turn influence health. Dietary ingredients and food additives have a substantial impact on the gut microbiota and hence affect human health. Updates on current understanding of the gut microbiota in diseases and metabolic disorders are addressed in this review, providing insights into how this can be transferred from bench to bench side as gut microbes are integrated with food. The potency of microbiota-targeted biomarkers as a state-of-art tool for diagnosis of diseases was also discussed, and it would instruct individuals with healthy dietary consumption. Herein, recent advances in understanding the effect of diet on gut microbiota from an ecological perspective, and how these insights might promote health by guiding development of prebiotic and probiotic strategies and functional foods, were explored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Binding to Human Serum Albumin by Spin-Labeling and EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenschild, Till; Reichenwallner, Jörg; Enkelmann, Volker; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-08-26

    Drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) has been characterized by a spin-labeling and continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectroscopic approach. Specifically, the contribution of functional groups (FGs) in a compound on its albumin-binding capabilities is quantitatively described. Molecules from different drug classes are labeled with EPR-active nitroxide radicals (spin-labeled pharmaceuticals (SLPs)) and in a screening approach CW-EPR spectroscopy is used to investigate HSA binding under physiological conditions and at varying ratios of SLP to protein. Spectral simulations of the CW-EPR spectra allow extraction of association constants (KA ) and the maximum number (n) of binding sites per protein. By comparison of data from 23 SLPs, the mechanisms of drug-protein association and the impact of chemical modifications at individual positions on drug uptake can be rationalized. Furthermore, new drug modifications with predictable protein binding tendency may be envisaged. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sensory and rheological properties of transgenically and chemically modified starch ingredients as evaluated in a food product model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmt, T.; Wischmann, Bente; Blennow, A.

    2004-01-01

    gels with a higher tendency to retrograde and a low freeze/thaw stability as compared to starches with shorter amylopectin chains and lower phosphorous content. The textural properties of the food product model prepared from genetically and chemically modified starches were characterised by sensory......Starches derived from five genetically modified potato lines, two chemically modified potato starches and two native starches from potato and maize were subjected to physical and chemical analyses and their functionality evaluated in a milk-based food product model. The transgenic starches were...... and rheological analyses. To clearly visualise the effects of the modifications, data was evaluated by radar plots and multiple regression analysis (chemometrics). Genetically modified potato starches with longer amylopectin chains and increased phosphorous content gave a more gelled and a shorter texture...

  3. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ coriander seed oil ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    were observed when feeding other vegetable oils, although not as severe as that seen for CSO. The dose level of CSO was more than a thousand fold higher than the proposed use level. In a subchronic study using 150, 450 or 1 000 mg/kg bw per day of CSO, a treatment-related effect was observed on blood......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on “coriander seed oil (CSO)” as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Petroselinic acid (PA......) is the major fatty acid in CSO. Conventional edible oil technologies are used to manufacture the NFI. The NFI is intended to be marketed as a food supplement for healthy adults, at a maximum level of 600 mg per day (i.e. 8.6 mg/kg bw per day for a 70 kg person), which would lead to significantly higher intakes...

  6. In vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, cv. Rojo Brillante) used as an ingredient in a model dairy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cayuela, Tomás; Nuño-Escobar, Beatriz; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-12-11

    Addition of persimmon fruit, which is highly rich in carotenoids, to dairy products represents an alternative to obtain functional foods. However, carotenoid bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by fat content and food composition. That is why in vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids was evaluated in persimmon-based dairy products formulated with whole (3.6% fat) or skimmed milk (0.25% fat) and different freeze-dried persimmon tissues. Unambiguous identification of seven xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide and β-cryptoxanthin) and three hydrocarbon carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene) was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase C-30 column. Total carotenoid content declined up 71% through the digestion process. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was significantly higher in dairy products formulated with whole milk than those with skimmed milk, representing a difference of more than 21% (in the formulation using persimmon whole fruit as ingredient). Furthermore, addition of whole milk to any type of persimmon tissue significantly improved the bioaccessibility of total provitamin A carotenoids, reaching the highest values (38%) with whole fruit and whole milk. The higher fat content in whole milk exerted a significant influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when using freeze-dried persimmon whole fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) has... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0103] Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption...

  8. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alimento para fins especiais: ingredientes, elaboração e aglomeração Food for special needs: ingredients, development and agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Azevedo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta enteral nutricionalmente completa, com condições ajustadas de aglomeração, visando contemplar as características físicas e químicas desejadas para esse alimento especial. MÉTODOS: Como ingredientes foram utilizados maltodextrina, óleo de canola, triglicerídios de cadeia média, goma acácia, inulina e frutooligossacarídeos, proteínas do soro de leite, isolado proteico de soja, vitaminas e minerais. Após os ajustes das quantidades e proporções dos ingredientes, a formulação foi aglomerada e submetida às análises de composição centesimal, molhabilidade, densidade aparente, atividade de água, viscosidade e cor. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se uma fórmula contendo 1kcal.mL-1, normoproteica (3,9g.100mL-1 e normolipídica (3,9g.100mL-1. Após a aglomeração da dieta, observaram-se os seguintes resultados: molhabilidade de 0,262g.s-1, densidade aparente de 0,317g.cm-3e atividade de água de 0,393. A análise de cor indicou redução da luminosidade e aumento dos parâmetros de cor a*e b*, apresentando leve variação para o vermelho e forte presença do amarelo. CONCLUSÃO: Os ingredientes empregados, e suas respectivas proporções, bem como o processo de aglomeração, possibilitaram a obtenção de um alimento para fins especiais com propriedades bioativas. O processo de aglomeração possibilitou uma dieta de fácil reconstituição e utilização através de sondas, facilitando a infusão e, consequentemente, a diminuição de intercorrências.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a nutritionally complete enteral diet, with adjusted agglomeration conditions, and determine the physical and chemical characteristics required by this special food. METHODS: The ingredients were maltodextrin, canola oil, medium-chain triglycerides, acacia gum, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, milk whey protein, soy protein isolate, vitamins and minerals. After the quantities and proportions of the ingredients were adjusted

  10. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-04

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  11. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  12. The antioxidant properties of functional food ingredients used in the production of bakery and dairy products, their impact on quality and storageability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Potoroko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of antioxidant activity (AOA food ingredients (FI containing fucoidan used as dressers bakery and dairy products, and evaluate their impact on the quality and persistence of the products. The use of FI possessing AOA in food production will ensure their functionality from the point of view of increasing the resistance of the body to noninfectious diseases. Objects of research were fucoidan from different manufacturers, as well as experimental samples of bread wheat and yoghurt-based products restored dry milk. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of FI based on fucoidan showed that the total concentration of antioxidants varies in significant range from (43,32 ± 0,2 to (69,17 ± 0,2 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g was Also determined the effect of any FI on the organoleptic and physico-chemical quality parameters of bread and yogurt product in storage. The use of FI in the technology of bread contributes to the prolongation of periods of storage. Thus the deviation values increased humidity decreases by 1.3%, porosity – by 1.4%. In addition, we studied the temperature stability of fucoidan after baking bread. The residual content of his made up 0,196 ± 0.0015 mg/g when introducing 0.2 g. study of the effect of FI with fucoidan on the inhibition of the processes of molding bread confirmed the strong bactericidal properties of fucoidans, due to the high AOA. During storage of yoghurt for 120 hours was observed decrease in the activity of capacity operated of acidity that may be due to the action of FI.

  13. Ultra-processed foods in human health: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Michael J; Forde, Ciarán G; Mullally, Deirdre; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-09-01

    The NOVA classification of foods proposes 4 categories: unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFDs). It is argued that the latter relies heavily on modifications to foods, resulting in enhanced amounts of salt, added sugar, and fat as well as the use of additives in an attempt to make this food category highly palatable. It further argues that controlling food processing, rather than examining nutrients, should be foremost in shaping nutrition policy. This commentary challenges many of the basic arguments of using the NOVA food classification system to examine the link between food and health. We believe that there is no evidence to uphold the view that UPFDs give rise to hyperpalatable foods associated with a quasi-addictive effect and that the prevailing European Union and US data fail to uphold the assertion that UPFDs, which dominate energy intake, give rise to dietary patterns that are low in micronutrients. With regard to the use of the NOVA food classification in the development of food-based dietary guidelines, we show that the very broad definition of UPFDs makes this impossible. Finally, the available evidence does not support the view that the globalization of food is the driver of increased intakes of UPFDs in low- to middle-income countries but rather that this is driven by small indigenous companies. On balance, therefore, there seems to be little advantage from the use of the NOVA classification compared with the current epidemiologic approach, which relies on the linkage of nutrient intakes to chronic disease with subsequent identification of foods that merit consideration in public health nutrition strategies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0853] Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium... dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) as an antimicrobial agent for use in wash water for fruits and vegetables...

  15. On the human ethology of food sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefenhövel Wulf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares various explanatory concepts of food sharing in humans. In many animal species, parents share food with their offspring, thus investing into the 50% of their own genes present in each child. Even in modern families of industrialised societies, there is a very significant flow of material goods from the parent to the offspring generation. Sharing food between reproductive partners is also easily explainable in evolutionary terms: „food for sex“ as male strategy is observed in some primate species. Sharing within one’s group in small-scale societies can be explained also as consequence of its members being actually rather closely related to each other; this, among others, gives credit to the concept of group selection which gains attention again after having been discarded by classic sociobiology. The ethos of individual and group sharing can quite readily be transferred to larger groups, i.e. a whole nation or, especially in the case of unusually devastating natural disasters, to members of other societies. Food sharing beyond genetic relationship or reproductive interest has been explained as „tit for tat“ and „reciprocal altruism“. Events of give and take, however, are, how the last example demonstrates, quite often non-symmetrical, i.e. one partner shares much more than the other. „Tolerated theft“, a behavioural trait in non-human primate species thought to be a stepping stone for the typical preparedness of humans to share, does not play a big role in traditional societies, which provide an important base to discuss the topic. The Trobriand Islanders, e.g., have a very complex system of sharing. In the years of competitive harvest, their yield of yam is distributed to close relatives, especially to fathers and elder brothers. The donors keep almost nothing for themselves, are however given as well, so that everybody has enough to live. High rank men receive a partly enormous surplus, by which their

  16. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  17. Critical review of public health regulations of titanium dioxide, a human food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165050000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. © 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  18. Critical Review of Public Health Regulations of Titanium Dioxide, a Human Food Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165 050 000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:10–20. © 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25091211

  19. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely

  20. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  1. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Detecção e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos e ingredientes alimentares Detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms in food and food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O cumprimento da legislação que regulamenta a comercialização de alimentos e ingredientes contendo Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGMs é totalmente dependente da sensibilidade e confiabilidade dos métodos de detecção e quantificação de OGMs. Na presente revisão, foram discutidos os métodos mais relevantes para tais fins, especialmente aqueles que se baseiam na detecção da proteína ou do DNA recombinante, destacando as suas principais propriedades, limitações e vantagens. A regulamentação e algumas sugestões de métodos alternativos para a detecção de OGMs também são abordadas.The enforcement of legislation that regulates the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food and food ingredients is totally dependent on the sensitivity and reliability of the GMO testing methods. In this review, the most relevant methods such as recombinant proteins or DNA-based methods were discussed, emphasizing their main properties, limitations and advantages. The regulamentation and some suggestions of alternative methods for the detection of GMOs were also discussed.

  3. The Gut Microbiota, Food Science, and Human Nutrition: A Timely Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Michael J; Lebrilla, Carlito; Shapiro, Howard-Yana; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-09

    Analytic advances are enabling more precise definitions of the molecular composition of key food staples incorporated into contemporary diets and how the nutrient landscapes of these staples vary as a function of cultivar and food processing methods. This knowledge, combined with insights about the interrelationship between consumer microbiota configurations and biotransformation of food ingredients, should have a number of effects on agriculture, food production, and strategies for improving the nutritional value of foods and health status. These effects include decision-making about which cultivars of current or future food staples to incorporate into existing and future food systems, and which components of waste streams from current or future food manufacturing processes have nutritional value that is worth capturing. They can also guide which technologies should be applied, or need to be developed, to produce foods that support efficient microbial biotransformation of their ingredients into metabolic products that sustain health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzogara, S G

    2000-05-01

    Genetic engineering of food is the science which involves deliberate modification of the genetic material of plants or animals. It is an old agricultural practice carried on by farmers since early historical times, but recently it has been improved by technology. Many foods consumed today are either genetically modified (GM) whole foods, or contain ingredients derived from gene modification technology. Billions of dollars in U.S. food exports are realized from sales of GM seeds and crops. Despite the potential benefits of genetic engineering of foods, the technology is surrounded by controversy. Critics of GM technology include consumer and health groups, grain importers from European Union (EU) countries, organic farmers, environmentalists, concerned scientists, ethicists, religious rights groups, food advocacy groups, some politicians and trade protectionists. Some of the specific fears expressed by opponents of GM technology include alteration in nutritional quality of foods, potential toxicity, possible antibiotic resistance from GM crops, potential allergenicity and carcinogenicity from consuming GM foods. In addition, some more general concerns include environmental pollution, unintentional gene transfer to wild plants, possible creation of new viruses and toxins, limited access to seeds due to patenting of GM food plants, threat to crop genetic diversity, religious, cultural and ethical concerns, as well as fear of the unknown. Supporters of GM technology include private industries, research scientists, some consumers, U.S. farmers and regulatory agencies. Benefits presented by proponents of GM technology include improvement in fruit and vegetable shelf-life and organoleptic quality, improved nutritional quality and health benefits in foods, improved protein and carbohydrate content of foods, improved fat quality, improved quality and quantity of meat, milk and livestock. Other potential benefits are: the use of GM livestock to grow organs for transplant

  5. Inhibition of 5α-Reductase, IL-6 Secretion, and Oxidation Process of Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Extract as Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantida Chaiyana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of Equisetum debile extracts, including 5α-reductase inhibition, interleukin-6 (IL-6 secretion reduction, and anti-oxidation. E. debile extracts were obtained by maceration in various solvents. Crude extract (CE was obtained by maceration in 95% ethanol. Chlorophyll-free extract (CF was the CE which of the chlorophyll has been removed by electrocoagulation. Hexane extract (HE, ethyl acetate extract (EA, and ethanolic extract (ET were fraction extracts obtained from maceration in hexane, ethyl acetate, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The extracts were investigated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase and IL-6 secretion. Total phenolic contents (TPC were investigated and antioxidant activities were determined by means of 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on dermal papilla cells and irritation test by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay were also investigated. All extracts could inhibit 5α-reductase and decrease IL-6 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. The antioxidant activity of E. debile extracts was directly related to their TPC. ET which contained the highest TPC (68.8 ± 6.7 mg GA/g showed the highest equivalent concentration (EC1 of 289.1 ± 26.4 mM FeSO4/g, TEAC of 156.6 ± 34.6 mM Trolox/g, and 20.0 ± 6.0% DPPH inhibition. However, EA exhibited the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation (57.2 ± 0.4%. In addition, EA showed no cytotoxicity on dermal papilla cell line and no irritation on chorioallantoic membrane of hen’s eggs. In conclusion, EA was suggested as the most attractive ingredients for functional food and nutraceuticals because of the high inhibitory activity against 5

  6. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM plants for food use might have the potential to provide benefits in food quality, nutrition, health and environment, GM plants need additional considerations related with biosafety. Despite there is not evidence that GM foods are more dangerous to human health than conventional food it is necessary to test GM food following the best scientific methodology available. This review focuses on the potential effects that GM food might have on human health.

  7. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  8. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  9. Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    In April 2009, EFSA published on its website a Compendium of botanicals reported to contain toxic, addictive, psychotropic or other substances of concern. The purpose of the Compendium is to assist risk assessors responsible for the evaluation of specific ingredients in food supplements, in more...... one lists botanicals for which, although some data were available, the Scientific Committee could not identify substances of concern, or other reasons for the inclusion in the compendium. This new “Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human...... health” replaces the first version published in 2009; it lists in alphabetical order botanicals without any judgment on whether they are suitable or not suitable for food applications in Europe; it has no legal or regulatory force pertaining to the legal classification of products or substances....

  10. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  11. Oral tolerance induction for human food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jae Ho

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies are classified as IgE-mediated and non-IgE mediated type. The number of successful reports of immunotherapy, namely tolerance induction for food allergy (TIFA) are increasing, bringing hope for meaningful positive and radical treatment of food allergy. Therapeutic characteristics of the clinical course in TIFA for NFA are different from TIFA for IFA. Cytokines including IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ and regulatory cells such as Treg and Breg, are involved in immune tolerance. IFN-γ has been used for tolerance induction of food allergy as an immunomodulatory biologics. A definitive distinction between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies is absolutely essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Original SOTI using IFN-γ is more effective then conventional SOTI without IFN-γ. Especially, IFN-γ is absolutely necessary for the tolerance induction of NFA. This review highlights and updates the advances in the conceptual immunological background and the clinical characteristics of oral tolerance induction for food allergy.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Processing Facilities, Food Contamination, and Human Listeriosis: The Brazilian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Woodward, Joshua John; Call, Douglas Ruben; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that contaminates food-processing environments and persists within biofilms on equipment, utensils, floors, and drains, ultimately reaching final products by cross-contamination. This pathogen grows even under high salt conditions or refrigeration temperatures, remaining viable in various food products until the end of their shelf life. While the estimated incidence of listeriosis is lower than other enteric illnesses, infections caused by L. monocytogenes are more likely to lead to hospitalizations and fatalities. Despite the description of L. monocytogenes occurrence in Brazilian food-processing facilities and foods, there is a lack of consistent data regarding listeriosis cases and outbreaks directly associated with food consumption. Listeriosis requires rapid treatment with antibiotics and most drugs suitable for Gram-positive bacteria are effective against L. monocytogenes. Only a minority of clinical antibiotic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains have been described so far; whereas many strains recovered from food-processing facilities and foods exhibited resistance to antimicrobials not suitable against listeriosis. L. monocytogenes control in food industries is a challenge, demanding proper cleaning and application of sanitization procedures to eliminate this foodborne pathogen from the food-processing environment and ensure food safety. This review focuses on presenting the L. monocytogenes distribution in food-processing environment, food contamination, and control in the food industry, as well as the consequences of listeriosis to human health, providing a comparison of the current Brazilian situation with the international scenario.

  13. Traditional Galactagogue Foods and Their Connection to Human Milk Volume in Thai Breastfeeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntuchai, Ganokwun; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

    2017-08-01

    Thai traditional galactagogue consumption is still observed today. However, there are few scientific studies that describe this practice. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the connection between traditional galactagogue consumption and human milk volume. Self-reported maternal surveys ( N = 36) were conducted of mothers and their infants who breastfeed exclusively. The mothers were interviewed about traditional galactagogue consumption and intake of protein-rich foods using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. They were also assessed for energy and nutrient intake using the 24-hr dietary recall method. Their infants were between 1 and 3 months of age and were test weighed for 24 hr to measure their mother's own milk volume. Partial correlation was used to test the relationship between galactagogue consumption and milk volume by controlling the infants' birth weight, weight-for-age, maternal energy, and carbohydrate intake. The results revealed that consumption of some traditional galactagogues was significantly correlated to human milk volume, including banana flower, lemon basil, Thai basil, bottle gourd, and pumpkin ( p traditional galactagogues and proteins are associated with human milk volume. However, studies related to the active ingredients in these galactagogues are required to secure a recommendation about use of traditional galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers.

  14. Habituation as a Determinant of Human Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a…

  15. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-08-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum ( S. marianum ) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone.

  16. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  17. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2004-F-0069... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... radiation in the production of shelf stable foods, including multiple ingredient shelf stable foods. FOR...

  18. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  19. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed...... benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management.......This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions...

  20. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “citicoline” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    level of 500 mg/day, and in foods for particular nutritional uses, specifically foods for special medical purposes, at a maximum level of 250 mg/serving, and with a maximum daily intake from these types of foods of 1 000 mg/day. Citicoline is readily hydrolysed on ingestion, breaking down to choline...

  2. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.; Komitopoulou, E.; Betts, R.; Beckers, H.; Bourdichon, F.; Joosten, H.; Fanning, S.; ter Kuile, B.

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that the additional information provided does not contain evidence thath would modify its previous conclusions regarding the effects of CLA on insulin sensitivity/glucose metabolism, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, or subclinical inflammation. The Panel also considers that the new studies provided do not address......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... uses and daily doses for up to six months. The safety of CLA consumption for periods longer than six months has not been established under the proposed conditions of use. The safety of CLA consumption by type-2 diabetic subjects has not been established. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use for DHA and EPA-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on an extension of use for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a novel food...... population, excluding pregnant and lactating women. In a previous opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of EPA, DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the Panel concluded that supplemental intake of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, does not give rise to safety concerns for adults. Based...... ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is already authorised for use in a range of foodstuffs at specified maximum levels. The applicant requests an extension of use of the NFI in food supplements up to a maximum DHA and EPA content of 3 g per daily dose for the adult...

  5. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  6. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  7. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  8. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  9. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brennan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind—food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world’s population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...

  10. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  11. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. (a) Heretofore, the...

  12. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  13. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  14. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  15. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  16. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrankel, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  18. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hung; Huang, Kao-Jean; Weng, Ching-Feng; Shiuan, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR). The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening.

  19. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Hung Lin,1 Kao-Jean Huang,1,2 Ching-Feng Weng,1 David Shiuan1 1Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Development Center of Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR. The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening. Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, virtual screening, curcumin, salvianolic acid C

  20. Nutritional Sustainability of Pet Foods12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Yount, Tracy P.; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  1. The gourmet ape: evolution and human food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, John R

    2009-09-01

    This review explores the relation between evolution, ecology, and culture in determining human food preferences. The basic physiology and morphology of Homo sapiens sets boundaries to our eating habits, but within these boundaries human food preferences are remarkably varied, both within and between populations. This does not mean that variation is entirely cultural or learned, because genes and culture may coevolve to determine variation in dietary habits. This coevolution has been well elucidated in some cases, such as lactose tolerance (lactase persistence) in adults, but is less well understood in others, such as in favism in the Mediterranean and other regions. Genetic variation in bitter taste sensitivity has been well documented, and it affects food preferences (eg, avoidance of cruciferous vegetables). The selective advantage of this variation is not clear. In African populations, there is an association between insensitivity to bitter taste and the prevalence of malaria, which suggests that insensitivity may have been selected for in regions in which eating bitter plants would confer some protection against malaria. Another, more general, hypothesis is that variation in bitter taste sensitivity has coevolved with the use of spices in cooking, which, in turn, is thought to be a cultural tradition that reduces the dangers of microbial contamination of food. Our evolutionary heritage of food preferences and eating habits leaves us mismatched with the food environments we have created, which leads to problems such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan W; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

  3. Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Cava, Edda; Edda, Cava; Paolini, Maddalena; Maddalena, Paolini; Scavone, Luciano; Luciano, Scavone; Ceccarelli, Paola; Paola, Ceccarelli; Castellaneta, Emanuela; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Savina, Claudia; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-10-01

    This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 8 week trial assessed the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by a consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, capsaicins, piperine and L-carnitine) versus a placebo, as part of a therapeutic 'lifestyle change' diet, in 86 overweight subjects. Forty-one patients (2/14 F/M; age 43.7 ± 8.5; BMI 30.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the supplemented group and 45 (29/16; age 40.7 ± 10.2; BMI 30.0 ± 2.7) to the control group. We observed that consumption of the dietary supplement was associated with a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, assessed by homostasis model assessment (p < 0.001), leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.04), respiratory quotient (p < 0.008). LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01). Moreover, statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups in relation to urinary norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). Leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group (p < 0.05, 0.03, 0.02 and 0,02 respectively), but not in the placebo group; adiponectin decreased significantly in the placebo group (0.001) but not in the supplemented group, although no statistical significance between the groups was elicited. BMI, fat mass (assessed by DXA) and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly decreased, whilst the resting energy expenditure/free fat mass significantly increased in both groups. In general, a greater change was recorded in the supplemented group compared to the placebo, although no statistically significant difference between the two groups was recorded. These results suggest that the combination of bioactive food ingredients studied might be useful for the treatment of obesity-related inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions.

  4. Human body as a food for sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luiz de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article depicts a theoretical walk, based on a historical and cultural narrative, that presents the body as a central element in the formatting and construction of human sexuality. Such walk intuits to show some projections, thoughts and materialization which ascertained the physical beauty as a promoter of desires, intentions and erotic feelings, in favor of an announced sexuality and common sense as ideal. The objective was also discuss, how the physical body aesthetic has been the driving force for configuring standard discourses on sexuality, distorting the idea that only the similar bodies to the hegemonic body models can be considered as object of desire, pleasure, and sexual and erotic practices. Finally, it learns that the body can also be admitted as an instrument to subvert the predetermined logic that body, beauty and sexual practices appear to form a triad in favor of the myth of perfect or performative sexuality. As the bodies (all of them has been recognized by the community as promoters of pleasures, desires and foundation for effective practices and sexual/erotic routines, regardless of their physiological, anatomical and aesthetic formatting.

  5. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  6. Biotransformation of Food Dyes by Human Intestinal Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of food dyes (Tartrazine and Quinoline yellow) by Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal microflora was investigated. Decolourisation of the media containing the dyes was used as an index of biotransformation. Biotransformation was higher under aerobic than under ...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety of cranberry extract powder as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    concentrate through an ethanolic extraction using an adsorptive resin column to retain the phenolic components. The Panel considers that the production process is sufficiently described and does not raise concerns about the safety of the novel food. The NF is intended to be added to beverages and yogurts...... to provide 80 mg PACs per serving. The target population is the adult general population. The mean and 95th percentile estimates for the all-user intakes from all proposed food-uses are 68 and 192 mg/day, respectively, for female adults, and 74 mg/day and 219 mg/day, respectively, for male adults. Taking......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on ‘cranberry extract powder’ as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council...

  8. Sinapinic and protocatechuic acids found in rapeseed: isolation, characterisation and potential benefits for human health as functional food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Leah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the world’s major oilseeds, and rapeseed oil is produced by pressing of the seeds. This process results in the production of a low-economic-value by-product, rapeseed meal, which is commonly used as animal feed. Rapeseed meal is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, including sinapinic acid (SA and protocatechuic acid (PCA. Isolation of these bioactive compounds from a by-product of rapeseed oil production is largely in agreement with the current concept of the circular economy and total utilisation of crop harvest using a biorefinery approach. In this review, current information concerning traditional and novel methods to isolate phenolic compounds – including SA and PCA – from rapeseed meal, along with in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the bioactivity of SA and PCA and their associated health effects, is collated. These health effects include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes activities, along with histone deacetylase inhibition and protective cardiovascular, neurological and hepatic effects. The traditional extraction methods include use of solvents and/or enzymes. However, a need for simpler, more efficient methodologies has led to the development of novel extraction processes, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, pulsed electric field and high-voltage electrical discharge extraction processes.

  9. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. In vitro bactericidal and bacteriostatic potential of ingredients of traditional medicine obtained from Kacha area (river indus) district D.I. Khan, KPK, against human bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants obtained from kacha area of river indus, that are used as ingredients of traditional medicine for treatment of multiple infectious diseases. The antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of 5 medicinal plants of a traditional medicine were evaluated against 6 human gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcos luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae) pathogens. The disc diffusion and broth macro dilution assay was used to determine the zone of inhibitions and the minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. The ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were used as standard agents. Both aqueous and methanol fractions of all 5 tested plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active extract found wasAzadirachta indica leaves which represented widest zone of inhibition of 16(+- 0.05) mm and minimum inhibitory concentration 0.19mg/ml against Klebsie-lla pneumoniae. Calotropis procera leaves was found least active representing lowest Zones of inhibition 3.13(+- 0.05) mm and highest minimum inhibitory concentration value (20mg/ml) against test microorganisms. Over all methanol fractions of medicinal plants represented stronger biological activity against test microorganisms than aqueous extracts. A good majority of extracts were bactericidal. These results afford the ground information for potential use of crude extracts with high MIC and MBC values. Moreover a synergistic effect is expected when used in combination. For this further attempt are in progress to investigate antimicrobial potential of combination medicine. (author)

  11. Silver Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS™) as a Valid Active Ingredient into a Novel Vaginal Gel against Human Vaginal Pathogens: In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianelli, Cinzia; Petrucci, Paola; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Calderini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the antimicrobial properties of a novel octasilver salt of Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS) as well as of an innovative vaginal gel containing IASOS (SilSOS Femme), against bacterial and yeast pathogens isolated from human clinical cases of symptomatic vaginal infections. In BHI and LAPT culture media, different ionic silver concentrations and different pHs were tested. IASOS exerted a strong antimicrobial activity towards all the pathogens tested in both culture media. The results demonstrated that salts and organic compounds present in the culture media influenced IASOS efficacy only to a moderate extent. Whereas comparable MBCs (Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations) were observed for G. vaginalis (10 mg/L Ag+), E. coli and E. aerogenes (25 mg/L Ag+) in both media, higher MBCs were found for S. aureus and S. agalactiae in LAPT cultures (50 mg/L Ag+ versus 25 mg/L Ag+). No minimal concentration totally inhibiting the growth of C. albicans was found. Nevertheless, in both media at the highest ionic silver concentrations (50–200 mg/L Ag+), a significant 34–52% drop in Candida growth was observed. pH differently affected the antimicrobial properties of IASOS against bacteria or yeasts; however, a stronger antimicrobial activity at pH higher than the physiological pH was generally observed. It can be therefore concluded that IASOS exerts a bactericidal action against all the tested bacteria and a clear fungistatic action against C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the whole vaginal gel SilSOS Femme further confirmed the antimicrobial activity of IASOS. Overall, our findings support IASOS as a valid active ingredient into a vaginal gel. PMID:24897299

  12. Silver sucrose octasulfate (IASOS™ as a valid active ingredient into a novel vaginal gel against human vaginal pathogens: in vitro antimicrobial activity assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Marianelli

    Full Text Available This in vitro study assessed the antimicrobial properties of a novel octasilver salt of Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS as well as of an innovative vaginal gel containing IASOS (SilSOS Femme, against bacterial and yeast pathogens isolated from human clinical cases of symptomatic vaginal infections. In BHI and LAPT culture media, different ionic silver concentrations and different pHs were tested. IASOS exerted a strong antimicrobial activity towards all the pathogens tested in both culture media. The results demonstrated that salts and organic compounds present in the culture media influenced IASOS efficacy only to a moderate extent. Whereas comparable MBCs (Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations were observed for G. vaginalis (10 mg/L Ag+, E. coli and E. aerogenes (25 mg/L Ag+ in both media, higher MBCs were found for S. aureus and S. agalactiae in LAPT cultures (50 mg/L Ag+ versus 25 mg/L Ag+. No minimal concentration totally inhibiting the growth of C. albicans was found. Nevertheless, in both media at the highest ionic silver concentrations (50-200 mg/L Ag+, a significant 34-52% drop in Candida growth was observed. pH differently affected the antimicrobial properties of IASOS against bacteria or yeasts; however, a stronger antimicrobial activity at pH higher than the physiological pH was generally observed. It can be therefore concluded that IASOS exerts a bactericidal action against all the tested bacteria and a clear fungistatic action against C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the whole vaginal gel SilSOS Femme further confirmed the antimicrobial activity of IASOS. Overall, our findings support IASOS as a valid active ingredient into a vaginal gel.

  13. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggitt, P R; Jaykus, L A

    2000-12-01

    Although viral foodborne disease is a significant problem, foods are rarely tested for viral contamination, and when done, testing is limited to shellfish commodities. In this work, we report a method to extract and detect human enteric viruses from alternative food commodities using an elution-concentration approach followed by detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. To reduce volumes further and remove RT-PCR inhibitors, a secondary PEG precipitation was necessary, resulting in an overall 10- to 20-fold sample size reduction from 50 g to 3 to 5 ml. Virus recoveries in secondary PEG concentrates ranged from 10 to 70% for PV1 and 2 to 4% for HAV as evaluated by mammalian cell culture infectivity assay. Total RNA from PEG concentrates was extracted to a small volume (30 to 40 microl) and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA sequences. Detection limit studies indicated that viral RNA was consistently detected by RT-PCR at initial inoculum levels > or =102 PFU/50-g food sample for PV1 and > or =10(3) PFU/50-g food sample for HAV. In similar studies with the Norwalk virus, detection at inoculum levels > or =1.5 X 10(3) PCR-amplifiable units/50-g sample for both food products was possible. All RT-PCR amplicons were confirmed by subsequent Southern hybridization. The procedure reported represents progress toward the development of methods to detect human enteric viral contamination in foods other than shellfish.

  14. [The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders.

  15. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  16. Insects as human food; from farm to fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Leah Wilson; Pieterse, Elsje; Sigge, Gunnar; Hoffman, Louw Christiaan

    2017-12-30

    Over the course of the last few years, the consumption of insects, known as entomophagy, has sparked increasing interest amongst scientists and environmentalists as a potential solution to the inevitable global food security and sustainability issues humans will be facing in the coming years. Despite the fact that insects have been an integral part of over 2 billion people's diet worldwide, the concept of eating insects is still new to Western culture. As a result, there are many unknowns regarding insects as a food source, and this has led to a number of studies and investigations being done in recent years to create more knowledge and awareness around this new concept in the food industry. This review discusses some of the key topics and new developments published over recent years, such as the nutritional benefits, food safety concerns, functional properties, potential product concepts and the current ideas and attitudes towards insects as a food source in Western culture. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds induced in human lymphocytes by the fungicide signum and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çayır, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Coskun, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the Signum fungicide and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear bud (NBUDs) formations, and the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) were evaluated in treated lymphocytes in Go (cells were treated and then kept in culture without stimulation for 24 h) and proliferation phases (cells were treated after 44 h culture in medium containing phytohemagglutinin). MN formation in lymphocytes treated in G0 statistically increased at doses of 2, 6, and 25 μg/mL signum; 0.5 and 2 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.5, 1.5, and 2 μg/mL pyraclostrobin; while NPB formation increased at a dose of 0.25 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. All concentrations of each fungicide did not statistically increase NBUD formation, while the cytotoxicity increased the dependent on concentration in lymphocytes treated in G0 . Doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 μg/mL signum; 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin statistically increased the MN formation in proliferating lymphocytes. NPB formation increased in proliferating lymphocytes at doses of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/mL signum and at a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. In addition, a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin increased NBUD frequencies. Cytotoxicity increased with increasing concentrations of each fungicide. It is concluded that signum, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin may be genotoxic and cytotoxic in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in consideration of each of the two protocols. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 723-732, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  18. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  19. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments... food for human or animal consumption. As required by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), FDA... provide procedures for administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the...

  20. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... associated with specific types of food or specific methods of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding... specific methods of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food. In particular, we welcome input on... controls (e.g., procedures and practices utilized to minimize the risk of contamination) for human food and...

  1. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  2. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  3. Cyclodextrins in Food Technology and Human Nutrition: Benefits and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, É; Vikmon, M; Szente, L

    2016-09-09

    Cyclodextrins are tasteless, odorless, nondigestible, noncaloric, noncariogenic saccharides, which reduce the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids. They have low glycemic index and decrease the glycemic index of the food. They are either non- or only partly digestible by the enzymes of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and fermented by the gut microflora. Based on these properties, cyclodextrins are dietary fibers useful for controlling the body weight and blood lipid profile. They are prebiotics, improve the intestinal microflora by selective proliferation of bifidobacteria. These antiobesity and anti-diabetic effects make them bioactive food supplements and nutraceuticals. In this review, these features are evaluated for α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins, which are the cyclodextrin variants approved by authorities for food applications. The mechanisms behind these effects are reviewed together with the applications as solubilizers, stabilizers of dietary lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids and other nutraceuticals. The recent applications of cyclodextrins for reducing unwanted components, such as trans-fats, allergens, mycotoxins, acrylamides, bitter compounds, as well as in smart active packaging of foods are also overviewed.

  4. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...

  5. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  6. Complete genes may pass from food to human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spisák, Sándor; Solymosi, Norbert; Ittzés, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded...... into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal......-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly...

  7. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-contact animal foods, and the interpretation of test results, when the presence of Salmonella spp. in the... eggs) and direct-human-contact animal foods, and the interpretation of test results, when the presence... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0091...

  8. HPLC-UV Analysis Coupled with Chemometry to Identify Phenolic Biomarkers from Medicinal Plants, used as Ingredients in Two Food Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Maria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection is nowadays the reference method to identify and quantify the biomarkers of quality and authenticity of plants and food supplements. Seven medicinal plants were collected from wild flora: Taraxacum officinalis (1, Cynara scolimus (2, Silybum marianum (3, Hypericum perforatum (4,  Chelidonium majus (5, Lycopodium clavatum (6 and  Hippophae rhamnoides (7  leaves and fruits.  Two products (A and B were obtained by mixing individual plant powders. Therefore product A was obtained by mixing dandelion, artichoke and milk thistle, 1:1:1 while product B by mixing St John’s wort, Celandine and Wolf’s claw, 1:1:1. The methanolic extracts of individual plants as well as three different extracts of products A and B (using acidulated water, neutral water and acidulated methanol were analyzed using HPLC-UV for their phenolics’ fingerprint and composition. The qualitative (untargeted analysis and quantitative (targeted analysis results were further compared using Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to identify their specific biomarkers. Thus, quantitative evaluation of individual phenolics in case of individual plants and products A and B extracts, showed specific and significant differences of composition. Both products A and B contained elagic acid as major compound. For product A, good biomarkers were trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, as well silymarin and silibine originating from milk thistle. For product B, good biomarkers were quercetin and kaempherol, gallic and protocatecuic acids, this product being rich in flavonoids. In conclusion, HPLC-UV coupled with PCA analysis proved to be a rapid and useful way to identify the main biomarkers of plants’ authentication, as well of final products’ quality and safety.

  9. Acute effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1, free fatty acids, and glycerol following consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Edda, Cava; Maddalena, Paolini; Luciano, Scavone; Paola, Ceccarelli; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-01-01

    A combination of bioactive food ingredients (capsaicinoids, epigallocatechin gallate, piperin, and l-carnitine, CBFI) may promote satiety and thermogenesis. The study was conducted in order to assess whether there is any effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol release, following a standardized mixed meal with or without single consumption of a CBFI. An 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dietetic and Metabolic Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, University of Pavia and "Villa delle Querce" Clinical Rehabilitation Institute, Rome, Italy. Thirty-seven overweight adults (body mass index [BMI]: 25-35). Nineteen overweight subjects were included in the supplemented group (14 women, 5 men; age 46.4 ± 6.4; BMI: 30.5 ± 3.3) and 18 in the placebo group (13 women, 5 men; age 40.8 ± 11.5; BMI: 30.1 ± 2.6). Satiety was assessed using 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) and the area under the curve was calculated. All measured parameters increased significantly in comparison with baseline in response to meal, both with CBFI and with placebo. However, throughout the study day, the supplemented group experienced a significantly greater increase than the placebo group in their sensation of satiety following acute administration of the supplement. CBFI may therefore be of great value in the treatment of overweight patients by increasing satiety and stimulating thermogenesis.

  10. Attributing human foodborne illness to food sources and water in Latin America and the Caribbean using data from outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vieira, Antonio; Perez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    &C). Foods implicated in outbreaks were classified by their ingredients as simple foods (i.e. belonging to one single food category), or complex foods (i.e. belonging to multiple food categories). For each agent, the data from simple-food outbreaks were summarized, and the proportion of outbreaks caused...... by each category was used to define the probability that an outbreak was caused by a source. For the calculation of the number of outbreaks attributed to each source, simple-food outbreaks were attributed to the single food category in question, and complex-food outbreaks were partitioned to each category......Foodborne pathogens are responsible for an increasing burden of disease worldwide. Knowledge on the contribution of different food sources and water for disease is essential to prioritize food safety interventions and implement appropriate control measures. Source attribution using outbreak data...

  11. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  12. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  13. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  14. 31 CFR 585.521 - Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of food to relieve human... Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by.... (b) In general, specific licenses will only be granted for donations of food to be provided through...

  15. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  16. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-01-01

    Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate...

  17. Innovative natural functional ingredients from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Merichel; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2009-08-26

    Nowadays, a wide variety of compounds such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or phytosterols obtained, for example, from wine, fish byproducts, or plants are employed to prepare new functional foods. However, unexplored natural sources of bioactive ingredients are gaining much attention since they can lead to the discovery of new compounds or bioactivities. Microalgae have been proposed as an interesting, almost unlimited, natural source in the search for novel natural functional ingredients, and several works have shown the possibility to find bioactive compounds in these organisms. Some advantages can be associated with the study of microalgae such as their huge diversity, the possibility of being used as natural reactors at controlled conditions, and their ability to produce active secondary metabolites to defend themselves from adverse or extreme conditions. In this contribution, an exhaustive revision is presented involving the research for innovative functional food ingredients from microalgae. The most interesting results in this promising field are discussed including new species composition and bioactivity and new processing and extraction methods. Moreover, the future research trends are critically commented.

  18. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J.; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-01-01

    , current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

  19. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    , current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

  20. Peanuts as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of the peanut plant have long been prized for their pleasant roasted flavor and well as their significant contents of high quality protein and favorable lipid profiles. They are widely grown in the US from Virginia, across the south and as far west as California. At present, they represe...

  1. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food...

  2. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin, -ca...

  3. Consumer product chemical weight fractions from ingredient lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing human exposures to chemicals in consumer products requires composition information. However, comprehensive composition data for products in commerce are not generally available. Many consumer products have reported ingredient lists that are constructed using specific gu...

  4. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-12-01

    To investigate consumption of ultra-processed products in Canada and to assess their association with dietary quality. Application of a classification of foodstuffs based on the nature, extent and purpose of food processing to data from a national household food budget survey. Foods are classified as unprocessed/minimally processed foods (Group 1), processed culinary ingredients (Group 2) or ultra-processed products (Group 3). All provinces and territories of Canada, 2001. Households (n 5643). Food purchases provided a mean per capita energy availability of 8908 (se 81) kJ/d (2129 (se 19) kcal/d). Over 61·7 % of dietary energy came from ultra-processed products (Group 3), 25·6 % from Group 1 and 12·7 % from Group 2. The overall diet exceeded WHO upper limits for fat, saturated fat, free sugars and Na density, with less fibre than recommended. It also exceeded the average energy density target of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Group 3 products taken together are more fatty, sugary, salty and energy-dense than a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 items. Only the 20 % lowest consumers of ultra-processed products (who consumed 33·2 % of energy from these products) were anywhere near reaching all nutrient goals for the prevention of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases. The 2001 Canadian diet was dominated by ultra-processed products. As a group, these products are unhealthy. The present analysis indicates that any substantial improvement of the diet would involve much lower consumption of ultra-processed products and much higher consumption of meals and dishes prepared from minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients.

  5. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base.

  6. Ingredients for sustained excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Alikhan, S.; Steed, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Point Lepreau, a 680MWe CANDU reactor, has, since startup, been one of the world's best performing reactors. Many of the ingredients for this success can be found at other plants, but Pt Lepreau has found a ''chemistry'' that has sustained its performance at a very high level. Our belief is that this is the result of two major influences: Pt Lepreau is the only nuclear unit in a small utility, all its nuclear expertise exists at the station, and all necessary disciplines can be readily galvanized to solve problems and get work done. The structure of the organization is simple, with station management involvement in day to day activities. This fosters accountability and a natural efficiency that does not need slogans to achieve its purpose. Turning to the factors that have contributed to the station's success, the IAEA's technical exchange visit in July 1990 identified four items ''which are particularly noteworthy since they can be developed and used widely in the nuclear industry to enhance safety and availability. These are: quality assurance applications; the degree to which system engineers are employed; the dedication of skilled resources to and thoroughness of outage planning; and the in-house development of computers to assist directly in the day to day, medium and long term management of the generating station''. (Author)

  7. What Is "Natural"? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Chambers, Edgar; Castro, Mauricio

    2018-04-23

    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  8. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  9. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Castro, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural. PMID:29690627

  10. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  11. Xenobiosis: foods, drugs, and poisons in the human body

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Adrien

    1987-01-01

    .... The current "bandwagon" concern with food additives is treated critically in the light of modern analytical techniques which show that most foods naturally contain many minor constituents of undefined toxicity...

  12. Multivariate representation of food preferences in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Luca; Holzer, Matthias; Mormann, Florian; Weber, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    One major goal in decision neuroscience is to investigate the neuronal mechanisms being responsible for the computation of product preferences. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether similar patterns of brain activity, reflecting category dependent and category independent preference signals, can be observed in case of different food product categories (i.e. chocolate bars and salty snacks). To that end we used a multivariate searchlight approach in which a linear support vector machine (l-SVM) was trained to distinguish preferred from non-preferred chocolate bars and subsequently tested its predictive power in case of chocolate bars (within category prediction) and salty snacks (across category prediction). Preferences were measured by a binary forced choice decision paradigm before the fMRI task. In the scanner, subjects saw only one product per trial which they had to rate after presentation. Consistent with previous multi voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) studies, we found category dependent preference signals in the ventral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but also in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Category independent preference signals were observed in the dorsal parts of mPFC, dACC, and dlPFC. While the first two results have also been reported in a closely related study, the activation in dlPFC is new in this context. We propose that the dlPFC activity does not reflect the products' value computation per se, but rather a modulatory signal which is computed in anticipation of the forthcoming product rating after stimulus presentation. Furthermore we postulate that this kind of dlPFC activation emerges only if the anticipated choices fall into the domain of primary rewards, such as foods. Thus, in contrast to previous studies which investigated preference decoding for stimuli from utterly different categories, the present study revealed some food domain specific aspects of

  13. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  14. Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Heuvel, van den E.M.; Boesveldt, S.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the

  15. Understanding complexities in coupled dynamics of human-water and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, M.; Kondal, A.; Lin, L.; Colwell, R. R.; Jutla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional premise of food security is associated with satisfying human hunger by providing sufficient calories to population. Water is the key variable associated with the growth of crops, which is then used as a metric of success for abundance of food across globe. The current framework often negates complex coupled interaction between availability of food nutrients and human well-being (such as productivity, work efficiency, low birth weight, physical and mental growth). Our analysis suggests that 1 in 3 humans suffer from malnutrition across the globe. In last five decades, most of the countries have a decreasing availability trend in at least one of the twenty-three essential food nutrients required for human well-being. We argue that food security can only be achieved if information on use of water for crops and consumption of food must include availability of nutrients for humans. Here, we propose a new concept of "consumptive nutrients" that include constant feedback mechanism between water-human and societal processes- essential for growth, distribution and consumption of food nutrients. Using Ethiopia as a signature rain-fed agricultural region, we will show how decreasing precipitation has led to an increase in crop productivity, but decreased availability of nutrients for humans. This in turn has destabilizing impact on overall regional economy. We will demonstrate why inclusion of nutrients must be a part of discussion for ensuring food security to human population.

  16. Printable food: the technology and its application in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey I

    2017-04-01

    Millions of Americans suffer from diseases and conditions that require careful control of their diet as part of treatment. The current solution is to have each person customize their own food choices. Food production automation can enable consumer specific data to be easily integrated into the food as it is being prepared. This would improve the quality and utility of the food without a cognitive burden on the consumer. 3D Printing is an ideal family of technologies for enabling such mass customization of food. Current efforts in 3D printing food are focused on improving the artistic quality of food in the short term and consumer health in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.

  18. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  19. Analyzing Human Behaviour Toward Food Waste in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Hussain, Shaema Mohd Hassan

    Food waste is a major issue in many countries due to the impact of waste on the environment and the cost of producing food and water. Food waste not only constitutes a hazard to the environment through the emission of greenhouse gases, but billions of dollars are also lost as a result of production, distribution and waste management costs. In view of this, this study examined factors that have potential to influence intent to waste food and food waste behavior among consumers in Qatar. The main objective of the study was to find a suitable model that explains food waste behavior in Qatar and compare it to an international model in order to understand region specific factors and try to replicate a hypothesized model of the causal effects of some factors (i.e., subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal attitude) on intent to waste food and food waste behavior. Three research questions were developed and answers were provided by random selection of 139 respondents from the Qatar Foundation and Georgetown University Qatar databases gathered through a survey with 139 complete questionnaires in order to test the hypothesized model, which was created based on literature. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was the main statistical tool of the investigation and was used to carry out the path analysis. The findings of the study revealed that factors, including, planning routine, Ramadan, gender task, and personal norm were strong predictors of intention to waste food and food waste behavior.

  20. Modeling Chronic Versus Acute Human Risk from Contaminants in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Jensen, Helen H.; Nusser, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of policies and regulations to address food safety concerns depends critically on appropriate assessment of health risk in foods. This paper evaluates the methods for assessing the population's exposure to a hazardous substance or contaminant in food and some aspects of the quantification of risk. We review current federal programmatic approaches to risk assessment and potential problems with these approaches. After developing procedures for estimating exposures of individuals...

  1. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A human rights approach to the health implications of food and nutrition insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Ana; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2017-01-01

    Food and nutrition insecurity continues to pose a serious global challenge, reflecting government shortcomings in meeting international obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, and quality of food and to ensure the highest attainable standard of health of their peoples. With global drivers like climate change, urbanization, greater armed conflict, and the globalization of unhealthy diet, particularly in under-resourced countries, food insecurity is rapidly becoming an even greater challenge for those living in poverty. International human rights law can serve a critical role in guiding governments that are struggling to protect the health of their populations, particularly among the most susceptible groups, in responding to food and nutrition insecurity. This article explores and advocates for a human rights approach to food and nutrition security, specifically identifying legal mechanisms to "domesticate" relevant international human rights standards through national policy. Recognizing nutrition security as a determinant of public health, this article recognizes the important links between the four main elements of food security (i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access) and the normative attributes of the right to health and the right to food (i.e., availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality). In drawing from the evolution of international human rights instruments, official documents issued by international human rights treaty bodies, as well as past scholarship at the intersection of the right to health and right to food, this article interprets and articulates the intersectional rights-based obligations of national governments in the face of food and nutrition insecurity.

  3. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  4. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  5. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  6. Radioecology of human food chains and forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, Aino H.

    2003-01-01

    Ageing of radioactive fallout also signifies that contributions of various foodstuffs to the human ingestion dose will change with time. The long-term contamination of forest vegetation has motivated studies on contribution of wild food to dietary radiocaesium and radiostrontium. Consumption rates of these foodstuffs have shown variation by geographical regions in Finland, the loss of radiocaesium during cooking of mushrooms has been found significant, and the approximation of the loss using survey data on the actual practices in households was also shown important for dietary assessment. Forest industry needs information for planning its own emergency response, particularly concerning production of acceptable timber after contamination of forests by radioactive fallout. In recent years experimental evidence has been obtained for the mitigating effect of forest management methods, namely soil preparation and fertilisation, on radioactive contamination of forest vegetation. Thereby realistic options for intervention have been suggested. Further testing will improve the information on effectiveness of different methods and duration of management influence in different types of forests. Results from systematic field experiments have also provided data and conceptual views for forest modelling, e.g. for RODOS, a European decision support system for off-site emergency preparedness. The future topics in terrestrial radioecology will altogether support production of safe foodstuffs and safe use of forests after contamination of rural areas. Evaluation of practicability of countermeasures will greatly benefit from measured radioecological parameters in the contaminated areas and from additional field tests. Natural radionuclides and their connection to both agricultural and semi-natural dose pathways ought to be studied. Radiation impact due to bioenergy production and use of ash is close to forest ecosystem studies. Returning of wood ash to forests will maintain and

  7. The effect of VMP35 supplement ingredients encapsulated in a novel Phospholipid Prodosome SK713 SLP nutrient delivery technology on properties of live human blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Blum; B. William Downs; Steven Kushner; Ted Aloisio; Frans J. Cronjé

    2015-01-01

    Background: In North America digestive malfunction in terms of disintegration, dissolution, and absorption of food and nutrients, is a widespread malady. Malabsorption is also an exacerbating factor in most chronic degenerative diseases that might benefit from dietary supplementation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine, as shown by changes in properties of live blood, whether, a novel soy-lecithin-phospholipid-nutrient encapsulation technology could promote rapid bioavailability ...

  8. Comparing immediate-type food allergy in humans and companion animals-revealing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, I; De Lucia, M; Jackson, H; Janda, J; Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2017-11-01

    Adverse food reactions occur in human as well as veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in both. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on immediate-type food allergy vs other food adverse reactions in companion animals, and compare this to the human situation. While the prevalence of food allergy in humans has been well studied for some allergens, this remains to be investigated for animal patients, where owner-reported as well as veterinarian-diagnosed food adverse reactions are on the increase. The characteristics of the disease in humans vs dogs, cats, and horses are most often caused by similar, but sometimes species-dependent different pathophysiological mechanisms, prompting the specific clinical symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Furthermore, little is known about the allergen molecules causative for type I food allergy in animals, which, like in human patients, could represent predictive biomarkers for risk evaluation. The definite diagnosis of food allergy relies-as in humans-on elimination diet and provocation tests. Besides allergen avoidance in daily practice, novel treatment options and tolerization strategies are underway. Taken together, numerous knowledge gaps were identified in veterinary food allergy, which need to be filled by systematic comparative studies. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Organic food and the impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María

    2017-11-30

    In the last decade, the production and consumption of organic food have increased steadily worldwide, despite the lower productivity of organic crops. Indeed, the population attributes healthier properties to organic food. Although scientific evidence is still scarce, organic agriculture seems to contribute to maintaining an optimal health status and decreases the risk of developing chronic diseases. This may be due to the higher content of bioactive compounds and lower content of unhealthy substances such as cadmium and synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in organic foods of plant origin compared to conventional agricultural products. Thus, large long-term intervention studies are needed to determine whether an organic diet is healthier than a diet including conventionally grown food products. This review provides an update of the present knowledge of the impact of an organic versus a conventional food diet on health.

  10. Effects of atomic bomb radiations on human food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, F C

    1956-01-01

    The increase in energy release of atomic weapons has increased the hazard of atomic radiation to food. Products of atomic explosions are probably similar regardless of size. Of the energy released, blast energy accounts for one-half, heat flash for one-third, initial nuclear radiation for one-twentieth, and residual radiation (potential fallout) about one-tenth. Radioactive elements may enter man by inhalation, by open wounds, or by ingestion of contaminated food. Food can become contaminated by direct fallout on unprotected food or through metabolic assimilation by plants or animals. Dust-proof containers and undamaged cans provide protection from the first hazard. Cans, etc. should be washed before opening. Other food could be cleaned and used if subsequent monitoring indicated that the fallout material had been removed.

  11. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0733] Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  12. 21 CFR 110.110 - Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human use that present no health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Defect Action Levels § 110.110 Natural or... natural or unavoidable defects to the lowest level currently feasible. (d) The mixing of a food containing...

  13. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  14. Consumer preferences for different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté...

  15. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... amending the food additive regulations to permit the use of hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent in... Group, 801 N. Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801 filed a food additive petition (FAP 0A4781). The... as an antimicrobial agent in the manufacture of modified whey by ultrafiltration methods. In...

  16. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  17. Treatment of human and livestock helminth infections in a mobile pastoralist setting at Lake Chad: Attitudes to health and analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients of locally available anthelminthic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, Helena; Cowan, Noemi; Ngandolo, Bongo N; Kessely, Hamit; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Mobile pastoralists face challenges in accessing quality health care and medication for managing human and animal diseases. We determined livestock disease priorities, health seeking behaviour of people bearing helminthiases and - placing particular emphasis on trematode infections - treatment strategies and outcome satisfaction among mobile pastoralists of four ethnic groups in the Lake Chad area using focus group discussions. People suffering from schistosomiasis were interviewed about symptoms, health seeking behaviour and their satisfaction with respect to the provided treatment. Anthelminthic drugs for human and veterinary use obtained from various health care structures were analysed for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and quantity, using high pressure liquid chromatography-UV and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Most people suffering from schistosomiasis sought treatment at health care centres. Yet, they also consulted informal providers without medical training. Regarding animal health, self-mediated therapy was common to manage suspected livestock fascioliasis. Self-reported treatment satisfaction for human schistosomiasis and trematodiasis treatment outcome in livestock were low. Mobile pastoralists perceived the purchased drugs to be of low quality. Among 33 products locally sold as anthelminthic drugs for human or veterinary use, 27 contained albendazole or mebendazole, varying between 91% and 159% of the labelled amount. Six products were sold loosely with incomplete information and their API could not be identified. No counterfeit anthelminthic drugs were detected. None of the samples contained praziquantel or triclabendazole, the drugs of choice against schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. The perceived unsatisfactory treatment outcomes in humans and animals infected with trematodes are most likely due to empiric diagnosis and the resulting use of inadequate therapy for human schistosomiasis and the

  18. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. GAVIRANGAPPA HITHAMANI1 DHANYA KIZHAKAYIL1 KRISHNAPURA SRINIVASAN1. Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR – Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India ...

  19. Perceived fit of different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients and its effect on purchase intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    ingredients are accepted by consumers in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté. Intentions to purchase different carrier/ingredient combinations are explained by perceived fit of a particular carrier...

  20. [Research advance in metabolism of effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines by probiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng-En; Li, Hai-Long; He, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Hua-Liu; Liu, Liang-Feng; Du, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine.This review summarizes and analyses the research progress on metabolism effects of gut microbiota on Chinese medicines components, the regulating effect of effective ingredients from Chinese medicine on intestinal probiotics, the application status of probiotics in traditional Chinese medicines, and the main problems and prospects in the research and development of Chinese medicines products with probiotic, aiming to provide theoretical guidance and practical value for the fermentation engineering of Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  2. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. PMID:29389843

  3. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  4. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  5. Effect of Ingredients on the Quality of Gluten-Free Sorghum Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino, Pablo Martín; Bustos, Mariela Cecilia; Heinzmann Alabí, María Belén; Nicolazzi, Melani Solange; Penci, María Cecilia; Ribotta, Pablo Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Sorghum is an underutilized cereal in human food production, despite its flour being a potential gluten-free (GF) source in the development of several foods. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects and interactions of different ingredients on cooking quality and texture of GF pasta. Egg albumen (A), egg powder (E), xanthan gum (X), and pregelatinized corn starch (P) were used as ingredients, and Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the effects of these ingredients on pasta cooking behavior, color, and texture attributes. Responses were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, and multivariable optimization was performed using maximization of general desirability. Next, optimal formulations were validated, compared with two commercial gluten-free pastas by sensory evaluation, and finally, an industrial assay was carried out. Regression coefficients indicated that A and P improved cooking properties while A and E contributed the most to improving the pasta textural properties. As, X and P effects varied depending on the kind of sorghum flour used, the optimal formulations levels were different, but in both cases these models were satisfactory and capable of predicting responses. The industrial assay was carried out with white sorghum flour because it showed a higher acceptability in the sensory evaluation than brown sorghum flour pasta. This industrially made pasta resulted in slightly better cooking properties than the laboratory produced one, with the formulation adapting well to the conventional wheat pasta industrial process. Gluten-free sorghum pasta was produced, showing good cooking and textural properties and being a suitable option for gluten-sensitive individuals. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa.

  7. Food insecurity as a driver of obesity in humans: The insurance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Integrative explanations of why obesity is more prevalent in some sectors of the human population than others are lacking. Here, we outline and evaluate one candidate explanation, the insurance hypothesis (IH). The IH is rooted in adaptive evolutionary thinking: The function of storing fat is to provide a buffer against shortfall in the food supply. Thus, individuals should store more fat when they receive cues that access to food is uncertain. Applied to humans, this implies that an important proximate driver of obesity should be food insecurity rather than food abundance per se. We integrate several distinct lines of theory and evidence that bear on this hypothesis. We present a theoretical model that shows it is optimal to store more fat when food access is uncertain, and we review the experimental literature from non-human animals showing that fat reserves increase when access to food is restricted. We provide a meta-analysis of 125 epidemiological studies of the association between perceived food insecurity and high body weight in humans. There is a robust positive association, but it is restricted to adult women in high-income countries. We explore why this could be in light of the IH and our theoretical model. We conclude that although the IH alone cannot explain the distribution of obesity in the human population, it may represent a very important component of a pluralistic explanation. We also discuss insights it may offer into the developmental origins of obesity, dieting-induced weight gain, and anorexia nervosa.

  8. Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties, namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of physico-chemical composition and in terms of in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications.

  9. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele

    2017-10-01

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  10. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Schmidt, Allison; Romanuk, Tamara; Lotze, Heike K

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i) quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii) assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii) compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of food-web analysis

  11. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of

  12. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  13. The effect of VMP35 supplement ingredients encapsulated in a novel Phospholipid Prodosome SK713 SLP nutrient delivery technology on properties of live human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In North America digestive malfunction in terms of disintegration, dissolution, and absorption of food and nutrients, is a widespread malady. Malabsorption is also an exacerbating factor in most chronic degenerative diseases that might benefit from dietary supplementation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine, as shown by changes in properties of live blood, whether, a novel soy-lecithin-phospholipid-nutrient encapsulation technology could promote rapid bioavailability and bioactivity of a VMP35 nutraceutical formulation encapsulated within its clustoidal multilamellar Soy Lecithin Phospholipid (SLP liquid SK713 SLP structures. Method: Changes in peripheral blood smears from 38 subjects were measured utilizing peripheral live blood cell imaging (LBCI with phase contrast microscopy. Results: Compared to baseline and control, consistently and reproducibly, the SK713 SLP technology effected positive changes in the blood as demonstrated by observable morphological, hematological and rheological changes five minutes from intake and sustained for at least 30 minutes post intake. Conclusions: These results showed that the SK713 SLP system makes an important contribution by increasing the potential benefits of dietary supplementation to those patients with compromised digestive processes. We encourage additional research on this novel delivery system believing that it has potential impact on future therapy.

  14. A new world of ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Flore, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Insects have been absent from European diets with only few regional exceptions, making them an uncommon ingredient in the kitchens of fine dining establishments. This chapter investigates whether a piece the puzzle of understanding the temporality or permanence of edible insects in modern Europea...

  15. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or in the ingredient statement is an implied drug claim. The claim implied by the use of this term... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. 310.530 Section 310.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  16. Health Food Program Applications with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 From PT. Kompak Indopola

    OpenAIRE

    Satrio Dwi Seto; Drs. Sunarto Usna, MMSi

    2003-01-01

    Humans are familiar with as a health food supplement to meet the deficiencies in thedaily food and almost all health food ingredients consisting of vitamins and minerals.Health food is not a material change to the daily feed source.Its use is itself balanced by the functions and expenditures. If only someone had asource of food substances that are sufficient, there is no need to consume excesshealth food.Application program created to provide information on health foods PT CompactIndopola. Th...

  17. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  18. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the hi...

  19. Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, De M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.; Boon, P.E.; Heyndrickx, E.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Lopez, P.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, five strategies to estimate mycotoxin exposure of a (sub-)population via food, including data collection, are discussed with the aim to identify the added values and limitations of each strategy for risk assessment of these chemicals. The well-established point estimate, observed

  20. Food Design to Feed the Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercolini, Danilo; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiome has an enormous impact on the life of the host, and the diet plays a fundamental role in shaping microbiome composition and function. The way food is processed is a key factor determining the amount and type of material reaching the gut bacteria and influencing their growth and

  1. Risk assessment of human intake Nickel from food, feed and water in Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bobcek, Rastislav

    2011-01-01

    Nickel is a metal which is found in nature in the form of compounds with sulfur, arsenic and oxygen. Located in water and many foods (eg offal, soya, various fruits and vegetables, chocolate, cocoa, various kinds of nuts in foods in nickel cans ...). People receive food small amount of nickel, which is necessary for his health. It occurs in soil, air gets influence of volcanic activity. It is used in many alloys and chemical compounds. The main source of human exposure is contaminated food an...

  2. Assessment of cosmetic ingredients in the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis test method EpiSkin™ using HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry in the MTT-reduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alépée, N; Hibatallah, J; Klaric, M; Mewes, K R; Pfannenbecker, U; McNamee, P

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetics Europe recently established HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry as a suitable alternative endpoint detection system for measurement of formazan in the MTT-reduction assay of reconstructed human tissue test methods irrespective of the test system involved. This addressed a known limitation for such test methods that use optical density for measurement of formazan and may be incompatible for evaluation of strong MTT reducer and/or coloured chemicals. To build on the original project, Cosmetics Europe has undertaken a second study that focuses on evaluation of chemicals with functionalities relevant to cosmetic products. Such chemicals were primarily identified from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010 memorandum (addendum) on the in vitro test EpiSkin™ for skin irritation testing. Fifty test items were evaluated in which both standard photometry and HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry were used for endpoint detection. The results obtained in this study: 1) provide further support for Within Laboratory Reproducibility of HPLC-UPLC-spectrophotometry for measurement of formazan; 2) demonstrate, through use a case study with Basazol C Blue pr. 8056, that HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry enables determination of an in vitro classification even when this is not possible using standard photometry and 3) addresses the question raised by SCCS in their 2010 memorandum (addendum) to consider an endpoint detection system not involving optical density quantification in in vitro reconstructed human epidermis skin irritation test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in radiopreservation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohajova, L.; Stanicova, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radiopreservation of food is a technological process which is ensuring quality and durability of food. Food materials are irradiated by ionising radiation to reduce biological activity in foodstuffs. From this point of view, application of food irradiation is equivalent process to the other technological procedures ensuring good quality of food such as sterilisation by low or high temperature and chemicals factors. Although the sterilisation by ionising radiation has been limited by controversial effects in general, irradiated technologies of more than 40 products were accepted in several countries. Radiopreservation of food is spread mainly in the U.S.A. where ionizing radiation is even using for enhancement of several visual factors of food for instance the color. The countries of European Union accepted similar standards for radiopreservation of food and ingredients. They determined the kind of food materials, the convenient doses of irradiation and other conditions at ionizing radiation using for food preservation. Number of food is limited by toxicological aspects and unknown behaviour of radiation within food material (e.g. secondary radiation). For this reason, it is necessary to study the effects of food irradiation and find out its mediate influence on human organism. (authors)

  4. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  5. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Schmidt, G.D.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  6. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shleien, B; Schmidt, G D; Chiacchierini, R P [Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  7. The cooperative economy of food: Implications for human life history and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2018-04-06

    The human diet has undergone substantial modifications since the emergence of modern humans and varies considerably in today's traditional societies. Despite these changes and cross-cultural differences, the human diet can be characterized by several common elements. These include diverse, high quality foods, technological complexity to acquire and process food, and the establishment of home bases for storage, processing and consumption. Together these aspects of the human diet challenge any one individual to independently meet all of his or her daily caloric needs. Humans solve this challenge through food sharing, labor exchange and the division of labor. The cooperative nature of the human diet is associated with many downstream effects on our life history and physiology. This paper overviews the constellation of traits that likely led to a cooperative economy of food, and draws on ethnographic examples to illustrate its effects on human life history and physiology. Two detailed examples using body composition, time allocation and food acquisition data show how cooperation among Savanna Pumé hunter-gatherers affects activity levels, sexual dimorphism in body fat, maturational pace and age at first birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Human factors and ergonomics assessment of food pantry work: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nicholas A; Talone, Andrew B; Fraulini, Nicholas W; Smither, Janan A

    2017-01-01

    Research assessing work processes in food pantries has been limited to the client's experience and aspects of food donations [3-5]. Research on food pantries has yet to focus on understanding and evaluating worker-environment interaction. The present case study examined the interaction between workers and their work environment while performing common tasks in a food pantry. Data were collected through naturalistic observations and structured interviews. A task analysis was performed on the data. Several potential issues in the pantry were identified including with the workspace layout, environmental conditions, and signage. Human factors and ergonomics principles were then utilized to provide insights and recommendations (e.g., use of numbered rather than color-coded signage). Recommendations were provided to the case study food pantry for enhancing safety and productivity. Further research is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to other food pantries.

  9. What's NOT to eat--food adulteration in the context of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Cook, Katsi

    2012-01-01

    Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well-studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of Western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage, and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant polychlorinated biphenyls in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in nonurban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption: (1) Such use must be accomplished in accordance with an appropriate medical rationale; and (2) If... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  11. Food insecurity as a driver of obesity in humans: The insurance hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Bateson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Short abstract Common sense says that obesity is the consequence of too much food. Adaptive reasoning says something rather different: individuals should store fat when access to food is insecure, to buffer themselves against future shortfall. Applied to humans, this principle suggests that food insecurity should be a risk factor for overweight and obesity. We provide a meta-analysis of the extensive epidemiological literature, finding that food insecurity robustly predicts high body weight, but only amongst women in high-income countries. We discuss the relevance of food insecurity to understanding the global obesity problem. Long abstract Integrative explanations of why obesity is more prevalent in some sectors of the human population than others are lacking. Here, we outline and evaluate one candidate explanation, the insurance hypothesis (IH). The IH is rooted in adaptive evolutionary thinking: the function of storing fat is to provide a buffer against shortfall in the food supply. Thus, individuals should store more fat when they receive cues that access to food is uncertain. Applied to humans, this implies that an important proximate driver of obesity should be food insecurity rather than food abundance per se. We integrate several distinct lines of theory and evidence that bear on this hypothesis. We present a theoretical model that shows it is optimal to store more fat when food access is uncertain, and we review the experimental literature from non-human animals showing that fat reserves increase when access to food is restricted. We provide a meta-analysis of 125 epidemiological studies of the association between perceived food insecurity and high body weight in humans. There is a robust positive association, but it is restricted to adult women in high-income countries. We explore why this could be in light of the IH and our theoretical model. We conclude that whilst the IH alone cannot explain the distribution of obesity in the human population, it may

  12. Numerical modeling of human mastication, a simplistic view to design foods adapted to mastication abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin; Hartmann, Christoph

    2014-01-30

    The human diet contains a large variety of aromas, tastes and textures. The latter is particularly important since it determines whether foods are difficult to process orally and thus can be one source of food avoidance. It has also been reported in recent literature that food texture was a main driver for satiation processes and thus it is of interest for the food manufacturing industry to be able to control textural properties of food within the limits of acceptability for the consumer. For solid foods, fracture force is an important aspect of texture and we were interested in understanding the physiological drivers of this variable.We present a third order lever model of human bite force and the space between teeth based on data from the literature on human oral anatomy. The results from the model are compared with experimental data available in the literature. The model compares well with the experimental data (r2 = 0.95, p = 0.0010, MPE = 0.18), and can thus be used to derive a diagram of how food properties such as piece size or fracture force can be used to define whether foods are close to the limits of what the human jaw is capable of breaking. Such modeling tools can be used to define texture rules for tailor-made nutrition for specific populations based on their mastication abilities. The limitations of this modeling approach are also discussed, particularly the fact that tooth shape should also be considered, as this will ultimately define fracture stress, which is the deterministic factor of food fracture.

  13. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  14. Food additives, food and the concept of 'food addiction': Is stimulation of the brain reward circuit by food sufficient to trigger addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, A Y; Onaolapo, O J

    2018-04-12

    In the last few years, the concept of 'food addiction' has continued to gain popularity, with human and animal studies demonstrating the differential effects of foods that are high in fat, sugar or protein on appetite, satiety, eating behaviour and the development of food addiction. However, a number of studies have disputed the occurrence of food addiction in humans. Questions have also arisen regarding the possible impacts that food additives may have on the development of food addiction or eating disorders. Also, it is known that alterations in food composition and the presence of food additives (flavour enhancers, sugars, sugar substitutes, and non-nutritive sweeteners) are factors that generally influence the sensory perception of food. Our understanding of the potential roles of central neurotransmitters (such as dopamine) and certain neuropeptides in the evolution of food addiction is also evolving; but presently, there isn't sufficient scientific evidence to consider any food ingredient, micronutrient or standard food-additive as addictive. In this review, the relevant literatures dealing with the concept of 'food addiction' are examined, and the factors which may predispose to food addiction are discussed. The possible influences that flavour-enhancers, sugars, sugar substitutes and non-nutritive sweeteners may exert on central neurotransmission, neurotransmitter/receptor interactions, appetite, satiety, conditioned- preferences and the brain reward system are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Behind human milk and breastfeeding: not only food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo; Pepaj, Orsiol; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2017-12-26

    After birth, breastfeeding should not be considered only a normal and physiological event; in fact, it encloses both physical and the psychological aspects. Human milk cannot be compared to any formula milk. Specifically, human milk has immunological and nutritional properties and it is considered the best available option which guarantees an adequate growth and an optimal development of a child. Differences in term of mediators and hormones have been shown between infants who were breastfed and ones who were not. A key point is represented by unmeasurable environmental and psycho-affective factors. So, it may be simplistic to consider human milk only as a nutrient; since it encompasses much more. The aim of our commentary is to review clinical studies about breastfeeding, analysing its consequences on the neuro-developmental achievement, growth and risk of obesity within a holistic view.

  16. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... 10 Judyma Street, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland. (Received 1 ... Increasing interest in oat utilization for human consumption has been stimulated by the need for ... Helium was used as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.4 cm3/min.

  17. Literacy: An Essential Ingredient in the Recipe for Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The ingredients that underpin economic growth are well-known and generally accepted; population growth, physical capital, financial capital and human capital all play a part in creating long term differences in the wealth of nations. There remains, however, considerable debate about the ideal recipe for economic growth. Recently, Statistics Canada…

  18. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  19. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Human dietary δ(15)N intake: representative data for principle food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsemann, F; Koehler, K; Braun, H; Schaenzer, W; Flenker, U

    2013-09-01

    Dietary analysis using δ(15)N values of human remains such as bone and hair is usually based on general principles and limited data sets. Even for modern humans, the direct ascertainment of dietary δ(15)N is difficult and laborious, due to the complexity of metabolism and nitrogen fractionation, differing dietary habits and variation of δ(15)N values of food items. The objective of this study was to summarize contemporary regional experimental and global literature data to ascertain mean representative δ(15)N values for distinct food categories. A comprehensive data set of more than 12,000 analyzed food samples was summarized from the literature. Data originated from studies dealing with (1) authenticity tracing or origin control of food items, and (2) effects of fertilization or nutrition on δ(15)N values of plants or animals. Regional German food δ(15)N values revealed no major differences compared with the mean global values derived from the literature. We found that, in contrast to other food categories, historical faunal remains of pig and poultry are significantly enriched in (15)N compared to modern samples. This difference may be due to modern industrialized breeding practices. In some food categories variations in agricultural and feeding regimens cause significant differences in δ(15)N values that may lead to misinterpretations when only limited information is available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  2. Food and human gut as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eRolain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome that could be mobilized and transferred from these sources to human pathogens. AR is a natural phenomenon developed by bacteria to protect antibiotic-producing bacteria from their own products and also to increase their survival in highly competitive microbial environments. Although antibiotics are used extensively in humans and animals, there is also considerable usage of antibiotics in agriculture, especially in animal feeds and aquaculture. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the sources of AR and the use of antibiotics in these reservoirs as selectors for emergence of AR bacteria in humans via the food chain.

  3. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  4. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  6. Measurement of Fructose-Asparagine Concentrations in Human and Animal Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jikang; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Metz, Thomas O; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Gopalan, Venkat; Behrman, Edward J; Wysocki, Vicki H; Ahmer, Brian M M

    2018-01-10

    The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the nonenzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules that contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these end derivatives is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potatoes. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn. However, F-Asn would need to be packaged with the FraB inhibitor or available in human foods. To determine if there are foods that have sufficient F-Asn, we measured F-Asn concentrations in a variety of human and animal foods. The 400 pmol/mg F-Asn found in mouse chow is sufficient to intoxicate a Salmonella fraB mutant in mouse models of salmonellosis, and several human foods were found to have F-Asn at this level or higher (fresh apricots, lettuce, asparagus, and canned peaches). Much higher concentrations (11 000-35 000 pmol/mg dry weight) were found in heat-dried apricots, apples, and asparagus. This report reveals possible origins of F-Asn as a nutrient source for Salmonella and identifies foods that could be used together with a FraB inhibitor as a therapeutic agent for Salmonella.

  7. Measurement of fructose-asparagine concentrations in human and animal foods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jikang; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Metz, Thomas O.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Gopalan, Venkat; Behrman, Edward J.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Ahmer, Brian

    2018-01-10

    The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the non-enzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules which contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potato products. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn. However, F-Asn would need to be packaged with the FraB inhibitor, or available in human foods. To determine if there are foods that have sufficient F-Asn, we measured F-Asn concentrations in a variety of human and animal foods. The 399 pmol/mg F-Asn found in mouse chow is sufficient to intoxicate a Salmonella fraB mutant in mouse models of salmonellosis, and several human foods were found to have this concentration or higher (fresh apricots, lettuce, asparagus, and in canned peaches). Much higher concentrations (11,000 to 35,000 pmol/mg dry weight) were found in heat-dried apricots, apples, and asparagus. This report clarifies the origins of F-Asn as a nutrient source for Salmonella, and identifies foods that could be used in concert with a FraB inhibitor as a therapeutic agent for Salmonella.

  8. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Free-ranging dogs prefer petting over food in repeated interactions with unfamiliar humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; Sau, Shubhra; Das, Jayjit; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-12-15

    Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) are the first species to have been domesticated and, unlike other domesticated species, they have developed a special bond with their owners. The ability to respond to human gestures and language, and the hypersocial behaviours of dogs are considered key factors that have led them to become man's best friend. Free-ranging dogs provide an excellent model system for understanding the dog-human relationship in various social contexts. In India, free-ranging dogs occur in all possible human habitations. They scavenge among garbage, beg for food from humans, give birth in dens close to human habitations, and establish social bonds with people. However, there is ample dog-human conflict on the streets, leading to morbidity and mortality of dogs. Hence, the ability to assess an unfamiliar human before establishing physical contact could be adaptive for dogs, especially in the urban environment. We tested a total of 103 adult dogs to investigate their response to immediate social and long-term food and social rewards. The dogs were provided a choice of obtaining food either from an experimenter's hand or the ground. The dogs avoided making physical contact with the unfamiliar human. While immediate social reward was not effective in changing this response, the long-term test showed a strong effect of social contact. Our results revealed that these dogs tend to build trust based on affection, not food. This study provides significant insights into the dynamics of dog-human interactions on the streets and subsequent changes in behaviour of dogs through the process of learning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described

  11. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  12. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  13. Human intrinsic factor expression for bioavailable vitamin B12 enrichment in microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Serena; Webb, Conner L.; Deery, Evelyne

    2018-01-01

    Dietary supplements and functional foods are becoming increasingly popular complements to regular diets. A recurring ingredient is the essential cofactor vitamin B12(B12). Microalgae are making their way into the dietary supplement and functional food market but do not produce B12, and their B12 ...... that is suitable for vegetarians and, potentially, more bioavailable for humans....

  14. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  15. Glucose modulates food-related salience coding of midbrain neurons in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Endres, Felix; Kölle, Markus; Adolph, Oliver; Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Grön, Georg

    2016-12-01

    Although early rat studies demonstrated that administration of glucose diminishes dopaminergic midbrain activity, evidence in humans has been lacking so far. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, glucose was intravenously infused in healthy human male participants while seeing images depicting low-caloric food (LC), high-caloric food (HC), and non-food (NF) during a food/NF discrimination task. Analysis of brain activation focused on the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as the origin of the mesolimbic system involved in salience coding. Under unmodulated fasting baseline conditions, VTA activation was greater during HC compared with LC food cues. Subsequent to infusion of glucose, this difference in VTA activation as a function of caloric load leveled off and even reversed. In a control group not receiving glucose, VTA activation during HC relative to LC cues remained stable throughout the course of the experiment. Similar treatment-specific patterns of brain activation were observed for the hypothalamus. The present findings show for the first time in humans that glucose infusion modulates salience coding mediated by the VTA. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4376-4384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ r apeseed protein isolate ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    is an aqueous extract with at least 90 % protein, isolated from rapeseed press cake originating from so-called canola varieties. The applicant intends to market the NF for the same food products, at similar concentrations and for corresponding purposes, as soy protein isolates. Total protein intake of "heavy......, appears to be similar. The Panel notes the source and nature of the novel food, the absence of a nutritional disadvantage at the proposed uses and use levels, the low concentrations of potentially adverse components in the NF, and the absence of toxicologically relevant effects in subchronic studies...

  17. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, María Carmen; Engen, Phillip A; Bandín, Cristina; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Voigt, Robin M; Green, Stefan J; Naqib, Ankur; Keshavarzian, Ali; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans. Results revealed significant diurnal rhythms in salivary diversity and bacterial relative abundance ( i.e., TM7 and Fusobacteria) across both early and late eating conditions. More importantly, meal timing affected diurnal rhythms in diversity of salivary microbiota toward an inverted rhythm between the eating conditions, and eating late increased the number of putative proinflammatory taxa, showing a diurnal rhythm in the saliva. In a randomized, crossover study, we showed for the first time the impact of the timing of food intake on human salivary microbiota. Eating the main meal late inverts the daily rhythm of salivary microbiota diversity which may have a deleterious effect on the metabolism of the host.-Collado, M. C., Engen, P. A., Bandín, C., Cabrera-Rubio, R., Voigt, R. M., Green, S. J., Naqib, A., Keshavarzian, A., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

  18. Iron phosphate nanoparticles for food fortification: Biological effects in rats and human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, Lea M; Schneider, Mirjam; Hilty, Florentine M; Hilbe, Monika; Arnold, Myrtha; Ziegler, Nathalie; Mato, Diogo Sales; Winkler, Hans; Tarik, Mohamed; Ludwig, Christian; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B; Sturla, Shana J; Trantakis, Ioannis A

    2017-05-01

    Nanotechnology offers new opportunities for providing health benefits in foods. Food fortification with iron phosphate nanoparticles (FePO 4 NPs) is a promising new approach to reducing iron deficiency because FePO 4 NPs combine high bioavailability with superior sensory performance in difficult to fortify foods. However, their safety remains largely untested. We fed rats for 90 days diets containing FePO 4 NPs at doses at which iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ), a commonly used food fortificant, has been shown to induce adverse effects. Feeding did not result in signs of toxicity, including oxidative stress, organ damage, excess iron accumulation in organs or histological changes. These safety data were corroborated by evidence that NPs were taken up by human gastrointestinal cell lines without reducing cell viability or inducing oxidative stress. Our findings suggest FePO 4 NPs appear to be as safe for ingestion as FeSO 4 .

  19. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  20. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    A methodology based on descriptive analysis techniques used in the evaluation of human food has been successfully refined to allow for a human taste panel to profile the flavour and texture of a range of cat food products (CFP) and their component parts. Included in this method is the development of evaluation protocols for homogeneous products and for binary samples containing both meat chunk (MC) and gravy/gel (GG) constituents. Using these techniques, 18 flavour attributes (sweet, sour/acid, tuna, herbal, spicy, soy, salty, cereal, caramel, chicken, methionine, vegetable, offaly, meaty, burnt flavour, prawn, rancid and bitter) and four texture dimensions (hardness, chewiness, grittiness and viscosity) were generated to describe the sensations elicited by 13 commercial pet food samples. These samples differed in intensity for 16 of the 18 flavour attributes, which allows for individual CFP flavour profiles to be developed. Principal components analysis (PCA) could successfully discriminate between samples within the PCA space and also reveal some groupings amongst them. While many flavour attributes were weakly correlated, a large number (describing both taste and retro-nasal aroma qualities) were required to adequately differentiate between samples, suggesting considerable complexity in the products assessed. For both MC and GG, differences between samples for each of the texture dimensions were also found. For MC, grittiness appears to be the most discriminating textural attribute, while for GG viscosity discriminates well between samples. Meat chunks and gravy/gels differed significantly from each other in both flavour and texture. Cat food products differed in their liking ratings, although no differences were found between homogeneous, MC and GG samples, and eight flavour attributes were correlated with overall liking scores. It is now necessary to determine the usefulness and limits of sensory data gathered from human panels in describing and predicting

  1. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  2. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  3. Cold plasma inactivation of human pathogens on foods and regulatory status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of foods with human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and other pathogens is an ongoing challenge for growers and processors. In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut...

  4. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  5. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  6. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-03-11

    For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  7. Isolation of tannin-degrading lactobacilli from humans and fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, R; Kuroiso, K; Goto, S; Shimizu, A

    2000-07-01

    Lactobacilli with tannase activity were isolated from human feces and fermented foods. A PCR-based taxonomic assay revealed that the isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, and L. pentosus. Additional studies on a range of Lactobacillus species from established culture collections confirmed that this enzymatic activity is a phenotypic property common to these three species.

  8. Detecting contaminating microorganism in human food and water from Raman mapping through biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting microbial growth can help experts determine how to prevent the outbreaks especially if human food or water has been contaminated. Biofilms are a group of microbial cells that can either grow on living surfaces or surrounding themselves as they progress. Biofilms are not necessarily uniform...

  9. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food...) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  10. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  11. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg, while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  12. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other...

  13. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  14. Challenging conventional risk assessment with respect to human exposure to multiple food contaminants in food: A case study using maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R; Connolly, L; Frizzell, C; Elliott, C T

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins and heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment and contaminate many foods. The widespread use of pesticides in crop production to control disease contributes further to the chemical contamination of foods. Thus multiple chemical contaminants threaten the safety of many food commodities; hence the present study used maize as a model crop to identify the severity in terms of human exposure when multiple contaminants are present. High Content Analysis (HCA) measuring multiple endpoints was used to determine cytotoxicity of complex mixtures of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides. Endpoints included nuclear intensity (NI), nuclear area (NA), plasma membrane permeability (PMP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial mass (MM). At concentrations representing legal limits of each individual contaminant in maize (3ng/ml ochratoxin A (OTA), 1μg/ml fumonisin B1 (FB1), 2ng/ml aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 100ng/ml cadmium (Cd), 150ng/ml arsenic (As), 50ng/ml chlorpyrifos (CP) and 5μg/ml pirimiphos methyl (PM), the mixtures (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As) and (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) were cytotoxic for NA and MM endpoints with a difference of up to 13.6% (p≤0.0001) and 12% (p≤0.0001) respectively from control values. The most cytotoxic mixture was (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) across all 4 endpoints (NA, NI, MM and MMP) with increases up to 61.3%, 23.0%, 61.4% and 36.3% (p≤0.0001) respectively. Synergy was evident for two endpoints (NI and MM) at concentrations contaminating maize above legal limits, with differences between expected and measured values of (6.2-12.4% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) and 4.5-12.3% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) for NI and MM, respectively. The study introduces for the first time, a holistic approach to identify the impact in terms of toxicity to humans when multiple chemical contaminants are present in foodstuffs. Governmental regulatory bodies must begin to contemplate how to safeguard the population when

  15. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have...

  16. Consumer wants and use of ingredient and nutrition information for alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2018-01-01

    In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...

  17. 21 CFR 358.710 - Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.710 Section 358.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Psoriasis § 358.710 Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. The... psoriasis. (1) Coal tar, 0.5 to 5 percent. When a coal tar solution, derivative, or fraction is used as the...

  18. Evolutionary distance from human homologs reflects allergenicity of animal food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John A; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, E N Clare

    2007-12-01

    In silico analysis of allergens can identify putative relationships among protein sequence, structure, and allergenic properties. Such systematic analysis reveals that most plant food allergens belong to a restricted number of protein superfamilies, with pollen allergens behaving similarly. We have investigated the structural relationships of animal food allergens and their evolutionary relatedness to human homologs to define how closely a protein must resemble a human counterpart to lose its allergenic potential. Profile-based sequence homology methods were used to classify animal food allergens into Pfam families, and in silico analyses of their evolutionary and structural relationships were performed. Animal food allergens could be classified into 3 main families--tropomyosins, EF-hand proteins, and caseins--along with 14 minor families each composed of 1 to 3 allergens. The evolutionary relationships of each of these allergen superfamilies showed that in general, proteins with a sequence identity to a human homolog above approximately 62% were rarely allergenic. Single substitutions in otherwise highly conserved regions containing IgE epitopes in EF-hand parvalbumins may modulate allergenicity. These data support the premise that certain protein structures are more allergenic than others. Contrasting with plant food allergens, animal allergens, such as the highly conserved tropomyosins, challenge the capability of the human immune system to discriminate between foreign and self-proteins. Such immune responses run close to becoming autoimmune responses. Exploiting the closeness between animal allergens and their human homologs in the development of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy will need to consider the potential for developing unanticipated autoimmune responses.

  19. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  20. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  1. State of expectancy modulates the neural response to visual food stimuli in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Saima; McGlone, Francis; Dagher, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Human brain imaging studies demonstrate distributed activation of limbic, paralimbic and sensory systems to food and food-associated cues. Activity in this circuit may be modulated by internal factors, such as hunger, and cognitive factors. Anticipation to eat is one such factor, which likely impacts consummatory behavior. Here, the neural substrates of food expectancy were identified in 10 healthy male participants who underwent two whole-brain functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans on separate days. Fasted subjects viewed images of food and scenery, in two counterbalanced states. During one condition, subjects were 'expecting' to eat right after the scan and during the other they were 'not expecting' to eat for 1 h after the scan. Food pictures compared with scenery yielded bilateral activation in visual areas as well as in the left insula and amygdala in both conditions. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and putamen were additionally activated in the 'not expecting' condition while right orbitofrontal cortex activity was enhanced in the 'expecting' condition. These data suggest that cognitive manipulations affect the response to food cues in the prefrontal cortex, in areas involved in the planning and control of motivated behaviors, while the amygdala and insula responded equally in both conditions, consistent with a more basic role in homeostatically driven appetitive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations.

  3. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  4. Transfer of radionuclides by terrestrial food products from semi-natural ecosystems to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential radiological significance of radionuclide transfer to humans via foodstuffs derived from semi-natural ecosystems has become apparent since the Chernobyl accident. Foodchain models developed before this time usually did not take such transfers into account. The processes leading to contamination of food in these environments are complex and current understanding of the transfer mechanisms is incomplete. For these reasons the approach adopted in Chapter 3 is to represent, by means of aggregated parameters, the empirical relationships between ground deposits and concentration in the food product. 107 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  5. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Quaglio, Gianluca; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-10-27

    This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed from organic or conventional production impacts in different ways on growth and development. In organic agriculture, the use of pesticides is restricted, while residues in conventional fruits and vegetables constitute the main source of human pesticide exposures. Epidemiological studies have reported adverse effects of certain pesticides on children's cognitive development at current levels of exposure, but these data have so far not been applied in formal risk assessments of individual pesticides. Differences in the composition between organic and conventional crops are limited, such as a modestly higher content of phenolic compounds in organic fruit and vegetables, and likely also a lower content of cadmium in organic cereal crops. Organic dairy products, and perhaps also meats, have a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids compared to conventional products. However, these differences are likely of marginal nutritional significance. Of greater concern is the prevalent use of antibiotics in conventional animal production as a key driver of antibiotic resistance in society; antibiotic use is less intensive in organic production. Overall, this review emphasises several documented and likely human health benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated

  6. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  7. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  8. Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; de Voogt, P.; De Coen, W.; Bervoets, L.; de Voogt, P.

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, which persist and may bioaccumulate through the food chain (Haukås et al. 2007; Martin et al. 2004b; Taniyasu et al. 2003). As a consequence, several PFCs have been detected in different biota worldwide. In recent years, an

  9. Implications for the human food chain of models of cadmium accumulation in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prankel, S.H.; Nixon, R.M.; Phillips, C.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which is a major source of cadmium to some sectors. The kidney is the first organ of sheep to reach the limit of fitness for human consumption. A model (based on a meta-analysis) predicts that this would occur after a mean of just 130 days of feeding sheep the maximum permitted cadmium concentration in feed (in the European Union) in the organic form. Thus it is not surprising that sheep organs are found routinely to exceed cadmium limits. Since reduction of maximum cadmium levels in sheep feed or of the duration of their exposure are not economically viable measures of control, routine removal of liver and kidney from older sheep from the food chain is recommended as the best option to reduce human dietary cadmium intake from sheep origin

  10. Development of a ECOREA-II code for human exposures from radionuclides through food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, D. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    The release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities following an accident into air results in human exposures through two pathways. One is direct human exposures by inhalation or dermal absorption of these radionucles. Another is indirect human exposures through food chain which includes intakes of plant products such as rice, vegetables from contaiminated soil and animal products such as meet, milk and eggs feeded by contaminated grasses or plants on the terrestial surface. This study presents efforts of the development of a computer code for the assessment of the indirect human exposure through such food chains. The purpose of ECOREA-II code is to develop appropriate models suitable for a specific soil condition in Korea based on previous experimental efforts and to provide a more user-friendly environment such as GUI for the use of the code. Therefore, the current code, when more fully developed, is expected to increase the understanding of environmental safety assessment of nuclear facilities following an accident and provide a reasonable regulatory guideline with respecte to food safety issues

  11. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Vose, D.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused...... salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting.......8-10.4%) of the cases, respectively. Taken together, imported foods were estimated to account for 11.8% (95% CI: 5.0-19.0%) of the cases. Other food sources considered had only a minor impact, whereas 25% of the cases could not be associated with any source. This approach of quantifying the contribution of the various...

  13. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  15. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as Animal Feed and Human Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shiang; Shelomi, Matan

    2017-10-18

    Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  16. Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Andrew; Colledge, Sue; Fuller, Dorian; Fyfe, Ralph; Shennan, Stephen; Stevens, Chris

    2017-12-05

    We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources. For the Neolithic, this evidence questions existing models of wholly endogenous demographic boom-bust. For the wider Holocene, it demonstrates that climate-related disruptions have been quasi-periodic drivers of societal and subsistence change. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Human food preferences and cultural identity: the case of Aragón (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Luis; Espeitx, Elena; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Martín, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between sociocultural values and human food preferences. The latter, as shown in this paper, are greatly influenced by cultural identity. This work stems from a theoretical context that originated in Europe and the United States towards the mid-twentieth century, within the field of the anthropology of food. A qualitative and quantitative analysis has been performed in the Comunidad Autónoma de Aragón (Spain). Research methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and a questionnaire that was handed out to a representative sample of the Aragonese population (816 people over 21 years of age; confidence level of 95.5% and error margin of ±3.5). Regarding the research outcome, a highly significant qualitative and quantitative connection has been found between food selection and cultural identity. In other words, people prefer to consume foods that are symbolically associated with their own culture, in order to reinforce their sense of belonging. Although this study has been carried out in Aragón, it is our belief that the results can be generalized to other areas. The originality and interest of our findings are notable considering that, to date, few works have analyzed the sociocultural factors motivating food behavior. Moreover, these results could be used by public and private organizations to meet objectives such as health promotion and product marketing.

  18. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  20. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean...

  1. Impacts of Verotoxigenic and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Vtec and Ehec on Animal, Human and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verotoxigenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC and EHEC are strains that produce a toxin on the Vero cells in vitro, therefore the toxin called verotoxin. Strain VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from human and various animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The prevalence of VTEC in cattle is 35%, milk 10%, cheese 1.5%. In beef meat, pork, poultry, goat and sheep is 3.7, 1.5, 1.5, 2 and 2.5%, respectively. In contrast, the human prevalence in United States, Spain and France 5 – 10, 2.5 and 3.4%, respectively. In Indonesia, nine cases of VTEC were reported by Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital and four out of nine cases were died. The verotoxin also named Shiga toxins (Stx, is active in vivo as a pathogen on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro intestinal mucosa, kidneys, brain and other tissues of human and piglets. Verotoxin in human, ruminants and piglets causes bloody diarrhea so with ruminants. In the adult ruminants, verotoxin results in clinical signs and they act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains but in human, it produced haemorrhagic colitis (HC, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and thrombocytopenia purpura (TPP. Infection in human by the most famous EHEC strain belongs to the O157:H7 serotype, through faecal contamination or environment of either food of animal origin, or other foodstuffs (fruits and vegetables. Infection from EHEC strains could be prevented by avoiding food of animal origin and unpasteurized milk, and by taking care of food hygiene for comsumption.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Moslehi-Jenabian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.

  3. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  4. Genotoxicity of 11 heavy metals detected as food contaminants in two human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, B; Zalko, D; Audebert, M

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) are widely distributed in the environment and in the food chain. Human exposure to heavy metals through water and food has been reported by different international agencies. Although some of these heavy metals are essential elements for human growth and development, they may also be toxic at low concentrations due to indirect mechanisms. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of 15 different oxidation statuses of 11 different heavy metals were investigated using high-throughput screening (γH2AX assay) in two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) representative of target organs (liver and colon) for food contaminants. Base on their lowest observed adverse effect concentration, the genotoxic potency of each heavy metal in each cell line was ranked in decreasing order, NaAsO 2  > CdCl 2  > PbCl 2 (only in LS-174T cells) > As 2 O 5  > SbCl 3  > K 2 TeO 3  > As 2 O 3 . No significant genotoxicity was observed with the other heavy metals tested. Cell viability data indicate that several heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Sb, and Te) induce cytotoxicity at high concentrations, whereas an increase in the number of cells was observed for lead concentrations >100 µM in both cell lines tested, suggesting that lead stimulates cell growth. All these results highlight the possible human health hazards associated with the presence of heavy metals present in food. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:202-210, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sustainable extraction of molecules for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, GianPaolo; Ferri, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Since several years, the ENEA Innovation Laboratory for Agro-Industrial, proposed activities of research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), focusing on sustainability characteristics of the process. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, has a low energy consumption and requires a lower number of process steps compared to conventional extractions. The process also responds to the requirements imposed by the legislation for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical extracts. [it

  6. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preferences for spicy foods and disgust of ectoparasites are associated with reported health in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases that influence human survival are responsible for the evolved emotional, cognitive and behavioural strategies that reduce the risk of disease transmission. The preference for spices in foods of contemporary humans was thought to be an antipathogen strategy that could reduce disease transmission. We investigated the possible associations between reported health and anti-pathogen strategies in a sample of Slovak high school students. We found that the reported consumption of spices and ectoparasite avoidance was positively associated with the total number of reported illnesses in the last year and hand washing was negatively associated with this. This means that immunologically compromised people prefer spices more and avoid contact with disease-relevant insect vectors more than their healthier counterparts. Females engaged in anti-pathogen behaviours more than males, but consumed spicy foods less frequently, suggesting their evolutionary role in the maternal investment to their offspring or different susceptibility to certain diseases. Our results suggest that people vulnerable to diseases are more disgust sensitive and prefer foods with antimicrobial properties more than healthy people, supporting an idea that human emotions and behaviour are influenced by the threat of parasites.

  8. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and food animals using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golab, N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are the second leading cause of zoonotic bacterial foodborne illness. Main source of infection in human is contaminated food products. The aim of this study was sub typing isolates of Salmonella enterica obtained during our previous study by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE technique. All 46 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and then subjected to PFGE. Total isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. In this study, PFGE and serotyping were used to subtype 46 Salmonella isolates belonging to 27different serovars and derived from human and different food origins. Among these isolates, S. Typhimurium was found to be the most predominant serovar. 40 PFGE patterns out of 46 isolates were obtained. The Discrimination Index obtained by serotyping (DI = 0.93 was lower than PFGE (DI = 0.99. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica is very important and shows that animal origin can be one of a reservoir that potentially could be transferred to human through the food chain. In addition, results of this study also revealed that this procedure is a golden standard for genotyping of such salmonella serotypes.

  9. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  10. Food-borne human parasitic pathogens associated with household cockroaches and houseflies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches and houseflies pose significant public health threat owning to their ability to mechanically transmit human intestinal parasites and other disease-causing microorganisms. This study aims at assessing the vectoral capacity of cockroaches and houseflies in the transmission of human intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasite external surface contamination of 130 cockroaches and 150 houseflies caught within dwelling places in Ilishan-Remo town, Ogun State, Nigeria was determined. Cockroaches (six parasite species were more contaminated than houseflies (four parasite species. The most prevalent parasites were Trichuris trichiura (74.0% and hookworm (63.0% in houseflies and cockroaches respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Taenia spp. isolated from cockroaches and houseflies (P < 0.05. There is high contamination of human intestinal parasites in cockroaches and houseflies in human dwelling places in the study area, thus they have the ability to transmit these parasites to unkempt food materials.

  11. Pharmaceutical/food grade titanium dioxide particles are absorbed into the bloodstream of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pele, Laetitia C; Thoree, Vinay; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Koller, Dagmar; Thompson, Richard P H; Lomer, Miranda C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-09-02

    Exposure to persistent engineered nano and micro particles via the oral route is well established. Animal studies have demonstrated that, once ingested, a small proportion of such particles translocate from the gastrointestinal tract to other tissues. Exposure to titanium dioxide is widespread via the oral route, but only one study has provided indirect evidence (total titanium analyses) of absorption into the blood stream in humans. We sought to replicate these observations and to provide additional evidence for particulate uptake. Human volunteers with normal intestinal permeability were orally administered 100 mg pharmaceutical/food grade titanium dioxide. Blood samples were collected from 0.5 to 10 h post ingestion and analysed for the presence of reflectant bodies (particles) by dark field microscopy, and for total titanium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Blood film analyses implied early absorption of particles (2 h) with a peak maximum at 6 h following ingestion. The presence of these reflectant particles in blood roughly mirrored the levels of total titanium by ICP-MS, providing good evidence for the latter being a measure of whole particle (titanium dioxide) absorption. This study shows that a fraction of pharmaceutical/food grade titanium dioxide is absorbed systemically by humans following ingestion. It confirms that at least two routes of particle uptake may exist in the human gut- one proximal and one distal. Further work should quantify human exposure and uptake of such persistent particles.

  12. Human Impacts and Climate Change Influence Nestedness and Modularity in Food-Web and Mutualistic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kajihara, Kosuke

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity-non-random structural patterns of ecological networks-influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate. In pollination networks, for instance, nestedness increased and modularity decreased in response to increased human impacts. Modularity in seed-dispersal networks decreased with temperature change (i.e., warming), whereas food web nestedness increased and modularity declined in response to global warming. Although our findings are preliminary owing to data-analysis limitations, they enhance our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecological communities.

  13. Human Impacts and Climate Change Influence Nestedness and Modularity in Food-Web and Mutualistic Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takemoto

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity-non-random structural patterns of ecological networks-influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate. In pollination networks, for instance, nestedness increased and modularity decreased in response to increased human impacts. Modularity in seed-dispersal networks decreased with temperature change (i.e., warming, whereas food web nestedness increased and modularity declined in response to global warming. Although our findings are preliminary owing to data-analysis limitations, they enhance our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecological communities.

  14. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Reynolds, John D; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-05-17

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960-2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km(2) killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6-32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1(st)), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries.

  15. DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandir, Dilek

    2016-08-01

    The use of food additives has increased enormously in modern food technology but they have adverse effects in human healthy. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage of some food additives such as citric acid (CA), benzoic acid (BA), brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY) which were investigated in human male germ cells using comet assay. The sperm cells were incubated with different concentrations of these food additives (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/mL) for 1 h at 32 °C. The results showed for CA, BA, BB and SY a dose dependent increase in tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment in human sperm when compared to control group. When control values were compared in the studied parameters in the treatment concentrations, SY was found to exhibit the highest level of DNA damage followed by BB > BA > CA. However, none of the food additives affected the tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment at 50 and 100 μg/mL. At 200 μg/mL of SY, the tail DNA% and tail length of sperm were 95.80 ± 0.28 and 42.56 ± 4.66, for BB the values were 95.06 ± 2.30 and 39.56 ± 3.78, whereas for BA the values were 89.05 ± 2.78 and 31.50 ± 0.71, for CA the values were 88.59 ± 6.45 and 13.59 ± 2.74, respectively. However, only the highest concentration of the used food additives significantly affected the studied parameters of sperm DNA. The present results indicate that SY and BB are more harmful than BA and CA to human sperm in vitro.

  16. [Current issues regarding organic food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T

    2005-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life.

  17. Analysis of Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s ExpoCast program is developing high throughput (HT) approaches to generate the needed exposure estimates to compare against HT bioactivity data generated from the US inter-agency Tox21 and the US EPA ToxCast programs. Assessing such exposures for the thousands of chemicals in consumer products requires data on product composition. This is a challenge since quantitative product composition data are rarely available. We developed methods to predict the weight fractions of chemicals in consumer products from weight fraction-ordered chemical ingredient lists, and curated a library of such lists from online manufacturer and retailer sites. The probabilistic model predicts weight fraction as a function of the total number of reported ingredients, the rank of the ingredient in the list, the minimum weight fraction for which ingredients were reported, and the total weight fraction of unreported ingredients. Weight fractions predicted by the model compared very well to available quantitative weight fraction data obtained from Material Safety Data Sheets for products with 3-8 ingredients. Lists were located from the online sources for 5148 products containing 8422 unique ingredient names. A total of 1100 of these names could be located in EPA’s HT chemical database (DSSTox), and linked to 864 unique Chemical Abstract Service Registration Numbers (392 of which were in the Tox21 chemical library). Weight fractions were estimated for these 864 CASRN. Using a

  18. Impact of food grade and nano-TiO2 particles on a human intestinal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudefoi, William; Moniz, Kristy; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Walker, Virginia K

    2017-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) are used as an additive (E171 or INS171) in foods such as gum, candy and puddings. To address concerns about the potential hazardous effects of ingested NPs, the toxicity of these food-grade NPs was investigated with a defined model intestinal bacterial community. Each titania preparation (food-grade TiO 2 formulations, E171-1 and E171-6a) was tested at concentrations equivalent to those found in the human intestine after sampling 1-2 pieces of gum or candy (100-250 ppm). At the low concentrations used, neither the TiO 2 food additives nor control TiO 2 NPs had an impact on gas production and only a minor effect on fatty acids profiles (C16:00, C18:00, 15:1 w5c, 18:1 w9c and 18:1 w9c, p < 0.05). DNA profiles and phylogenetic distributions confirmed limited effects on the bacterial community, with a modest decrease in the relative abundance of the dominant Bacteroides ovatus in favor of Clostridium cocleatum (-13% and +14% respectively, p < 0.05). Such minor shifts in the treated consortia suggest that food grade and nano-TiO 2 particles do not have a major effect on human gut microbiota when tested in vitro at relevant low concentrations. However, the cumulative effects of chronic TiO 2 NP ingestion remain to be tested. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learnings from LCA-based methods: should chemicals in food packaging be a priority focus to protect human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Given the scale and variety of human health damage (HHD) caused by food systems, prioritization methods are urgently needed. In this study HHD is estimated for case studies on red meat and sugary sweetened beverages (SSB) packaged in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) due to various relevant health...... impacts. Specifically, we aim to asses if chemicals in food packaging are important to HHD in a life cycle context. The functional unit is "daily consumption of a packaged food per person in the United States." Method developments focus on human toxicity characterization of chemicals migrating from...... packaging into food. Chemicals and their concentrations in HIPS were identified from regulatory lists. A new high-throughput model estimated migration into food, depending on properties of chemicals, packaging, food, and scenario, and HHD was extrapolated following LCA characterization methods. An LCA...

  2. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively...... and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies....

  4. Polyphenol-enriched berry extracts naturally modulate reactive proteins in model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Schneider, Maggie; Devlin, Amy; Plundrich, Nathalie; Laster, Scott; Foegeding, E Allen

    2017-12-13

    Healthy foods like polyphenol-rich berries and high quality edible proteins are in demand in today's functional food marketplace, but it can be difficult to formulate convenient food products with physiologically-relevant amounts of these ingredients and still maintain product quality. In part, this is because proteins can interact with other food ingredients and precipitate destabilizing events, which can disrupt food structure and diminish shelf life. Proteins in foods can also interact with human receptors to provoke adverse consequences such as allergies. When proteins and polyphenols were pre-aggregated into stable colloidal particles prior to use as ingredients, highly palatable food formulations (with reduced astringency of polyphenols) could be prepared, and the overall structural properties of food formulations were significantly improved. All of the nutritive and phytoactive benefits of the proteins and concentrated polyphenols remained highly bioavailable, but the protein molecules in the particle matrix did not self-aggregate into networks or react with other food ingredients. Both the drainage half-life (a marker of structural stability) and the yield stress (resistance to flow) of model foams made with the protein-polyphenol particles were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Of high significance in this complexation process, the reactive allergenic epitopes of certain proteins were effectively blunted by binding with polyphenols, attenuating the allergenicity of the food proteins. Porcine macrophages produced TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine when provoked with whey protein, but, this response was blocked completely when the cells were stimulated with particles that complexed whey protein with cinnamon-derived polyphenols. Cytokine and chemokine production characteristic of allergic reactions were blocked by the polyphenols, allowing for the potential creation of hypoallergenic protein-berry polyphenol enriched foods.

  5. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2018-04-08

    Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical "last resort" antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Enterobacter , which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance-namely KPC ( Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) (class A), IMP (imipenemase), NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase) (class B), and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D)-have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids), together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these "last resort" antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical “last resort” antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter, which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients, carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance—namely KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (class A, IMP (imipenemase, NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (class B, and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D—have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids, together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these “last resort” antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Contamination of Fresh Food Produce of Various Retail Types by Human-Virulent Microsporidian Spores▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Tamang, Leena; Majewska, Anna C.

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrated that fresh food produce, such as berries, sprouts, and green-leafed vegetables, sold at the retail level can contain potentially viable microsporidian spores of human-virulent species, such as Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, at quantities representing a threat of food-borne infection.

  8. Investigating important factors on empowering human resources: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Molaee Ghara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most precious assets for any organization and it is important to empower them as much as possible to create competitive advantage and to cope with rapid changes in organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study on one of food industries in province of Qom, Iran to determine important factors influencing empowering human resources. The proposed study uses factor analysis by choosing a sample of 380 people. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 and validates the overall questionnaire. Based on the results of this survey, there are three important factors including job related, personal related and organizational related issues. The study also uses Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests to rank the factors and the results demonstrate that organizational factor plays the most important role in empowering human resources followed by job related factors and personal factors.

  9. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Steiling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.

  10. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  11. Valorization of postharvest sweet cherry discard for the development of dehydrated fruit ingredients: compositional, physical, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschinis, Lorena; Sette, Paula; Salvatori, Daniela; Schebor, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    Sweet cherries are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, which may contribute to a healthy diet. The objective of this work was to generate dehydrated ingredients from postharvest discard of sweet cherries. Four dried ingredients were obtained from fresh sweet cherry discard (Lapins var.) using an osmotic dehydration pretreatment and freeze drying or air drying. The ingredients showed an important phenolic contribution (2.8-6.6 g gallic acid kg -1 of product) and preserved the natural color of the fruit to a great extent. Freeze-dried ingredients were less hygroscopic than air-dried ones, and presented with a softer texture. All the ingredients were in a supercooled state at room temperature (T g range: -23.0 to -18.8 °C). Sugar infusion pretreatment caused a decrease in water sorption capacity and molecular mobility; it also reduced the initial rehydration rate. Relevant differences in nutritional and structural characteristics of the ingredients were observed depending on the processing method used. These ingredients could be incorporated into different processed foods, such as snacks, cereal mixtures, cereal bars, and bakery and confectionery products. Air-dried control ingredients presented better nutritional qualities and air-dried sweet cherries with sugar infusion pretreatment could be appropriate ingredients for applications where sweet flavor and slow rehydration rate are required. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chrapusta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR, which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.

  13. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapusta, Ewelina; Kaminski, Ariel; Duchnik, Kornelia; Bober, Beata; Adamski, Michal; Bialczyk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials. PMID:29065484

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Chinese five-spice ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in spices were reportedly found to possess high antioxidant capacities (AOCs), which may prevent or reduce risk of human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The potential AOC of Chinese five-spice powder (consist of Szechuan pepper, fennel seed, cinnamon, star anise and clove) with varying proportion of individual spice ingredients was investigated through four standard methods. Our results suggest that clove is the major contributor to the AOC of the five-spice powder whereas the other four ingredients contribute to the flavour. For example, the total phenolic content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values increased linearly with the clove percentage in five-spice powder. This observation opens the door to use clove in other spice mixtures to increase their AOC and flavour. Moreover, linear relationships were also observed between AOC and the total phenolic content of the 32 tested spice samples.

  15. Arsenic and other trace elements in Bangladeshi food and non-food and their relationship to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that over 30 million people are exposed to arsenic from drinking contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh. Furthermore, due to the use of contaminated water for irrigation purposes, arsenic and other toxic elements are entering the food chain of Bangladeshis. In this thesis, the total levels of toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb) and essential elements (Mn, Se, Zn) in 1,120 samples of Bangladeshi foods (including rice, vegetables, fish) and non-foods (betel quid and baked clay) imported...

  16. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation...... as most uncertain aspect in characterization modeling. We analyzed measured half-lives (n=4513) with 95% falling between 0.6 and 29 days. With ~500 pesticides authorized alone in the EU for several hundred crops, however, experimental stud-ies only cover few possible pesticide-crop combinations. Therefore......, we estimated dissipation from measured data and provide reference half-lives for 333 pesticides applied at 20°C under field conditions. Our framework allows for detailed explorations of dietary choices in LCA with respect to human health impacts from pesticide exposure via crop consumption. The next...

  17. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and..., 379e. 0 2. Section 172.381 is added to subpart D to read as follows: Sec. 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers...

  18. The functionality of plum ingredients in meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nathan; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2015-04-01

    Dried plums (prunes) have been marketed to consumers for consumption directly from the package as a convenient snack and have been reported to have broad health benefits. Only recently have fractionated, dried plum ingredients been investigated for their functionality in food and feed products. Dried plum puree, dried plum fiber, dried plum powder, dried plum concentrate, and fresh plum concentrate have been investigated to date. They have been evaluated as fat replacers in baked goods, antioxidants in meat formulations, phosphate replacers in chicken marinades, and antimicrobials in food systems. Overall, dried plum products have been shown to be effective at reducing lipid oxidation and show promise as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. African elephants can use human pointing cues to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-10-21

    How animals gain information from attending to the behavior of others has been widely studied, driven partly by the importance of referential pointing in human cognitive development [1-4], but species differences in reading human social cues remain unexplained. One explanation is that this capacity evolved during domestication [5, 6], but it may be that only those animals able to interpret human-like social cues were successfully domesticated. Elephants are a critical taxon for this question: despite their longstanding use by humans, they have never been domesticated [7]. Here we show that a group of 11 captive African elephants, seven of them significantly as individuals, could interpret human pointing to find hidden food. We suggest that success was not due to prior training or extensive learning opportunities. Elephants successfully interpreted pointing when the experimenter's proximity to the hiding place was varied and when the ostensive pointing gesture was visually subtle, suggesting that they understood the experimenter's communicative intent. The elephant's native ability in interpreting social cues may have contributed to its long history of effective use by man. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human rights dimensions of food, health and care in children's homes in Kampala, Uganda - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Line Erikstad; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Eide, Wenche Barth

    2016-03-18

    More than 14 % of Ugandan children are orphaned and many live in children's homes. Ugandan authorities have targeted adolescent girls as a priority group for nutrition interventions as safeguarding nutritional health before pregnancy can reduce the chance of passing on malnutrition to the offspring and thus future generations. Ugandan authorities have obligations under international human rights law to progressively realise the rights to adequate food, health and care for all Ugandan children. Two objectives guided this study in children's homes: (a) To examine female adolescent residents' experiences, attitudes and views regarding: (i) eating patterns and food, (ii) health conditions, and (iii) care practices; and (b) to consider if the conditions in the homes comply with human rights standards and principles for the promotion of the rights to adequate food, health and care. A human rights-based approach guided the planning and conduct of this study. Five children's homes in Kampala were included where focus group discussions were held with girls aged 12-14 and 15-17 years. These discussions were analysed through a phenomenological approach. The conditions of food, health and care as experienced by the girls, were compared with international standards for the realisation of the human rights to adequate food, health and care. Food, health and care conditions varied greatly across the five homes. In some of these the girls consumed only one meal per day and had no access to clean drinking water, soap, toilet paper and sanitary napkins. The realisation of the right to adequate food for the girls was not met in three homes, the realisation of the right to health was not met in two homes, and the realisation of the right to care was not met in one home. In three of the selected children's homes human rights standards for food, health or care were not met. Care in the children's homes was an important contributing factor for whether standards for the rights to adequate

  1. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  2. Food commodities from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaisma, R.B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Slegers, P.M.; Brentner, L.B.; Roy, A.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of sustainable production of food ingredients from photoautotrophic microalgae was reviewed. Clearly, there is scope for microalgal oils to replace functions of major vegetable oils, and in addition to deliver health benefits to food products. Furthermore, with a limited production

  3. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  4. Use of Microencapsulated Ingredients in Bakery Products: Technological and Nutritional Aspects - Chapter 15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Troise, A.D.; Chiara De Prisco, A.; Mauriello, G.L.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    he quality of bakery products is driven by technological issues influencing sensory, safety, and nutritional features such as food aroma pattern, texture, color, chemical composition, toxicant formation, and shelf life. The use of encapsulated ingredients in bakery product formulation is a smart

  5. Detection of low amount of irradiated ingredients in non-irradiated precooked meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, E; Horvatovich, P; Ndiaye, B; Miesch, M; Hasselmann, C

    The application of the European Standards for the detection of irradiated food by thermo luminescence of silicates, electron-spin resonance spectroscopy of bones or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 2-alkylcyclobutanones does not allow the detection of irradiated ingredients included in small

  6. 9 CFR 355.26 - Samples of certified products, ingredients, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of certified products, ingredients, etc., to be taken for examination. 355.26 Section 355.26 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...

  7. Antibiotic Pollution in Marine Food Webs in Laizhou Bay, North China: Trophodynamics and Human Exposure Implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Zhao, Hongxia; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-02-21

    Little information is available about the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of antibiotics in marine food webs. Here, we investigate the levels and trophic transfer of 9 sulfonamide (SA), 5 fluoroquinolone (FQ), and 4 macrolide (ML) antibiotics, as well as trimethoprim in nine invertebrate and ten fish species collected from a marine food web in Laizhou Bay, North China in 2014 and 2015. All the antibiotics were detected in the marine organisms, with SAs and FQs being the most abundant antibiotics. Benthic fish accumulated more SAs than invertebrates and pelagic fish, while invertebrates exhibited higher FQ levels than fish. Generally, SAs and trimethoprim biomagnified in the food web, while the FQs and MLs were biodiluted. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were 1.2-3.9 for SAs and trimethoprim, 0.3-1.0 for FQs and MLs. Limited biotransformation and relatively high assimilation efficiencies are the likely reasons for the biomagnification of SAs. The pH dependent distribution coefficients (log D) but not the lipophilicity (log K OW ) of SAs and FQs had a significant correlation (r = 0.73; p < 0.05) with their TMFs. Although the calculated estimated daily intakes (EDI) for antibiotics suggest that consumption of seafood from Laizhou Bay is not associated with significant human health risks, this study provides important insights into the guidance of risk management of antibiotics.

  8. Non-human C. difficile Reservoirs and Sources: Animals, Food, Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina; Seyboldt, Christian; Rupnik, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous and is found in humans, animals and in variety of environments. The substantial overlap of ribotypes between all three main reservoirs suggests the extensive transmissions. Here we give the overview of European studies investigating farm, companion and wild animals, food and environments including water, soil, sediment, waste water treatment plants, biogas plants, air and households. Studies in Europe are more numerous especially in last couple of years, but are still fragmented in terms of countries, animal species or type of environment covered. Soil seem to be the habitat of divergent unusual lineages of C. difficile. But the most important aspect of animals and environment is their role in C. difficile transmissions and their potential as a source for human infection is discussed.

  9. Radiation and environment. Study of uranium transfer to humans by the food chain: experiment design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Guzman, F.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Manso, M.V.; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Pereira, J.W.; Helene, O.M.; Araujo, G.W.; Camargo, S.P.; Cestari, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    During years, scientific assessments had considered plants, animal and other living organism as part of the environment in which radionuclides become dispersed. They were further seen as resources which, when contaminated, may contribute to human radiation exposure since some plants and animals are elements of food chains and represent pathways for the transfer of radionuclides to humans. Today, the assessments are development reflected the generally accepted position that priority should be given to evaluating the potential consequences for humans, which are among the most radiosensitive mammalian species. The transfer of radioisotopes from food to humans is still a well debated issue, because experimental results are even scarce. As a contribution to this issue, the Linear Accelerator Laboratory of the Physics Institute at the Sao Paulo University jointed to other institute of Brazil and Cuba development a project for study of uranium in the food-chain: food-animal/vegetables-human. This project involves experimentation with mammalians (wistar rats and beagles dogs), fishes and vegetables, plus extrapolation to humans by means of the General Multiple-Compartments Model. The pilot experiments in animal and vegetables are well described in the paper. As first results were obtained the transfer coefficients of uranium to the organs of animals as a function of the uranium concentration present in the administered food and the transfer coefficients of uranium for each part of the plant, as function of both growing time and uranium concentration in the nutrients solution. With this data it would be possible to evaluate the uranium ingestion by humans from animal products and plants, given their dietary habits, to infer human absorption of uranium associated with prolonged intake of uranium contained in food and estimates the content of uranium transferred to humans organs, thus allowing the evaluation of internally localized doses and the radiobiological damage and

  10. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  11. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul C; Flannery, Brenna; Isitt, Catherine; Ali, Mariyam; Pestka, James

    2012-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M(1), aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.

  12. Influence of food consumption patterns and Galician lifestyle on human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Penalonga, María; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Porto-Arias, Jose Julio; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The proportion of different microbial populations in the human gut is an important factor that in recent years has been linked to obesity and numerous metabolic diseases. Because there are many factors that can affect the composition of human gut microbiota, it is of interest to have information about what is the composition of the gut microbiota in different populations in order to better understand the possibilities for improving nutritional management. A group of 31 volunteers were selected according to established inclusion and exclusion criteria and were asked about their diet history, lifestyle patterns, and adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet. Fecal samples were taken and subsequently analyzed by real-time PCR. The results indicated different dietary patterns for subjects who consumed a higher amount of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and fish and a lower amount of bakery foods and precooked foods and snacks compared to Spanish consumption data. Most participants showed intermediate or high adherence to Southern European Atlantic Diet, and an analysis of gut microbiota showed high numbers of total bacteria and Actinobacteria, as well as high amounts of bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. A subsequent statistical comparison also revealed differences in gut microbiota depending on the subject's body weight, age, or degree of adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet.

  13. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Iain F H

    2005-09-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tones. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalization (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

  14. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purchase, Iain F.H.

    2005-01-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalisation (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies

  15. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purchase, Iain F.H. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalisation (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

  16. Interactive relationship between the mechanical properties of food and the human response during the first bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Haruka; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2007-05-01

    Biting is an action that results from interplay between food properties and the masticatory system. The mechanical factors of food that cause biting adaptation and the recursive effects of modified biting on the mechanical phenomena of food are largely unknown. We examined the complex interaction between the bite system and the mechanical properties. Nine subjects were each given a cheese sample and instructed to bite it once with their molar teeth. An intra-oral bite force-time profile was measured using a tactile pressure-measurement system with a sheet sensor inserted between the molars. Time, force, and impulse for the first peak were specified as intra-oral parameters of the sample fracture. Mechanical properties of the samples were also examined using a universal testing machine at various test speeds. Besides fracture parameters, initial slope was also determined as a mechanical property possibly sensed shortly after bite onset. The bite profile was then examined based on the mechanical parameters. Sample-specific bite velocities were identified as characteristic responses of a human bite. A negative correlation was found between bite velocity and initial slope of the sample, suggesting that the initial slope is the mechanical factor that modifies the consequent bite velocity. The sample-specific bite velocity had recursive effects on the following fracture event, such that a slow velocity induced a low bite force and high impulse for the intra-oral fracture event. We demonstrated that examination of the physiological and mechanical factors during the first bite can provide valuable information about the food-oral interaction.

  17. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  18. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the enviroment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro; Smid, J.H.; Pelt, Van Wilfrid; Bonten, M.J.M.; Fluit, A.C.; Bunt, van den Gerrita; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hordijk, J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Veldman, K.T.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Dohmen, W.; Schmitt, H.; Liakopoulos, A.; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Velthuis, Annet; Heuvelink, A.; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Duijkeren, van E.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Roda Husman, de A.N.; Blaak, H.; Havelaar, A.H.; Mevius, D.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  19. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the environment : a pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-García, Alejandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372621023; Smid, Joost H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313996458; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Bonten, Marc J M; Fluit, Ad C; van den Bunt, Gerrita; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Hordijk, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839542; Dierikx, Cindy M; Veldman, Kees T; de Koeijer, Aline; Dohmen, Wietske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333690451; Schmitt, Heike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831042; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, Theo J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Velthuis, Annet G J; Heuvelink, Annet; Gonggrijp, Maaike A; van Duijkeren, Engeline; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281; Blaak, Hetty; Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Mevius, Dik J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; Heederik, Dick J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  20. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment