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Sample records for human fetuses exhibit

  1. Prescient human fetuses thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Fetal detection of adversity is a conserved trait that allows many species to adapt their early developmental trajectories to ensure survival. According to the fetal-programming model, exposure to stressful or hostile conditions in utero is associated with compromised development and a lifelong risk of adverse health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, we examined the consequences of prenatal and postnatal exposure to adversity for infant development. We found increased motor and mental development during the 1st year of life among infants whose mothers experienced congruent levels of depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy, even when the levels of symptoms were relatively high and the prenatal and postnatal environments were unfavorable. Congruence between prenatal and postnatal environments prepares the fetus for postnatal life and confers an adaptive advantage for critical survival functions during early development.

  2. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  3. Echocardiography in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of this study were as follows. The first objective was to assess and review current non-invasive methods of studying normal and abnormal human fetal cardiac morphology and function. A discussion of the four currently used ultrasonic techniques to define fetal cardiac anato

  4. Echocardiography in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of this study were as follows. The first objective was to assess and review current non-invasive methods of studying normal and abnormal human fetal cardiac morphology and function. A discussion of the four currently used ultrasonic techniques to define fetal

  5. Hypothalamus of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutcherov, Yuri; Mai, Jürgen K; Paxinos, George

    2003-12-01

    The organization of the human hypothalamus was studied in 31 brains aged from 9 weeks of gestation (w.g.) to newborn, using immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptideY, neurophysin, growth associated protein GAP43, synaptophysin and glycoconjugate, 3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine. Morphogenetic periods 9-10 and 11-14 w.g. are characterized by differentiating structures of the lateral hypothalamic zone, which give rise to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and posterior hypothalamus. The perifornical nucleus differentiates at 18 w.g., from LH neurons which remain anchored in the perifornical position while most of the LH cells are displaced laterally. A transient supramamillary nucleus was apparent at 14 w.g. but not after 16 w.g. As the ventromedial nucleus differentiated at 13-16 w.g., three principal parts; the ventrolateral, the dorsomedial and the shell were revealed by distribution of calbindin, calretinin and GAP43 immunoreactivity. Morphogenetic periods 15-17, 18-23 and 24-33 w.g. are characterized by differentiation of the hypothalamic core, in which calbindin positive neurons revealed the medial preoptic nucleus at 16 w.g. abutted laterally by the intermediate nucleus. The dorsomedial nucleus was clearly defined at 10 w.g. and consisted of compact and diffuse parts, an organization that was lost after 15 w.g. Differentiation of the medial mamillary body into lateral and medial was seen at 13-16 w.g. Morphogenetic period after 34 w.g. was marked by differentiation of midline zone structures including suprachiasmatic, arcuate and paraventricular nuclei. The findings of the present study provide for a better understanding of the structural organization of the adult human hypothalamus, produce new evidence for homologies with the better studied rat hypothalamus and underpin staging system for fetal human hypothalamic development.

  6. Pain assessment in human fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio

    2012-09-01

    In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20-22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

  7. Pituitary gland and sella turcica in human trisomy 18 fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, I; Keeling, J W; Reintoft, I; Hjalgrim, H; Nolting, D; Fischer Hansen, B

    1998-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the phenotypic conditions in the sella turcica/pituitary gland complex in human trisomy 18 fetuses. Fourteen human fetuses with gestational ages from 12 to 39 weeks were included in the study. Normal fetuses at corresponding ages were used as controls. Whole body and special radiographic examination was undertaken before the midsagittal cranial base block, including the pituitary gland, was excised and analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically (keratin wide spectrum [KWS], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and neurophysin [Nph]). In all trisomy 18 fetuses, TSH-positive adenopituitary tissue was present in the sella and in greater or lesser amounts pharyngeally. The neurohypophysis was Nph-positive and located normally in the sella turcica. The adenohypophyseal tissue reacted either KWS-faint or KWS-negative, whereas KWS-positive reaction occurs in normal fetuses. This circumstance might suggest an altered cytoskeletal structure of the surface ectoderm in the pituitary placode in trisomy 18. The sella turcica was malformed in all the fetuses. Very broad craniopharyngeal canals were observed in some of the fetuses. Because endocrine disorders occur in many congenital malformations, it is essential in future studies to chart the sella turcica/pituitary gland region systematically in different genotypes.

  8. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  9. Doppler velocity assessment of venous return in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W.A. Huisman (Tjeerd)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractStudies in the human fetus are limited by the methods available for investigation. Pressure and volume flow measurements in the fetal cardiovascular system require invasive techniques that are not performed at present. However, information on fetal circulatory performance may be helpful

  10. Autonomous adrenocorticotropin reaction to stress stimuli in human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Bartkowiak, Robert; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether human fetuses show ACTH response to stress stimuli, to define the gestational age from which these reactions may be present and to analyze the relationship between hormone concentrations and their changes, both in fetuses and in pregnant women. The study included 81 intrauterine transfusions carried out in 19 pregnant women. 52 procedures were performed directly into the umbilical vein, which is not innervated, so neutral for the fetus (the PCI group) and 29 transfusions into the intrahepatic vein -which puncture is stressful for the fetus (the IHV group). ACTH and cortisol concentrations in fetal and maternal plasma obtained during the procedures were assayed. The initial mean plasma ACTH concentration in the PCI group equaled 18.94pg/mL, but in the IHV group it was significantly higher and amounted 75.17pg/mL (p0.05) and in the PCI group (22.36pg/mL, p>0.05). The observed hormonal response in the IHV group proves the existence of fetal pituitary reaction to stress. The initial fetal ACTH concentration in the IHV group correlated with the number of transfusions performed on a single fetus (R=0.41; p=0.04). No correlation with parity, gestational weeks or the volume of transfused packed red blood cells was found. There was also no correlation between fetal and maternal ACTH concentrations in any group. Presented data suggest that the human fetus shows autonomous ACTH reaction to stress stimulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vagal tone during quiet sleep in normal human term fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, L J; Mooney, D M; Bentz, L S; Wilson, J D

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to calculate vagal tone (V) for 17 normal human fetuses in quiet sleep (QS) between 36 and 40 weeks gestation. The fetal cardiac electrical signal was captured transabdominally in 3-min blocks at a rate of 833 times per second and fetal R-waves were extracted using adaptive signal processing techniques. Fetal R-wave interbeat intervals were converted to equally spaced, time-based data, and the low-frequency component was removed using a 21-point third-order moving polynomial. The parameter V was calculated by taking the natural logarithm of the sum of the power densities between 0.3 Hz and 1.3 Hz. We found that fetal breathing was associated with an approximately 25% increase in V as compared to nonbreathing, 3.33 +/- 0.48 versus 2.57 +/- 0.47, p < 0.0001. Furthermore, there was a significant linear relationship between the mean single-fetus V during spontaneous respiration and the mean single-fetus V during normally occurring apneic periods, r = 0.772, p < 0.002. We conclude that respiratory activity is associated with a significant increase in vagal tone for normal human fetuses in QS.

  12. MYSTERIES OF THE HUMAN FETUS REVEALED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A

    2015-09-01

    The impressive program of research from the DiPietro laboratory succeeds in its aim to document the ontogeny of human fetal neurobehavioral development. From studies of great depth and breadth, and wielding creative methods of assessment, DiPietro et al. open a window into the largely inaccessible developing human fetal brain. This commentary, with reference to the seminal cardiovascular studies of the Laceys, supports the measures of the fetal heart to index fetal well-being and to provide evidence of stimulus processing. A separate case is made that the DiPietro program provides unique and invaluable information for assessing the influential Developmental Origins of Health and Disease or Fetal Programming Models. The goal of these models, to predict or understand the influences of early experience or response patterns on later postnatal life, is identical to the ultimate goal of the DiPietro program. Because human fetal behavior is uncontaminated by socialization or parenting or peers, it may be the best reflection of fetal exposures. The remarkable neurobehavioral profiles generated by the DiPietro program can make a critical contribution to the Fetal Programming Model in terms of sensitive and critical periods of nervous system vulnerability and to specify gestational periods of neurobehavioral risk. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

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    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  14. Anatomohistological characteristics of Meckel's diverticulum in human fetuses

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    Pavlović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meckel's diverticulum (MD is the most frequent anomaly of the small intestine. It appears after incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric or viteline duct which normally obliterates and disappears by the 9th week of gestation. The majority of MD do not give rise to any clinical symptoms and are encounted either incidentally, at examination or intervention, or due to complications which may occur (obstruction, hemorrhagy, rupture, and are described in many clinical reports. The aim of the study was to find out the incidence of MD in fetuses when the development of the alimentary tract is already finished. Methods. The investigation was performed on 150 human fetuses of different sex and gastational age, using microdissection method. The cases with MD were photographed, described, their positions and dimensions were registered. The samples of MD taken for histological investigation were dyed with hematoksilin eosin method. Results. Meckel's diverticulum was found in five fetuses (three male and two female; in one case the fibrous band was found. All of them were located on animesenteric margine of the small intestine at the average distance of 92.5 mm from the ileocecal junction. They were of different shape and dimensions, but of the normal constitution of the small intestine. Conclusion. The incidence of MD was 3.3%, and 4% of all the anomalies of the intestines connected to the disappearance of the viteline duct. It was more frequent in the male, located on antimesenteric margine of the small intestine, at the destination which highly correlated to the age of the fetus. Meckel's diverticule were of different shapes and dimensions but of the typical constitution of the small intestine. .

  15. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  16. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  17. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Szpinda; Waldemar Siedlaczek; Anna Szpinda; Alina Woźniak; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska; Mateusz Badura

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagit...

  18. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56±0.08 and 0.52±0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74±0.09 to 0.92±0.08 and from 0.56±0.07 to 0.79±0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41±0.23 to 1.66±0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27±0.17 to 1.48±0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  19. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16-25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  20. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  1. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided in

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in the second-trimester human fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    midtrimester human fetuses with a gestational age ranging from 13 to 22 weeks. The first detectable EGF immunoreactivity occurred in week 15-16 fetuses in the placenta, the skin, the distal tubules of the kidney, the surface epithelium of the stomach, and the tips of the small intestinal villi, as well...

  3. A review of approaches to the detection of genetic damage in the human fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, R B

    1987-01-01

    Studies in experimental animals suggest links between genetic damage to the fetus and the etiology of several disorders, including fetal loss, teratogenesis, and cancer. Methods for measuring genetic damage directly in the human fetus could provide epidemiologists and clinical researchers with powerful tools for investigating similar associations in humans. Current methods potentially available for such studies include assays for mutagenic substances in human body fluids and for measuring mod...

  4. Relations of Facial Nerve With Retromandibular Vein in Human Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvan, Özlem; Gilan, Yağmurhan; Beger, Orhan; Bobuş, Alev; Tezer, Mesut; Aktekin, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    The relationship of facial nerve (FN) and its branches with the retromandibular vein (RMV) has been described in adults, whereas there is no data in the literature regarding this relationship in fetuses. The study was conducted to evaluate the anatomic relationships of these structures on 61 hemi-faces of fetuses with a mean age of 26.5 ± 4.9 weeks with no visible facial abnormalities. The FN trunk was identified at its emergence at the stylomastoid foramen. It was traced till its ramification within the parotid gland. In 46 sides, FN trunk ramified before crossing RMV and ran lateral to it, while in 8 sides FN trunk ramified on the lateral aspect of the RMV. In 3 sides, FN trunk ramified after crossing the RMV at its medial aspect. In only 1 side, FN trunk trifurcated as superior, middle, and inferior divisions and RMV lied anterior to FN trunk, lateral to superior division, medial to middle and inferior divisions. In 2 sides, FN trunk bifurcated as superior and inferior divisions. Retromandibular vein was located anterior to FN trunk, medial to superior division, lateral to inferior division in both of them. In 1 side, RMV ran medial to almost all branches, except the cervical branch of FN. Variability in the relationship of FN and RMV in fetuses as presented in this study is thought to be crucial in surgical procedures particularly in early childhood.

  5. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

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    Kjaer, I. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, B.F. [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital (Denmark); Keeling, J.W. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 expression in human ovaries from fetuses, girls, and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Sima; Abir, Ronit; Felz, Carmela; Nitke, Shmuel; Krissi, Haim; Fisch, Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    To investigate, for the first time, the protein expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 in human ovaries from fetuses, girls/women as well as its mRNA transcripts in ovaries from fetuses and girls. Controlled immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study of expression of BMP-15 protein and mRNA transcripts in human ovaries. Major tertiary care academic center. Nine patients that underwent pregnancy terminations at 21-33 gestational weeks and 18 girls and women aged 5-39 years that underwent ovarian laparoscopies. None. Immunohistochemistry (protein detection) in all specimens and in situ hybridization (mRNA detection) in specimens from fetuses and girls. Both procedures were conducted on paraffin sections. The expression of the BMP-15 protein and its mRNA was identified already from primordial stages. Protein expression was detected in all oocytes and stroma cells from both ovarian sources, and in granulosa cells of specimens from girls and women. The mRNA transcripts were detected in the oocyte, granulosa, and stroma cells from fetuses and girls. The BMP-15 protein is expressed already at primordial stages in fetuses, girls, and women, and its mRNA transcripts in fetuses and girls. Further studies should be conducted to elucidate if indeed BMP-15 is involved in the activation of human primordial follicles.

  7. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  8. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  9. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  10. Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and PCR in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Infection in Tissues of Human Aborted Fetuses

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    Bahador Sarkari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoa that infect humans and a wide range of mammalians and birds [1]. The infection is particularly important in women when they acquire the infection for the first time during their pregnancy where an intrauterine transmission of the parasite may occur. Effective prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis can permit a decision to terminate the pregnancy at the early stage or initiate the treatment of late-term fetus in uterus. Prenatal diagnosis is commonly performed based on biological and serological tests on fetal blood and amniotic fluid, and ultrasonographic examination of fetus [2].

  11. Development of synovial membrane in the temporomandibular joint of the human fetus

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    L.O. Carvalho de Moraes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities.

  12. Development of synovial membrane in the temporomandibular joint of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Moraes, L O; Tedesco, R C; Arraez-Aybar, L A; Klein, O; Mérida-Velasco, J R; Alonso, L G

    2015-11-26

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities.

  13. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the total number of cells in the cortical part of the cerebral wall is the same in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses, compared with normally grown fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: The total cell number in the cerebral wall...... with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  14. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, C.; Tu, Z.C.; Patrick, M.; Stiles, T.; Lawson, A.J.; Santovenia, M.; Gilbert, M.J.; Bergen, von M.; Joyce, K.; Pruckler, J.; Stroika, S.; Duim, B.; Miller, W.G.; Loparev, V.; Sinnige, J.C.; Fields, P.I.; Tauxe, R.V.; Blaser, M.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like strains from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). The results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and genomic data from sap analysis, 16S rRNA gene and hsp60

  15. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  16. Low levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone during early pregnancy are associated with precocious maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A

    2008-01-01

    Elevation in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) during the last trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Less is known about the consequences for the human fetus exposed to high levels of pCRH early in pregnancy. pCRH levels were measured in 138 pregnant women at least once at 15, 20 and 25 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to a startling vibroacoustic stimulus (VAS) were recorded as an index of maturity. pCRH levels at 15 weeks of gestation, but at no later point, predicted FHR responses to the VAS. Fetuses exposed to the lowest concentrations of pCRH at 15 weeks of gestation exhibited a distinguishable response to the VAS, whereas fetuses exposed to higher levels of pCRH did not respond. The findings suggest that exposure to low levels of pCRH early in gestation may be optimal and associated with a response pattern indicating greater maturity. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Low Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Precocious Maturation of the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevation in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) during the last trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Less is known about the consequences for the human fetus exposed to high levels of pCRH early in pregnancy. pCRH levels were measured in 138 pregnant women at least once at 15, 20 and 25 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to a startling vibroacoustic stimulus (VAS) were recorded as an index of maturity. pCRH levels at 15 weeks of gestation, but at no later point, predicted FHR responses to the VAS. Fetuses exposed to the lowest concentrations of pCRH at 15 weeks of gestation exhibited a distinguishable response to the VAS, whereas fetuses exposed to higher levels of pCRH did not respond. The findings suggest that exposure to low levels of pCRH early in gestation may be optimal and associated with a response pattern indicating greater maturity. PMID:19127063

  18. Morphological characterization of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and its association to pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gabriel Moreira FALCI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nasopalatine region is composed of structures such as the vomeronasal organ and nasopalatine duct. The nasopalatine duct may provide the communication of the mouth to the nasal cavity in human fetuses and can be obliterated in an adult human. Knowledge on the development of the nasopalatine region and nasopalatine duct in humans is necessary for understanding the morphology and etiopathogenesis of lesions that occur in this region. Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the morphological aspects of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and correlate these aspects with the development of pathologies in this region. Material and Methods Five human fetuses with no facial or palatine abnormalities were used for the acquisition of specimens from the nasopalatine region. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed. Histological cuts were stained with methylene blue to orient the cutting plane and hematoxylin-eosin for the descriptive histological analysis. Results The age of the fetuses was 8.00, 8.25, 9.00 and 9.25 weeks, and it was not possible to determine the age in the last one. The incisive canal was observed in all specimens as an opening delimited laterally by the periosteum and connecting oral and nasal cavity. The nasopalatine duct is an epithelial structure with the greatest morphological variation, with either unilateral or bilateral occurrence and total patent, partial patent and islet forms. The vomeronasal organ is a bilateral epithelized structure located alongside the nasal septum above the incisive canal in all the fetuses. Conclusions The incisive canal, nasopalatine duct and vomeronasal organ are distinct anatomic structures. The development of nasopalatine duct cysts may occur in all forms of the nasopalatine duct.

  19. Changes of Fluctuating Asymmetry with Age in Human Fetuses and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Van Dongen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA, increases with stress in humans, yet little is known about how stress affects the changes of asymmetry with age. More specifically, it is unknown if fetuses experiencing a major congenital abnormality will express higher FA already during early development or only at a later age; (2 Methods: We combine two datasets to study associations between age and asymmetry in human fetuses and young infants. One population consists of fetuses from spontaneous abortions and early deceased infants where many experienced major congenital abnormalities, and a second from elicited abortions for social reasons; (3 Results: While the occurrence of major abnormalities did not seem to affect the way asymmetry decreased with age, differences between the two populations were observed; and (4 Conclusions: In one population where fetuses and young infants deceased of natural causes, asymmetry decreased rapidly until 20 weeks of age and then leveled off. Over the entire timespan (week 15–49, individuals with major congenital abnormalities showed higher FA, suggesting that developmental perturbations increase FA rapidly. In the second, more normal population with abortions solicited for social reasons, the decrease in asymmetry with age was less profound and not statistically significant, calling for further research toward understanding regional differences.

  20. Upregulated and prolonged differentiation potential of the ependymal cells lining the ventriculus terminalis in human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Yong; Cho, Byung Pil; Choi, Byoung Young; Yang, Young Chul; Lee, Bong Hee; Lim, Chang Kyo; Kang, Ho Suck

    2005-09-23

    The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a dilated cavity within the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. Although the VT was discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, little is known about its characteristics during development in human fetuses. Ependymal cells lining the cavities within the CNS retain high differentiation potential, and are believed to be responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis. To evaluate the differentiation capacity of the ependymal cells lining the VT during development, we examined glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the spinal cord of 18-24-week-old human fetuses. GFAP is a marker for the degree of ependymal cell differentiation in the human fetus, and PCNA is a well-known marker for cell division. Morphological characteristics of the VT were also examined. At the lower portion of the conus medullaris, the central canal abruptly expands dorsally to become the VT. Then the VT widens bilaterally while its anteroposterior diameter reduces gradually in a caudal direction. Finally, the VT becomes a narrow, transverse slit at the level of the lowermost conus medullaris. Compared with those lining the central canal, more numerous ependymal cells lining the VT showed more intensive GFAP and PCNA expression throughout all gestational ages examined. This suggests that, in the developing human spinal cord, ependymal cells lining the VT retain their differentiation potential, including a higher proliferative capacity, until a later stage of development than those lining the central canal.

  1. Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Kędzia, Wojciech; Kędzia, Emilia; Kędzia, Alicja; Derkowski, Wojciech

    2016-07-08

    The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses-rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length-CRL (V-TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size-age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz's I and II and von Bertalanffy's function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz's models.

  2. Developmental morphology of the human fetus kidney : Observation by light and electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The author observed the human fetus kidney at the fetal age of 3 weeks, 5 weeks and 6 month in utero by means of light and electron microscope in order to add some new findings to the already known knowledge. Especially, the metanephros, metanephric blastema, nephrogenic zone of the cortex and blood-urine barrier which consists of glomerulus, capillary vessel, basement membrane, podocyte and mesangium cells are observed and then physiological significance of the kidney are also discussed. On ...

  3. Morphometric Development of Sphincter of Oddi in Human Fetuses During Fetal Period: Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hilal Evcil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, morphometric developments of the sphincter of Oddi in human fetuses were observed. Material and Methods: We observed 113 human fetuses consisting of 67 male and 46 female subjects, whose ages varied between 14 to 40 weeks who showed no signs of any pathology or anomaly externally. The common external measurements of fetuses were carried out, followed by abdominal dissection to determine where the sphincters of Oddi were localized within the duodenum and pancreas. Histological specimens of tissue samples were gathered from the inner wall of the duodenum where it was assumed that the sphincters of Oddi had been localized. The parameters of total external diameters, lumen diameters, wall thickness, diameters of ductus choledochus and ductus pancreaticus, and the distance between these two structures, which are also known as the origins of the sphincter of Oddi, were measured by using a light microscope. The standard deviations of the measurements were calculated for each gestational week and trimester. Results: The calculations suggested that there were statistically significant correlations between gestational age and all of the other parameters with the exception of the ductus choledochus (p0.05.Conclusion: The data we collected in our study were considered as useful for the evaluation of the development of the sphincter of Oddi area and fetal stage.

  4. 3-D reconstruction of a human fetus with combined holoprosencephaly and cyclopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiselbach Veronika

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine a human fetus with combined holoprosencephaly and cyclopia by means of histology and 3-D reconstruction to determine the internal structure and extent of the malformation. Methods The head from a human fetus at 20 weeks gestation and a diagnosis of holoprosencephaly and cyclopia was investigated histologically and three-dimensionally reconstructed with CAD techniques. The cranial bones, blood vessels, nerves, eye and brain anlagen were reconstructed. Results The 3-D reconstruction revealed both severe malformation and absence of the facial midline bones above the maxilla, and a malformation of the maxilla and sphenoid bone. The mandible, posterior cranial bones, cranial nerves and blood vessels were normal. A synophthalmic eye with two lenses was found. The prosencephalon was a single small protrusion above the diencephalon. No nasal cavity was present. Above the single eye a proboscis was found. Conclusion The absence of the facial midline bones above the maxilla and the presence of a proboscis as a nose-like structure above the cyclopic eye both mean that there was a developmental defect in the fronto-nasal facial process of this fetus.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in the second-trimester human fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is considered to be important in mammalian neonatal growth and development. In order to clarify its developmental role, we have investigated, by immunohistochemistry, the localization of EGF and the time of its first appearance in various organs from a series of 25...... midtrimester human fetuses with a gestational age ranging from 13 to 22 weeks. The first detectable EGF immunoreactivity occurred in week 15-16 fetuses in the placenta, the skin, the distal tubules of the kidney, the surface epithelium of the stomach, and the tips of the small intestinal villi, as well...... as in a few Paneth cells. Glandular structures, such as the glands of the cardia and the pyloric part of the stomach, Brunner's glands of the duodenum, the pancreas, and the submucous glands of the trachea, showed positive EGF immunoreactivity later (week 17). Thus, apart from the kidney, staining...

  6. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular...... and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....... retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically...

  7. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Cortical Sulcus Development in the Human Fetus between 18 and 41 Weeks of Gestation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheng-Li Li Guo-Yang LUO Errol R Norwitz Shu-Yuan Ouyang Hua-Xuan Wen Ying Yuan Xiao-Xian Tian Jia-Min He Xi Chen

    2017-01-01

    .... This study aimed to explore a reliable method to assess cortical sulcus and to describe the normal sonographic features of cortical sulcus development in the human fetus between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation. Methods...

  8. Intrinsic functional brain architecture derived from graph theoretical analysis in the human fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E Thomason

    Full Text Available The human brain undergoes dramatic maturational changes during late stages of fetal and early postnatal life. The importance of this period to the establishment of healthy neural connectivity is apparent in the high incidence of neural injury in preterm infants, in whom untimely exposure to ex-uterine factors interrupts neural connectivity. Though the relevance of this period to human neuroscience is apparent, little is known about functional neural networks in human fetal life. Here, we apply graph theoretical analysis to examine human fetal brain connectivity. Utilizing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 33 healthy human fetuses, 19 to 39 weeks gestational age (GA, our analyses reveal that the human fetal brain has modular organization and modules overlap functional systems observed postnatally. Age-related differences between younger (GA <31 weeks and older (GA≥31 weeks fetuses demonstrate that brain modularity decreases, and connectivity of the posterior cingulate to other brain networks becomes more negative, with advancing GA. By mimicking functional principles observed postnatally, these results support early emerging capacity for information processing in the human fetal brain. Current technical limitations, as well as the potential for fetal fMRI to one day produce major discoveries about fetal origins or antecedents of neural injury or disease are discussed.

  9. Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus toward the right atrium is associated with a worse outcome despite a higher rate of invasive procedures in human fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressig, R; Fimmers, R; Schaible, T; Degenhardt, J; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Kohl, T

    2013-12-01

    Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus (DV) toward the right atrium has been observed in fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (LDH). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates to discharge between a group with preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart and a group in which this abnormal flow pattern was not present. We retrospectively searched our patient records for fetuses with LDH in whom liver position, DV streaming and postnatal outcome information was available. 55 cases were found and divided into two groups: Group I fetuses exhibited abnormal DV streaming toward the right side of the heart; group II fetuses did not. Various prognostic and outcome parameters were compared. 62 % of group I fetuses and 88 % of group II fetuses survived to discharge (p = 0.032). Fetoscopic tracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) was performed in 66 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II fetuses (p = 0.003). Postnatal ECMO therapy was performed in 55 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II infants (p = 0.025). Moderate to severe chronic lung disease in survivors was observed in 56 % of the survivors of group I and 9 % of the survivors of group II (p = 0.002). Preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart in human fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was associated with a poorer postnatal outcome despite a higher rate of invasive pre- and postnatal procedures compared to fetuses without this flow abnormality. Specifically, abnormal DV streaming was found to be an independent predictor for FETO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-02-24

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using ultrasound (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  11. Amino acid metabolism in the human fetus at term: leucine, valine, and methionine kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Chris H P; Schierbeek, Henk; Minderman, Gardi; Vermes, Andras; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M; Duvekot, Johannes J; Steegers, Eric A P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2011-12-01

    Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received before elective cesarean section at term, continuous stable isotope infusions of the essential amino acids [1-13C,15N]leucine, [U-13C5]valine, and [1-13C]methionine. Umbilical blood was collected after birth and analyzed for enrichments and concentrations using mass spectrometry techniques. Fetuses showed considerable leucine, valine, and methionine uptake and high turnover rates. α-Ketoisocaproate, but not α-ketoisovalerate (the leucine and valine ketoacids, respectively), was transported at net rate from the fetus to the placenta. Especially, leucine and valine data suggested high oxidation rates, up to half of net uptake. This was supported by relatively low α-ketoisocaproate reamination rates to leucine. Our data suggest high protein breakdown and synthesis rates, comparable with, or even slightly higher than in premature infants. The relatively large uptakes of total leucine and valine carbon also suggest high fetal oxidation rates of these essential branched chain amino acids.

  12. Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China[Guangzheu] International Trade Fair for Home Textiles Date:March 18th- March 21st,2011 Venue:China Import and Export Fair Complex(Guangzhou,China) Organizers:China National Textile&Apparel Council China Foreign Trade Center(Group) China Home Textile Association China Foreign Trade Guangzhou Exhibition Corp.

  13. An aborted human fetus with truncus arteriosus communis--possible teratogenic effect of Tedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, R; Gilbert, E F; Bruyers, H; Optiz, J M

    1985-08-01

    We recently performed a detailed anatomicopathologic examination on an aborted human embryo whose mother had taken four tablets of Tedral (one tablet of Tedral contains 130 mg theophylline, 25 mg ephedrine, 8 mg phenobarbital) for an upper respiratory tract infection when the embryo was at approximately 30 days of development. On the same day, the mother developed acute chest pain and a fast, irregular heart beat. The abortion occurred at approximately 80 days of gestation. The heart of the fetus showed truncus arteriosus (Van Praagh type A1). Although no direct cause and effect relationship was proven in this case, the possibility of a teratogenic effect of Tedral during early pregnancy is considered.

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  16. Development and distribution of mast cells and neuropeptides in human fetus duodenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Chen; Xue-Mei Jia; You-Su Jia; Xiao-Rong Chen; Hui-Zhu Wang; Wei-Qin Qi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the developmental regularities and heterogeneity of mast cells (MC) in human fetus duodenum and the distribution and developmental regularities of substance P(SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (IR) peptidergic nerves in fetus duodenum,as well as the relationship between MC, SP and CGRP- IR peptidergic nerves.METHODS: Duodena from 21 cases of human fetus and one term infant were stained by hematoxylin-eosin (HE),toluidine blue (TB) and immunohistochemical avidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex (ABC) method.RESULTS: Lobe-shape intestinal villi in duodenum were already developed at the twelfth week. At the 21st wk,muscular mucosa appeared gradually, and four layers were observed in the wall of duodenum. TB staining showed that the granules in the immature MC were pale violet,while the mature MC were strong violet in color by TB staining. Connective tissue MC (CTMC) appeared occasionally in submucosa and muscular layer of duodenum at the16th wk. While the mucosa MC (MMC) appeared at the18th wk. At the 22nd wk, both CTMC and MMC were activated, and distributed in the surrounding blood vessels and ganglions. The verge of some MC were unclear, and showed degranular phenomena. At the 14th wk, SP and CGRP-IR nerve fibers and cells appeared in the myenteric and submucous plexuses in small intestine, and the responses were turn strongly. Neurons were light to deep brown, and nerve fibers were present as varicose and liner profiles. On the corresponding site of serial sections, SP and CGRP immunohistochemical reactions were coexisted in one nerve fiber or cell. Some of MC showed SP and CGRP-IR positive staining.CONCLUSION: There are two heterogeneous kinds of MC in duodenum, MMC and CTMC. MC might play an important role in regulating blood circulation and sensation.

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  18. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    for nonmacerated fetuses and for mildly, moderately, and markedly macerated fetuses at 12 to 43 weeks of gestation. Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 1800 fetal and perinatal autopsies. Cases with malformations, hydrops, infection, or chromosomal abnormality, fetuses from multiple births...... increased slightly with maceration, whereas body weight and head circumference were unaffected. User-friendly charts and tables of mean values and standard deviations for nonmacerated and macerated fetuses are provided....

  19. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...

  20. Extensive epigenetic reprogramming in human somatic tissues between fetus and adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ryan KC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of human tissue is influenced by a combination of intrinsic biological signals and extrinsic environmental stimuli, both of which are mediated by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation. However, little is currently known of the normal acquisition or loss of epigenetic markers during fetal and postnatal development. Results The DNA methylation status of over 1000 CpGs located in the regulatory regions of nearly 800 genes was evaluated in five somatic tissues (brain, kidney, lung, muscle and skin from eight normal second-trimester fetuses. Tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs were identified in 195 such loci. However, comparison with corresponding data from trisomic fetuses (five trisomy 21 and four trisomy 18 revealed relatively few DNA methylation differences associated with trisomy, despite such conditions having a profound effect on development. Of interest, only 17% of the identified fetal tDMRs were found to maintain this same tissue-specific DNA methylation in adult tissues. Furthermore, 10% of the sites analyzed, including sites associated with imprinted genes, had a DNA methylation difference of >40% between fetus and adult. This plasticity of DNA methylation over development was further confirmed by comparison with similar data from embryonic stem cells, with the most altered methylation levels being linked to domains with bivalent histone modifications. Conclusions Most fetal tDMRs seem to reflect transient DNA methylation changes during development rather than permanent epigenetic signatures. The extensive tissue-specific and developmental-stage specific nature of DNA methylation will need to be elucidated to identify abnormal patterns of DNA methylation associated with abnormal development or disease.

  1. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  2. [Morphology of the ganglion cervicale superius in human fetuses and an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, I; Tanuma, K; Suzuki, K

    1993-10-01

    Morphology of the ganglion cervicale superius (GCS) was studied on 16 sides of 10 human fetuses and the 2 sides of an adult cadaver with a binocular stereomicroscope. The obtained results were as follows. GCS is fusiform on 8 sides, takes the form of an eggplant on 3 sides, and is weakly constricted on 7 sides. The GCS was symmetrical in 2 cases. The GCS lay slightly above the first cervical vertebra and extended downward to the superior half of the second cervical vertebra on 11 sides of fetuses. The level in the adult is lower than in the fetuses by one vertebra. The nervus caroticus internus (CI), originating from the superior pole of the GCS as a cephalic prolongation, comprises one bundle on 14 sides, and splits into 2 bundles in the original position on 4 sides. The Nn. carotici externi (CE) arise from the medial part of the superior half of the GCS with several roots (the average number of roots: 3.4) on 17 sides. The CE communicates with the Rami pharyngei of the N. vagus and the N. laryngeus superior. The Rr. laryngopharyngei arise from CE on many sides. The N. jugularis originates from the laterosuperior side of GCS with one to three branches. On a few sides, the N. jugularis communicates with the N. vagus and the N. hypoglossus. The communicating branch between the Ggl. inferius of the N. vagus and the GCS was observed in all cases. The communicating branch between the R. ventralis of the Nn. cervicales and GCS is found in all sides, and the lower limit of the branch is at the ansa from C3 to C4. The Rr. laryngopharyngei (RL) arise from the medial part of the GCS with several branches near the CE, or it may arise from the CE or from both the GCS and the CE, and join with the N. laryngeus superior (laryngeal branch of RL:RL1), the Plexus pharyngeus (pharyngeal branch of RL:RL2) and CE (RL1 and RL2). It is found in a few sides that RL directly extends to the pharyngeal and laryngeal portions. The N. cardiacus cervicalis superior (CS), which originates from

  3. Topography of the femoral nerve in relation to components of the iliopsoas muscle in human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, M

    1991-01-01

    Studies were performed on 60 human fetuses of both sexes of 35 to 365 mm C.-R. length (9-40 weeks). The psoas minor muscle was found in 25.8% of cases independently of sex and body side. In 6.45% of cases the muscle continued into psoas major muscle by short, weakly developed tendon. In 97.5% of studied fetuses junctions between tendons of psoas major and iliacus muscles was observed. In 2.5% of cases an independent, short tendon was found in the half of length of the iliacus muscle. In 7.5% of cases connection between the psoas major and iliacus muscles was found. In all cases femoral nerve originated from the lumbar plexus between two layers of the psoas major muscle and it ran in the groove between the psoas major and iliacus muscles towards the muscular lacuna. In 5.0% of cases the nerve divided into crura. In 2.5% of cases the crura embraced anteriorly and posteriorly bundles of the psoas major muscle as well as in 2.5% of cases bundles of the iliacus muscle.

  4. Intrinsic functional brain architecture derived from graph theoretical analysis in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Brown, Jesse A; Dassanayake, Maya T; Shastri, Rupal; Marusak, Hilary A; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The human brain undergoes dramatic maturational changes during late stages of fetal and early postnatal life. The importance of this period to the establishment of healthy neural connectivity is apparent in the high incidence of neural injury in preterm infants, in whom untimely exposure to ex-uterine factors interrupts neural connectivity. Though the relevance of this period to human neuroscience is apparent, little is known about functional neural networks in human fetal life. Here, we apply graph theoretical analysis to examine human fetal brain connectivity. Utilizing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 33 healthy human fetuses, 19 to 39 weeks gestational age (GA), our analyses reveal that the human fetal brain has modular organization and modules overlap functional systems observed postnatally. Age-related differences between younger (GA brain modularity decreases, and connectivity of the posterior cingulate to other brain networks becomes more negative, with advancing GA. By mimicking functional principles observed postnatally, these results support early emerging capacity for information processing in the human fetal brain. Current technical limitations, as well as the potential for fetal fMRI to one day produce major discoveries about fetal origins or antecedents of neural injury or disease are discussed.

  5. Molecular evidence for a thymus-independent partial T cell development in a FOXN1-/- athymic human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Anna; Panico, Luigi; Gorrese, Marisa; Bianchino, Gabriella; Barone, Maria V; Grieco, Vitina; Vitiello, Laura; D'Assante, Roberta; Romano, Rosa; Palamaro, Loredana; Scalia, Giulia; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Pignata, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The thymus is the primary organ able to support T cell ontogeny, abrogated in FOXN1(-/-) human athymia. Although evidence indicates that in animal models T lymphocytes may differentiate at extrathymic sites, whether this process is really thymus-independent has still to be clarified. In an athymic FOXN1(-/-) fetus, in which we previously described a total blockage of CD4(+) and partial blockage of CD8(+) cell development, we investigated whether intestine could play a role as extrathymic site of T-lymphopoiesis in humans. We document the presence of few extrathymically developed T lymphocytes and the presence in the intestine of CD3(+) and CD8(+), but not of CD4(+) cells, a few of them exhibiting a CD45RA(+) naïve phenotype. The expression of CD3εεpTα, RAG1 and RAG2 transcripts in the intestine and TCR gene rearrangement was also documented, thus indicating that in humans the partial T cell ontogeny occurring at extrathymic sites is a thymus- and FOXN1-independent process.

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Maria Grazia; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection and mental retardation. HCMV infection, while causing asymptomatic infections in most immunocompetent subjects, can be transmitted during pregnancy from the mother with primary (and also recurrent) infection to the fetus. Hence, careful diagnosis of primary infection is required in the pregnant woman based on the most sensitive serologic assays (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG avidity assays) and conventional virologic and molecular procedures for virus detection in blood. Maternal prognostic markers of fetal infection are still under investigation. If primary infection is diagnosed in a timely manner, prenatal diagnosis can be offered, including the search for virus and virus components in fetal blood and amniotic fluid, with fetal prognostic markers of HCMV disease still to be defined. However, the final step for definite diagnosis of congenital HCMV infection is detection of virus in the blood or urine in the first 1 to 2 weeks of life. To date, treatment of congenital infection with antiviral drugs is only palliative both prior to and after birth, whereas the only efficacious preventive measure seems to be the development of a safe and immunogenic vaccine, including recombinant, subunit, DNA, and peptide-based vaccines now under investigation. The following controversial issues are discussed in the light of the most recent advances in the field: the actual perception of the problem; universal serologic screening before pregnancy; the impact of correct counseling on decision making by the couple involved; the role of prenatal diagnosis in ascertaining transmission of virus to the fetus; the impact of preconceptional and periconceptional infections on the prevalence of congenital infection; and the prevalence of congenitally infected babies born to mothers who were immune prior to pregnancy compared to the number born to mothers undergoing primary infection during pregnancy. PMID

  7. The human fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone, rather than cortisol, in response to intra-partum stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Wynne-Edwards

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V and arterial (A samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A-V and proportional fetal synthesis ([A-V]/V. Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. RESULTS: Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. CONCLUSIONS: The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress.

  8. The human fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone, rather than cortisol, in response to intra-partum stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Edwards, Heather E; Hancock, Trina M

    2013-01-01

    Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V) and arterial (A) samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A-V) and proportional fetal synthesis ([A-V]/V). Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol) and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal) concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress.

  9. HUMAN PLATELET ANTIGEN-1 (ZW) TYPING OF FETUSES BY ANALYSIS OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION-AMPLIFIED GENOMIC DNA FROM AMNIOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIMSEK, S; CHRISTIAENS, GCLM; KANHAI, HHH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; BLEEKER, PMM; VLEKKE, ABJ; GOLDSCHMEDING, R; VONDEMBORNE, AEGK

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal typing for the human platelet antigens-l (HPA) permits identification of a fetus at risk for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAITP) in cases of HPA-1 incompatibility in which the father is heterozygous for the HPA-la antigen. Diagnostic cordocentesis and phenotyping of the fetal plate

  10. Do Human Fetuses Anticipate Self-Oriented Actions? A Study by Four-Dimensional (4D) Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2006-01-01

    Using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography, arm and hand movements toward the face were examined in 27 human fetuses at 19 to 35 weeks of gestation, thereby enabling the continuous monitoring of their faces and other surface features such as the extremities. More than half of the observed arm movements resulted in the hand touching the mouth…

  11. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities.......We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities....

  12. Pyramidal tract abnormalities in the human fetus and infant with trisomy 18 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Miyata, Mio; Ohama, Eisaku

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome is known to exhibit various developmental abnormalities in the central nervous system. We report dominant uncrossed pyramidal tract in trisomy 18 syndrome, based on the postmortem neuropathologic study of eight consecutive autopsied fetuses and infants with trisomy 18 ranging in age from 16 to 39 weeks of gestation, including six males and two females, along with autopsy cases of a stillborn triploid infant with 69XXX and two stillborn infants without chromosomal or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Five out of eight cases with trisomy 18 showed a larger proportion of uncrossed than crossed pyramidal tract. All of these cases were male, and the anterior corticospinal tract on one side was constantly larger than the contralateral lateral corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on both sides, while the pyramidal tract was hypoplastic in female cases with trisomy 18 and a case with 69XXX. Abnormal pyramidal decussation has been found in cases with posterior fossa malformations such as occipital encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, Joubert syndrome and Möbius syndrome, but has not been described in cases with trisomy 18. Our data, together with the previous reports describing uncrossed aberrant ipsilateral pyramidal tract in patients with congenital mirror movements caused by DCC gene mutation in chromosome 18, and hypolasia and hyperplasia of the pyramidal tract in X-linked recessive disorders caused by L1CAM and Kal1 gene mutations, respectively, suggest a role of trisomy 18 in association with X-chromosome in the abnormal development of the pyramidal tract.

  13. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  14. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Geyer, John W.; Aris, John P.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR™ and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros™ for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  15. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gabriella A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus' behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth.

  16. Timetable for upper eyelid development in staged human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tae Ho; Kim, Jeong Tae; Park, Hyoung Woo; Kim, Won Kyu

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examined the development of the upper eyelids to provide a basic understanding of gross anatomical structures and information relative to mechanisms of congenital anomalies in the upper eyelids. We studied the upper eyelids by external and histological observation in 48 human embryos and in fetuses from 5 to 36 weeks postfertilization. The upper eyelid fold began to develop at Stage 18. Upper and lower eyelids fused from the lateral cantus at Stage 22, and fusion was complete by 9 weeks of development. Mesenchymal condensations forming the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi (OO), tarsal plate, and the eyelashes and their appendages, were first seen at Week 9. Definite muscle structures of the upper eyelid, such as the orbital part of the OO and the levator palpebrae superioris and its aponeurosis, and the Müller's muscle were observed at 12 and 14 weeks, respectively. In addition, orbital septum, arterial arcade and orbital fat pad, and tarsal gland (TG) were apparent at 12, 14, and 18 weeks, respectively. Opening of the palpebral fissure was observed at Week 20. In addition, we defined the directional orientation between the levator aponeurosis and orbital septum and the growth pattern of the TG. Our results will be helpful in understanding the normal development of the upper eyelid and the origins of upper eyelid birth defects.

  17. Functional plasticity before the cradle: a review of neural functional imaging in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Amy L; Thomason, Moriah E

    2013-11-01

    The organization of the brain is highly plastic in fetal life. Establishment of healthy neural functional systems during the fetal period is essential to normal growth and development. Across the last several decades, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the development of human fetal functional brain systems. This is largely due to advances in imaging methodologies. Fetal neuroimaging began in the 1950-1970's with fetal electroencephalography (EEG) applied during labor. Later, in the 1980's, magnetoencephalography (MEG) emerged as an effective approach for investigating fetal brain function. Most recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has arisen as an additional powerful approach for examining fetal brain function. This review will discuss major developmental findings from fetal imaging studies such as the maturation of prenatal sensory system functions, functional hemispheric asymmetry, and sensory-driven neurodevelopment. We describe how with improved imaging and analysis techniques, functional imaging of the fetus has the potential to assess the earliest point of neural maturation and provide insight into the patterning and sequence of normal and abnormal brain development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histological examinations of bone and cartilage in the axial skeleton of human triploidy fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Dorrit; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Keeling, Jean W; Kjaer, Inger

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine histologically bone and cartilage in vertebral corpora of axial skeletons of eight human triploid fetuses, gestational ages 14-25 weeks, CRL 100-200 mm. The results were compared to earlier studies on vertebral development in trisomies 21, 18, 13, and to normal corpora development. After radiography in frontal and lateral projections, the vertebral column was sectioned into cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments, decalcified, dehydrated, and embedded in paraffin. The blocks were serially sectioned in the vertical plane and stained with Toluidine blue and Alcian blue/van Gieson. The radiographic characteristics of the vertebral corpora observed in frontal and lateral projection varied from small cleft vertebral corpora to fusions between the individual corpora. Histological examination of the vertebral corpora confirmed the abnormal pattern of ossification seen radiographically. As a new finding abnormal metachromasia of the ground substance was observed in the cartilage. Marked borderlines were registered in the cartilage between regions with differences in metachromasia. These borderlines were similar but more extensive than borderlines observed previously in trisomies 21, 18 and 13.

  19. A Managerial Approach To A Controversial Exhibition: The Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Aura Păuş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyse the reception of the Human Body exhibition of 2013 in Romania, from a managerial point of view. The research is based on the exhibition visitors’ book, to which a content analysis was applied. The main aim of the paper is to investigate how the ‘Grigore Antipa’ Museum (Romania constructed the cultural context in which the scientific arguments prevailed over the religious ones, turning the exhibition of plastinated human bodies into an accepted public event, with a strong emphasis on education and science (medicine. At the same time, ethical concerns and religious criticism were downplayed by maintaining the focus on the ‘education for health’ frame.

  20. Molecular characterization and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in humans and animals. In humans, C. fetus can cause septicemia and intestinal illness. Contaminated food, like unpasteurized milk, is possibly a source of human C. fetus infections. This thesis focuses on the mammal-associated C. fetus

  1. Development of nerve fibres in the temporomandibular joint of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramieri, G; Bonardi, G; Morani, V; Panzica, G C; Del Tetto, F; Arisio, R; Preti, G

    1996-07-01

    The development of nerve fibres in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in relation to the development of bone, muscle and fibre components was investigated in human fetuses ranging from 9 weeks of gestation to birth. Immunohistochemistry for the glia-associated protein S-100 and for the neuro-specific marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) were used; specimens were compared to specimens of adult TMJ capsule and disc. At 9-10 weeks, a small number of neural elements are already present in the connective tissue around the joint and in the mesenchyme between the two articular blastemas from which the disc will differentiate. By 19 weeks many nerve fibres are clearly visible. Immunohistochemical results suggest diffuse disc innervation extending along the entire disc but not in the thin central area. More complex structures, i.e. encapsulated corpuscles, were also seen. The fetal disc appears highly innervated compared to adult tissue; already at this developmental stage morphology and distribution of nerves and corpuscles in the joint capsule are comparable to those in the adult joint. It may be concluded that the innervation of the TMJ is detectable from the end of the second month and that it develops fully between the third and the fifth month of gestation. Nerve endings in the disc are most numerous at 20 weeks, after which a progressive reduction, possibly secondary to the growth of articular tissues, is observed throughout the last trimester of fetal life and into adult life. The innervation of the lateral pterygoid muscle, on the contrary, is much less than that seen in adult muscles, even at full-term.

  2. Ultrasonographic investigation of human fetus responses to maternal communicative and non-communicative stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eArrigoni Ferrari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus’ mouth movements in response to mothers’ speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants’ sensitivity to their mother’s voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouth motor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g. chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc. and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus’ behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth.

  3. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gabriella A.; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus’ mouth movements in response to mothers’ speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants’ sensitivity to their mother’s voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus’ behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth. PMID:27014160

  4. External physical stimulation of the human-fetus during episodes of low heart-rate variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; ZEELENBERG, HJ; DEVRIES, JIP; DAWES, GS

    1983-01-01

    The effect of shaking the fetus through the maternal abdomen during episodes of low (nonreactive) fetal heart rate variation was studied in 10 healthy nulliparous women near term. Heart rate monitoring from an abdominal electrocardiogram was combined with real-time scanning for body movements and

  5. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice.

  6. Digital image analysis of ossification centers in the axial dens and body in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Małkowski, Bogdan; Badura, Mateusz; Dąbrowska, Maria; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The detailed understanding of the anatomy and timing of ossification centers is indispensable in both determining the fetal stage and maturity and for detecting congenital disorders. This study was performed to quantitatively examine the odontoid and body ossification centers in the axis with respect to their linear, planar and volumetric parameters. Using the methods of CT, digital image analysis and statistics, the size of the odontoid and body ossification centers in the axis in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was studied. With no sex difference, the best fit growth dynamics for odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis were, respectively, as follows: for transverse diameter y = -10.752 + 4.276 × ln(age) ± 0.335 and y = -10.578 + 4.265 × ln(age) ± 0.338, for sagittal diameter y = -4.329 + 2.010 × ln(age) ± 0.182 and y = -3.934 + 1.930 × ln(age) ± 0.182, for cross-sectional area y = -7.102 + 0.520 × age ± 0.724 and y = -7.002 + 0.521 × age ± 0.726, and for volume y = -37.021 + 14.014 × ln(age) ± 1.091 and y = -37.425 + 14.197 × ln(age) ± 1.109. With no sex differences, the odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis grow logarithmically in transverse and sagittal diameters, and in volume, while proportionately in cross-sectional area. Our specific-age reference data for the odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis may be relevant for determining the fetal stage and maturity and for in utero three-dimensional sonographic detecting segmentation anomalies of the axis.

  7. Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeton, Julio I; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate

  8. Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Dingle, K.E.; Maiden, M.C.; Newell, D.G.; Graaf, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can be divided into the subspecies C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis. C. fetus subsp. fetus causes sporadic infections in humans and abortion in cattle and sheep and has been isolated from a variety of sites in different hosts. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is

  9. Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Dingle, K.E.; Maiden, M.C.; Newell, D.G.; Graaf, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can be divided into the subspecies C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis. C. fetus subsp. fetus causes sporadic infections in humans and abortion in cattle and sheep and has been isolated from a variety of sites in different hosts. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is hos

  10. FOXN1 homozygous mutation associated with anencephaly and severe neural tube defect in human athymic Nude/SCID fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, S; D'Armiento, M; Calcagno, G; Russo, I; Adriani, M; Christiano, A M; Weiner, L; Brissette, J L; Pignata, C

    2008-04-01

    The forkhead, Fox, gene family comprises a diverse group of 'winged-helix' transcription factors that play important roles in development, metabolism, cancer and aging. Recently, several forkhead genes have been demonstrated to play critical roles in lymphocyte development and effector functions. Alterations of the FOXN1 gene in both mice and humans result in a severe combined immunodeficiency caused by an intrinsic defect of the thymus associated with congenital alopecia (Nude/severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype). FOXN1 is a member of the class of proteins involved in the development and differentiation of the central nervous system. We identified a human fetus homozygous for a mutation in FOXN1 gene who lacked the thymus and also had abnormal skin, anencephaly and spina bifida. Moreover, we found that FOXN1 gene is expressed in mouse developing choroid plexus. These observations suggest that FOXN1 may be involved in neurulation in humans.

  11. Altered expression of mitochondrial and extracellular matrix genes in the heart of human fetuses with chromosome 21 trisomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olla Carlo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Down syndrome phenotype has been attributed to overexpression of chromosome 21 (Hsa21 genes. However, the expression profile of Hsa21 genes in trisomic human subjects as well as their effects on genes located on different chromosomes are largely unknown. Using oligonucleotide microarrays we compared the gene expression profiles of hearts of human fetuses with and without Hsa21 trisomy. Results Approximately half of the 15,000 genes examined (87 of the 168 genes on Hsa21 were expressed in the heart at 18–22 weeks of gestation. Hsa21 gene expression was globally upregulated 1.5 fold in trisomic samples. However, not all genes were equally dysregulated and 25 genes were not upregulated at all. Genes located on other chromosomes were also significantly dysregulated. Functional class scoring and gene set enrichment analyses of 473 genes, differentially expressed between trisomic and non-trisomic hearts, revealed downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial enzymes and upregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins. There were no significant differences between trisomic fetuses with and without heart defects. Conclusion We conclude that dosage-dependent upregulation of Hsa21 genes causes dysregulation of the genes responsible for mitochondrial function and for the extracellular matrix organization in the fetal heart of trisomic subjects. These alterations might be harbingers of the heart defects associated with Hsa21 trisomy, which could be based on elusive mechanisms involving genetic variability, environmental factors and/or stochastic events.

  12. [Morphological study on development of nerve growth factor-positive neurons in the cerebellum of human fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lan-Rong; Shao, Jin-Gui

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the growth and development of nerve growth factor (NGF)-positive neurons in the cerebellum of midanaphase human fetus. The expression of the NGF-positive neurons in the cerebrum of human fetus was observed by immunohistochemical methods, and the integral absorbance (IA) was detected. By the 3rd to 4th month of gestation, neurons was seen in the ependymal, central, and marginal plate of cerebellum; the nucleus was oval and the neurons had short and small processes. By the 5th to 7th month of gestation, the number of NGF-positive neurons increased, the expressions enhanced, the nucleus was round-, oval-, or fusiform-shaped, the neurons grew larger in size, and the Purkinje cells showed NGF-positive expression. By the 8th to 10th month of gestation, the NGF-positive expression was enhanced with deeper dying, the body of Purkinje cells grew larger gradually, and the number of NGF-positive neurons in the granular cell layer and molecular layer increased. IA of the cerebellar cortical neurons of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th month of gestation showed an increasing trend, and significant difference was observed (P positive neurons in the cerebellum play an important role for differentiation, proliferation, migration, and growth of neurons in the cerebellum.

  13. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators.

  14. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Cortical Sulcus Development in the Human Fetus between 18 and 41 Weeks of Gestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Chen; Sheng-Li Li; Guo-Yang Luo; Errol R Norwitz; Shu-Yuan Ouyang; Hua-Xuan Wen; Ying Yuan; Xiao-Xian Tian; Jia-Min He

    2017-01-01

    Background:Fetal brain development is a complicated process that continues throughout pregnancy.Fetal sulcus development has typical morphological features.Assessment of fetal sulcus development to understand the cortical maturation and development by prenatal ultrasound has become widespread.This study aimed to explore a reliable method to assess cortical sulcus and to describe the normal sonographic features of cortical sulcus development in the human fetus between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation.Methods:A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the fetal cortical sulcus development at 18-41 weeks of gestation.Ultrasound was used to examine the insula,sylvian fissure (SF),parieto-occipital fissure (POF),and calcarine fissure (CF).Bland-Altman plots were used for assessing the concordance,and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used for assessing the reliability.Results:SF images were successfully obtained in 100% of participants at 22 weeks of gestation,while the POF images and CF images could be obtained in 100% at 23 weeks of gestation and 24 weeks of gestation,respectively.The SF width,temporal lobe depth,POF depth,and the CF depth increased with the developed gestation.The width of uncovered insula and the POF angle decreased with the developed gestation.By 23 weeks of gestation,the insula was beginning to be covered.Moreover,it completed at 35 weeks of gestation.The intra-and inter-observer agreements showed consistent reproducibility.Conclusions:This study defined standard views of the fetal sulcus as well as the normal reference ranges of these sulcus measurements between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation.Such ultrasonographic measurements could be used to identify fetuses at risk of fetal neurological structural disorders.

  15. A melodic contour repeatedly experienced by human near-term fetuses elicits a profound cardiac reaction one month after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Granier-Deferre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fetuses were given precisely controlled exposure to a descending piano melody twice daily during the 35(th, 36(th, and 37(th weeks of gestation. Six weeks later we assessed the cardiac responses of 25 exposed infants and 25 naive control infants, while in quiet sleep, to the descending melody and to an ascending control piano melody. The melodies had precisely inverse contours, but similar spectra, identical duration, tempo and rhythm, thus, almost identical amplitude envelopes. All infants displayed a significant heart rate change. In exposed infants, the descending melody evoked a cardiac deceleration that was twice larger than the decelerations elicited by the ascending melody and by both melodies in control infants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, 3-weeks of prenatal exposure to a specific melodic contour affects infants 'auditory processing' or perception, i.e., impacts the autonomic nervous system at least six weeks later, when infants are 1-month old. Our results extend the retention interval over which a prenatally acquired memory of a specific sound stream can be observed from 3-4 days to six weeks. The long-term memory for the descending melody is interpreted in terms of enduring neurophysiological tuning and its significance for the developmental psychobiology of attention and perception, including early speech perception, is discussed.

  16. Isolated bilateral transverse agenesis of the distal segments of the lower limbs at the level of the knee joint in a human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Antoine B; Deprez, Pierre M L; Amyere, Mustapha; Mendola, Antonella; Bernard, Pierre; Gillerot, Yves; Clapuyt, Philippe; Godfraind, Catherine; Lengelé, Benoît G; Vikkula, Miikka; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Congenital limb anomalies occur in Europe with a prevalence of 3.81/1,000 births and can have a major impact on patients and their families. The present study concerned a female fetus aborted at 23 weeks of gestation because she was affected by non-syndromic bilateral absence of the zeugopod (leg) and autopod (foot). Autopsy of the aborted fetus, X-ray imaging, MRI, and histochemical analysis showed that the distal extremity of both femurs was continued by a cartilage-like mass, without joint cavitation. Karyotype was normal. Moreover, no damaging variant was detected by exome sequencing. The limb characteristics of the fetus, which to our knowledge have not yet been reported in humans, suggest a developmental arrest similar to anomalies described in chicks following surgical experiments on the apical ectodermal ridge of the lower limbs.

  17. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-van Bloois, van der Linda; Duim, Birgitta; Miller, William G.; Forbes, Ken J.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Zomer, Aldert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft). Subspecies identification of mammal-associated C. fetus

  18. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336455798; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352; Miller, William G; Forbes, Ken J; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Zomer, Aldert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft). Subspecies identification of mammal-associated C. fetus

  19. The ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and the beginning of human life

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjak, Asim; MARIA CARRERA, JOSE; McCullough, Laurence B.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    »When does human life begin?« is not one question, but three. The first question is, »When does human biological life begin?,« and is a scientific question. A brief review of embryology is provided to answer this question. The second question is, »When do obligations to protect human life begin?,« and is a question of general theological and philosophical ethics. A brief review of major world religions and philosophy is provided to answer this question has no settled answer and therefore invo...

  20. The human salivary microbiome exhibits temporal stability in bacterial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Simon J S; Huws, Sharon A; Hegarty, Matthew J; Smith, Daniel P M; Mur, Luis A J

    2015-09-01

    The temporal variability of the human microbiome may be an important factor in determining its relationship with health and disease. In this study, the saliva of 40 participants was collected every 2 months over a one-year period to determine the temporal variability of the human salivary microbiome. Salivary pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number were measured for all participants, with the microbiome of 10 participants assessed through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. In February 2013, 16S rRNA gene copy number was significantly (P Salivary pH levels were significantly (P salivary pH (R(2) = 7.8%; P = 0.019). At the phylum level, significant differences were evident between participants in the Actinobacteria (P salivary microbiome, suggesting that bacterial diversity is stable, but that 16S rRNA gene copy number may be subject to seasonal flux.

  1. Cross-sectional study of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-10-01

    An understanding of the normal evolution of the spine is of great relevance in the prenatal detection of spinal abnormalities. This study was carried out to estimate the length, width, cross-sectional area and volume of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus. Using the methods of CT (Biograph mCT), digital-image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics (the one-way ANOVA test for paired data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test, Student's t test, the one-way ANOVA test for unpaired data with post hoc RIR Tukey comparisons) the size for the neural ossification centers throughout the spine in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) at ages of 17-30 weeks was studied. The neural ossification centers were visualized in the whole pre-sacral spine, in 74.5 % for S1, in 61.8 % for S2, in 52.7 % for S3, and in 12.7 % for S4. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences in the size of neural ossification centers were found. The neural ossification centers were the longest within the cervical spine. The maximum values referred to the axis on the right, and to C5 vertebra on the left. There was a gradual decrease in length for the neural ossification centers of T1-S4 vertebrae. The neural ossification centers were the widest within the proximal thoracic spine and narrowed bi-directionally. The growth dynamics for CSA of neural ossification centers were found to parallel that of volume. The largest CSAs and volumes of neural ossification centers were found in the C3 vertebra, and decreased in the distal direction. The neural ossification centers show neither male-female nor right-left differences. The neural ossification centers are characterized by the maximum length for C2-C6 vertebrae, the maximum width for the proximal thoracic spine, and both the maximum cross-sectional area and volume for C3 vertebra. There is a sharp decrease in size of the neural ossification centers along the sacral spine. A

  2. Human long bone development in vivo: analysis of the distal femoral epimetaphysis on MR images of fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F; Weber, Michael; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Bettelheim, Dieter; Rimoin, David L; Lachman, Ralph S; Malinger, Gustavo; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    To investigate human long bone development in vivo by analyzing distal femoral epimetaphyseal structures and bone morphometrics on magnetic resonance (MR) images of fetuses. An institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. Included were 272 MR imaging examinations (April 2004-July 2011) in 253 fetuses with a mean gestational age (GA) of 26 weeks 6 days (range, 19 weeks 2 days to 35 weeks 6 days) without known musculoskeletal abnormalities. Two independent readers qualitatively analyzed epiphyseal and metaphyseal shape, secondary ossification, and the perichondrium on 1.5-T echo-planar MR images and correlated the results with the GA that was derived from previous fetal ultrasonography (US). Diaphyseal and epiphyseal morphometric measurements were correlated with GA by means of the Pearson correlation and linear regression. MR imaging measurements of diaphyseal length and US normative values were compared graphically. Interreader agreement analysis was performed with weighted κ statistics and the intraclass correlation coefficient. With advancing GA, the epiphyseal shape changed from spherical (r(2) = 0.664) to hemispherical with a notch (r(2) = 0.804), and the metaphyseal shape changed from flat (r(2) = 0.766) to clearly undulated (r(2) = 0.669). Secondary ossification (r(2) = 0.777) was not observed until 25 weeks 3 days. The perichondrium decreased (r(2) = 0.684) from 20 weeks onward. Correlation coefficients were 0.897 for diaphyseal length, 0.738 for epiphyseal length, and 0.801 for epiphyseal width with respect to GA. The range of measurements of diaphyseal length was larger than that of the reported US normative values. Interreader agreement was good for bone morphometrics (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.906-0.976), and moderate for bone characteristics (weighted κ, 0.448-0.848). Prenatal MR imaging allows visualization of human bone development in vivo by means of epimetaphyseal characteristics and

  3. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  4. Immunocytochemical localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 of the human deciduous molar tooth germ development in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoko; Fujita, Toshiya; Sunohara, Masataka; Sato, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel endothelial development. We used immunohistochemical methods to demonstrate the localization of VEGF and its receptors, showing the specific expression pattern of VEGF and VEGF receptor in the human deciduous tooth from the cap to late bell stages in the human fetus. Immunoreactivity to VEGF and its receptor VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) was intensely positive in the inner enamel epithelium at the cap stage and ranged from negative to moderately positive in the bell stage. At the late bell stage, VEGF immunoreactivity was mainly positive but weak for VEGFR-2. The intensity of VEGF and VEGFR-2 in odontoblasts increases from cap stage to late bell stage. We postulate that the dissimilar expression of VEGF in inner enamel epithelium, ameloblast and odontoblast during each stage of human tooth development may affect tooth germ formation.

  5. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia in an immunocompetent traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Normal human pluripotent stem cell lines exhibit pervasive mosaic aneuploidy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E Peterson

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC lines have been considered to be homogeneously euploid. Here we report that normal hPSC--including induced pluripotent--lines are karyotypic mosaics of euploid cells intermixed with many cells showing non-clonal aneuploidies as identified by chromosome counting, spectral karyotyping (SKY and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of interphase/non-mitotic cells. This mosaic aneuploidy resembles that observed in progenitor cells of the developing brain and preimplantation embryos, suggesting that it is a normal, rather than pathological, feature of stem cell lines. The karyotypic heterogeneity generated by mosaic aneuploidy may contribute to the reported functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of hPSCs lines, as well as their therapeutic efficacy and safety following transplantation.

  7. Development of digastric muscles in human fetuses: a review and findings in the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Jin, Zhe Wu; Zhao, Peng; Murakami, Gen; Li, Xiang Wu; Jin, Yu

    2017-09-04

    The digastricus and omohyoideus muscles are digastric muscles with two muscle bellies. An insertion tendon of the posterior belly becomes an intermediate tendon in digastricus muscles, whereas a single band-like muscle in omohyoideus muscles may later be interrupted by an intermediate tendon, possibly due to muscle cell death caused by mechanical stress. In human fetuses, an intermediate tendon provides the temporal origins of the tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani muscles. Some reptiles, including snakes, carry multiple series of digastric-like axial muscles, in which each intersegmental septum is likely to become an intermediate tendon. These findings indicate that many pathways are involved in the development of digastric muscles. A review of these morphologies suggested that the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle was a digastric muscle, although the intermediate tendon may not be visible in the surface view in adults. The present observations support the hypothesis that the proximal anlage at the elbow develops into a deep muscle slip to a limited finger, while the distal anlage at the wrist develops into the other slips. The findings suggest that, in the FDS muscle, the proximal and distal bellies of the embryonic digastric muscle fuse together to form a laminar structure, in which muscle slips accumulate from the palmar to the deep side of the forearm.

  8. Distribution of elastic fibers in the head and neck: a histological study using late-stage human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hideaki; Umezawa, Takashi; Omine, Yuya; Kasahara, Masaaki; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi

    2013-03-01

    There is little or no information about the distribution of elastic fibers in the human fetal head. We examined this issue in 15 late-stage fetuses (crown-rump length, 220-320 mm) using aldehyde-fuchsin and elastica-Masson staining, and we used the arterial wall elastic laminae and external ear cartilages as positive staining controls. The posterior pharyngeal wall, as well as the ligaments connecting the laryngeal cartilages, contained abundant elastic fibers. In contrast with the sphenomandibular ligament and the temporomandibular joint disk, in which elastic fibers were partly present, the discomalleolar ligament and the fascial structures around the pterygoid muscles did not have any elastic fibers. In addition, the posterior marginal fascia of the prestyloid space did contain such fibers. Notably, in the middle ear, elastic fibers accumulated along the tendons of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and in the joint capsules of the ear ossicle articulations. Elastic fibers were not seen in any other muscle tendons or vertebral facet capsules in the head and neck. Despite being composed of smooth muscle, the orbitalis muscle did not contain any elastic fibers. The elastic fibers in the sphenomandibular ligament seemed to correspond to an intermediate step of development between Meckel's cartilage and the final ligament. Overall, there seemed to be a mini-version of elastic fiber distribution compared to that in adults and a different specific developmental pattern of connective tissues. The latter morphology might be a result of an adaptation to hypoxic conditions during development.

  9. Human Cardiac Progenitor Spheroids Exhibit Enhanced Engraftment Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Oltolina

    Full Text Available A major obstacle to an effective myocardium stem cell therapy has always been the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the heart. Better engraftment can be achieved if cells are administered as cell aggregates, which maintain their extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We have generated spheroid aggregates in less than 24 h by seeding human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs onto methylcellulose hydrogel-coated microwells. Cells within spheroids maintained the expression of stemness/mesenchymal and ECM markers, growth factors and their cognate receptors, cardiac commitment factors, and metalloproteases, as detected by immunofluorescence, q-RT-PCR and immunoarray, and expressed a higher, but regulated, telomerase activity. Compared to cells in monolayers, 3D spheroids secreted also bFGF and showed MMP2 activity. When spheroids were seeded on culture plates, the cells quickly migrated, displaying an increased wound healing ability with or without pharmacological modulation, and reached confluence at a higher rate than cells from conventional monolayers. When spheroids were injected in the heart wall of healthy mice, some cells migrated from the spheroids, engrafted, and remained detectable for at least 1 week after transplantation, while, when the same amount of cells was injected as suspension, no cells were detectable three days after injection. Cells from spheroids displayed the same engraftment capability when they were injected in cardiotoxin-injured myocardium. Our study shows that spherical in vivo ready-to-implant scaffold-less aggregates of hCPCs able to engraft also in the hostile environment of an injured myocardium can be produced with an economic, easy and fast protocol.

  10. Electrical maturation of spinal neurons in the human fetus: comparison of ventral and dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M A; Lim, R; Hughes, D I; Brichta, A M; Callister, R J

    2015-11-01

    The spinal cord is critical for modifying and relaying sensory information to, and motor commands from, higher centers in the central nervous system to initiate and maintain contextually relevant locomotor responses. Our understanding of how spinal sensorimotor circuits are established during in utero development is based largely on studies in rodents. In contrast, there is little functional data on the development of sensory and motor systems in humans. Here, we use patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine the development of neuronal excitability in human fetal spinal cords (10-18 wk gestation; WG). Transverse spinal cord slices (300 μm thick) were prepared, and recordings were made, from visualized neurons in either the ventral (VH) or dorsal horn (DH) at 32°C. Action potentials (APs) could be elicited in VH neurons throughout the period examined, but only after 16 WG in DH neurons. At this age, VH neurons discharged multiple APs, whereas most DH neurons discharged single APs. In addition, at 16-18 WG, VH neurons also displayed larger AP and after-hyperpolarization amplitudes than DH neurons. Between 10 and 18 WG, the intrinsic properties of VH neurons changed markedly, with input resistance decreasing and AP and after-hyperpolarization amplitudes increasing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that VH motor circuitry matures more rapidly than the DH circuits that are involved in processing tactile and nociceptive information.

  11. Colony-stimulating factor-1 expression in the human fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, P; Stanley, E R

    1995-10-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that regulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. Because this cellular compartment undergoes major changes during fetal and neonatal life, we examined concurrent CSF-1 expression during human development. While levels increased dramatically after full-term birth, CSF-1 concentrations steadily declined in the preterm circulation from 2.7 to 1.9 times adult values as gestational age increased. CSF-1 was already detectable at 10 weeks gestation in spleen, intestine, lung, kidney, heart, and liver in order of decreasing concentration, but a positive correlation with gestational age was seen only in lung and intestine. Although a 4.4-kb CSF-1 mRNA was detectable in all tissues at all gestational ages, increased expression with advancing gestational age was observed in lung and kidney, whereas a rise and fall was observed in spleen. We conclude that CSF-1 concentration in the human circulation is developmentally regulated and that its expression in fetal tissues is compatible with its role in regulating the development of tissue mononuclear phagocytes.

  12. [Management of fetuses in the late pregnancy by serial determinations of serum human placental lactogen levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, M; Marumoto, Y; Taniguchi, I; Kobayashi, T

    1982-10-01

    Serum human placental lactogen levels (HPL) were measured serially during the last three weeks before full term deliveries of 69 normal and 60 high risk pregnant women with the method of latex agglutination (Gestefollow 'Eiken'). Except pregnancies complicated with diabetes mellitus, no fetal distress were observed when deliveries were made while HPL levels were increasing. The incidence of fetal distress was only 3.7 per cent when the range of variation of HPL levels was within 20 per cent for 3 weeks before delivery. On the contrary, the incidence of fetal distress increased to 29.4 per cent when infants were delivered after decreasing of HPL levels to less than 80 per cent of the highest HPL levels. It was also demonstrated that single determinations of HPL levels were not clinically useful in predicting fetal distress or fetal growth retardation.

  13. Possible role of WT1 in a human fetus with evolving bronchial atresia, pulmonary malformation and renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christine K C; Algar, Elizabeth M; Payton, Diane J; Perry-Keene, Joanna; Pereira, Tamara N; Ramm, Grant A

    2012-01-01

    The association of peripheral bronchial atresia and congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) has recently been recognised, but the pathology of the lesions evolving together has not been described. We present autopsy findings in a 20 week fetus showing areas of peripheral bronchial destruction and airway malformation consistent with developing CPAM in the right lung supporting a causal relationship between these lesions. This fetus also had congenital heart defect, bilateral renal agenesis and syndactyly. We identified another fetus from our autopsy files, with bilateral renal agenesis, similar right sided pulmonary malformation and cardiac defects. Similar bilateral renal agenesis and defects of the heart and lungs are found in wt1(-/-) mice and we have investigated the expression of WT1 in these fetuses. We hypothesise that the cardiac, liver, renal and possibly lung lesions in these two cases may arise due to mesenchymal defects consequent to WT1 misexpression and discuss evidence for this from the scientific literature. We used immunoperoxidase stains to analyse WT1 expression in autopsy hepatic tissue in both fetuses. We also investigated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of activated hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts, and desmin in hepatic mesenchyme and compare these findings with control fetuses, without congenital malformations. We found reduced WT1 expression in hepatic mesothelium in both fetuses with malformations. There was also increased expression of α-SMA in liver perisinusoidal cells, as seen in the wt1(-/-) mouse model. We therefore propose that abnormality of WT1 signalling may be an underlying factor, as WT1 is expressed in coelomic lining cells from which mesenchyme is derived in many organs.

  14. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications.

  15. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Harb, Leandro J. C.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F.; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R.; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. PMID:24527214

  16. Habituation in the rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, W P; Robinson, S R

    1992-04-01

    Rat fetuses exhibit motor and cardiac responses to chemosensory stimulation on Days 20 and 21 of gestation. The first experiment demonstrated that fetuses exhibit an increase in overall motor activity and decrease in heartrate in response to an initial intraoral infusion of a lemon solution. After a series of nine exposures, however, fetuses no longer exhibit motor or cardiac responses to lemon infusion, suggesting the existence of a habituation-like process. Responsiveness recovers spontaneously following a 3- to 9-min period without stimulation. In a second experiment, a dishabituation treatment was administered to distinguish habituation, which is a centrally mediated decrement in response, from effector fatigue, sensory adaptation, and other peripheral mechanisms that can result in reduced responsiveness. A single infusion of mint following a series of nine lemon exposures was effective in reinstating fetal motor responses to lemon on both Days 20 and 21, but reinstated cardiac responses only on Day 21. Rat fetuses habituate to repeated chemosensory stimulation, suggesting the utility of the habituation paradigm in measuring CNS development during the perinatal period.

  17. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  18. Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus from Zika: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167128.html Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus From Zika: Study More research is needed on effects in ... A malaria drug protected mice fetuses from the Zika virus, researchers report. In humans, Zika infection during ...

  19. A detailed musculoskeletal study of a fetus with anencephaly and spina bifida (craniorachischisis), and comparison with other cases of human congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Malak A; Ziermann, Janine M; Gregg, Lydia; Diogo, Rui

    2017-03-07

    Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects. Our results showed that many of the defects found in the fetus with craniorachischisis are similar not only to anomalies previously described in the available works on musculoskeletal phenotypes seen in fetuses with anencephaly and spina bifida, but also to a wide range of other different conditions/syndromes including trisomies 13, 18 and 21, and cyclopia. The fact that similar anomalies are seen commonly not only in a wide range of different syndromes, but also as variants of the normal human population and as the 'normal' phenotype of other animals, supports Pere Alberch's unfortunately named idea of a 'logic of monsters'. That is, it supports the idea that development is so constrained that both in 'normal' and abnormal development one sees certain outcomes being produced again and again because ontogenetic constraints only allow a few possible outcomes, thus also leading to cases where the anatomical defects of some organisms are similar to the 'normal' phenotype of other organisms. In fact, this applies not only to specific anomalies but also to general patterns, such as the fact that in pathological conditions affecting different regions of the body, one consistently sees more defects on the upper limbs than on the lower limbs. Such general patterns are, again, seen in the fetus examined for this study, which had 29 muscle anomalies on the right

  20. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Bellavista, Elena [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Mishto, Michele [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Charite, Berlin (Germany); Santoro, Aurelia [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Fiorentino, Michelangelo [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Capri, Miriam [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca [Unit of General and Transplantation Surgery, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Grigioni, Walter Franco; D' Errico-Grigioni, Antonia [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Franceschi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.franceschi@unibo.it [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  1. [Is it allowed to have a public open exhibition of human plastinated specimens in Japan?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Yohro, T

    1997-02-01

    This survey was conducted to know what inhibits the public open exhibitions of human anatomical specimens. Questionnaires were handed to 1,035 visitors to the public open exhibition of plastinated specimens at the University of Tokyo between March 30 and April 4, 1995. Five hundred and twenty-two responses were analyzed. The survey revealed following responses of medial and non-medical visitors. 1) Over 90 percent of the visitors welcomed to the public open exhibition of human anatomical specimens. 2) Visitors concerned about the aim of the exhibition and hoped explanations of exhibited specimens. They thought it is necessary to pay attention to the privacy of the cadavers and their families. 3) The most impressive specimens to the visitors were whole body silicone specimens and a series of slices of a whole body for both medical and non-medical visitors. 4) Medical visitors evaluated specimens high for medical education to understand three dimensional structures. On the contrary, non-medical visitors are astonished to encounter the whole body specimens not the dissected ones, and found the identity and human beings in the specimens. 5) Some anatomists strongly stand against the public open exhibitions of anatomical specimens because the plastinated specimens are quite different from ordinary hormaline fixed specimens and they expect that non-medical people must get upset about the specimens.

  2. Great Achievements Exhibited for More Understanding and Better Cooperation——On the Human Rights Exhibition in Beijing, November 17-26, 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立香

    2007-01-01

    @@ Alarge scale human rights exhibition was held inside the Museum of Culture Palace of the Nationalities in downtown Beijing, November 17-26, 2006 mainly showcasing the country's efforts and progress it has made and is making in human rights protection and promotion in China since the foundation of new China in 1949.

  3. 'Working' cardiomyocytes exhibiting plateau action potentials from human placenta-derived extraembryonic mesodermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Hida, Naoko; Ikegami, Yukinori; Makino, Hatsune; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroko; Cui, Chang-Hao; Segawa, Kaoru; Uyama, Taro; Kami, Daisuke; Miyado, Kenji; Asada, Hironori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Aeba, Ryo; Yozu, Ryohei; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2007-07-15

    The clinical application of cell transplantation for severe heart failure is a promising strategy to improve impaired cardiac function. Recently, an array of cell types, including bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells, resident cardiac stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, have become important candidates for cell sources for cardiac repair. In the present study, we focused on the placenta as a cell source. Cells from the chorionic plate in the fetal portion of the human placenta were obtained after delivery by the primary culture method, and the cells generated in this study had the Y sex chromosome, indicating that the cells were derived from the fetus. The cells potentially expressed 'working' cardiomyocyte-specific genes such as cardiac myosin heavy chain 7beta, atrial myosin light chain, cardiac alpha-actin by gene chip analysis, and Csx/Nkx2.5, GATA4 by RT-PCR, cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 by immunohistochemistry. These cells were able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 displayed a discontinuous pattern of localization at intercellular contact sites after cardiomyogenic differentiation, suggesting that the chorionic mesoderm contained a large number of cells with cardiomyogenic potential. The cells began spontaneously beating 3 days after co-cultivation with murine fetal cardiomyocytes and the frequency of beating cells reached a maximum on day 10. The contraction of the cardiomyocytes was rhythmical and synchronous, suggesting the presence of electrical communication between the cells. Placenta-derived human fetal cells may be useful for patients who cannot supply bone marrow cells but want to receive stem cell-based cardiac therapy.

  4. [Is fetus able to feel pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of fetal hormonal and hemodynamic responses to pain related stimuli, neuroanatomy and observations of preterm babies, it was concluded that human fetus is able to feel pain after 24 weeks gestation. However it is possible that the fetus may feel pain even before that time. With the development of intrauterine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, it is crucial to provide fetuses undergoing painful procedures not only with anesthesia but also analgesia. The article presents fetal pain research history and its implications for medicine.

  5. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  6. Fathers and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  7. Bases morfológicas para o estudo do septo interatrial no feto humano Morphological basis for the study of the interatrial septum in the human fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Becker Amaral

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever observações morfológicas sobre o septo interatrial em fetos normais, especialmente o forame oval e o septo primeiro, de forma a comparar a excursão do septo primeiro com o diâmetro do forame oval. MÉTODOS: As medidas da excursão do septo primeiro (ESP em direção ao átrio esquerdo (AE e do diâmetro do forame oval (DFO foram realizadas em corações de dez fetos humanos formolizados com 28 a 36 semanas. Os cortes histológicos foram feitos no FO, SP, septo segundo e nos AE e AD. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise anatômica estão expressos em amplitude das medidas do DFO e da ESP: 3 fetos com idade gestacional (IG presumida de 28 semanas, DFO (3,1-3,5 mm e ESP (2,8-3,1 mm; 4 fetos com IG presumida de 34 semanas, DFO (3,3-3,5 mm e ESP (4,0-5,0 mm; e 3 fetos com IG presumida de 36 semanas, DFO (3,3-4,5 mm e ESP (6,0-9,0. Foram identificadas fibras musculares cardíacas no SP e no segundo. CONCLUSÃO: Pode-se sugerir que o SP apresenta caráter ativo devido às fibras musculares que o constituem, influenciando o fluxo sangüíneo através do FO, a mobilidade do SP e a sua excursão para o interior do AE.OBJECTIVE: To describe morphological features of the interatrial septum in normal fetuses, especially foramen ovale (FO and septum primum (SP, in order to compare septum primum excursion with foramen ovale diameter. METHODS: Septum primum excursion (SPE toward the left atrium (LA and foramen ovale diameter (FOD were measured in the hearts of ten formaldehyde-fixed human fetuses ranging from 28 to 36 weeks of gestation. Histological sections were obtained from the foramen ovale (FO, septum primum (SP, septum secundum (SS, left atrium (LA, and right atrium (RA. RESULTS: FOD and SPE measurements were the following: FOD 3.1-3.5 mm and SPE 2.8-3.1 mm in three fetuses with presumed gestational age (GA of 28 weeks; FOD 3.3-3.5 mm, and SP excursion 4.0-5.0 mm in four fetuses with presumed GA of 34 weeks, plus FOD 3.3-4.5 mm

  8. Neural supply to the clitoris: immunohistochemical study with three-dimensional reconstruction of cavernous nerve, spongious nerve, and dorsal clitoris nerve in human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszkowicz, David; Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Zaitouna, Mazen; Penna, Christophe; Benoit, Gérard; Peschaud, Frédérique

    2011-04-01

    Little detailed information is available concerning autonomic and somatic nerve supply to the clitoris, potentially causing difficulties for nerve preservation during pelvic and perineal surgery. To identify the location and type (nitrergic, adrenergic, cholinergic and sensory) of nerve fibers in the clitoris and to provide a three-dimensional (3D) representation of their structural relationship in the human female fetus. Serial transverse sections were obtained from five human female fetuses (18-31 weeks of gestation) and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical investigations; digitized serial sections were used to construct a 3D representation of the pelvis. Pelvic-perineal nerve location and type were evaluated qualitatively. The female neurovascular bundle (NVB) is the anteroinferior terminal portion of the inferior hypogastric plexus that runs along the postero-lateral then lateral face of the vagina and is rich in nNOS-positive fibers. The cavernous nerve (CN) is a thin ventrocaudal collateral projection of the NVB, and this projection does not strictly follow the NVB course. The CN runs along the lateral surface of the vagina and urethra and penetrates the homolateral clitoral crus. The CN provides adrenergic, cholinergic, and nitrergic innervation to the clitoris, but not sensory innervation. The spongious nerve (SN) is the terminal and main projection of the NVB and provides nitrergic innervation to the vestibular bulbs. The dorsal clitoris nerve (DCN), somatic branche of the pudendal nerve, runs along the superior surface of the clitoral crus and body and has a segmental proerectile nitrergic activity related to communicating branches with the CN. "Computer-assisted anatomic dissection" allowed the identification of the precise location and distribution of the autonomic and somatic neural supply to female erectile bodies, providing an anatomical basis for nerve-sparing surgical techniques, and participating to the understanding of neurogenic

  9. A Very Liquid Heaven: An exhibit exploring the human perception of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    This year the Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery at Skidmore College is showing an exhibit about the human perception of stars, accompanied by a catalog, a speaker series, and an outreach program. The exhibit includes historical documents and atlases as well as work by a variety of artists and scientists. A Very Liquid Heaven opened with a performance of George Crumb's musical piece Makrokosmos III surrounded by original dance, theater, and video art. The title of the exhibit is inspired by Rene Descartes' 1644 text Principles of Philosophy, where he describes the earth as "surrounded on all sides by a very liquid heaven." Although Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics and gravity later discredited his specific hypothesis, in a sense Descartes was correct: astronomy has indeed revealed stars not as hard, fixed objects, but as pulsing plasmas, and interstellar space not as a pure void, but as diffuse clouds of atoms and molecules. This exhibit is made possible with support from Beverly P. and R. Lawrence St. Clair, the Nathalie Potter Voorhees '45 Memorial fund, and the Friends of the Tang.

  10. 人胚胎三叉神经节神经元的躯体定位%Somatotopic organization of trigeminal ganglion neurons in human fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴励; 古丽尼沙·克力木; 吐尔逊江·达地汗; 甘子明

    2009-01-01

    目的:应用1,1′-双十八烷-3,3,3′,3′-四甲基吲哚羰花青-高氯酸盐(DiI)追踪技术研究人胚胎发出眼神经、上颌神经及下颌神经的神经元在三叉神经节内的解剖定位.方法:对胎龄20周以上的6个胎儿标本进行灌注固定后,分别于标本的眼、上颌、下颌神经处植入DiI染色晶体.37℃恒温箱放置3个月,等待DiI染色晶体扩散,再根据神经走向切片,荧光显微镜下观察发出3支神经的神经元在三叉神经节内的解剖定位.结果:人胚胎三叉神经节是沿内外方向分布的细胞团.发出眼神经的神经元位于神经节的前内侧,下颌神经的神经元位于神经节的后外侧,上颌神经的神经元位于两者之间.结论:人胚胎发出眼神经、上颌神经及下颌神经的神经元在三叉神经节内以内外局部定位方式排列.%Objective: To investigate the localization of neuronal cells originating from the ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve in human fetus by 1, 1 '-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylin-docarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) within the trigeminal ganglion. Methods: Dil was embedded into the ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve in fixed postmortem human tissues of 6 fetuses. The tissue was incubated at 37℃ for 3 months, and then sectioned, mounted and observed under a fluorescence microscope after Dil had satisfactorily diffused. Results:The cells in the trigeminal ganglion of human fetus originating branches were arranged in the medio-lateral direction. Namely, the ophthalmic ganglion cells were distributed in the anterio-median part of the ganglion. The mandibular ganglion cells were distributed in the posterio-lateral part of the ganglion. The maxillary ganglion cells were distributed in the intermediant part between the cells originating the ophthalmic and mandibular branches. Conclusion:The cells in the trigeminal ganglion have been considered to be organized somatotopically in a

  11. [Morphological changes in ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in human fetuses and newborns on weeks 22-40 of prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, E V; Vasil'eva, M E; Peretiatko, L P; Malyshkina, A I

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the morphology of the ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the projection field no. 4 of the motor area in human fetuses in dynamics from week 22 to 40 of fetal development. Morphological study allowed us to clarify the following patterns of prenatal ontogeny of the human CNS. On weeks 22-27, an intensive formation of the main sulci of the first order, differentiating the brain into lobes, is observed. By weeks 28-32, the formation of all sulci of the first order is completed; and on weeks 33-37, additional sulci characteristic of an individual are formed. The spurt of gyrification of the cortex (weeks 22-27) practically coincides with the completion of neuronal differentiation and formation of the motor neocortex. The structure of the latter is characterized by a clear stratification of cytoarchitectonic layers and modular organization of neurons with their vertical orientation in cell columns (weeks 25-27). In subsequent weeks of prenatal development until birth, no significant changes in the topography and structure of the neocortex are observed. Structural rearrangement of the ventricular germinal zone on weeks 22-40 of prenatal development consists in its gradual reduction and is completed on weeks 37-40. The criteria of physiological reduction of this area are the zonal location of glioblasts and a progressive decrease in its thickness on weeks 33-37 of prenatal development.

  12. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A; Neitz, S; Mägert, H J; Schulz, A; Forssmann, W G; Schulz-Knappe, P; Adermann, K

    2000-09-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel human peptide with antimicrobial activity, termed LEAP-1 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide). Using a mass spectrometric assay detecting cysteine-rich peptides, a 25-residue peptide containing four disulfide bonds was identified in human blood ultrafiltrate. LEAP-1 expression was predominantly detected in the liver, and, to a much lower extent, in the heart. In radial diffusion assays, Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Gram-negative Neisseria cinerea as well as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae dose-dependently exhibited sensitivity upon treatment with synthetic LEAP-1. The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern.

  13. Refolded Recombinant Human Paraoxonase 1 Variant Exhibits Prophylactic Activity Against Organophosphate Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S; Pande, Abhay H

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are neurotoxic chemicals, and current treatments available for OP-poisoning are considered as unsatisfactory and inadequate. There is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment(s) for OP-poisoning. Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is known to hydrolyze a variety of OP-compounds and is a leading candidate for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agent against OP-poisoning in humans. Non-availability of effective system(s) for the production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) makes it hard to produce improved variant(s) of this enzyme and analyze their in vivo efficacy in animal models. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop variant(s) of h-PON1. Recently, we have developed a procedure to produce active rh-PON1 enzymes by using E. coli expression system. In this study, we have characterized the OP-hydrolyzing properties of refolded rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant. Our results show that refolded rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant exhibit enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity in in vitro and ex vivo assays and exhibited prophylactic activity in mouse model of OP-poisoning, suggesting that refolded rh-PON1 can be developed as a therapeutic candidate.

  14. The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Fondacci, C; Tapia, S; Huten, Y; Blot, P; Nessmann, C

    1992-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) with partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 has been exceptionally diagnosed in fetuses. We report prenatal diagnosis of five cases of monosomy 4p. The fetuses were karyotyped for severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) diagnosed on routine ultrasound (US). In addition, cleft-lip and palate and diaphragmatic hernia respectively were found in two cases. The quantity of amniotic fluid was normal in all cases. At autopsy, the fetuses showed the typical craniofacial dysmorphy but without microcephaly. Major renal hypoplasia was the only constant visceral anomaly. Midline fusion defects were observed in all the fetuses, ranging from minor abnormalities such as scalp defect, hypertelorism, pulmonary isomerism, common mesentery, hypospadias and sacral dimple, to cleft palate, corpus callosum agenesis, ventricular septal defect, and diaphragmatic hernia. On post-mortem X-rays, a delayed bone age was always observed. All the placentae were hypotrophic, and two exhibited vascular lesions, although there was no maternal hypertension. Chromosomal studies showed that the breakpoints were within the 4p16 band in three cases, the 4p15 band in one case, and the 4p14 band in one case. The deletion was de novo in four cases, and resulted from a paternal translocation in one case. This study emphasizes the importance of karyotyping all fetuses with IUGR, especially when the quantity of amniotic fluid is normal, and suggests the possibility of recognizing on US the particular phenotype of WHS in utero.

  15. Female longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats extend into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule: a histological study using human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Yusuke; Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2013-05-01

    It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani.

  16. Pond use by captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozella, Laura; Favaro, Livio; Carnovale, Irene; Pessani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. However, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of African penguins housed in an exhibit where their pond habitat was adjacent to a swimming pool. Observations were carried out on 7 penguins in the summer of 2009. Data were collected during 3 time periods (Time 1 [T1] = opening of the swimming season, Time 2 [T2] = core of the season, Time 3 [T3] = late season) of 14 days each. The human disturbance caused by bathers strongly reduced the pond use by penguins at T1 and T2, especially when there were large numbers of visitors. However, at T3, we observed that the overall use of the pond by penguins increased, and the average duration of their diving was no longer dependent on the number of visitors.

  17. Discussions on the Protection of Human Fetus' Rights and Interests in Medical Tort%浅论医疗侵权行为下的人类胎儿权益保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林涛

    2013-01-01

    Common infringement medical behaviors of human fetal rights and interests may be found in the process of pregnancy and childbirth, which mainly embody the following behaviors: misdiagnosis and maltreat-ment, improper delivery, doctors' rambunctious operation and other direct or indirect damages to the fetus' rights and interests. And the protection of human fetus' rights and interests in the above-mentioned medical torts de-pends on different situation:when the fetus is alive after birth, the compensation is claimed for damages to the fe-tus' health;while the fetus is dead after birth or during pregnancy, the compensation is claimed for damages to the health of pregnant women.%常见侵犯人类胎儿权益的医疗行为,可以发生在怀孕期间及分娩过程中,主要表现为误诊误治、分娩方式不当、医生动作粗暴等多种直接或间接损害胎儿健康权或者生命权的行为。上述各种侵权行为下的胎儿权益的保护,因胎儿出生时是活体还是死体以及是否出生而有不同院胎儿出生是活体的,按侵犯胎儿健康权来请求损害赔偿;胎儿出生时是死体或者在孕期内死亡的,按侵犯孕妇的健康权来请求损害赔偿。

  18. 小鼠和人胚胎鼻咽发育解剖形态学比较研究%An anatomical and morphologic comparison of the nasopharyngeal development in mice and human fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文宏; 邓丽群; 安靓

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较人与小鼠胚胎鼻咽部的解剖学和组织学差异,为研究一些鼻咽部疾病发病机制提供参考资料.方法 用组织学方法观察E9-28周人胚胎及E9.5~19.5 d C57BL/6J小鼠胚胎鼻咽结构及粘膜形态.结果 人胚胎鼻咽部呈不规则的立方形,顶后壁呈约120°的弧形;鼻咽部富含皱襞、隐窝及淋巴组织.小鼠鼻咽部是一个接近直线的弧形管腔,无淋巴组织及隐窝等结构.人胚胎鼻咽粘膜早、中期主要是假复层纤毛柱状上皮被覆,只有少量过渡上皮及复层鳞状上皮存在.小鼠胚胎鼻咽粘膜全部为假复层纤毛柱状上皮.结论 人与小鼠胚胎鼻咽解剖学和组织学差异,可能导致他们对某些疾病易感性不同.%Objective This paper compared the anatomy and histology ofnasopharyngeal development in mice and human,providing references for the study on pathogenesis of diseases of the nasopharynx.Methods We investigated the structure and mucosal morphology of the nasopharynx in human fetuses during embryonic 9-28 weeks and mouse fetuses during embryonic 9.5~19.5 days by histology.Results The nasopharynx of human fetus manifested as an irregular cube with a 120-degree arc-shaped posterior wall.There were many foils,crypts and lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx.The nasopharynx of mice manifested as an arc lumen with an approximately straight line.There was not crypt or lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx.Most of mucosae in the nasopharynx were pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with a small amount of stratified squamous epithelium and transitional epithelium in human fetuses of embryonic 13-28 weeks.All of the nasopharyngeal mucosae in mouse fetuses were pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.Conclusion The differences of anatomy and histology of nasopharyngx in mice and human fetuses may lead to different susceptibilities to some diseases.

  19. Invariant natural killer T cells developing in the human fetus accumulate and mature in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, L; Ivarsson, M A; Michaëlsson, J; Sandberg, J K; Nixon, D F

    2014-09-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are CD1d-restricted immunoregulatory lymphocytes that share characteristics of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Although it has been reported that iNKT cells are present in the human fetal thymus, it is currently unknown how they distribute, differentiate, and function in fetal peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Here, we show that functional human fetal iNKT cells develop and differentiate in a tissue-specific manner during the second trimester. Fetal iNKT cells accumulated in the small intestine, where they gained a mature phenotype and mounted robust interferon (IFN)-γ responses. In contrast, iNKT cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were less frequently detected, less differentiated, mounted poor IFN-γ responses, but proliferated vigorously upon stimulation with α-galactosylceramide. These data demonstrate that fetal iNKT cells can differentiate and acquire potent effector functions in utero before the establishment of the commensal microflora.

  20. Human PHOSPHO1 exhibits high specific phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine phosphatase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Human PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase enzyme for which expression is upregulated in mineralizing cells. This enzyme has been implicated in the generation of Pi for matrix mineralization, a process central to skeletal development. PHOSPHO1 is a member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily of Mg2+-dependent hydrolases. However, substrates for PHOSPHO1 are, as yet, unidentified and little is known about its activity. We show here that PHOSPHO1 exhibits high specific activities toward phosphoethanolamine (PEA) and phosphocholine (PCho). Optimal enzymic activity was observed at approx. pH 6.7. The enzyme shows a high specific Mg2+-dependence, with apparent Km values of 3.0 μM for PEA and 11.4 μM for PCho. These results provide a novel mechanism for the generation of Pi in mineralizing cells from PEA and PCho. PMID:15175005

  1. Exosomes secreted by human placenta carry functional Fas ligand and TRAIL molecules and convey apoptosis in activated immune cells, suggesting exosome-mediated immune privilege of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenqvist, Ann-Christin; Nagaeva, Olga; Baranov, Vladimir; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is crucially important in mediating immune privilege of the fetus during pregnancy. We investigated the expression and in vitro apoptotic activity of two physiologically relevant death messengers, the TNF family members Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL in human early and term placentas. Both molecules were intracellularly expressed, confined to the late endosomal compartment of the syncytiotrophoblast, and tightly associated to the generation and secretion of placental exosomes. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show that FasL and TRAIL are expressed on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies where, by membrane invagination, intraluminal microvesicles carrying membranal bioactive FasL and TRAIL are formed and released in the extracellular space as exosomes. Analyzing exosomes secreted from placental explant cultures, to our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that FasL and TRAIL are clustered on the exosomal membrane as oligomerized aggregates ready to form death-inducing signaling complex. Consistently, placental FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes triggered apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and activated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner. Limiting the expression of functional FasL and TRAIL to exosomes comprise a dual benefit: 1) storage of exosomal FasL and TRAIL in multivesicular bodies is protected from proteolytic cleavage and 2) upon secretion, delivery of preformed membranal death molecules by exosomes rapidly triggers apoptosis. Our results suggest that bioactive FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes, able to convey apoptosis, are secreted by the placenta and tie up the immunomodulatory and protective role of human placenta to its exosome-secreting ability.

  2. Plasticity of marrow mesenchymal stem cells from human first-trimester fetus: from single-cell clone to neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenzheng; Sun, Bingjie; Lv, Changrong; Dou, Zhongying

    2011-02-01

    Recent results have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) are closer to embryonic stem cells and perform greater telomerase activity and faster propagation than mid- and late-prophase fetal and adult BMSCs. However, no research has been done on the plasticity of hfBMSCs into neuronal cells using single-cell cloned strains without cell contamination. In this study, we isolated five single cells from hfBMSCs and obtained five single-cell cloned strains, and investigated their biological property and neuronal differentiation potential. We found that four of the five strains showed similar expression profile of surface antigen markers to hfBMSCs, and most of them differentiated into neuron-like cells expressing Nestin, Pax6, Sox1, β-III Tubulin, NF-L, and NSE under induction. One strain showed different expression profile of surface antigen markers from the four strains and hfBMSCs, and did not differentiate toward neuronal cells. We demonstrated for the first time that some of single-cell cloned strains from hfBMSCs can differentiate into nerve tissue-like cell clusters under induction in vitro, and that the plasticity of each single-cell cloned strain into neuronal cells is different.

  3. Sexing the human fetus and identification of polyploid nuclei by DNA-DNA in situ hybridisation in interphase nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J D; Gosden, C M; Gosden, J R; West, K M; Davidson, Z; Davidson, C; Nicolaides, K H

    1989-01-01

    Samples of human adult lymphocytes, fetal lymphocytes, amniotic fluid cells, and chorionic villus cells were sexed independently by cytogenetics and DNA-DNA in situ hybridisation to a tritiated Y probe. For the in situ hybridisation analysis, the presence of Y bodies (hybridisation bodies) in 100 interphase nuclei were scored after autoradiography. In all, 82/83 samples were sexed in this way (one technical failure) and 78/82 were sexed by both in situ hybridisation and cytogenetics. There was complete agreement between the two methods. There was a considerable variation (40-100%) in the percentage of interphase nuclei with a hybridisation body among the male samples, but very few nuclei from female samples showed significant hybridisation. In situ hybridisation could be used to sex the conceptus when males but not females are at risk for various X-linked genetic disorders and may also be useful for detecting 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or polyploid/diploid mosaicism. This would be particularly useful for direct preparations of chorionic villus samples, which often prove difficult to analyse cytogenetically but offer the best means of avoiding maternal contamination. Some interphase nuclei had more than one hybridisation body, and this was most commonly found among amniotic fluid cells. Comparison of sizes of nuclei with one or two hybridisation bodies strongly suggested that most of the amniotic fluid cell nuclei with two hybridisation bodies were tetraploid.

  4. Human P-glycoprotein exhibits reduced affinity for substrates during a catalytic transition state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, M; Ambudkar, S V; Chen, D; Hrycyna, C A; Dey, S; Gottesman, M M; Pastan, I

    1998-04-01

    Human P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a plasma membrane protein that confers multidrug resistance, functions as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. Pgp contains two ATP binding/utilization sites and exhibits ATPase activity that is stimulated in the presence of substrates and modulating agents. The mechanism of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport is not known. To understand the role of ATP hydrolysis in drug binding, it is necessary to develop methods for purifying and reconstituting Pgp that retains properties including stimulation of ATPase activity by known substrates to an extent similar to that in the native membrane. In this study, (His)6-tagged Pgp was expressed in Trichoplusia ni (High Five) cells using the recombinant baculovirus system and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Upon reconstitution into phospholipid vesicles, purified Pgp exhibited specific binding to analogues of substrates and ATP in affinity labeling experiments and displayed a high level of drug-stimulated ATPase activity (specific activity ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 micromol min-1 mg-1). The ATPase activity was inhibited by ADP in a competitive manner, and by vanadate and N-ethylmaleimide at low concentrations. Vanadate which is known to inhibit ATPase activity by trapping MgADP at the catalytic site inhibited photoaffinity labeling of Pgp with substrate analogues, [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin and [3H]azidopine, only under ATP hydrolysis conditions. Because vanadate-trapped Pgp is known to resemble the ADP and phosphate-bound catalytic transition state, our findings indicate that ATP hydrolysis results in a conformation with reduced affinity for substrates. A catalytic transition conformation with reduced affinity would essentially result in substrate dissociation and supports a model for drug transport in which an ATP hydrolysis-induced conformational change leads to drug release toward the extracellular medium.

  5. Antipseudomonal agents exhibit differential pharmacodynamic interactions with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes against established biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lower respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where it forms tracheobronchial biofilms. Pseudomonas biofilms are refractory to antibacterials and to phagocytic cells with innate immunity, leading to refractory infection. Little is known about the interaction between antipseudomonal agents and phagocytic cells in eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Herein, we investigated the capacity of three antipseudomonal agents, amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), to interact with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against biofilms and planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa of CF patients. Three of the isolates were resistant and three were susceptible to each of these antibiotics. The concentrations studied (2, 8, and 32 mg/liter) were subinhibitory for biofilms of resistant isolates, whereas for biofilms of susceptible isolates, they ranged between sub-MIC and 2 × MIC values. The activity of each antibiotic alone or in combination with human PMNs against 48-h mature biofilms or planktonic cells was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. All combinations of AMK with PMNs resulted in synergistic or additive effects against planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates compared to each component alone. More than 75% of CAZ combinations exhibited additive interactions against biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates, whereas CIP had mostly antagonistic interaction or no interaction with PMNs against biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Our findings demonstrate a greater positive interaction between AMK with PMNs than that observed for CAZ and especially CIP against isolates of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract of CF patients.

  6. Energy distributions exhibited during thermal runaway of commercial lithium ion batteries used for human spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayathi, Sandeep; Walker, William; Doughty, Daniel; Ardebili, Haleh

    2016-10-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide low mass and energy dense solutions necessary for space exploration, but thermal related safety concerns impede the utilization of Li-ion technology for human applications. Experimental characterization of thermal runaway energy release with accelerated rate calorimetry supports safer thermal management systems. 'Standard' accelerated rate calorimetry setup provides means to measure the addition of energy exhibited through the body of a Li-ion cell. This study considers the total energy generated during thermal runaway as distributions between cell body and hot gases via inclusion of a unique secondary enclosure inside the calorimeter; this closed system not only contains the cell body and gaseous species, but also captures energy release associated with rapid heat transfer to the system unobserved by measurements taken on the cell body. Experiments include Boston Power Swing 5300, Samsung 18650-26F and MoliCel 18650-J Li-ion cells at varied states-of-charge. An inverse relationship between state-of-charge and onset temperature is observed. Energy contained in the cell body and gaseous species are successfully characterized; gaseous energy is minimal. Significant additional energy is measured with the heating of the secondary enclosure. Improved calorimeter apparatus including a secondary enclosure provides essential capability to measuring total energy release distributions during thermal runaway.

  7. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  8. Polymorphic Variants of Human Rhodanese Exhibit Differences in Thermal Stability and Sulfur Transfer Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiad, Marouane; Sriraman, Anusha; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-09-25

    Rhodanese is a component of the mitochondrial H2S oxidation pathway. Rhodanese catalyzes the transfer of sulfane sulfur from glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to sulfite generating thiosulfate and from thiosulfate to cyanide generating thiocyanate. Two polymorphic variations have been identified in the rhodanese coding sequence in the French Caucasian population. The first, 306A→C, has an allelic frequency of 1% and results in an E102D substitution in the encoded protein. The second polymorphism, 853C→G, has an allelic frequency of 5% and leads to a P285A substitution. In this study, we have examined differences in the stability between wild-type rhodanese and the E102D and P285A variants and in the kinetics of the sulfur transfer reactions. The Asp-102 and Ala-285 variants are more stable than wild-type rhodanese and exhibit kcat/Km,CN values that are 17- and 1.6-fold higher, respectively. All three rhodanese forms preferentially catalyze sulfur transfer from GSSH to sulfite, generating thiosulfate and glutathione. The kcat/Km,sulfite values for the variants in the sulfur transfer reaction from GSSH to sulfite were 1.6- (Asp-102) and 4-fold (Ala-285) lower than for wild-type rhodanese, whereas the kcat/Km,GSSH values were similar for all three enzymes. Thiosulfate-dependent H2S production in murine liver lysate is low, consistent with a role for rhodanese in sulfide oxidation. Our studies show that polymorphic variations that are distant from the active site differentially modulate the sulfurtransferase activity of human rhodanese to cyanide versus sulfite and might be important in differences in susceptibility to diseases where rhodanese dysfunction has been implicated, e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases.

  9. Micro-array profiling exhibits remarkable intra-individual stability of human platelet micro-RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratz, C; Nührenberg, T G; Binder, H; Valina, C M; Trenk, D; Hochholzer, W; Neumann, F J; Fiebich, B L

    2012-04-01

    Platelets play an important role in haemostasis and thrombus formation. Latest research identified platelets harbouring so called microRNAs (miRNA). MiRNAs are short single-stranded RNAs modulating gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Limited data exist on inter-individual variability of platelet miRNA profile while no data are available on intra-individual variability. We assessed platelet miRNA profile in five volunteers at five time points over a time course of 10 days; 24 hours prior to the last blood sampling, subjects took 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Platelet miRNA was isolated from leucocyte-depleted platelet-rich plasma, and miRNA array-analysis was performed. Temporal patterns and ASA effect were explored by a linear mixed effects model for each miRNA. For the 20 most abundantly expressed platelet miRNAs, target gene search was performed and an annotation network was created. MiRNA expression profiling of 1,281 human miRNAs revealed relevant expression of 221 miRNAs consistently expressed in all samples at all time points. Correlation of platelet miRNA ranks was highly significant to other studies. Global distribution of miRNA expression was relatively similar in all subjects. No miRNA exhibited a significant effect of time at level 0.05. After 24 hours, no significant effect of ASA was found. Concerning functional implications of the 20 most abundantly expressed miRNAs, we found six functional themes. In conclusion, platelet miRNA profile is remarkably stable over the time period studied. Single-point analysis of platelet miRNA profile is reasonable when inter-individual differences are studied. The functional annotation network points toward extra-platelet effects of platelet miRNAs.

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibit classic apoptotic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Meng; Hui-yun Xu; Sheng-meng Di; Dong-yan Shi; Ai-rong Qian; Jin-fu Wang; Peng Shang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of abnormal gravity on human mesenchymal stem cells(hMSCs).Strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient generate a magnetic force that can add to or subtract from the gravitational force.In this study,this is defined as a high-magneto-gravitational environment(HMGE).The HMGE provides three apparent gravity levels,i.e.hypogravity(μg),hypergravity(2g)and normal gravity with strong magnetic field(1g)conditions.After hMSCs were subject to HMGE for 12 h,the proliferation,morphology,structure and apoptosis were investigated.Results showed that the proliferation of hMSCs was inhibited under μg condition The abnormal gravity induced morphologic characterishcs of apoptosis cells,such as cell shrinkage,membrane blebbing,nuclear chromatin condensation and margination,decreased cell viability,and increased caspase-3/7 activity.The rate of apoptosis underμg condition is up to 56.95%.The F-actin stress fibers and microtubules were disrupted under abnormal gravity condition.Under μg-condition,the expression of p53 at mRNA and protein levels was up-regulated more than 9-and 6 folds,respectively.The Pifithrin-a,an specific inhibitor of p53,inhibited the apoptosis and prevented the disruption of cytoskeleton induced by abnormal gravity.These results implied that hMSCs were sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibited classic apoptotic features,which might be associated with p53 signaling.

  11. Human breast cancer associated fibroblasts exhibit subtype specific gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchou Julia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease for which prognosis and treatment strategies are largely governed by the receptor status (estrogen, progesterone and Her2 of the tumor cells. Gene expression profiling of whole breast tumors further stratifies breast cancer into several molecular subtypes which also co-segregate with the receptor status of the tumor cells. We postulated that cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs within the tumor stroma may exhibit subtype specific gene expression profiles and thus contribute to the biology of the disease in a subtype specific manner. Several studies have reported gene expression profile differences between CAFs and normal breast fibroblasts but in none of these studies were the results stratified based on tumor subtypes. Methods To address whether gene expression in breast cancer associated fibroblasts varies between breast cancer subtypes, we compared the gene expression profiles of early passage primary CAFs isolated from twenty human breast cancer samples representing three main subtypes; seven ER+, seven triple negative (TNBC and six Her2+. Results We observed significant expression differences between CAFs derived from Her2+ breast cancer and CAFs from TNBC and ER + cancers, particularly in pathways associated with cytoskeleton and integrin signaling. In the case of Her2+ breast cancer, the signaling pathways found to be selectively up regulated in CAFs likely contribute to the enhanced migration of breast cancer cells in transwell assays and may contribute to the unfavorable prognosis of Her2+ breast cancer. Conclusions These data demonstrate that in addition to the distinct molecular profiles that characterize the neoplastic cells, CAF gene expression is also differentially regulated in distinct subtypes of breast cancer.

  12. GpIIb/IIIa+ subpopulation of rat megakaryocyte progenitor cells exhibits high responsiveness to human thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Horie, K; Hagiwara, T; Maeda, E; Tsumura, H; Ohashi, H; Miyazaki, H

    1996-08-01

    The recently cloned factor thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to exhibit megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity in vitro. In this investigation, to further evaluate the action of TPO on megakaryocyte progenitor cells (colony-forming units-megakaryocyte [CFU-MK]), GpIIb/IIIa+ and GpIIb/IIIa- populations of CFU-MK were prepared from rat bone marrow cells based on their reactivity with P55 antibody, a monoclonal antibody against rat GpIIb/IIIa, and their responsiveness to recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) and recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) was examined using a megakaryocyte colony-forming assay (Meg-CSA). rhTPO supported only megakaryocyte colony growth from both fractions in a dose-dependent fashion. The mean colony size observed with the GpIIb/IIIa+ population was smaller than that seen with the GpIIb/IIIa- population. With the optimal concentration of either rhTPO or rrIL-3, similar numbers of megakaryocyte colonies were formed from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population previously shown to be highly enriched for CFU-MK. In contrast, the maximum number of megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa- population stimulated by rhTPO was only 24.2% of that achieved with rrIL-3. Morphologic analysis of rhTPO-promoted megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population showed that the average colony size was smaller but that the mean diameter of individual megakaryocytes was larger than in megakaryocyte colonies promoted with rrIL-3. rhTPO plus rrIL-3, each at suboptimal concentrations, had an additive effect on proliferation of CFU-MK in the GpIIb/IIIa+ fraction, whereas rhTPO plus murine IL-6 or murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mG-M-CSF) modestly but significantly reduced megakaryocyte colony growth. These results indicate that TPO preferentially acts on GpIIb/IIIa+ late CFU-MK with lower proliferative capacity and interacts with some other cytokines in CFU-MK development.

  13. Exploring the gene: Interactive exhibits on genetics and the human genome. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    Under funding by the United States Department of Energy, the Exploratorium has substantially completed the prototype development of four exhibits on the nature of DNA and genetics, and substantially completed the production of ed exhibits based on these prototypes. Individually these genetic exhibits have been designed to elucidate specific themes, such as, the molecular properties of DNA, the encoding of genetic information, the expression of genetic information, and technological manipulation. The exhibits are titled Dancing DNA, Marching Bands, Protein Production Line, and Genetic Playbook. Specific exhibit projects are detailed below. In all the exhibits we have sought to draw a relationship between the nature of DNA and its expression in organisms. For most visitors, DNA exists as an invisible abstract molecule with marginal connections to their lives, while organisms exist as a familiar tangible entities. Inclusion of this broad thematic connection provides the crucial bridge between the abstract principles and the real world, and serves to underpin scientific, medical, and public interest in the topic.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  16. The relationship between the response to external light stimulation and behavioral states in the human fetus: how it differs from vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, M; Nagata, N; Ikeno, S; Terakawa, N

    2000-05-01

    To determine the effects of external light stimulation on fetal behavioral states and know the difference from those of vibroacoustic stimulation. A flashlight and a vibroacoustic stimulator was applied directly on the maternal abdomen to determine the response of 56 normal fetuses at 36-40 weeks gestation. Fetal heart rate (FHR) and body movements were recorded using an actocardiograph, and fetal eye movements were observed using real-time ultrasonography. Using Nijhuis's criteria, the fetal behavioral states (1F-4F) were determined. FHR acceleration was considered a fetal response to the stimulations. The lag time between stimulation and fetal response was within 4 s. A positive response rate to the light stimulation was higher at behavioral states 2F (82%) and 3F (83%) than at state 1F (4%). Light stimulation changed the behavioral state of two of the six 3F fetuses (33%) from 3F to 4F. No change of state was observed in fetuses that were in states 1F and 2F. For vibroacoustic stimulation, fetal response was 100% positive and changes of states were observed frequently irrespective of the behavioral state before the stimulation. Fetal response to light stimulation is closely connected to fetal behavioral states and may reflect some distinct stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  17. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  18. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF VARIATION OF MAST CELL NUMBER IN HUMAN FETUS DURING BLADDER DEVELOPMENT%胎儿膀胱发育中肥大细胞量变的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彩虹; 杨美林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the variation of the mast cell number in human fetus in the course of the bladder deveolpment. Methods: The sectionsof bladder from 43 human fetuses at different gestation age were stained with Toluidine blue(TB) and Alcian blue-safranin(AB-S) mixutre respectively., then mast cell number was counted and analyzed statistically by analysis of variance. Results: In the fatuses at 3 months, a few mast cells began to be found and their number was 37.18 ±+ 5.72/mm2, whereasduring the 6th month, the number of mast cells increased greatly and was 161.48 + 4.38/mm2, beingabout 5 times of the primitive quantity, the varation was significant(P < 0.01 ). Approach to delivery,the amount of mast cells reached 237.92 + 5.48/mm2, which was 7 to 9 times of the primitive.Conclusion: During bladder development of human fetus, the number of mast cells increases greatly as the fetus grows, especially before or after 6 months.%目的:探讨肥大细胞在人胎儿膀胱发育中的数量变化。材料和方法:43例不同胎龄的人胎儿膀胱切片做甲苯胺蓝(TB)和阿尔辛蓝-藏红(AB-S)染色并对肥大细胞进行计数和用方差分析做统计学处理。结果:胎儿膀胱肥大细胞3月龄时开始出现,数量为37.18±5.72个/mm2,6月龄时增长迅速,为161.48±4.38个/mm2,约是最初量的5倍,该变化具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。9月龄时肥大细胞数量可达237.92±5.48%,约为最初量的7~9倍。结论:在人胎儿膀胱肥大细胞在6月龄前后明显增多,并且随着胎龄增长而进一步增多。

  19. Apigenin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells and exhibits anti-leukemic activity in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budhraja, Amit; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Son, Young-Ok; Cheng, Senping; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Hitron, Andrew; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional role of Akt and c-jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo...

  20. EZH2蛋白在人胎儿器官发育过程中的表达模式%Expression patter n of EZH2 in oganogenesis of human fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑岩; 祝宁侠; 陈海滨

    2014-01-01

    To determine the expression pattern of EZH2 protein in the process of human fetal development and provide new and multi-organ information for understanding the possible roles of EZH2 during the whole fetal development. METHODS:33 human fetuses at 25 different gestational weeks and 1 neonatal sample were obtained through abortion or stillbirth. The organ or tissue including esophagus,stomach,small intestine,colon,liver, pancreas,parotid gland,thyroid,adrenal gland,lung,trachea,heart,large artery,kidney,bladder,uterus, ovary,testis,spleen,thymus,cerebrum were fixed,embedded,sectioned,then stained with hematoxylin and eosin to identify their morphological structures. Tissue microarrays were constructed and followed by immunohistochemical staining of EZH2. RESULTS:EZH2 was expressed in fetal organs investigated and exhibited different expression levels in different tissues and at various gestational ages. The positive staining of EZH2 protein was mainly located in the nucleus,as well as in the cytoplasm in some cells. CONCLUSION:EZH2 protein was generally expressed in human fetal organs and tissues and its expression exhibited tissue specificity and dependence on the stages of fetal development.%目的:检测果蝇zeste基因增强子人类同源物2(EZH2)蛋白在人胎儿发育过程中的表达模式,为了解EZH2在胎儿发育过程中可能的作用,提供新的、多器官的信息。方法:收集不同胎龄流产或死产胎儿33例及1例新生儿标本。选取食管、胃、小肠、结肠、肝、胰、腮腺、甲状腺、肾上腺、肺、气管、心脏、大血管(主动脉或肺动脉)、肾、膀胱、子宫、卵巢、睾丸、脾、胸腺、大脑等器官组织,经HE染色辨别形态学结构并构建组织芯片后,进行EZH2免疫组化染色检测。结果:在所有检测的上述胎儿器官中EZH2蛋白均有表达,但在不同的组织器官和不同的胎龄其表达水平不同。EZH2蛋白阳性染色主要定位于细

  1. Human endometrial side population cells exhibit genotypic, phenotypic and functional features of somatic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cervelló

    Full Text Available During reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes around 480 cycles of growth, breakdown and regeneration should pregnancy not be achieved. This outstanding regenerative capacity is the basis for women's cycling and its dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of pathological disorders. Therefore, the human endometrial tissue must rely on a remarkable endometrial somatic stem cells (SSC population. Here we explore the hypothesis that human endometrial side population (SP cells correspond to somatic stem cells. We isolated, identified and characterized the SP corresponding to the stromal and epithelial compartments using endometrial SP genes signature, immunophenotyping and characteristic telomerase pattern. We analyzed the clonogenic activity of SP cells under hypoxic conditions and the differentiation capacity in vitro to adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Finally, we demonstrated the functional capability of endometrial SP to develop human endometrium after subcutaneous injection in NOD-SCID mice. Briefly, SP cells of human endometrium from epithelial and stromal compartments display genotypic, phenotypic and functional features of SSC.

  2. Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene; Rustan, Arild C

    2011-01-01

    that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.......Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways...

  3. The zebrafish goosepimples/myosin Vb mutant exhibits cellular attributes of human microvillus inclusion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhaye, Jaydeep; Pinto, Clyde Savio; Dharap, Shweta; Jacob, Tressa; Bhargava, Shobha; Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-11-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life-threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID. In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful. Here we report that the intestine of the zebrafish goosepimples (gsp)/myosin Vb (myoVb) mutant shows severe reduction in intestinal folds - structures similar to mammalian villi. The loss of folds is further correlated with changes in the shape of enterocytes. In striking similarity with MVID patients, zebrafish gsp/myoVb mutant larvae exhibit microvillus atrophy, microvillus inclusions and accumulation of secretory material in enterocytes. We propose that the zebrafish gsp/myoVb mutant is a valuable model to study the pathophysiology of MVID. Furthermore, owing to the advantages of zebrafish in screening libraries of small molecules, the gsp mutant will be an ideal tool to identify compounds having therapeutic value against MVID.

  4. The human body on Exhibit: promoting socio-cultural mediations in a science museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Sousa do Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses three mediation concept approaches and, consequently, three facets of mediator action. The approaches presented start with a bibliographical review of the concept of mediation present in education and scientific communication studies. These approaches serve as a basis for interpreting a semi-directive interview with the director of the Museum of Morphological Sciences of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG. They also help us reflect on the complexity of organizing the objectives of a museum action that takes into account the transformational role of the meaning of objects in interaction with different socio-cultural subjects. In conclusion, the museum's purpose in organizing a museum action using socio-cultural mediation approach and with the mediator as a passeur libre among exhibit objects and visitors is highlighted.

  5. The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E.; Liu, Bo; McCoy, John M.; Merighi, Massimo; Heidtman, Matthew; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even greater than supplementation by fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic positive control. HMOS elevated lactate concentrations,...

  6. Humanized Tau Mice with Regionalized Amyloid Exhibit Behavioral Deficits but No Pathological Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, Michael J.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) researchers have struggled for decades to draw a causal link between extracellular Aβ aggregation and intraneuronal accumulation of microtubule-associated protein tau. The amyloid cascade hypothesis posits that Aβ deposition promotes tau hyperphosphorylation, tangle formation, cell loss, vascular damage, and dementia. While the genetics of familial AD and the pathological staging of sporadic disease support this sequence of events, attempts to examine the molecular mechanism in transgenic animal models have largely relied on models of other inherited tauopathies as the basis for testing the interaction with Aβ. In an effort to more accurately model the relationship between Aβ and wild-type tau in AD, we intercrossed mice that overproduce human Aβ with a tau substitution model in which all 6 isoforms of the human protein are expressed in animals lacking murine tau. We selected an amyloid model in which pathology was biased towards the entorhinal region so that we could further examine whether the anticipated changes in tau phosphorylation occurred at the site of Aβ deposition or in synaptically connected regions. We found that Aβ and tau had independent effects on locomotion, learning, and memory, but found no behavioral evidence for an interaction between the two transgenes. Moreover, we saw no indication of amyloid-induced changes in the phosphorylation or aggregation of human tau either within the entorhinal area or elsewhere. These findings suggest that robust amyloid pathology within the medial temporal lobe has little effect on the metabolism of wild type human tau in this model. PMID:27070146

  7. The flavonol isorhamnetin exhibits cytotoxic effects on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Sara; Lopez, Sergio; Varela, Lourdes M; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Jimenez, Ana; Abia, Rocio; Guillen, Rafael; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2010-10-27

    The aim of this study was to determine whether isorhamnetin, an immediate 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, affects proliferation, cell death, and the cell cycle of human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cells. Isorhamnetin was found to be a potent antiproliferative agent in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 72 μM after 48 h of incubation as estimated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that isorhamnetin exerted a stimulatory effect on apoptosis and necrosis. Isorhamnetin also increased the number of cells in G2/M phase. Serum deprivation appeared to potentiate the effects of isorhamnetin on cell death and facilitated cell cycle progression to G0/G1 phase. These results suggest that isorhamnetin might mediate inhibition of HCT-116 cell growth through the perturbation of cell cycle progression and are consistent with the notion that G2/M checkpoints could be a conserved target for flavonoids in human colon cancer cells, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death. These antiproliferative, apoptotic, necrotic, and cell cycle effects suggest that isorhamnetin may have clinically significant therapeutic and chemopreventive capabilities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of isorhamnetin on human colon cancer cells.

  8. Urolithins, ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora, exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, Mar; González-Sarrías, Antonio; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2006-03-08

    Urolithins A and B (hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives) are colonic microflora metabolites recently proposed as biomarkers of human exposure to dietary ellagic acid derivatives. Molecular models suggest that urolithins could display estrogenic and/or antiestrogenic activity. To this purpose, both urolithins and other known phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, resveratrol, and enterolactone) were assayed to evaluate the capacity to induce cell proliferation on the estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as well as the ability to bind to alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors. Both urolithins A and B showed estrogenic activity in a dose-dependent manner even at high concentrations (40 microM), without antiproliferative or toxic effects, whereas the other phytoestrogens inhibited cell proliferation at high concentrations. Overall, urolithins showed weaker estrogenic activity than the other phytoestrogens. However, both urolithins displayed slightly higher antiestrogenic activity (antagonized the growth promotion effect of 17-beta-estradiol in a dose-dependent manner) than the other phytoestrogens. The IC(50) values for the ERalpha and ERbeta binding assays were 0.4 and 0.75 microM for urolithin A; 20 and 11 microM for urolithin B; 3 and 0.02 for genistein; and 2.3 and 1 for daidzein, respectively; no binding was detected for resveratrol and enterolactone. Urolithins A and B entered into MCF-7 cells and were metabolized to yield mainly urolithin-sulfate derivatives. These results, together with previous studies regarding absorption and metabolism of dietary ellagitannins and ellagic acid in humans, suggest that the gut microflora metabolites urolithins are potential endocrine-disrupting molecules, which could resemble other described "enterophytoestrogens" (microflora-derived metabolites with estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity). Further research is warranted to evaluate the possible role of ellagitannins and ellagic acid as dietary "pro-phytoestrogens".

  9. Characterization of human and murine PMP20 peroxisomal proteins that exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Avraham, S; Jiang, S; London, R; Van Veldhoven, P P; Subramani, S; Rogers, R A; Avraham, H

    1999-10-15

    We have isolated the cDNAs encoding human and mouse homologues of a yeast protein, termed peroxisomal membrane protein 20 (PMP20). Comparison of the amino acid sequences of human (HsPMP20) and mouse (MmPMP20) PMP20 proteins revealed a high degree of identity (93%), whereas resemblance to the yeast Candida boidinii PMP20A and PMP20B (CbPMP20A and CbPMP20B) was less (30% identity). Both HsPMP20 and MmPMP20 lack transmembrane regions, as do CbPMP20A and CbPMP20B. HsPMP20 mRNA expression was low in human fetal tissues, especially in the brain. In adult tissues, HsPMP20 mRNA was expressed in the majority of tissues tested. HsPMP20 and MmPMP20 contained the C-terminal tripeptide sequence Ser-Gln-Leu (SQL), which is similar to the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 utilized for protein import into peroxisomes. HsPMP20 bound directly to the human peroxisomal targeting signal 1 receptor, HsPEX5. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the C-terminal tripeptide sequence, SQL, of HsPMP20 is necessary for its binding to HsPEX5. Subcellular fractionation of HeLa cells, expressing epitope-tagged PMP20, revealed that HsPMP20 is localized in the cytoplasm and in a particulate fraction containing peroxisomes. Double-staining immunofluorescence studies showed colocalization of HsPMP20 and thiolase, a bona fide peroxisomal protein. The amino acid sequence alignment of HsPMP20, MmPMP20, CbPMP20A, and CbPMP20B displayed high similarity to thiol-specific antioxidant proteins. HsPMP20 exerted an inhibitory effect on the inactivation of glutamine synthetase in the thiol metal-catalyzed oxidation system but not in the nonthiol metal-catalyzed oxidation system, suggesting that HsPMP20 possesses thiol-specific antioxidant activity. In addition, HsPMP20 removed hydrogen peroxide by its thiol-peroxidase activity. These results indicate that HsPMP20 is imported into the peroxisomal matrix via PEX5p and may work to protect peroxisomal proteins against oxidative stress. Because some portion of PMP20 might

  10. Novel human neuronal tau model exhibiting neurofibrillary tangles and transcellular propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Patrick; Winston, Charisse N; Baron, Kelsey R; Trejo, Margarita; Rockenstein, Edward M; Akers, Johnny C; Kfoury, Najla; Diamond, Marc; Masliah, Eliezer; Rissman, Robert A; Yuan, Shauna H

    2017-10-01

    Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy, which are associated with the pathological aggregation of tau protein into neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Studies have characterized tau as a "prion-like" protein given its ability to form distinct, stable amyloid conformations capable of transcellular and multigenerational propagation in clonal fashion. It has been proposed that progression of tauopathy could be due to the prion-like propagation of tau, suggesting the possibility that end-stage pathologies, like NFT formation, may require an instigating event such as tau seeding. To investigate this, we applied a novel human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) system we have developed to serve as a human neuronal model. We introduced the tau repeat domain (tau-RD) with P301L and V337M (tau-RD-LM) mutations into hiPSC-derived neurons and observed expression of tau-RD at levels similar to total tau in postmortem AD brains. Tau aggregation occurred without the addition of recombinant tau fibrils. The conditioned media from tau-RD cultures contained tau-RD seeds, which were capable of inducing aggregate formation in homotypic mode in non-transduced recipient neuronal cultures. The resultant NFTs were thioflavin-positive, silver stain-positive, and assumed fibrillary appearance on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with immunogold, which revealed paired helical filament 1 (PHF1)-positive NFTs, representing possible recruitment of endogenous tau in the aggregates. Functionally, expression of tau-RD caused neurotoxicity that manifested as axon retraction, synaptic density reduction, and enlargement of lysosomes. The results of our hiPSC study were reinforced by the observation that Tau-RD-LM is excreted in exosomes, which mediated the transfer of human tau to wild-type mouse neurons in vivo. Our hiPSC human neuronal system provides a model for further studies of tau

  11. Orthologous endogenous retroviruses exhibit directional selection since the chimp-human split

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmell, Patrick; Hein, Jotun; Katzourakis, Aris

    2015-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are often viewed as selfish DNA that do not contribute to host phenotype. Yet ERVs have also been co-opted to play important roles in the maintenance of stem cell identity and placentation, amongst other things. This has led to debate over whether the typical ERV confers a cost or benefit upon the host. We studied the divergence of orthologous ERVs since the chimp-human split with the aim of assessing whether ERVs exert detectable fitness effects. Res...

  12. Human giant congenital melanocytic nevus exhibits potential proteomic alterations leading to melanotumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyoung Kyu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN is a malformation of the pigment cells. It is a distress to the patients for two reasons: one is disfigurement, and the other is the possibility of malignant changes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the development of GCMN and melanotumorigenesis in GCMN are unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the proteomic alterations and associated functional pathways in GCMN. Results Proteomic differences between GCMN (n = 3 and normal skin samples (n = 3 were analyzed by one-dimensional-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Relative levels of the selected proteins were validated using western blot analysis. The biological processes associated with the abundance modified proteins were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. Among the 46 abundance modified proteins, expression of 4 proteins was significantly downregulated and expression of 42 proteins was significantly upregulated in GCMN compared to normal skin samples (p  Conclusion These findings suggest that GCMN exhibits potential proteomic alterations, which may play a role in melanotumorigenesis, and the significant alteration of 14-3-3 family proteins could be a key regulator of the biological pathway remodeling in GCMN.

  13. Heparin binding carboxypeptidase E protein exhibits antibacterial activity in human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhuman; Gill, Kamaldeep; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2014-03-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) cleaves basic amino acid residues at the C-terminal end and involves in the biosynthesis of numerous peptide hormones and neurotransmitters. It was purified from human seminal plasma by ion exchange, heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography followed by identification through SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, which was further confirmed by western blotting. CPE was characterized as glycoprotein by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and treating with deglycosylating enzyme N-glycosidase F. The interaction of CPE with heparin was illustrated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and in silico interaction analysis. The association constant (KA) and dissociation constant (KD) of CPE with heparin was determined by SPR and found to be 1.06 × 10(5)M and 9.46 × 10(-6)M, respectively. It was detected in human spermatozoa also by western blotting using mouse anti-CPE primary antibody. 20-100 μg/ml concentration of CPE was observed as highly effective in killing Escherichia coli by colony forming unit (CFU) assay. We suggest that CPE might act not only in the innate immunity of male reproductive tract but also regulate sperm fertilization process by interacting heparin.

  14. The human rhinovirus internal cis-acting replication element (cre) exhibits disparate properties among serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, K L

    2003-12-01

    It has been reported previously that the Human rhinovirus 14 (HRV-14) RNA genome contains a cis-acting replication element (cre) that maps to the capsid coding (P1) sequence [19]. Further characterization of the HRV-14 cre in the present study established that by moving the cre stem-loop structure downstream, adjacent to the 3'NCR, that its position is not critical for function. When the P1 sequences of two closely related serotypes of HRV-14 were analyzed for the presence of a cre, both HRV-3 and HRV-72 were found to contain similar sequence at the same positions as HRV-14. Moreover, sequence at these positions produced structures from MFOLD analysis that closely resembled the HRV-14 cre. It was also discovered that neither HRV serotypes 1a or 16 harbor replication elements that map to the P1 segments of their genomes. Computer and mutational analyses suggest that the cre in these latter HRV serotypes map instead to the 2A gene, as has been reported for HRV-2. The putative HRV-3 cre was determined to be unable to support replication when placed in an HRV-14 replicon background. Similarly, the previously identified HRV-2 cre was unable to support replication of the HRV-14 genome. This finding is in contrast to the cardiovirus cre, which has been shown to be functionally active between two members of its family, and further suggests that there is a close link between the evolution of the human rhinoviruses and the mechanisms of RNA replication.

  15. Getting the point across: exploring the effects of dynamic virtual humans in an interactive museum exhibit on user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Diego; Ferdig, Rick; Li, Jian; Lok, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    We have created “You, M.D.”, an interactive museum exhibit in which users learn about topics in public health literacy while interacting with virtual humans. You, M.D. is equipped with a weight sensor, a height sensor and a Microsoft Kinect that gather basic user information. Conceptually, You, M.D. could use this user information to dynamically select the appearance of the virtual humans in the interaction attempting to improve learning outcomes and user perception for each particular user. For this concept to be possible, a better understanding of how different elements of the visual appearance of a virtual human affects user perceptions is required. In this paper, we present the results of an initial user study with a large sample size (n =333) ran using You, M.D. The study measured users’ reactions based on the user’s gender and body-mass index (BMI) when facing virtual humans with BMI either concordant or discordant from the user’s BMI. The results of the study indicate that concordance between the users’ BMI and the virtual human’s BMI affects male and female users differently. The results also show that female users rate virtual humans as more knowledgeable than male users rate the same virtual humans.

  16. Entecavir Exhibits Inhibitory Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus under Conditions of Reduced Viral Challenge▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Zhang, Sharon; Wang, Chunfu; Fan, Li; Dicker, Ira; Gali, Volodymyr; Higley, Helen; Parkin, Neil; Tenney, Daniel; Krystal, Mark; Colonno, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) was developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is globally approved for that indication. Initial preclinical studies indicated that ETV had no significant activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultured cell lines at physiologically relevant ETV concentrations, using traditional anti-HIV assays. In response to recent clinical observations of anti-HIV activity of ETV in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), additional investigative studies were conducted to expand upon earlier results. An extended panel of HIV-1 laboratory and clinical strains and cell types was tested against ETV, along with a comparison of assay methodologies and resistance profiling. These latest studies confirmed that ETV has only weak activity against HIV, using established assay systems. However, a >100-fold enhancement of antiviral activity (equivalent to the antiviral activity of lamivudine) could be obtained when assay conditions were modified to reduce the initial viral challenge. Also, the selection of a M184I virus variant during the passage of HIV-1 at high concentrations of ETV confirmed that ETV can exert inhibitory pressure on the virus. These findings may have a significant impact on how future assays are performed with compounds to be used in patients infected with HIV. These results support the recommendation that ETV therapy should be administered in concert with HAART for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:18316521

  17. Apigenin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells and exhibits anti-leukemic activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhraja, Amit; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Son, Young-Ok; Cheng, Senping; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Hitron, Andrew; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional role of Akt and c-jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo. Apigenin induced apoptosis by inactivation of Akt with a concomitant activation of JNK, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 downregulation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and activation of caspases. Constitutively active myristolated Akt prevented apigenin-induced JNK, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Conversely, LY294002 and a dominant-negative construct of Akt potentiated apigenin-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. Interruption of the JNK pathway showed marked reduction in apigenin-induced caspase activation and apoptosis in leukemia cells. Furthermore, in vivo administration of apigenin resulted in attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts accompanied by inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK. Attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts by apigenin raises the possibility that apigenin may have clinical implications and can be further tested for incorporating in leukemia treatment regimens. ©2011 AACR.

  18. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  19. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  20. Substance P immunoreactivity exhibits frequent colocalization with kisspeptin and neurokinin B in the human infundibular region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hrabovszky

    Full Text Available Neurons synthesizing neurokinin B (NKB and kisspeptin (KP in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus represent important upstream regulators of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurosecretion. In search of neuropeptides co-expressed in analogous neurons of the human infundibular nucleus (Inf, we have carried out immunohistochemical studies of the tachykinin peptide Substance P (SP in autopsy samples from men (21-78 years and postmenopausal (53-83 years women. Significantly higher numbers of SP-immunoreactive (IR neurons and darker labeling were observed in the Inf of postmenopausal women than in age-matched men. Triple-immunofluorescent studies localized SP immunoreactivity to considerable subsets of KP-IR and NKB-IR axons and perikarya in the infundibular region. In postmenopausal women, 25.1% of NKB-IR and 30.6% of KP-IR perikarya contained SP and 16.5% of all immunolabeled cell bodies were triple-labeled. Triple-, double- and single-labeled SP-IR axons innervated densely the portal capillaries of the infundibular stalk. In quadruple-labeled sections, these axons formed occasional contacts with GnRH-IR axons. Presence of SP in NKB and KP neurons increases the functional complexity of the putative pulse generator network. First, it is possible that SP modulates the effects of KP and NKB in axo-somatic and axo-dendritic afferents to GnRH neurons. Intrinsic SP may also affect the activity and/or neuropeptide release of NKB and KP neurons via autocrine/paracrine actions. In the infundibular stalk, SP may influence the KP and NKB secretory output via additional autocrine/paracrine mechanisms or regulate GnRH neurosecretion directly. Finally, possible co-release of SP with KP and NKB into the portal circulation could underlie further actions on adenohypophysial gonadotrophs.

  1. Geranylated 4-Phenylcoumarins Exhibit Anticancer Effects against Human Prostate Cancer Cells through Caspase-Independent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Shahirah Suparji

    Full Text Available Geranylated 4-phenylcoumarins, DMDP-1 & -2 isolated from Mesua elegans were investigated for anticancer potential against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 resulted in cell death in a time and dose dependent manner in an MTT assay on all cancer cell lines tested with the exception of lung adenocarcinoma cells. DMDP-1 showed highest cytotoxic efficacy in PC-3 cells while DMDP-2 was most potent in DU 145 cells. Flow cytometry indicated that both coumarins were successful to induce programmed cell death after 24 h treatment. Elucidation on the mode-of-action via protein arrays and western blotting demonstrated death induced without any significant expressions of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins and cleaved PARP, thus suggesting the involvement of caspase-independent pathways. In identifying autophagy, analysis of GFP-LC3 showed increased punctate in PC-3 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-1. In these cells decreased expression of autophagosome protein, p62 and cathepsin B further confirmed autophagy. In contrary, the DU 145 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-2 has reduced GFP-LC3 punctate although the number of cells with obvious GFP-LC3 puncta was significantly increased in the inhibitor-treated cells. The increase level of p62 suggested leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol to trigger potential downstream death mediators. This correlated with increased expression of cathepsin B and reduced expression after treatment with its inhibitor, CA074. Also auto-degradation of calpain-2 upon treatment with DMDP-1 &-2 and its inhibitor alone, calpeptin compared with the combination treatment, further confirmed involvement of calpain-2 in PC-3 and DU 145 cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 also showed up-regulation of total and phosphorylated p53 levels in a time dependent manner. Hence, DMDP-1 & -2 showed ability to activate multiple death pathways involving autophagy, lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum death

  2. Avaliação da densidade folicular em ovários de fetos humanos Follicular density evaluation in ovaries of human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Geber

    2007-12-01

    : twelve ovaries donated for research were included in our study, nine from fetuses and three from newborn babies who died in the first hour after being delivered with 39 weeks of pregnancy. Fetal age was confirmed both by the last menstrual period of the woman and by ultrasonography. Ovaries were fixed in formaldehyde, included in paraffin and serially sliced at 7 mm. At every 50 cuts, the obtained material was haematoxilin-eosin stained and evaluated with an optical microscope (400 X. The follicles were counted in ten different regions of the ovarian cortex, each region with an area of 625 mm². The presence of a nucleus was considered the parameter for counting. Follicular density, per 1 mm³ was calculated using the formula Nt=(No x St x t/do, where Nt is the number of follicles; No is the mean number of follicles in 1 mm²; St is the total number of slices in 1 mm³; t is the slice thickness and do is the nuclei mean diameter. RESULTS: the gestational age of fetuses ranged from 24 to 39 weeks. The number of follicles per 0.25 mm² ranged from 10.9 ± 4.8 in a newborn to 34.7 ± 10.6 in another newborn. Among the fetuses, the least value was obtained in a 36 week-old fetus (11.1 ± 6.2 and the highest in a 28 week-old fetus (25.3 ± 9.6. The total number of slices per ovary ranged from six to 13, corresponding to follicles counted in areas from 15 to 32.5 mm². The total number of follicles ranged from 500,000 at the age of 22 weeks to > 1,000,000 at the age of 39 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: our results demonstrate different (increasing densities of ovarian follicles along the gestational period, providing more knowledge about this still not well-known subject.

  3. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  4. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  5. Alternative splice variants of the human centrosome kinase Nek2 exhibit distinct patterns of expression in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Rebecca S; Fry, Andrew M

    2002-01-01

    Nek2 is a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase that localizes to the centrosome and is likely to be involved in regulating centrosome structure at the G(2)/M transition. Here, we localize the functional human Nek2 gene to chromosome 1 and show that alternative polyadenylation signals provide a mechanism for generating two distinct isoforms. Sequencing of products generated by reverse transcriptase PCR, immunoblotting of cell extracts and transfection of antisense oligonucleotides together demonstrate that human Nek2 is expressed as two splice variants. These isoforms, designated Nek2A and Nek2B, are detected in primary blood lymphocytes as well as adult transformed cells. Nek2A and Nek2B, which can form homo- and hetero-dimers, both localize to the centrosome, although only Nek2A can induce centrosome splitting upon overexpression. Importantly, Nek2A and Nek2B exhibit distinct patterns of cell-cycle-dependent expression. Both are present in low amounts in the G(1) phase and exhibit increased abundance in the S and G(2) phases. However, Nek2A disappears in prometaphase-arrested cells, whereas Nek2B remains elevated. These results demonstrate that two alternative splice variants of the human centrosomal kinase Nek2 exist that differ in their expression patterns during mitosis. This has important implications for our understanding of both Nek2 protein kinase regulation and the control of centrosome structure during mitosis.

  6. MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells exhibit augmented responses to human insulin on a collagen IV surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Listov-Saabye, Nicolai; Jensen, Marianne Blirup; Kiehr, Benedicte;

    2009-01-01

    was significantly more mitogenic than native insulin, validating the ability of the assay to identify hypermitogenic human insulin analogs. With MCF-7 cells on a collagen IV surface, the ranking of mitogens was maintained, but fold mitogenic responses and dynamic range and steepness of dose-response curves were...

  7. FETUS PAPYRACEOUS : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus Papyraceous is a rare manifestation of discordant growth in twins . It is usually diagnosed during labour or after delivery of papyraceous . The main complication is that the normal twin and occasionally the mother may be adversely affected .

  8. Relationship between the expression of synaptophysin and the development of synapse in the red nucleus of human fetus%中脑红核突触素的表达与突触发育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘靖; 曾明辉; 李国营; 张黎; 蒋裕芸; 杨琳; 徐达传

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of synaptophysin (SYN) and the development of synapse in the red nucleus of different periods of human fetus. Methods:Thirty-two fetuses were divided into 5 groups by different age. Immunohistochemical technique was used to observe the expression of SYN in the red nucleus of different periods of human fetus. Computer image analysis system was used to measure the average optical density of SYN in the red nucleus of different stages of human fetus, meanwhile, the ultrastructural change of synaptic development in the red nucleus was observed under an electron microscope. Results: (1) Under the light microscope, the SYN immunoreactive (SYN-IR) products were observed in the red nucleus of human fetus among 16-39 weeks group. With the age increasing, the SYN-IR products were increased significantly (P<0. 05). In 16-20 weeks group, the SYN-IR products increased rapidly; in 21-29 weeks group the SYN-IR products increased slowly; in 30-39 weeks group, the SYN-IR products increased quickly. In 16-24 weeks group, the SYN-IR products were found in both the cytoplasm and neurite. In 25-39 weeks group, the SYN-IR products were mainly located around the neurite of neurons in the red nucleus, and no SYN-IR products were found within the cytoplasm. The SYN-IR products appeared in the form of fine brown granules, the granules color and quantity increased significantly with the age increasing. (2) Under the transmission electro-microscope, the synaptic structure could be seen in the red nucleus of human fetus in 17-36 weeks. With the age increasing, the amount increased and the structure completed gradually for the synapse. Conclusion: The above results suggest that the expression of SYN can reflect the developing degree of the neurons in the midbrain, and the change of SYN expression in the red nucleus might be related to the developmental regulation of the synapse in the midbrain. The expression of SYN is synchronous

  9. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  10. Heart rate patterns in trisomic fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniemi, V; Aula, P

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the clinical records of fifteen fetuses with trisomy 21, six fetuses with trisomy 18, and two fetuses with trisomy 13 was made in order to find out typical patterns of fetal heart rate (FHR) possibly associated with these conditions. Antepartal FHR patterns of 55 normal pregnancies and intrapartal FHR patterns of 14 normal labors were used as a control material. Trisomic fetuses showed significantly fewer FHR accelerations than did the controls. Fetuses with trisomy 18 and 13 had more antepartal decelerations than fetuses with trisomy 21. Trisomic fetuses also showed more intrapartal late decelerations and epochs of silent FHR pattern than did the controls. The abnormal FHR patterns of the trisomic fetuses thus were similar to those in placental insufficiency. Cesarean section was performed for both fetuses with trisomy 13, for five of the six fetuses with trisomy 18 and for nine of fifteen fetuses with trisomy 21. In eleven of sixteen cesarean sections the main indication was abnormal cardiotocogram. Fetal karyotyping from an amniotic fluid sample should perhaps be considered when decelerations and silent patterns of FHR in a growth-retarded, late second or early third trimester fetus are seen. In most cases, however, the decision for optimal management o labor must be based on FHR patterns solely.

  11. A rural worker infected with a bovine-prevalent genotype of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus supports zoonotic transmission and inconsistency of MLST and whole-genome typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, G; Betancor, L; Calleros, L; Gadea, P; Algorta, G; Galeano, S; Muxi, P; Greif, G; Pérez, R

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome characterisation in clinical microbiology enables to detect trends in infection dynamics and disease transmission. Here, we report a case of bacteraemia due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in a rural worker under cancer treatment that was diagnosed with cellulitis; the patient was treated with antibiotics and recovered. The routine typing methods were not able to identify the microorganism causing the infection, so it was further analysed by molecular methods and whole-genome sequencing. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed the presence of the bovine-associated ST-4 genotype. Whole-genome comparisons with other C. fetus strains revealed an inconsistent phylogenetic position based on the core genome, discordant with previous ST-4 strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first C. fetus subsp. fetus carrying the ST-4 isolated from humans and represents a probable case of zoonotic transmission from cattle.

  12. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    of these several factors as well as responses to acute or sustained hypoxia has been explored in the sheep model. In addition, much has been learned in the context of hypobaric hypoxia by studying human populations that have resided at high altitude for varying periods of time. Embryonic development occurs under...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...

  13. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  14. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughna, S; Bennett, P; Gau, G; Nicolaides, K; Blunt, S; Moore, G

    1993-01-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8213811

  15. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates...

  17. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebech, M M

    1998-10-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero?

  18. The number of oogonia and somatic cells in the human female embryo and fetus in relation to whether or not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Sørensen, K P; Larsen, K B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking or compounds of cigarette smoke is associated with serious reproductive hazards such as apoptotic death of oogonia in murine offspring and decreased fecundability in human offspring. The present study addresses potential effects...... of in utero exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Twenty-nine human first-trimester ovaries from legal abortions [aged 38-64 days post-conception (p.c.)] were collected. Mothers filled out a questionnaire about their smoking habits and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. The ovarian cell numbers...

  19. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on a hypothesised learning process and the means of supporting it. In the enactment phase, the educational intervention is implemented (i.e. the planned lesson is taught, or the museum exhibit is opened to the public). Finally, the analysis phase establishes causality between emergent characteristics...... of the learning outcomes and the design characteristics of the intervention. The analysis process can yield two types of outcomes: Suggestions for the refinement of the specific design in question, and “humble” theory, which is theory that can guide the design of a category of educational interventions...

  20. [Pain perception of the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2010-11-07

    Author presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available information about fetal pain perception. In this context the article discusses the concept of pain sensation, its evolution during intrauterine life and its physical and biochemical signs. Only the last mentioned phenomena allow deduction with regard to the severity of pain related stress reaction, in the absence of objective yardstick for measuring the intensity of pain felt by the fetus. The discussion also involves pain associated with birthing process and extends to its possible alleviation.

  1. [Physical anthropology and human "zoos": the exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    All along the nineteenth century different anthropological exhibitions were held in many countries, in which people from a number of indigenous communities, especially transported from their homeland for the occasion, were exhibited publicly, both for citizenship's instruction and for specialists's "in vivo" studies on human biology. This paper presents a brief description of some of these scientific shows, and tries to relate them to contemporary human biology theories.

  2. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsnoe, Isis M; Hickling, Graham J; Ginsberg, Howard S; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector.

  3. Fetus Amorphous Acardious – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kamakeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetus amorphous acardious is a rare fetal malformation lacking a functional heart and bearing no resemblance to human embryos. The main differential diagnosis is with placental teratoma and is based on the degree of skeletal organization and umbilical cord formation. A 26 year old woman delivered a healthy newborn at 38 weeks of gestation by caesarian section. An amorphous mass covered with healthy looking skin was connected to the placenta with a short pedicle. Xray examination of the mass revealed the presence of vertebral column associated with ribs and pelvic bones and axial skeleton. Histopathological examination demonstrates the presence of cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, skin with adnexal structures and neural tissue.

  4. Ex vivo human skin and SZ95 sebocytes exhibit a homoeostatic interaction in a novel coculture contact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Seltmann, Holger; Hossini, Amir M; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Knolle, Jürgen; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-07-01

    The sebaceous gland displays key functions of the human skin, such as hormone synthesis in situ, antimicrobial activity and participation to inflammatory responses. Consequently, there is an emerging need of advanced in vitro models to study complex interactions between the sebaceous gland and the other skin compartments. Despite the evolution of both full-skin organ culture and reconstructed three-dimensional skin models, no satisfactory solutions have been provided for the integration of sebaceous glands and/or sebaceous gland cells in those models, probably due to their problematic maintenance both in vitro and ex vivo. We have developed a coculture model of explant skin in direct contact with immortalized SZ95 sebocytes, which resulted in overall improved structural integrity of the epidermis, higher percentage of proliferating basal epidermal cells and reduced apoptosis of differentiating keratinocytes after 6 days, as detected by Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. Furthermore SZ95 sebocytes exhibited morphological and biochemical signs of normal differentiation and lipid accumulation, while interleukin-6 expression in the supernatant of the cocultures was decreased in comparison with the control. The data provide evidence of a beneficial interaction between sebocytes and skin explants and provide the rationale for their integration in future three-dimensional skin models.

  5. Fractionation of human H1 subtypes and characterization of a subtype-specific antibody exhibiting non-uniform nuclear staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parseghian, M H; Clark, R F; Hauser, L J; Dvorkin, N; Harris, D A; Hamkalo, B A

    1993-07-01

    Four histone H1 subtypes and H1(0) were fractionated from human placental nuclei and purified to homogeneity by a combination of Bio-Rex 70 chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against one of these subtypes designated H1-3. Antibodies reacted only against this subtype in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western assays; subtype specificity was documented further by Western blotting of cell and nuclear extracts. They crossreacted with monkey H1, but not with H1 from other vertebrates tested. The epitope(s) recognized were mapped by immunoblotting against peptides prepared by cleavage with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and alpha-chymotrypsin; it includes the variant amino-terminal tail of the protein as well as a portion of the globular domain. The antibody stains mitotic chromosomes weakly but uniformly and, unlike antibodies that recognize total H1 which show uniform nuclear staining after indirect immunofluorescence localization, anti-H1-3 exhibits preferential labelling of the nuclear periphery. This non-uniform staining suggests compartmentalization of this subtype which may have functional significance with respect to differential chromatin condensation.

  6. CD33-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells exhibit potent preclinical activity against human acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderian, S S; Ruella, M; Shestova, O; Klichinsky, M; Aikawa, V; Morrissette, J J D; Scholler, J; Song, D; Porter, D L; Carroll, M; June, C H; Gill, S

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chemo-refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cell therapy has produced exciting results in CD19+ malignancies and may overcome many of the limitations of conventional leukemia therapies. We developed CART cells to target CD33 (CART33) using the anti-CD33 single chain variable fragment used in gemtuzumab ozogamicin (clone My96) and tested the activity and toxicity of these cells. CART33 exhibited significant effector functions in vitro and resulted in eradication of leukemia and prolonged survival in AML xenografts. CART33 also resulted in human lineage cytopenias and reduction of myeloid progenitors in xenograft models of hematopoietic toxicity, suggesting that permanently expressed CD33-specific CART cells would have unacceptable toxicity. To enhance the viability of CART33 as an option for AML, we designed a transiently expressed mRNA anti-CD33 CAR. Gene transfer was carried out by electroporation into T cells and resulted in high-level expression with potent but self-limited activity against AML. Thus our preclinical studies show potent activity of CART33 and indicate that transient expression of anti-CD33 CAR by RNA modification could be used in patients to avoid long-term myelosuppression. CART33 therapy could be used alone or as part of a preparative regimen prior to allogeneic transplantation in refractory AML.

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the human fetus. Relationships with growth in normal subjects and in subjects with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, C; Hardouin, S; Daffos, F; Forestier, F; Frankenne, F; Binoux, M

    1991-03-01

    IGF-I, IGF-II, and their binding proteins (BP) were studied in sera obtained by direct puncture of umbilical cords in utero between 20 and 37 wk of gestation in 103 normal fetuses and in 16 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation, as well as in the cord blood of 37 normal newborns of 38- to 42-wk pregnancies. In normal fetuses, IGF-I levels were approximately 50 ng/mL and IGF-II levels approximately 350 ng/mL up to the 33rd wk of pregnancy. Thereafter, both increased to reach values two to three times higher at term. Correlations were found between fetal placental lactogen levels and those of IGF-I and IGF-II, which is consistent with the hypothesis that placental lactogen is involved in the regulation of IGF synthesis in the fetus. With weight (either measured at birth or deduced from echographical data) as index of fetal size, IGF-I levels were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in fetuses with weights above the mean for gestational age than in fetuses with weights below the mean, whereas IGF-II levels were similar in the two groups. Similarly, IGF-I (but not IGF-II) levels in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were significantly lower than those in normal fetuses of the same age (p less than 0.01). These findings suggest that, during the latter months of intrauterine life, IGF-I (but not IGF-II) is involved in the control of fetal size. Total fetal BP concentrations were approximately 1/3 those of adults. The fetal electrophoretic profile obtained by Western-ligand blotting bore a strong resemblance to that of subjects with growth hormone deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  9. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. Among them, the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital...... in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The genomic variations and potential core and unique virulence factors characterized in this study would lead to better insight into the species virulence and to more efficient use of the candidates for antibiotic, drug and vaccine development....

  10. Human Cardiosphere-Derived Cells From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Exhibit Augmented Functional Potency in Myocardial Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deliang; Sun, Baiming; Blusztajn, Agnieszka; Xie, Yucai; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aminzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Liu, Weixin; Li, Tao-Sheng; De Robertis, Michele A.; Marbán, Linda; Czer, Lawrence S. C.; Trento, Alfredo; Marbán, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to compare the regenerative potency of cells derived from healthy and diseased human hearts. Background Results from pre-clinical studies and the CADUCEUS (CArdiosphere-Derived aUtologous stem CElls to reverse ventricUlar dySfunction) trial support the notion that cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) from normal and recently infarcted hearts are capable of regenerating healthy heart tissue after myocardial infarction (MI). It is unknown whether CDCs derived from advanced heart failure (HF) patients retain the same regenerative potency. Methods In a mouse model of acute MI, we compared the regenerative potential and functional benefits of CDCs derived from 3 groups: 1) non-failing (NF) donor: healthy donor hearts post-transplantation; 2) MI: patients who had an MI 9 to 35 days before biopsy; and 3) HF: advanced cardiomyopathy tissue explanted at cardiac transplantation. Results Cell growth and phenotype were identical in all 3 groups. Injection of HF CDCs led to the greatest therapeutic benefit in mice, with the highest left ventricular ejection fraction, thickest infarct wall, most viable tissue, and least scar 3 weeks after treatment. In vitro assays revealed that HF CDCs secreted higher levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), which may contribute to the cells’ augmented resistance to oxidative stress, enhanced angiogenesis, and improved myocyte survival. Histological analysis indicated that HF CDCs engrafted better, recruited more endogenous stem cells, and induced greater angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle re-entry. CDC-secreted SDF-1 levels correlated with decreases in scar mass over time in CADUCEUS patients treated with autologous CDCs. Conclusions CDCs from advanced HF patients exhibit augmented potency in ameliorating ventricular dysfunction post-MI, possibly through SDF-1–mediated mechanisms. PMID:24511463

  11. Soursop Leaves (Annona muricata Folium on Mice (Mus musculus Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Suryani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soursop leaf ethanol extract (Annona muricata (L Folium contains acetogenins which are cytotoxic and have the ability to halt cell growth. This study aimed to understand whether acetogenins have teratogenic effects on mice fetus (Mus musculus. Methods: This study was performed at the Pharmacology and Therapy Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, between October and November 2012. The study was an experimental laboratory study utilizing 27 pregnant mice which were divided into 3 groups. The first group was the negative control, the second was given soursop leaf ethanol extract at pre-implantation phase (day 1 to 5 and the third had the extract provided in the organogenesis phase (day 6 to 15. Laparotomy was performed on the 19th day of pregnancy. The parameters used were the number of implantation, the number of live and dead or resorbed fetus, the weight and length of the fetus, as well as the macroscopic external morphology abnormalities. The data gained from test subjects were compared to those of the control group. The statistical test used was the normality tes with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov method which was then followed by T-test or Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Results: The experiment exhibited significant differences in the weight and length of the fetus (p-value 0.000, proving that soursop leaf ethanol extract could inhibit intrauterine growth. Aside from that, external morphological abnormalities such as hemorrhage on the head, face, neck, back, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and microcephaly were also found. Conclusion: The soursop leaf ethanol extract (Annona muricata (L Folium has a teratogenic effect on mouse (Mus musculus fetus. [AMJ.2014;1(1:48–53

  12. [Campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désidéri-Vaillant, Catherine; Guichon, Jean-Michel; Noyer, Vincent; Nedelec, Yolande; Galinat, Hubert; Sapin-Lory, Jeanne; Di Costanzo, Laurence; Le Guen, Patrick; Nicolas, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but Campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. We report a C. fetus endocarditis. The prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.

  13. Embryonic thymic development in fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Agreste

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During fetal life, and during the neonatal period, the thymus is a very important immune organ, and is the largest lymphatic organ, which exhibits high lymphopoietic activity as a precursor of lymphopoiesis. Morphological studies on the development of the thymus are rare and only include general information. Given the above, this study aimed to characterize the morphological development of the thymus of embryos and fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus, from natural pregnancy, using macroscopic dissection techniques and light microscopy. The thymus of the cats was pale pink and was resting in the region of the cranial mediastinum, medially to the lungs and dorsally to the base of the heart. Histologically, two distinct regions were observed (cortical and medullar. The medullary region had reticular epithelial cells with large nuclei and dendritic extensions. The fetuses had exponential growth and were more pronounced starting on the 35th day of gestation.

  14. Study of the ureter structure in anencephalic fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the ureter in normal and anencephalic human fetuses. Materials and Methods We studied 16 ureters from 8 human fetuses without congenital anomalies aged 16 to 27 weeks post-conception (WPC and 14 ureters from 7 anencephalic fetuses aged 19 to 33 WPC. The ureters were dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 µm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome, to quantify smooth muscle cells (SMC and to determine the ureteral lumen area, thickness and ureteral diameter. The samples were also stained with Weigert Resorcin Fucsin (to study elastic fibers and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to study collagen. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and SMC were performed on the sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the Image Pro and Image J programs. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05. Results The ureteral epithelium was well preserved in the anencephalic and control groups. We did not observe differences in the transitional epithelium in the anencephalic and control groups. There was no difference in elastic fibers and total collagen distribution in normal and anencephalic fetuses. SMC concentration did not differ significantly (p = 0.1215 in the anencephalic and control group. The ureteral lumen area (p = 0.0047, diameter (p = 0.0024 and thickness (p = 0.0144 were significantly smaller in anencephalic fetuses. Conclusions Fetuses with anencephaly showed smaller diameter, area and thickness. These differences could indicate that anencephalic fetal

  15. Human Stromal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue and Skin Exhibit Differences in Molecular Phenotype and Differentiation Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Nbaheen, May; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Ali, Dalia;

    2013-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent stem cells with ability to differentiate into mesoderm-type cells e.g. osteoblasts and adipocytes and thus they are being introduced into clinical trials for tissue regeneration. Traditionally, hMSCs have been isolated from bone marrow......, but the number of cells obtained is limited. Here, we compared the MSC-like cell populations, obtained from alternative sources for MSC: adipose tissue and skin, with the standard phenotype of human bone marrow MSC (BM-MSCs). MSC from human adipose tissue (human adipose stromal cells (hATSCs)) and human skin...... (human adult skin stromal cells, (hASSCs) and human new-born skin stromal cells (hNSSCs)) grew readily in culture and the growth rate was highest in hNSSCs and lowest in hATSCs. Compared with phenotype of hBM-MSC, all cell populations were CD34(-), CD45(-), CD14(-), CD31(-), HLA-DR(-), CD13(+), CD29...

  16. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.206 Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the dead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the...

  17. Walk, Look, Remember: The Influence of the Gallery's Spatial Layout on Human Memory for an Art Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukar, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The spatial organisation of museums and its influence on the visitor experience has been the subject of numerous studies. Previous research, despite reporting some actual behavioural correlates, rarely had the possibility to investigate the cognitive processes of the art viewers. In the museum context, where spatial layout is one of the most powerful curatorial tools available, attention and memory can be measured as a means of establishing whether or not the gallery fulfils its function as a space for contemplating art. In this exploratory experiment, 32 participants split into two groups explored an experimental, non-public exhibition and completed two unanticipated memory tests afterwards. The results show that some spatial characteristics of an exhibition can inhibit the recall of pictures and shift the focus to perceptual salience of the artworks.

  18. The zebrafish goosepimples/myosin Vb mutant exhibits cellular attributes of human microvillus inclusion disease ☆ ☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhaye, Jaydeep; Pinto, Clyde Savio; Dharap, Shweta; Jacob, Tressa; Bhargava, Shobha; Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life-threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID. In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the asso...

  19. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibin, Lazar; Anquez, Jeremie; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle [Telecom ParisTech, CNRS UMR 5141 LTCI, Institut TELECOM, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  20. Tumour-initiating stem-like cells in human prostate cancer exhibit increased NF-κB signalling

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Androgen depletion is a key strategy for treating human prostate cancer, but the presence of hormone-independent cells escaping treatment remains a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we identify a minor subset of stem-like human prostate tumour-initiating cells (TICs) that do not express prostate cancer markers, such as androgen receptor or prostate specific antigen. These TICs possess stem cell characteristics and multipotency as demonstrated by in vitro sphere-formation and in vivo tumour-i...

  1. Exhibition Highlights Development of Human Rights in China——An interview with Professor Dong Yunhu, vice-president and secretary-general of China Society for Human Rights Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: An exhibition on human rights in China was held in the Cultural Palace of Ethnic Groups, Beijing, November 17-26, 2006,jointly by the Information Office of the State Council, China Society for Human Rights Studies (CSHRS) and China Human Rights Development Fund. The exhibition attracted more than 10,000 visitors from in and outside the country and aroused much media attention. Following is an interview by our reporter with Prof. Dong Yunhu, vice-president and secretary-general of the CSHRS, on the exhibition.

  2. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chueh, Ho-Yen; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2006-02-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second-most common autosomal trisomy and represents one third of the chromosomal trisomies identified prenatally. We present a case of a fetus with trisomy 18 in which thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis was detected prenatally; it was noted as a dominant defect on a sonographic examination performed at 19 weeks' gestation. Furthermore, our case exhibits a rare type of multiple-marker screening result with increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. This case demonstrates the need for thorough sonographic evaluation of the fetal thoracoabdominal wall as early as possible, because fetal ectopia cordis can be the major abnormality of trisomy 18.

  3. Human imprinted retrogenes exhibit non-canonical imprint chromatin signatures and reside in non-imprinted host genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David; Arnaud, Philippe; Frost, Jennifer M.; Wood, Andrew J.; Cowley, Michael; Martin-Trujillo, Alejandro; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Iglesias Platas, Isabel; Camprubi, Cristina; Bourc’his, Deborah; Feil, Robert; Moore, Gudrun E.; Oakey, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Imprinted retrotransposed genes share a common genomic organization including a promoter-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) and a position within the intron of a multi-exonic ‘host’ gene. In the mouse, at least one transcript of the host gene is also subject to genomic imprinting. Human retrogene orthologues are imprinted and we reveal that human host genes are not imprinted. This coincides with genomic rearrangements that occurred during primate evolution, which increase the separation between the retrogene DMRs and the host genes. To address the mechanisms governing imprinted retrogene expression, histone modifications were assayed at the DMRs. For the mouse retrogenes, the active mark H3K4me2 was associated with the unmethylated paternal allele, while the methylated maternal allele was enriched in repressive marks including H3K9me3 and H4K20me3. Two human retrogenes showed monoallelic enrichment of active, but not of repressive marks suggesting a partial uncoupling of the relationship between DNA methylation and repressive histone methylation, possibly due to the smaller size and lower CpG density of these DMRs. Finally, we show that the genes immediately flanking the host genes in mouse and human are biallelically expressed in a range of tissues, suggesting that these loci are distinct from large imprinted clusters. PMID:21300645

  4. Combining metformin and nelfinavir exhibits synergistic effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells and xenograft in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenglai; Chen, Ruihong; Chen, Jinman; Qi, Qianqian; Pan, Yanbin; Du, Lanying; Xiao, Guohong; Jiang, Shibo

    2017-01-01

    Human cervical cancer is the fourth most common carcinoma in women worldwide. However, the emergence of drug resistance calls for continuously developing new anticancer drugs and combination chemotherapy regimens. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cervical cancer effects of metformin, a first-line therapeutic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, when used alone or in combination. We found that both metformin and nelfinavir, when used alone, were moderately effective in inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration and invasion of human cervical cell lines HeLa, SiHa and CaSki. When used in combination, these two drugs acted synergistically to inhibit the growth of human cervical cancer cells in vitro and cervical cancer cell xenograft in vivo in nude mice, and suppress cervical cancer cell migration and invasion. The protein expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit PI3K(p110α), which can promote tumor growth, was remarkably downregulated, while the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21 were substantially upregulated following the combinational treatment in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that clinical use of metformin and nelfinavir in combination is expected to have synergistic antitumor efficacy and significant potential for the treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:28252027

  5. The human body on Exhibit: promoting socio-cultural mediations in a science museum (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Sousa do Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses three mediation concept approaches and, consequently, three facets of mediator action. The approaches presented start with a bibliographical review of the concept of mediation present in education and scientific communication studies. These approaches serve as a basis for interpreting a semi-directive interview with the director of the Museum of Morphological Sciences of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG. They also help us reflect on the complexity of organizing the objectives of a museum action that takes into account the transformational role of the meaning of objects in interaction with different socio-cultural subjects. In conclusion, the museum's purpose in organizing a museum action using socio-cultural mediation approach and with the mediator as a passeur libre among exhibit objects and visitors is highlighted.

  6. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  8. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 exhibits cancer stem cell-like characteristics in a human colon cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianna Li; Charles F.Bellows

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis,metastasis,and therapeutic resistance.The identification of these cells could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies.Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) has been viewed as a marker for gastrointestinal stem cells that fuel the self-renewal process,however others view them as a marker of Tuft cells or as an enteroendocrine subtype.The purpose of this study was to use a colon cancer cell line to identify and characterize the stem-like characteristics of the DCLK1+ cell population.Methods:To enrich stem-like cells,HCT116 cells (derived from colon adenocarcinomas) were cultured using serum-free media to form spheres under both normal oxygen and hypoxia condition.DCLK1 transcript expression in the adherent parental cells and spheroids was quantified using quantitative real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [(q)RT-PCR].DCLK1 protein expression was determined using flow cytometry.Self-renewal capability from adherent parental cells and spheroids was determined using extreme limiting dilution analysis (ELDA).Results:Under both normal oxygen and hypoxia condition,the adherent parental cells were composed of cells that express low levels of DCLK1.However,spheroids exhibited an increased frequency of cells expressing DCLK1 on both mRNA and protein levels.Cells derived from spheroids also possess stronger self-renewal capability.Conclusions:The higher fraction of DCLK1+ cells exhibited by spheroids and hypoxia reflects the stemlike characteristics of these cells.DCLK1 may represent an ideal marker to study and develop effective strategies to overcome chemo-resistance and relapse of colon cancer.

  9. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a cor...

  10. The human IgG anti-carbohydrate repertoire exhibits a universal architecture and contains specificity for microbial attachment sites

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christoph; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D.; Boligan, Kayluz Frias; Hamilton, Robert G.; Bochner, Bruce S; Miescher, Sylvia; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Pashov, Anastas; Vassilev, Tchavdar; von Gunten, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the paradigm that carbohydrates are T cell-independent antigens, isotype-switched glycan-specific IgG antibodies and polysaccharide-specific T cells are found in humans. We employed a systems level approach combined with glycan array technology to decipher the repertoire of carbohydrate-specific IgG antibodies in intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIG/SCIG) preparations. A strikingly universal architecture of this repertoire with modular organization among different donor p...

  11. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a cor...

  12. Patchouli alcohol, an essential oil of Pogostemon cablin, exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Choi, Jieun; Lou, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Xiaojing; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Patchouli alcohol (PA) is one of the important compounds isolated from the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli). PA has neuroprotective, anti-influenza and anti-inflammatory activities. However, anti-cancer activity of PA has not been studied so far. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether PA affects proliferation and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells, and to define potential molecular mechanisms. PA suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480). In addition, PA decreased cell growth in MCF7, BxPC3, PC3, and HUVEC cells. Exposure of PA to HCT116 and SW480 cells activated p21 expression and suppressed the expressions of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PA attenuated the expressions of HDAC2 (histone deacetylase 2) and c-myc, and HDAC enzyme activity. We also observed that PA induced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB through an increase of nuclear translocation of p65. These findings suggest that PA exerts an anti-cancer activity by decreasing cell growth and increasing apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. The proposed mechanisms include the inhibition of HDAC2 expression and HDAC enzyme activity, and subsequent downregulation of c-myc and activation of NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 缺氧缺血对人类胚胎脑室管膜下区神经细胞亚群的影响%Effects of hypoxia-ischemia on different neural cells in subventricular zone of human fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕舞; 陈燕惠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hypoxia-ischemia(HI)on different neural cells and their survival in Buhventricular zone(SVZ)of human fetus in mid trimester of pregnancy and thus to explore the pathogenesis of hypoxie-isehemic brain damage on the cellular level. Methods Acutely dissociated SVZ cells,prepared from five fetuses of human embryos aborted voluntarily at 17 to 22 weeks of gestational age,were cultured for a short time separately under HI(HI group)and normal condition(control group).HI injury wag simulated by oxygen/glucose deprivation(OGD)and the dead cells were counted by staining with Trypan blue.The injury was evaluated by the survival rate before culturing.After culturing,all of the neural cells of SVZ,including neural stem cells(NSCs),neurons,astrocytes,oligodendrocyte progenitors and microglia cells were recognized separately by their special marker nestin,microtubule associated proteins 2(MAP2),glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),platelet derived growth factor receptor α(PDGFBα)and ricinus communis agglutinin(RCA120)with immunofluorescence cytochemistry.At the same time.all cell nuclei were stained with bisbenzimide. The percentages of SVZ cells were calculated and compared between HI and control groups.Results The survival rate of HI SVZ cells,(63.41±0.06)percent,was much lower than that of control(98.9±0.01)percent(P<0.001).The result indicared that SVZ cells were damaged obviously by HL After culturing shortly the highest proprtion of cells in HI group was asttocytes(56.48±0.03)percent,followed by NSCs(22.47±0.03)percent,and the lowest was oligodendmcyte progenitors.But in control group,the neurons accounted for(48.81±0.03)percent and astrocytes(32.31±0.03)percent,while the lowest was microglia cells.Condusions There were NSCs,neurons,astrocytes,oligodendrocyte progenitors and microglial cells in SVZ of mid trimester of pregnancy.They were sensitive to HI and their survival rates were different:the NSCs and astrocytes showed

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 alone or combined with bortezomib or sorafenib exhibits strong antiproliferative action in human cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Baradari; Michael H(o)pfner; Alexander Huether; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antiproliferative effect of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MS-275 on cholangiocarcinoma cells alone and in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs (gemcitabine or doxorubicin)or the novel anticancer agents sorafenib or bortezomib.METHODS: Two human bile duct adenocarcinoma cell lines (EGI-1 and TFK-1) were studied. Crystal violet staining was used for detection of cell number changes.Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).Apoptosis was determined by measuring the enzyme activity of caspase-3. Cell cycle status reflected by the DNA content was detected by flow cytometry.RESULTS: MS-275 treatment potently inhibited the proliferation of EGI-1 and TFK-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. MS-275-induced apoptosis was characterized by activation of caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Cell cycle was predominantly arrested at the G1/S checkpoint, which was associated with induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf/CIP1. Furthermore,additive anti-neoplastic effects were observed when MS-275 treatment was combined with gemcitabine or doxorubicin, while combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib resulted in overadditive anti-neoplastic effects.CONCLUSION: The growth of human cholangiocarcinoma cells can be potently inhibited by MS-275 alone or in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs or new,targeted anticancer agents.

  15. A novel human aquaporin-4 splice variant exhibits a dominant-negative activity: a new mechanism to regulate water permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Manuela; Pisani, Francesco; Mola, Maria Grazia; Basco, Davide; Catalano, Francesco; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Two major isoforms of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been described in human tissue. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of an alternatively spliced transcript of human AQP4, AQP4-Δ4, that lacks exon 4. In transfected cells AQP4-Δ4 is mainly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and shows no water transport properties. When AQP4-Δ4 is transfected into cells stably expressing functional AQP4, the surface expression of the full-length protein is reduced. Furthermore, the water transport activity of the cotransfectants is diminished in comparison to transfectants expressing only AQP4. The observed down-regulation of both the expression and water channel activity of AQP4 is likely to originate from a dominant-negative effect caused by heterodimerization between AQP4 and AQP4-Δ4, which was detected in coimmunoprecipitation studies. In skeletal muscles, AQP4-Δ4 mRNA expression inversely correlates with the level of AQP4 protein and is physiologically associated with different types of skeletal muscles. The expression of AQP4-Δ4 may represent a new regulatory mechanism through which the cell-surface expression and therefore the activity of AQP4 can be physiologically modulated.

  16. Cunninghamella bertholletiae exhibits increased resistance to human neutrophils with or without antifungal agents as compared to Rhizopus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Georgiadou, Elpiniki; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2010-08-01

    Among Zygomycetes, Cunninghamella bertholletiae occurs less frequently as the etiologic agent of human disease but causes more aggressive, refractory, and fatal infections despite antifungal therapy. Little is known about the differential innate host response against Cunninghamella and other Zygomycetes in the presence of antifungal agents. We therefore studied the activity of human neutrophils (PMNs) alone or in combination with caspofungin, posaconazole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC) against hyphae of Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus and C. bertholletiae. Hyphal damage was measured by XTT metabolic assay and release of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha from PMNs by ELISA. Cunninghamella bertholletiae was more resistant to PMN-induced hyphal damage than either Rhizopus spp. at effector:target (E:T) ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 (P Rhizopus spp. (P < 0.01). No IL-6 was released from PMNs exposed to the three Zygomycetes. In comparison to R. oryzae and R. microsporus, C. bertholletiae is more resistant to PMN-induced hyphal damage with or without antifungal therapy and is more capable of suppressing release of IL-8.

  17. Anionic polymers and 10 nm Fe₃O₄@UA wound dressings support human foetal stem cells normal development and exhibit great antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Andrei, Eugen; Constantinescu, Andrei; Maniu, Horia

    2014-03-25

    The aims of this study were the development, characterization and bioevaluation of a novel biocompatible, resorbable and bio-active wound dressing prototype, based on anionic polymers (sodium alginate--AlgNa, carboximethylcellulose--CMC) and magnetic nanoparticles loaded with usnic acid (Fe₃O₄@UA). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus grown in biofilms. The biocompatibility testing model included an endothelial cell line from human umbilical vein and human foetal progenitor cells derived from the amniotic fluid, that express a wide spectrum of surface molecules involved in different vascular functions and inflammatory response, and may be used as skin regenerative support. The obtained results demonstrated that CMC/Fe₃O₄@UA and AlgNa/Fe₃O₄@UA are exhibiting structural and functional properties that recommend them for further applications in the biomedical field. They could be used alone or coated with different bio-active compounds, such as Fe₃O₄@UA, for the development of novel, multifunctional porous materials used in tissues regeneration, as antimicrobial substances releasing devices, providing also a mechanical support for the eukaryotic cells adhesion, and exhibiting the advantage of low cytotoxicity on human progenitor cells. The great antimicrobial properties exhibited by the newly synthesized nano-bioactive coatings are recommending them as successful candidates for improving the implanted devices surfaces used in regenerative medicine.

  18. 人胎视网膜发育过程中Fas、Fas-L、bax和bcl-2蛋白的表达%Protein expression of genes related to apoptosis in retina of human fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦纯义; 李爱冬; 羊惠君

    2001-01-01

    目的研究人胎视网膜发育过程中细胞凋亡相关基因Fas、Fas-L、bax和bcl-2的蛋白表达。方法收集12~38周(受精龄)胎儿视网膜共50例,石蜡包埋切片,免疫组织化学染色,光镜观察。结果发育第16周和第38周,视网膜节细胞层、内、外核层表达Fas蛋白。第26周,Fas-L阳性染色开始出现于视网膜各层细胞,到第32周,免疫阳性反应主要集中在节细胞层,第38周时,神经纤维层也为阳性反应。bax免疫阳性反应从第12周起出现,第16周,节细胞层和外核层多数细胞核为阳性。第24周,内核层中的细胞为阳性反应,但到第26周时,仅Müller细胞内侧终足为bax免疫阳性染色。第26周以后,视网膜内各种成分都为bax免疫反应阴性。bcl-2免疫阳性反应于第16周时出现在正在分化的神经母细胞层。第24周开始,bcl-2免疫阳性反应集中于节细胞层的神经胶质细胞以及Müller细胞的内侧终足。结论发育中的视网膜的细胞凋亡可能不依赖Fas/Fas-L途径。bax可能参与介导胎儿视网膜细胞凋亡。%Purpose To study the proteins expression of genes related to apoptosis of retinal cells in development of human fetus. Methods Fifty cases of retinas of human fetus aged from 12 to 38 weeks were collected and paraffin embedded sections were made. Immunohistochemical method was used. Results Fas protein was expressed by cells of ganglion cell layer, inner and outer nuclear later, which were just formed on 16th week. It was not expressed until 38th week, Fas(+) staining appeared in layers of retina. Fas-L(+) staining was detected in cells of layers of retina on 26th week and the positive staining located in ganglion cell layer on 32th week. Neuronal fiber layer was Fas-L positive. Bax positive staining was detected on 8th week. Bax positive nucleus were observed mainly in GCL and ONL on 16th week. It was in INL on 24th week

  19. Quantifying Stress Using mDFA: Heartbeats Exhibit Stress/Fear/Anxiety in Animal Model and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yazawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress has not been fully defined in terms of neuroscience. But, it might be possible to quantify it, like body temperature. The aim of this study was to develop a method to quantify stress, fear and anxiety that has not been accomplished. In the present study, we present a method to quantify them using the biomedical vital information, i.e., the timing of heartbeat. Here electrocardiograms of both animal models and humans were analyzed by modified detrended fluctuation analysis (mDFA, which calculates a scaling exponent (SI from the heartbeat interval time series. The SI was able to numerically distinguish between normal and abnormal hearts. SI values varied with heart conditions, i.e., healthy basal or stressful conditions. This study suggests that mDFA has potential as a practical method for the construction of a device for health management.

  20. Chebulagic Acid, a Hydrolyzable Tannin, Exhibited Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Human Enterovirus 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. Presently, no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been clinically available to employ against EV71. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with chebulagic acid reduced the viral cytopathic effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC50 of 12.5 μg/mL. The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to efficiently reduce mortality and relieve clinical symptoms through the inhibition of viral replication. Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71.

  1. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Bahnson, Brian J.; (Delaware); (USAMRIID)

    2009-09-02

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{sub R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  2. A novel sulfonamide agent, MPSP-001, exhibits potent activity against human cancer cells in vitro through disruption of microtubule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-long LIU; Wei TIAN; Yong WANG; Shah KUANG; Xiao-min LUO; Qiang YU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the anti-cancer effects of a new sulfonamide derivative,2-(N-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-methoxyphenylsulfonarhido)-N-hydrox-ypropanamide (MPSP-001).Methods:Human cancer cell lines (HepG2,THP-1,K562,HGC-27,SKOV3,PANC-1,SW480,Kba,HeLa,A549,MDA-MB-453,and MCF-7) were examined.The cytotoxicity of MPSP-001 was evaluated using the WST-8 assay.Cell cycle distribution was examined with flow cytometry.Mitotic spindle formation was detected using immunofluorescence microscopy.Apoptosis-related proteins were examined with Western blot using specific phosphorylated protein antibodies.Competitive tubulin-binding assay was performed to test whether the compound competitively bound to the colchicine site.Molecular docking was performed to explore the possible binding conformation.Results:MPSP-001 potently inhibited the growth of the 12 different types of human cancer cells with the IC5o values ranging from 1.9 to 15.7 μmol/L.The compound exerted potent inhibition on the drug-resistant Kb/VCR and MCF-7/ADR cells,as on Kba and MCF-7 cells.In HeLa,HGC-27,A549,and other cells,the compound (5 μmol/L) caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase,and subsequently induced cell apoptosis.In Hela cells,it prevented the mitotic spindle formation.Furthermore,the compound dose-dependently inhibited polymerization of tubulin in vitro,and directly bound to the colchicine-site of β-tubulin.Molecular docking predicted that the compound may form two hydrogen bonds to the binding pocket.The compound showed synergistic effects with colchicine and taxol in blocking mitosis of HeLa cells.Conclusion:MPSP-001 shows a broad-spectrum of anti-tumor efficacy in vitro and represents a novel structure with anti-microtubule activity.

  3. Species D human adenovirus type 9 exhibits better virus-spread ability for antitumor efficacy among alternative serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Uchino

    Full Text Available Species C human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5 is widely used as a vector for cancer gene therapy, because it efficiently transduces target cells. A variety of HAdV-C5 vectors have been developed and tested in vitro and in vivo for cancer gene therapy. While clinical trials with HAdV-C5 vectors resulted in effective responses in many cancer patients, administration of HAdV-C5 vectors to solid tumors showed responses in a limited area. A biological barrier in tumor mass is considered to hinder viral spread of HAdV-C5 vectors from infected cells. Therefore, efficient virus-spread from an infected tumor cell to surrounding tumor cells is required for successful cancer gene therapy. In this study, we compared HAdV-C5 to sixteen other HAdV serotypes selected from species A to G for virus-spread ability in vitro. HAdV-D9 showed better virus-spread ability than other serotypes, and its viral progeny were efficiently released from infected cells during viral replication. Although the HAdV-D9 fiber protein contains a binding site for coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, HAdV-D9 showed expanded tropism for infection due to human CAR (hCAR-independent attachment to target cells. HAdV-D9 infection effectively killed hCAR-negative cancer cells as well as hCAR-positive cancer cells. These results suggest that HADV-D9, with its better virus-spread ability, could have improved therapeutic efficacy in solid tumors compared to HAdV-C5.

  4. CD133+ subpopulation of the HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line exhibits cancer stem-like characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bao-Hua; Liu, Ai-Guo; Gu, Wen-Guang; Deng, Liang; Cheng, Xian-Gyang; Tong, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory holds that a minority population within tumors possesses stem cell properties of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity and provides the initiating cells from which tumors are derived and sustained. However, verifying the existence of these CSCs has been a significant challenge. The CD133 antigen is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein proposed to be a CSC marker for cancer-initiating subpopulations in the brain, colon and various other tissues. Here, CD133+ cells were obtained and characterized from the HT1080 cell line to determine the utility of this marker for isolating CSCs from human fibrosarcoma cells. In this study, CD133+ cells were separated from HT1080 cells using magnetic beads and characterized for their proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin and doxorubicin, by MTS assay. Relative expression of tumor-associated genes Sox2, Oct3/4, Nanog, c-Myc, Bmi-1 and ABCG2 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clonal sphere formation and the ability of CD133+ cells to initiate tumors in BALB/c nude mice was also evaluated. We found that CD133+ cells showed a high proliferation rate, increased resistance to chemotherapy drugs and overexpression of tumor-associated genes compared with these features in CD133- cells. Additionally, CD133+ cells were able to form spherical clusters in serum-free medium with high clonogenic efficiency, indicating a significantly greater tumor-initiating potential when compared with CD133- cells. These findings indicate that CD133+ cells identified within the HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line possess many CSC properties and may facilitate the development of improved therapies for fibrosarcoma.

  5. Human adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is not regulated by obesity and exhibits low in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, A; Langin, D; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

    2006-07-01

    The recent identification of murine adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, now known as patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2 [PNPLA2]), gene product of Pnpla2, has questioned the unique role of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL, now known as LIPE), gene product of Lipe, in fat cell lipolysis. Here, we investigated human ATGL and HSL adipose tissue gene expression and in vitro lipase activity. Levels of mRNA in adipose tissue from healthy obese and non-obese subjects were measured and lipase activity and adipocyte lipolytic capacity determined. HSL and ATGL cDNAs were transfected into Cos-7 cells and the relative tri- and diglyceride hydrolase activities were measured. Obesity was associated with a decreased subcutaneous and increased omental adipose tissue level of HSL mRNA. Subcutaneous HSL mRNA content was normalised upon weight reduction. In contrast, ATGL mRNA levels were unaffected by obesity and weight reduction. A high adipose tissue lipase activity was associated with increased maximal lipolysis and increased HSL, but not with ATGL mRNA levels. The in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity of HSL was markedly higher than that of ATGL and contrary to HSL, ATGL was devoid of diglyceride hydrolase activity. The use of a selective HSL-inhibitor resulted in complete inhibition of HSL-mediated tri- and diglyceride hydrolase activity. The pH profile of human white adipose tissue triolein hydrolase activity was identical to that of HSL but differed from the ATGL profile. HSL, but not ATGL gene expression shows a regulation according to obesity status and is associated with increased adipose tissue lipase activity. Moreover, HSL has a higher capacity than ATGL to hydrolyse triglycerides in vitro.

  6. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibit cytotoxicity and genotoxicity through oxidative stress responses in human lung fibroblasts and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cheng Teng; Yong, Liang Qing; Hande, Manoor Prakash; Ong, Choon Nam; Yu, Liya E; Bay, Boon Huat; Baeg, Gyeong Hun

    2017-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used, there has been an increasing number of reports on the toxicity of ZnO NPs. However, study on the underlying mechanisms under in vivo conditions is insufficient. In this study, we investigated the toxicological profiles of ZnO NPs in MRC5 human lung fibroblasts in vitro and in an in vivo model using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, gene expression profiling and genotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs. For in vitro toxicity, the results showed that there was a significant release of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase and decreased cell viability in ZnO NP-treated MRC5 lung cells, indicating cellular damage and cytotoxicity. Generation of ROS was observed to be related to significant expression of DNA Damage Inducible Transcript (DDIT3) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to nucleus signaling 1 (ERN1) genes, which are ER stress-related genes. Oxidative stress induced DNA damage was further verified by a significant release of DNA oxidation product, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as by the Comet assay. For the in vivo study using the fruit fly D. melanogaster as a model, significant toxicity was observed in F1 progenies upon ingestion of ZnO NPs. ZnO NPs induced significant decrease in the egg-to-adult viability of the flies. We further showed that the decreased viability is closely associated with ROS induction by ZnO NPs. Removal of one copy of the D. melanogaster Nrf2 alleles further decreased the ZnO NPs-induced lethality due to increased production of ROS, indicating that nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays important role in ZnO NPs-mediated ROS production. The present study suggests that ZnO NPs induced significant oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung fibroblasts in vitro and in D. melanogaster in vivo. More extensive studies would be

  7. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibit cytotoxicity and genotoxicity through oxidative stress responses in human lung fibroblasts and Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cheng Teng; Yong, Liang Qing; Hande, Manoor Prakash; Ong, Choon Nam; Yu, Liya E; Bay, Boon Huat; Baeg, Gyeong Hun

    2017-01-01

    Background Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used, there has been an increasing number of reports on the toxicity of ZnO NPs. However, study on the underlying mechanisms under in vivo conditions is insufficient. Methods In this study, we investigated the toxicological profiles of ZnO NPs in MRC5 human lung fibroblasts in vitro and in an in vivo model using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, gene expression profiling and genotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs. Results For in vitro toxicity, the results showed that there was a significant release of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase and decreased cell viability in ZnO NP-treated MRC5 lung cells, indicating cellular damage and cytotoxicity. Generation of ROS was observed to be related to significant expression of DNA Damage Inducible Transcript (DDIT3) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to nucleus signaling 1 (ERN1) genes, which are ER stress-related genes. Oxidative stress induced DNA damage was further verified by a significant release of DNA oxidation product, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as by the Comet assay. For the in vivo study using the fruit fly D. melanogaster as a model, significant toxicity was observed in F1 progenies upon ingestion of ZnO NPs. ZnO NPs induced significant decrease in the egg-to-adult viability of the flies. We further showed that the decreased viability is closely associated with ROS induction by ZnO NPs. Removal of one copy of the D. melanogaster Nrf2 alleles further decreased the ZnO NPs-induced lethality due to increased production of ROS, indicating that nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays important role in ZnO NPs-mediated ROS production. Conclusion The present study suggests that ZnO NPs induced significant oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung fibroblasts in vitro and in D. melanogaster in

  8. Operation procedure of sacrococcygeal fetus in fetu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochadi Rochadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in fetu is a condition in wich a fetiform calcified mass often presents in the abdomen of its host, a newborn. It is extremely rare condition, estimated once in 500,000 deliveries and has a 2: 1 male predominantly; with most patient presenting with an abdominal  mass in the first year of life. 5,13 The term fetus in fetu is used to point out an unequal division of totipotential cells of blastocyst where the result is the inclusion of a small cellular mass in the more mature embryo. It was encapsulated, pedunculated and represents a malformed monozygotic, monochorionic, diamniotic parasitic twin. In 80% cases, fetus in fetu is located  retroperitonealy but can be found in unusual location such as in oropharynx, neck, skull mediastinum, pelvis, iliac mesentery, adrenal gland, sacrococcygeal region and scrotal sac.

  9. Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajkumar; Kulkarni, Paresh; Ganesh, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with reduced risks for many types of cancers. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a widely consumed fruit containing many cancer preventing nutrients, vitamins and phytochemicals. Studies have shown that phytochemicals extracted from the avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. Our recent studies indicate that phytochemicals extracted with 50% Methanol from avocado fruits help in proliferation of human lymphocyte cells and decrease chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide. Among three concentrations (100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg per Kg Body Weight), the most effective conc. of extract was 200 mg/Kg Body Wt. It decreased significant level of numerical and structural aberrations (breaks, premature centromeric division etc. up to 88%, p < 0.0001)), and accrocentric associtation within D & G group (up to 78%, p = 0.0008). These studies suggest that phytochemicals from the avocado fruit can be utilized for making active chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy.

  10. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

  11. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio; Sampaio, André Luiz Franco; Henriques, Maria das Graças Muller; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune etiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applied for dengue fever.

  12. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PDemodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  13. Opa+ Neisseria gonorrhoeae exhibits reduced survival in human neutrophils via Src family kinase-mediated bacterial trafficking into mature phagolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M Brittany; Ball, Louise M; Daily, Kylene P; Martin, Jennifer N; Columbus, Linda; Criss, Alison K

    2015-05-01

    During gonorrhoeal infection, there is a heterogeneous population of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) varied in their expression of opacity-associated (Opa) proteins. While Opa proteins are important for bacterial attachment and invasion of epithelial cells, Opa+ Gc has a survival defect after exposure to neutrophils. Here, we use constitutively Opa- and OpaD+ Gc in strain background FA1090 to show that Opa+ Gc is more sensitive to killing inside adherent, chemokine-treated primary human neutrophils due to increased bacterial residence in mature, degradative phagolysosomes that contain primary and secondary granule antimicrobial contents. Although Opa+ Gc stimulates a potent oxidative burst, neutrophil killing of Opa+ Gc was instead attributable to non-oxidative components, particularly neutrophil proteases and the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Blocking interaction of Opa+ Gc with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) or inhibiting Src family kinase signalling, which is downstream of CEACAM activation, enhanced the survival of Opa+ Gc in neutrophils. Src family kinase signalling was required for fusion of Gc phagosomes with primary granules to generate mature phagolysosomes. Conversely, ectopic activation of Src family kinases or coinfection with Opa+ Gc resulted in decreased survival of Opa- Gc in neutrophils. From these results, we conclude that Opa protein expression is an important modulator of Gc survival characteristics in neutrophils by influencing phagosome dynamics and thus bacterial exposure to neutrophils' full antimicrobial arsenal.

  14. Human U2 snRNA genes exhibit a persistently open transcriptional state and promoter disassembly at metaphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelitz, Thomas; Bailey, Arnold D; Elco, Christopher P; Weiner, Alan M

    2008-06-01

    In mammals, small multigene families generate spliceosomal U snRNAs that are nearly as abundant as rRNA. Using the tandemly repeated human U2 genes as a model, we show by footprinting with DNase I and permanganate that nearly all sequences between the enhancer-like distal sequence element and the initiation site are protected during interphase whereas the upstream half of the U2 snRNA coding region is exposed. We also show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that the SNAPc complex, which binds the TATA-like proximal sequence element, is removed at metaphase but remains bound under conditions that induce locus-specific metaphase fragility of the U2 genes, such as loss of CSB, BRCA1, or BRCA2 function, treatment with actinomycin D, or overexpression of the tetrameric p53 C terminus. We propose that the U2 snRNA promoter establishes a persistently open state to facilitate rapid reinitiation and perhaps also to bypass TFIIH-dependent promoter melting; this open state would then be disassembled to allow metaphase chromatin condensation.

  15. Evaluation of molecular assays for identification Campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a C. fetus specific real-time PCR assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Wal, van der F.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Duim, B.; Schmidt, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic differentiation between Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) subspecies fetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular

  16. MiR-145 regulates PAK4 via the MAPK pathway and exhibits an antitumor effect in human colon cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhigang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated 6th People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (China); Yang, Zhili; Du, Hangxiang; Wu, Zhenqian; Gong, Jianfeng; Yan, Jun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated 6th People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Qi, E-mail: zhengqi1957@yahoo.com.cn [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated 6th People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 targets a putative binding site in the 3 Prime UTR of PAK4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 played an important role in inhibiting cell growth by directly targeting PAK4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 may function as tumor suppressors. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of numerous cellular events; accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play a key role in a wide range of biological functions, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer. Down-regulated expression of miR-145 has been reported in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. The molecular mechanisms underlying miR-145 and the regulation of colon carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the levels of miR-145 in human colon cancer cells using qRT-PCR and found markedly decreased levels compared to normal epithelial cells. We identified PAK4 as a novel target of miR-145 using informatics screening. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-145 targets a putative binding site in the 3 Prime UTR of PAK4 and that its abundance is inversely associated with miR-145 expression in colon cancer cells; we confirmed this relationship using the luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, restoration of miR-145 by mimics in SW620 cells significantly attenuated cell growth in vitro, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by siRNA mediated knockdown of PAK4. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-145 downregulates P-ERK expression by targeting PAK4 and leads to inhibition of tumor growth.

  17. Mallaby’s car: colonial subjects, imperial actors, and the representation of human suffering in postcolonial exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Legêne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The iconic photograph of Mallaby’s car shows the wreckage of the vehicle of British brigadier A.S. Mallaby, which was destroyed in Surabaya in Indonesia on 30 October 1945 during the Indonesian uprising against the restoration of Dutch colonial rule. The streets show military vehicles, in control of the situation; however the billboard with ‘Once and forever – The Indonesia Republic’ indicate that the nationalists did not give up their political aspirations. The photograph is iconic in the fragile balance it depicts; a balance between violence and negotiations with many stakeholders, symbolised in the balancing car, with its front wheels, hood and left front door up and open. This photograph triggered my investigation into the impact of decolonisation on the representation of colonial subjects and ‘imperial actors’ in museums in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The image of the car appears in a recorded interview with the two sons of Mallaby, who in minute detail recount the events that resulted in their father’s death. The car points at a history of decolonisation that thoroughly changed the strong or weak citizenship entitlements of everyone involved. What role could they play, at the time, and how is this diverging agency now represented in historical or ethnographic displays? This theme is explored with close reference to the scholarly models provided by Asma Abbas in Liberalism and Human Suffering (2010, specifically the notion of re-presentation as ‘making present again’. I argue that distinct national frames, within which common histories of colonialism and decolonisation today are represented, create notions of ‘historical citizenship’ that discipline the victims of decolonisation, and refrain from challenging the legacies of the ethnographic categorisation in colonial museum displays.

  18. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a core of noncrystalline and/or crystalline lipid, and a developed or developing collagenous cap. Total intimal volumes of the lipid-containing lesions, termed "fibrolipid lesions," ranged from 3 to 43 microliters, with the majority less than 16 microliters. Core lipid in the smallest lesions was located in the musculoelastic layer of the intima. In larger lesions the core extended luminally into the elastic hyperplastic layer, and cholesterol crystals were found more frequently. Total cholesterol concentration in fibrolipid lesions was similar to that in fatty streaks; however, the ratio of unesterified to total cholesterol was relatively high, similar to that found in fibrous plaques. It is concluded that 1) the formation of a lipid-rich core and cholesterol crystallization are early events in the development of many raised lesions; 2) the consistent association between the superficial layer of foam cells and the deep-lying lipid-rich core raises the possibility of an influence, possibly indirect, of foam-cell lipid metabolism on core formation; and 3) the fibrolipid lesion may represent one stage in a potential transitional morphologic sequence between fatty streak and fibrous plaque. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:4025509

  19. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  20. Exposições sobre Comunicação Humana em museus interativos de ciências Exhibitions about Human Communication in interactive science museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Soares Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a existência de exposições ou exibições sobre temas relacionados à Comunicação Humana em museus interativos de ciências nacionais e internacionais e analisar o conteúdo para verificar quais são os assuntos, relacionados à área de Fonoaudiologia, abordados nos museus. MÉTODOS: Análise dos sites de 40 museus de ciência e/ou tecnologia internacionais e 20 nacionais para identificação de exposições ou exibições relacionadas ao tema "Comunicação Humana". RESULTADOS: A maioria dos museus pesquisados possui exposições ou exibições relacionadas ao tema Comunicação Humana. Dentre os nacionais apenas quatro possuem uma exposição inteira relacionada ao tema e dentre os internacionais treze possuem exposições inteiras. A quantidade de exibições internacionais é maior que a encontrada nos nacionais, e a qualidade do material também diverge. A maioria dos museus trata da acústica e em segundo lugar da recepção da mensagem pela audição e fala menos sobre produção da mensagem, linguagem, e anatomia e fisiologia da voz. CONCLUSÃO: Os museus de ciência abordam as ciências básicas e por esse motivo a acústica é muito explorada. Foram encontradas muitas exibições sobre temas relacionadas à Comunicação Humana que possibilitam aos indivíduos conhecer o funcionamento do corpo humano, despertando a curiosidade em relação ao tema abordado. Como os museus são instituições de divulgação científica e educação informal que colaboram para a alfabetização científica da população a Fonoaudiologia pode aproveitar seus espaços para divulgação de suas pesquisas e de seu conhecimento sobre a Comunicação Humana.PURPOSE: To investigate the existence of exhibitions and displays on topics related to Human Communication in national and international interactive science museums, and analyze the content to determine what are the issues related to Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

  1. 人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用%Application of Human-Computer Interaction Technology in Modern Exhibition Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2014-01-01

    随着各种新型交互方式充斥着人类的生活空间,使人们得以了解、探知一个全新的感官世界。通过设计各种交互媒体设施,将多种新型的交互方式应用于现代空间陈列之中,让观众通过看、听、触等方式欣赏、品味乃至探讨展品的“外延”与“内涵”,使展览生动有趣,激发观众的新奇感与兴奋感,有效提升其对展品的阅读、理解能力。%New ways for interacting with each other which are iflled in human living space allow us to discover a whole new world of senses. People integrate the “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” exhibition into the environment or atmosphere by their senses such as seeing, hearing, touching etc when a variety of interactive media facilities are applied to this new way of modern interactive exhibition space, which makes the exhibition interesting and inspires novelty and excitement of the audience as well as effectively enhances the audience's ability of understanding the exhibition.

  2. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-01-01

    A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different envi...

  3. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibit similar therapeutic effects on an acute liver failure mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Zhou

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have exhibited therapeutic effects in multiple animal models so that are promising liver substitute for transplantation treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, it has been shown that over-manipulation of these cells increased their tumorigenic potential, and that reducing the in vitro culture time could minimize the risk. In this study, we used a D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (Gal/LPS-induced acute liver failure mouse model, which caused death of about 50% of the mice with necrosis of more than 50% hepatocytes, to compare the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs before and after induction of differentiation into hepatocyte (i-Heps. Induction of hUCMSCs to become i-Heps was achieved by treatment of the cells with a group of growth factors within 4 weeks. The resulted i-Heps exhibited a panel of human hepatocyte biomarkers including cytokeratin (hCK-18, α-fetoprotein (hAFP, albumin (hALB, and hepatocyte-specific functions glycogen storage and urea metabolism. We demonstrated that transplantation of both cell types through tail vein injection rescued almost all of the Gal/LPS-intoxicated mice. Although both cell types exhibited similar ability in homing at the mouse livers, the populations of the hUCMSCs-derived cells, as judged by expressing hAFP, hCK-18 and human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF, were small. These observations let us to conclude that the hUCMSCs was as effective as the i-Heps in treatment of the mouse acute liver failure, and that the therapeutic effects of hUCMSCs were mediated largely via stimulation of host hepatocyte regeneration, and that delivery of the cells through intravenous injection was effective.

  4. Human Schwann cells exhibit long-term cell survival, are not tumorigenic and promote repair when transplanted into the contused spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Johana; Athauda, Gagani; De La Cruz, Gabriela; Chan, Wai-Man; Golshani, Roozbeh; Berrocal, Yerko; Henao, Martha; Lalwani, Anil; Mannoji, Chikato; Assi, Mazen; Otero, P Anthony; Khan, Aisha; Marcillo, Alexander E; Norenberg, Michael; Levi, Allan D; Wood, Patrick M; Guest, James D; Dietrich, W Dalton; Bartlett Bunge, Mary; Pearse, Damien D

    2017-08-01

    The transplantation of rodent Schwann cells (SCs) provides anatomical and functional restitution in a variety of spinal cord injury (SCI) models, supporting the recent translation of SCs to phase 1 clinical trials for human SCI. Whereas human (Hu)SCs have been examined experimentally in a complete SCI transection paradigm, to date the reported behavior of SCs when transplanted after a clinically relevant contusive SCI has been restricted to the use of rodent SCs. Here, in a xenotransplant, contusive SCI paradigm, the survival, biodistribution, proliferation and tumorgenicity as well as host responses to HuSCs, cultured according to a protocol analogous to that developed for clinical application, were investigated. HuSCs persisted within the contused nude rat spinal cord through 6 months after transplantation (longest time examined), exhibited low cell proliferation, displayed no evidence of tumorigenicity and showed a restricted biodistribution to the lesion. Neuropathological examination of the CNS revealed no adverse effects of HuSCs. Animals exhibiting higher numbers of surviving HuSCs within the lesion showed greater volumes of preserved white matter and host rat SC and astrocyte ingress as well as axon ingrowth and myelination. These results demonstrate the safety of HuSCs when employed in a clinically relevant experimental SCI paradigm. Further, signs of a potentially positive influence of HuSC transplants on host tissue pathology were observed. These findings show that HuSCs exhibit a favorable toxicity profile for up to 6 months after transplantation into the contused rat spinal cord, an important outcome for FDA consideration of their use in human clinical trials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Fetus in fetu: A very rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Fetus in fetu” is a condition seen rarely in the literature, less than 200 cases reported till now. It is a calcified mass or an encapsulated pendunculated tumor thought to be due to unequal division of totipotent cells of a blastocyst, resulting in a small cellular mass in a more mature embryo thus forming a monozygotic, diamniotic twin pregnancy.

  6. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    In six fetuses with Meckel syndrome (gestational age 16-23 weeks, crown-rump length 130-170 mm) the skeleton was examined as part of the autopsy procedure using whole body radiography and special radiographic techniques. In the upper and lower limbs we found similar types of polydactyly. We noted...

  7. Cortical overgrowth in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Vatansever, Deniz; Elkommos, Samia; Dawson, Sarah; McGuinness, Amy; Allsop, Joanna; Molnár, Zoltán; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Mild cerebral ventricular enlargement is associated with schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Fetal ventriculomegaly is the most common central nervous system (CNS) abnormality affecting 1% of fetuses and is associated with cognitive, language, and behavioral impairments in childhood. Neurodevelopmental outcome is partially predictable by the 2-dimensional size of the ventricles in the absence of other abnormalities. We hypothesized that isolated fetal ventriculomegaly is a marker of altered brain development characterized by relative overgrowth and aimed to quantify brain growth using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly. Fetal brain MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 60 normal fetuses and 65 with isolated ventriculomegaly, across a gestational age range of 22-38 weeks. Volumetric analysis of the ventricles and supratentorial brain structures was performed on 3-dimensional reconstructed datasets. Fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly had increased brain parenchyma volumes when compared with the control cohort (9.6%, P ventriculomegaly may represent the neurobiological substrate for cognitive, language, and behavioral deficits in these children.

  8. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases ar

  9. X609, a novel manassantin A derivative, exhibits antitumor activity in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Zhao, Kongbo; Wang, Fu; Cai, Jinfang; Li, Zongyu; Zou, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Manassantin A has been well-established as an inhibitor of HIF-1. In the present study, a new manasantin A derivative, X609, with decreased stereochemical complexity, rendering it amenable to a simplified synthesis scheme, was synthesized and was found to increase HIF-1 inhibitory activity. X609 exhibited antiproliferative activity in a broad spectrum of tumor cell lines, via HIF-1-dependent mechanisms. X609 may induce apoptosis in MG-63 cells through activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Oral administration of X609 significantly inhibited the growth of human osteosarcomas implanted into nude mice. In light of the results of the present study, it may be possible to develop X609 for use as a novel antitumor agent, which targets human osteosarcoma.

  10. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  11. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (Pdefects, additional chromosomal analysis is required to detect extracardiac abnormalities. Fetuses with heart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  12. Do human lymphocytes exposed to the fallout of the Chernobyl accident exhibit an adaptive response? Part 1. Challenge with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L.; Appolloni, M.; Anzidei, P.; Mauro, F. [Environmental Department, ENEA Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Tedeschi, B.; Caporossi, D.; Vernole, P. [Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    Several studies suggest that cells appear to become less susceptible to the induction of radiation damage, and in particular of chromosome and chromatid aberrations in short-term cultures of human lymphocytes, when a challenge exposure to ionizing radiation is preceded by a low `adaptive` dose. Contradictory results have been reported on the conditions under which the phenomenon can be evidenced. In the present work, circulating lymphocytes of 13 children contaminated from the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were tested for their capability to exhibit an adaptive response in experiments in which the challenge dose was administered to stimulated lymphocytes in the S-G{sub 2} phase. Furthermore, the possible influence of 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, was also investigated. Our results indicate that, at least in the instance of the end-point here used (chromosome and chromatid aberrations, the former resulting possibly from the Cs burden), human lymphocytes, chronically exposed to low doses from fallout, do not exhibit any decreased susceptibility to ionizing radiation. However, as reported in the accompanying paper, the same samples appear to show an `adaptive` response when exposed to a challenge treatment with bleomycin (B. Tedeschi et al., 1995, this issue).

  13. Physical anthropology and human «zoos»: The exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Arteaga, Juanma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available All along the nineteenth century different anthropological exhibitions were held in many countries, in which people from a number of indigenous communities, especially transported from their homeland for the occasion, were exhibited publicly, both for citizenship’s instruction and for specialist’s in vivo studies on Human Biology. This paper presents a brief description of some of these scientific shows, and tries to relate them to contemporary human biology theories.

    Durante todo el siglo XIX se celebraron en numerosos países diversas exposiciones de carácter «científico» en las que miembros de diferentes comunidades indígenas, especialmente transportadas desde sus tierras, eran exhibidos públicamente, tanto para instrucción del público lego como para el estudio in vivo por parte de especialistas en biología humana. Este trabajo presenta una breve descripción de algunas de estás exhibiciones y trata de ponerlas en relación con el discurso teórico de la biología humana del periodo.

  14. A novel small molecule inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding activity and exhibits potent growth suppressive activity in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is an attractive therapeutic approach for most types of human cancers with constitutively activated STAT3. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 was specifically designed from dietary agent, curcumin to inhibit constitutive STAT3 signaling in multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cells. Results FLLL32 was found to be a potent inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, STAT3 DNA binding activity, and the expression of STAT3 downstream target genes in vitro, leading to the inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the induction of Caspase-3 and PARP cleavages in human multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cell lines. However, FLLL32 exhibited little inhibition on some tyrosine kinases containing SH2 or both SH2 and SH3 domains, and other protein and lipid kinases using a kinase profile assay. FLLL32 was also more potent than four previously reported JAK2 and STAT3 inhibitors as well as curcumin to inhibit cell viability in these cancer cells. Furthermore, FLLL32 selectively inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by Interleukin-6 but not STAT1 phosphorylation by IFN-γ. Conclusion Our findings indicate that FLLL32 exhibits potent inhibitory activity to STAT3 and has potential for targeting multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cells expressing constitutive STAT3 signaling.

  15. A wrist-walker exhibiting no "Uner Tan Syndrome": a theory for possible mechanisms of human devolution toward the atavistic walking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2007-01-01

    After discovering two families with handicapped children exhibiting the "Uner Tan syndrome," the author discovered a man exhibiting only wrist-walking with no primitive mental abilities including language. According to his mother, he had an infectious disease with high fever as a three months old baby; as a result, the left leg had been paralyzed after a penicilline injection. This paralysis most probably resulted from a viral disease, possibly poliomyelitis. He is now (2006) 36 years old; the left leg is flaccid and atrophic, with no tendon reflexes; however, sensation is normal. The boy never stood up on his feet while maturing. The father forced him to walk upright using physical devices and making due exercises, but the child always rejected standing upright and walking in erect posture; he always preferred wrist-walking; he expresses that wrist-walking is much more comfortable for him than upright-walking. He is very strong now, making daily body building exercises, and walking quite fast using a "three legs," although he cannot stand upright. Mental status, including the language and conscious experience, is quite normal. There was no intra-familiar marriage as in the two families mentioned earlier, and there is no wrist-walking in his family and relatives. There were no cerebellar signs and symptoms upon neurological examination. The brain-MRI was normal; there was no atrophy in cerebellum and vermis. It was concluded that there may be sporadic wrist-walkers exhibiting no "Uner Tan Syndrome." The results suggest that the cerebellum has nothing to do with human wrist-walking, which may rather be an atavistic trait appearing from time to time in normal individuals, indicating a live model for human reverse evolution. It was concluded that pure quadrupeds may sporadically appear due to random fluctuations in genotypes and/or environmental factors (hormonal or nutritional); the human development following the human evolution may be stopped in the stage of

  16. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  17. [A fetus is a person with a right to exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, E

    1989-12-27

    This article is the contribution of a Jesuit priest, a teacher of medical ethics at Uppsala, to a debate inspired by a Swedish official report "The pregnant woman and fetus--2 individuals. On fetal diagnostics. On late abortions." In a society which depends upon a structured consensus as much as Sweden does, the report has been criticized for not making clearer recommendations. The author points out that the ethical dilemmas involved are so complex that they cannot be treated from a simple either/or point of view. Fetal diagnostics, for example, serve the cause of life when the aim is to avoid abortion of a healthy fetus and make it possible to cure, even at the fetal stage, or to strengthen prospective parents' readiness to accept a handicapped child. The use of fetal diagnostic for sorting out damaged and sick fetuses, however, is selective abortion and implies a violation of the principle that all human life is of equal value. The question is no longer if one will have a child or not, but which child will one have. This collision of values has inspired so many polemic statements that it is worthwhile recalling that there is always a tension between the ethically desirable and the politically possible, The report has succeeded in formulating the ethical principles in spite of the impossibility of seeing them presented as concrete recommendations. Even so, Thomas Aquinas wrote in 13th century that one cannot always apply ethical rules to laws of society. That can lead to more evil than good.

  18. Assessing the intra-species genetic variability in the clonal pathogen Campylobacter fetus: CRISPRs are highly polymorphic DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Iraola, Gregorio; Méndez, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans. Genotypic differentiation of Cff and Cfv is difficult, and epidemiological information is scarce because there are few methods to study the genetic diversity of the strains. We analyze the efficacy of MLST, ribosomal sequences (23S gene and internal spacer region), and CRISPRs to assess the genetic variability of C. fetus in bovine and human isolates. Sequences retrieved from complete genomes were included in the analysis for comparative purposes. MLST and ribosomal sequences had scarce or null variability, while the CRISPR-cas system structure and the sequence of CRISPR1 locus showed remarkable diversity. None of the sequences here analyzed provided evidence of a genetic differentiation of Cff and Cfv in bovine isolates. Comparison of bovine and human isolates with Cft strains showed a striking divergence. Inter-host differences raise the possibility of determining the original host of human infections using CRISPR sequences. CRISPRs are the most variable sequences analyzed in C. fetus so far, and constitute excellent representatives of a dynamic fraction of the genome. CRISPR typing is a promising tool to characterize isolates and to track the source and transmission route of C. fetus infections.

  19. Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins are transported by a type I secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Shedd, O L; Ray, K C; Beins, M H; Jorgensen, J P; Blaser, M J

    1998-12-01

    The virulence of Campylobacter fetus, a bacterial pathogen of ungulates and humans, is mediated in part by the presence of a paracrystalline surface layer (S-layer) that confers serum resistance. The subunits of the S-layer are S-layer proteins (SLPs) that are secreted in the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence and attach to either type A or B C. fetus lipopolysaccharide in a serospecific manner. Antigenic variation of multiple SLPs (encoded by sapA homologs) of type A strain 23D occurs by inversion of a promoter-containing DNA element flanked by two sapA homologs. Cloning and sequencing of the entire 6.2-kb invertible region from C. fetus 23D revealed a probable 5.6-kb operon of four overlapping genes (sapCDEF, with sizes of 1,035, 1,752, 1,284, and 1,302 bp, respectively) transcribed in the opposite direction from sapA. The four genes also were present in the invertible region of type B strain 84-107 and were virtually identical to their counterparts in the type A strain. Although SapC had no database homologies, SapD, SapE, and SapF had predicted amino acid homologies with type I protein secretion systems (typified by Escherichia coli HlyBD/TolC or Erwinia chrysanthemi PrtDEF) that utilize C-terminal secretion signals to mediate the secretion of hemolysins, leukotoxins, or proteases from other bacterial species. Analysis of the C termini of four C. fetus SLPs revealed conserved structures that are potential secretion signals. A C. fetus sapD mutant neither produced nor secreted SLPs. E. coli expressing C. fetus sapA and sapCDEF secreted SapA, indicating that the sapCDEF genes are sufficient for SLP secretion. C. fetus SLPs therefore are transported to the cell surface by a type I secretion system.

  20. Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Tooth Exhibit Stromal-Derived Inducing Activity and Lead to Generation of Neural Crest Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Karbalaie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The neural crest is a transient structure of early vertebrate embryos that generates neural crest cells (NCCs. These cells can migrate throughout the body and produce a diverse array of mature tissue types. Due to the ethical and technical problems surrounding the isolation of these early human embryo cells, researchers have focused on in vitro studies to produce NCCs and increase their knowledge of neural crest development. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we cultured human embryonic stem cells (hESCs on stromal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED for a two-week period. We used different approaches to characterize these differentiated cells as neural precursor cells (NPCs and NCCs. Results: In the first co-culture week, hESCs appeared as crater-like structures with marginal rosettes. NPCs derived from these structures expressed the early neural crest marker p75 in addition to numerous other genes associated with neural crest induction such as SNAIL, SLUG, PTX3 and SOX9. Flow cytometry analysis showed 70% of the cells were AP2/P75 positive. Moreover, the cells were able to self-renew, sustain multipotent differentiation potential, and readily form neurospheres in suspension culture. Conclusion: SHED, as an adult stem cell with a neural crest origin, has stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA and can be used as an NCC inducer from hESCs. These cells provide an invaluable resource to study neural crest differentiation in both normal and disordered human neural crest development.

  1. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Associated with Fetus Papyraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, María Lía; Alcalá, Rebeca; Boggio, Paula; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Porriño, María Librada; Luna, Paula C; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Schroh, Roberto; Larralde, Margarita; Torrelo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), or congenital absence of skin, is a heterogeneous condition that may be due to varied mechanisms. ACC has rarely been reported in association with fetus papyraceus, representing a peculiar phenotype of ACC. We present six new cases of neonates born with symmetric ACC associated with intrauterine fetal demise of co-twins during the late first or early second trimester. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Exome Sequencing in Fetuses with Structural Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona L. Mackie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnostic testing is a rapidly advancing field. An accurate diagnosis of structural anomalies and additional abnormalities in fetuses with structural anomalies is important to allow “triage” and designation of prognosis. This will allow parents to make an informed decision relating to the pregnancy. This review outlines the current tests used in prenatal diagnosis, focusing particularly on “new technologies” such as exome sequencing. We demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing above that of conventional karyotyping and Chromosomal Microarray (CMA alone by outlining a recent proof of concept study investigating 30 parent-fetus trios where the fetus is known to have a structural anomaly. This may allow the identification of pathological gene anomalies and consequently improved prognostic profiling, as well as excluding anomalies and distinguishing between de novo and inherited mutations, in order to estimate the recurrence risk in future pregnancies. The potential ethical dilemmas surrounding exome sequencing are also considered, and the future of prenatal genetic diagnosis is discussed.

  3. Teratogenic effects of silymarin on mouse fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahbobe; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Etemad, Leila; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs). The control group received normal saline and tween (solvent). Dams were sacrificed on GD 18 and all fetuses were examined for gross malformations, size and body weight. Malformed fetuses were double stained with alizarin red and alcian blue. Results: Silymarin administration at all doses resulted in reduction of the mean fetal body weights. The abnormalities included limb, vertebral column and craniofacial malformations. Craniofacial malformations were the most common abnormalities, but they were not observed in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage of fetal resorption significantly increased (up to 15%) in all treatment groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, silymarin, especially at high doses can lead to fetal resorption, intrauterine growth retardation and limb, vertebral column and craniofacial abnormalities. More precise studies should be conducted about the teratogenic effects of herbal medicine investigating the underlying mechanisms. Thus, caution should be taken when administering S. marianum to pregnant woman. PMID:27761424

  4. Cupiennin 1a exhibits a remarkably broad, non-stereospecific cytolytic activity on bacteria, protozoan parasites, insects, and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Willems, Jean; Seebeck, Thomas; Shalaby, Tarek; Kaiser, Marcel; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cupiennin 1a, a cytolytic peptide isolated from the venom of the spider Cupiennius salei, exhibits broad membranolytic activity towards bacteria, trypanosomes, and plasmodia, as well as human blood and cancer cells. In analysing the cytolytic activity of synthesised all-D: - and all-L: -cupiennin 1a towards pro- and eukaryotic cells, a stereospecific mode of membrane destruction could be excluded. The importance of negatively charged sialic acids on the outer leaflet of erythrocytes for the binding and haemolytic activity of L: -cupiennin 1a was demonstrated. Reducing the overall negative charges of erythrocytes by partially removing their sialic acids or by protecting them with tri- or pentalysine results in reduced haemolytic activity of the peptide.

  5. Concomitant Craniorachischisis Andomphalocele in a Male Fetus: Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: Prenatal MRI is able to provide a clear whole-body image of the fetus and its relationship with the placenta. Prenatal MRI is very useful in the differential diagnosis of concomitant craniorachischisis and omphalocele from amniotic band sequence, limb body–wall complex with craniofacial defect and Disorganization human homologue.

  6. On the Humanity Design of Modern Commercial Exhibition Space%人性化--现代商业展示空间设计的第一要素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁刚

    2013-01-01

      现代商业展示空间设计是运用人性化的设计思维方式,在满足其商业功能的前提下,以人为中心的购物、休憩、社交完美统一的公共生活空间的科学。现代商业展示空间设计主要从创意理念的人性化、人流系统设计的人性化、灯光照明设计和环保材料等方面入手,给人舒适、自然、愉悦的感受,体现产品特色以及企业文化形象,体现出商业价值和社会价值的统一。%  Modern commercial exhibition space design is people-orientred shopping, leisure, social public life space, based on meeting their business functions. It exploits diversified, humanity way of thinking. Concerning the creative, the crowd system design, lighting design, and environmental-friendly materials, the commercial exhibition space design is a systematism design, and it aims to make people comfortable, natural, pleasant, and reflect the characteristics of product and the image of corporate culture, the ecological awareness and ethics, also.

  7. A pain in the fetus: toward ending confusion about fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, D; Benatar, M

    2001-02-01

    Are fetuses, at any stage of their development, capable of feeling pain? In his paper, "Locating the Beginnings of Pain," Stuart Derbyshire argues that they are not. We argue that he reaches this conclusion by way of conceptual confusion, a misreading of the available scientific data and the inclusion of irrelevant data. Despite his assertion to the contrary, the work of most scientists in the area supports the conclusion that fetuses can feel pain. At the outset we examine the concept of pain and distinguish it from the allied concept of nociception, with which it is sometimes confused. With the relevant conceptual framework in place, we elucidate the problem of determining when, in its development, a human becomes capable of feeling pain. We then examine the available data showing how, on balance, it tends more to support than undermine the claim that fetuses of around 28 to 30 weeks' gestation are capable of feeling pain.

  8. Twin Pregnancy with a Complete Hydatidiform Mole and a Coexisting Live Fetus: Rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik, Shahila; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Mathew, Namitha R; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Qureshi, Asim; Mathew, Mariam

    2015-11-01

    A hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus is a rare occurrence and the optimal management for this condition is not yet known. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 2) who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in March 2012 at 13 gestational weeks with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. An ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole pregnancy coexisting with a live fetus. After extensive counselling, the patient and her husband opted for a conservative management approach. Unfortunately, a hysterotomy had to be performed at 17 gestational weeks due to severe haemorrhage. The postoperative period was uneventful and histopathology results confirmed one complete mole with a coexisting fetus and normal placenta. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level remained normal for 18 months following her surgery.

  9. Parallel Exhibits: Combining Physical and Virtual Exhibits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lischke; T. Dingler; S. Schneegaß; A. Schmidt; M. van der Vaart; P. Wozniak

    2014-01-01

    People have a special fascination for original physical objects, their texture, and visible history. However, the digitization of exhibits and the use of these data is a current challenge for museums. We believe that museums need to capitalize on the affordances of physical exhibits to help users na

  10. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum, which display a distinct host association. Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are associated with endothermic mammals, primar...

  11. Application of a multiplex PCR assay for Campylobacter fetus detection and subspecies differentiation in uncultured samples of aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Carretto, Luis; Rodríguez, Eliana; Pérez, Ruben

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter (C.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. This species is currently divided into C. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital Campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. Cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. Here we describe a multiplex PCR method to detect C. fetus and differentiate between subspecies in a single step. The assay was standardized using cultured strains and successfully used to analyze the abomasal liquid of aborted bovine fetuses without any pre-enrichment step. Results of our assay were completely consistent with those of traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR technique we developed may be easily adopted by any molecular diagnostic laboratory as a complementary tool for detecting C. fetus subspecies and obtaining epidemiological information about abortion events in cattle.

  12. Pyridine analogues of curcumin exhibit high activity for inhibiting CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell growth and androgen receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, DAI-YING; ZHAO, SU-QING; DU, ZHI-YUN; ZHENG, XI; ZHANG, KUN

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations required for curcumin to exert its anticancer activity (IC50, 20 µM) are difficult to achieve in the blood plasma of patients, due to the low bioavailability of the compound. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to the development of curcumin analogues that exhibit stronger anticancer activity and a lower IC50 than curcumin. The present study investigated twelve pyridine analogues of curcumin, labeled as groups AN, BN, EN and FN, to determine their effects in CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on testosterone (TT)-induced androgen receptor (AR) activity was determined by performing an AR-linked luciferase assay and by TT-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen. The results of the current study suggested that the FN group of analogues had the strongest inhibitory effect of growth on CWR-22Rv1 cultured cells, and were the most potent inhibitor of AR activity compared with curcumin, and the AN, BN and EN analogues. Thus, the results of the present study indicate the inhibition of the AR pathways as a potential mechanism for the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues in human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, curcumin analogues with pyridine as a distal ring and tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one as a linker may be good candidates for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer, by targeting the AR signaling pathway. PMID:27313760

  13. MIO-M1 cells and similar muller glial cell lines derived from adult human retina exhibit neural stem cell characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M; Singhal, Shweta; Bhatia, Bhairavi; Keegan, David J; Reh, Thomas A; Luthert, Philip J; Khaw, Peng T; Limb, Gloria Astrid

    2007-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that glial cells may have a role as neural precursors in the adult central nervous system. Although it has been shown that Müller cells exhibit progenitor characteristics in the postnatal chick and rat retinae, their progenitor-like role in developed human retina is unknown. We first reported the Müller glial characteristics of the spontaneously immortalized human cell line MIO-M1, but recently we have derived similar cell lines from the neural retina of several adult eye donors. Since immortalization is one of the main properties of stem cells, we investigated whether these cells expressed stem cell markers. Cells were grown as adherent monolayers, responded to epidermal growth factor, and could be expanded indefinitely without growth factors under normal culture conditions. They could be frozen and thawed without losing their characteristics. In the presence of extracellular matrix and fibroblast growth factor-2 or retinoic acid, they acquired neural morphology, formed neurospheres, and expressed neural stem cell markers including betaIII tubulin, Sox2, Pax6, Chx10, and Notch 1. They also expressed markers of postmitotic retinal neurons, including peripherin, recoverin, calretinin, S-opsin, and Brn3. When grafted into the subretinal space of dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons rats or neonatal Lister hooded rats, immortalized cells migrated into the retina, where they expressed various markers of retinal neurons. These observations indicate that adult human neural retina harbors a population of cells that express both Müller glial and stem cell markers and suggest that these cells may have potential use for cell-based therapies to restore retinal function. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  14. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated wi

  16. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370804465; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336455798; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  17. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    four types, based on the number and morphology of metacarpals and metatarsals. In the individual fetus there was more often similarity in the pattern of malformation in the two hands or in the two feet than there was between the pattern of malformation seen in the hands and that seen in the feet. Only...... one foot was normal. Malformations of the cranial base (the basilar part of the occipital bone or the postsphenoid bone) occurred in five cases, and the vertebral bodies in the lumbar region of the spine were malformed (cleft) in three cases. It is proposed that a skeletal analysis be included...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of rat fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Yo; Kawanishi, Hiroaki (Imamichi Institute for Animal Reproduction, Ibaraki (Japan)); Hasegawa, Kenichi; Otsu, Shinichi

    1993-06-01

    The internal structures of rat fetuses on day 18.0 of pregnancy were studied by magnetic resonance imaging in 1-mm sagittal slices. Each organ was represented as white to gray images different in tone according to the [sup 1]H proton content and the relaxation time. In solid organs, portions with high cell density were seen as white areas and those with low cell density as gray areas. In the tubular organs, the margins were imaged as white and the lumina as gray. (author).

  19. Stem cell and genetic therapies for the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erik G; Flake, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    The prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital disease has made significant progress over the previous decade. Currently, fetal therapy (including open surgery and fetoscopic intervention) provides therapeutic options for a range of congenital anomalies; however, it is restricted to the treatment of fetal pathophysiology. Improvements in prenatal screening and the early diagnosis of genetic disease allow for preemptive treatment of anticipated postnatal disease by stem cell or genetic therapy. While currently awaiting clinical application, in utero stem cell therapy has made significant advances in overcoming the engraftment and immunologic barriers in both murine and pre-clinical large animal models. Likewise, proof in principle for fetal gene therapy has been demonstrated in rodent and large animal systems as a method to prevent the onset of inherited genetic disease; however, safety and ethical risks still need to be addressed prior to human application. In this review, we examine the current status and future direction of stem cell and genetic therapy for the fetus.

  20. Molecular Testing for Toxoplasma Diagnosis in Aborted Fetuses- Taleghani Maternity Hospital- Arak- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Eslamirad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is most critical in pregnant women who acquire infection during gestation and also in fetuses and newborns who are congenitally infected. This study described the performance of molecular and confirmatory serologic testing for toxoplasma infection in the tissues of human spontaneous aborted fetuses and their mothers' blood. Materials and Methods: 87 random samples from the tissues of body of spontaneous aborted fetuses (less than 14 weeks in a separate container of preservative solution were collected from the delivery room of the university maternity hospital, Arak- Iran , during autumn 2012 to 2013. In the ward, 3 ml of blood sample of their mothers were collected and the sera were separated and analyzed by ELISA method for the detection of specific IgG. DNA extraction from the tissues of fetuses was performed and stored until use. The PCR reaction was performed by a pair of primers. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis and stained with safe stain. It is necessary to mention first that the written consent was obtained from their mothers and after recovery, a demographic questionnaire was completed. Results: Most of the mothers were 20-29 years of age and the correlation between the location of residence, contact with cats and eating undercooked food with abortion, not significant. Serological tests on the sera of 87 mothers for anti-Toxoplasma IgG showed 39.08% positive results. The results of PCR amplification showed that none of the 87 samples from aborted fetuses were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Conclusion: In aborted fetuses, we did not observe any evidence of Toxoplasmosis and it appears that Toxoplasma gondii was not the cause of spontaneous abortion in this area of Iran but considering the importance of the infection during pregnancy, the control measurements during pregnancy is required.

  1. THE STUDY OF HUMAN PARVOVIRUS B19 INFECTION IN PERINATAL TRANSMISSION AND ABNORMAL FETUSES AND NEONATES IN GUANGDONG%广东地区人微小病毒B19母婴传播及异常胎儿和新生儿人微小病毒B19感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹虹; 张文炳; 王香云; 钟梅

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate mother-to-infant transmission of human parvovirus B19 and the significance of prevalence of B19 virus in abnormal fetuses in Guandong. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)was established to detect parvovirus B19 DNA in 700 sera from 350 maternal-infant pair groups. The prevalence of B19 virus DNA was 1.14% (4/350)and 0.28%(1/350)in the sera of pregnant women and cord blood of their neonates respectively. Parvovirus B19 DNA sequences were also detected in abnormal fetuses and new-born by PCR. The positive results were obtained in 5 samples of fetal tissues from 17 abnormal fetuses and in 3 those of neonatal tissues from 7 cases of neonatal death. The amplified products of PCR were identified to be the target DNA with Hae Ⅲ digestion. By in situ hybridization ,parvovirus DNA could be detected mainly in the nuclei of immature hematopoetic cells within fetal brain or spleen whose PCR tests were positive. The study results suggest that human parvovirus B19 infection does exist in maternal-infant transmission in Guangdong and might lead to harm on fetuses,but the prevalence rate of B19 virus may be very low. The evaluation of B19 virus infection might depend on reliable assay to determine present infection or past infection.%目的为研究人微小病毒B19在广东地区母婴及异常胎儿和新生儿中的感染状况。方法应用PCR方法检测700份孕妇外周血和新生儿脐血,PCR结合限制性内切酶分析以及原位杂交检测24份异常胎儿和新生儿组织。结果孕妇和胎儿血清中B19病毒的检出率分别为1.14%(4/350)和0.28%(1/350);17例异常胎儿和7例新生儿中,分别有5份胎儿和3份新生儿组织PCR结果阳性。PCR产物经限制性内切酶HaeI酶切分析,证实为PVB19特异的DNA片段。用原位杂交的方法,在部分异常胎儿的脑或脾组织小血管内或周围的原始红细胞核中检测到DNA阳性颗粒。结论广东地区孕妇B19病

  2. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  3. The homozygote VCP(R¹⁵⁵H/R¹⁵⁵H mouse model exhibits accelerated human VCP-associated disease pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Valosin containing protein (VCP mutations are the cause of hereditary inclusion body myopathy, Paget's disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD. VCP gene mutations have also been linked to 2% of isolated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. VCP is at the intersection of disrupted ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy pathways, mechanisms responsible for the intracellular protein degradation and abnormal pathology seen in muscle, brain and spinal cord. We have developed the homozygous knock-in VCP mouse (VCP(R155H/R155H model carrying the common R155H mutations, which develops many clinical features typical of the VCP-associated human diseases. Homozygote VCP(R155H/R155H mice typically survive less than 21 days, exhibit weakness and myopathic changes on EMG. MicroCT imaging of the bones reveal non-symmetrical radiolucencies of the proximal tibiae and bone, highly suggestive of PDB. The VCP(R155H/R155H mice manifest prominent muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord pathology, including striking mitochondrial abnormalities, in addition to disrupted autophagy and ubiquitin pathologies. The VCP(R155H/R155H homozygous mouse thus represents an accelerated model of VCP disease and can be utilized to elucidate the intricate molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of VCP-associated neurodegenerative diseases and for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  5. Congenital Absence of Salivary Glands in Fetuses with Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Bronshtein, Moshe; Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21. To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype. Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P < 0.05). Congenital absence of the salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

  6. Ammonium nitrogen in fetuses of urea-treated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, C C; Roller, M H; Swanson, R N

    1975-02-01

    Eight pregnant Southdown ewes were treated (by drench) with 12.5 ml of 3.3 M urea solution per kilogram of body weight, and ammonium nitrogen concentrations of blood and tissues of these ewes and their fetuses were measured and compared with those of control ewes (given water by drench) and their fetuses. Blood ammonium nitrogen (BAN) and tissue ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations for liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle of ewes and fetuses were determined by an ion-exchange procedure. Samples of blood were collected before treatment, at 30, 90 and 150 minutes after treatment, and at death of the dam. The principal ewes had increasing BAN concentrations with time after drench, and their fetuses had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) BAN concentrations than fetuses from control ewes. All fetuses were alive after death of the dams and had lower TAN values than their dams. The differences in ammonia concentrations between ewes and fetuses were larger in the principal group than in the control group. Except for ewe muscle and fetal liver, all tissues of principals had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) TAN concentrations than those of controls. Muscle of principal ewes and hepatic tissues of their fetuses had greater (P less than 0.05) TAN concentrations than those of control ewes and their fetuses.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis and management in fetuses with cystic hygromata colli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembruch, U; Hansmann, M; Bald, R; Zerres, K; Schwanitz, G; Födisch, H J

    1988-12-01

    We report on 45 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed bilateral cystic hygromata colli by ultrasound. Two of the 45 cases involved a twin pregnancy with only one fetus showing hygromata colli. In 2 cases there was only isolated hygromata colli. The other 43 cases showed the signs of non-immune hydrops fetalis. The cytogenetic findings were: 9 fetuses with Turner syndrome, 1 fetus with Turner mosaicism, 1 fetus with trisomy 18, 6 fetuses with trisomy 21, 12 fetuses with normal karyotype, and 16 fetuses with a failed chromosome culture. In fetuses with Turner syndrome and normal karyotype the sonographic findings were similar: massive bilateral hygromata colli, substantial fluid accumulations in skin and body cavities, oligohydramnios and intra-uterine growth retardation. In the cases with trisomy 21, the relative size of the hygromata colli was smaller. Intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios were not observed. The sole survivor of our group (elective pregnancy interruption: 30 cases; intra-uterine death: 14 cases) (karyotype: 46,XY) presented sonographically with massive ascites, a moderate cystic hygroma, and appropriate fetal development, and a normal amniotic fluid quantity. These findings are analysed in order to provide recommendations for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal management and genetic counselling of the couples concerned.

  8. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  9. Successful Outcome of Twin Gestation with Partial Mole and Co-Existing Live Fetus: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Setu; Rani, Reddi; John, Lopamudra B.

    2015-01-01

    Sad fetus syndrome comprising of a live twin gestation with a hydatidiform mole is a rare entity. The condition is even rarer when the co-existing live fetus is associated with a partial mole than a complete mole. We report the case of a 24-year-old G2P1L1 at 28 weeks gestation who presented to our casualty in the second stage of labour. She had a previous ultrasound scan at 13 weeks which showed a live fetus with a focal area of multicystic placenta. She delivered an alive preterm male fetus weighing 1.32 kg vaginally. Following expulsion of normal placenta of the live fetus, partial mole was expelled. The fetus was admitted to neonatal ICU and discharged after two weeks. Soon after delivery, β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) was 1,21,993 mIU/ml which decreased to 30mIU/ml within two weeks. The patient was discharged with advice of regular follow up of β-hCG reports. PMID:26436001

  10. 与人巨细胞病毒UL128两种不同结构蛋白相互作用蛋白的筛选与分析%Screening of protein interacting with the transcript of UL128 gene showed two protein patterns by yeast two-hybrid from human fetus brain cDNA library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任高伟; 崔鑫; 马艳萍; 齐莹; 阮强; 孙峥嵘

    2010-01-01

    Objective Using yeast two-hybrid system to screen the proteins which can interact with the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL128 which have two difference transcription structure from human fetus brain cDNA library, and compare the difference with structure and function of interacting proteins. Methods Two fragments of UL128 were amplified by 3'RACE and 5'RACE technology, the length are 519 bp and 642 bp, respectively. The "bait plasmid" (named as pGBKT7-UL128-519 bp and pGBKT7-UL128-642 bp) was constructed successfully. Using pGBKT7-UL128-519 bp and pGBKT7-UL128-642 bp as a bait, a human fetus brain cDNA was screened and the proteins interacting with UL128-519 bp and UL128-642 bp encoded protein were searched, and the positive clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatic methods. Results EFEMP2 interacting with HCMV UL128-519 bp were identified, THY-1 interacting with HCMV UL128-642 bp were identified. Conclusion EFEMP2 and THY-1 proteins interacting with HCMV UL128-519 bp and UL128-642 bp in human fetus brain cDNA library were successfully screened, but same proteins weren't found from the proteins interacting with UL128-519 bp and UL128-642 bp protein, UL128-519 bp and UL128-642 bp protein may be play an different effect in the process of infect by HCMV.%目的 利用酵母双杂交系统从人胎脑cDNA文库中筛选与两种不同转录结构的人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)UL128编码蛋白相互作用的蛋白,比较两者相互作用蛋白之间的异同点.方法 通过3'RACE和5'RACE技术扩增出两种HCMV UL128片段,其大小分别为519 bp和642 bp,并将其成功构建到酵母诱饵表达载体pGBKT7中.将以上两种酵母表达载体分别转化到酵母菌AH109中,再将文库DNA转化到已含有酵母表达载体的AH109中,筛选与两种片段大小不同的UL128编码蛋白相互作用的人胎脑蛋白,并对筛选得到的阳性克隆进行测序和生物信息学分析.结果 筛出EFEMP2与UL128-519 bp编码蛋白相互作用,THY-1

  11. Conditional transgenic mice expressing C-terminally truncated human α-synuclein (αSyn119 exhibit reduced striatal dopamine without loss of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flint Beal M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD. α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological inclusions of PD. Therefore, α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. To model α-synuclein-linked disease in vivo, transgenic mouse models have been developed that express wild-type or mutant human α-synuclein from a variety of neuronal-selective heterologous promoter elements. These models exhibit a variety of behavioral and neuropathological features resembling some aspects of PD. However, an important deficiency of these models is the observed lack of robust or progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that is characteristic of PD. Results We have developed conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice that can express A53T, E46K or C-terminally truncated (1–119 human α-synuclein pathological variants from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Using these mice, we have evaluated the expression of these α-synuclein variants on the integrity and viability of nigral dopaminergic neurons with age. Expression of A53T α-synuclein or truncated αSyn119 selectively in nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months fails to precipitate dopaminergic neuronal loss in these mice. However, αSyn119 expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months causes a marked reduction in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites together with other subtle neurochemical alterations. Conclusion We have developed and evaluated novel conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice with transgene expression directed selectively to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as a potential new mouse model of PD. Our data support the pathophysiological relevance of C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species in vivo. The

  12. Tim-3-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in human tuberculosis (TB exhibit polarized effector memory phenotypes and stronger anti-TB effector functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Qiu

    Full Text Available T-cell immune responses modulated by T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3 during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection in humans remain poorly understood. Here, we found that active TB patients exhibited increases in numbers of Tim-3-expressing CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, which preferentially displayed polarized effector memory phenotypes. Consistent with effector phenotypes, Tim-3(+CD4(+ and Tim-3(+CD8(+ T-cell subsets showed greater effector functions for producing Th1/Th22 cytokines and CTL effector molecules than Tim-3(- counterparts, and Tim-3-expressing T cells more apparently limited intracellular Mtb replication in macrophages. The increased effector functions for Tim-3-expressing T cells consisted with cellular activation signaling as Tim-3(+CD4(+ and Tim-3(+CD8(+ T-cell subsets expressed much higher levels of phosphorylated signaling molecules p38, stat3, stat5, and Erk1/2 than Tim-3- controls. Mechanistic experiments showed that siRNA silencing of Tim-3 or soluble Tim-3 treatment interfering with membrane Tim-3-ligand interaction reduced de novo production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by Tim-3-expressing T cells. Furthermore, stimulation of Tim-3 signaling pathways by antibody cross-linking of membrane Tim-3 augmented effector function of IFN-γ production by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, suggesting that Tim-3 signaling helped to drive stronger effector functions in active TB patients. This study therefore uncovered a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and findings may have implications for potential immune intervention in TB.

  13. Distinct transformation tropism exhibited by human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 is the result of postinfection T cell clonal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannian, Priya; Yin, Han; Doueiri, Rami; Lairmore, Michael D; Fernandez, Soledad; Green, Patrick L

    2012-04-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are related but pathogenically distinct viruses. HTLV-1 mainly causes adult T cell leukemia, while HTLV-2 is not associated with leukemia. In vitro, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 predominantly transform CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively: the genetic determinant maps to the viral envelope. Herein, we investigate whether this transformation tropism occurs during initial infection or subsequently during the cellular transformation process. Since most individuals are chronically infected at the time of detection, we utilized an established rabbit model to longitudinally measure the early HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and replication kinetics in purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within 1 week postinoculation. In HTLV-1-infected rabbit CD4(+) T cells, proviral burden and tax/rex mRNA expression peaked early, and expression levels were directly proportional to each other. The late expression of the antisense transcript (Hbz or Aph-2) correlated directly with a late proviral burden peak in HTLV-1- or HTLV-2-infected rabbit CD8(+) T cells, respectively. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that these viruses do not exhibit cellular preference during initial infection. We further evaluated the transformation tropism of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over a 9-week period using in vitro cell growth/immortalization assays. At the early weeks, both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 showed proportionate growth of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, beyond week 5, the predominance of one particular T cell type emerged, supporting the conclusion that transformation tropism is a postinfection event due to selective clonal expansion over time.

  14. Subgroup C avian metapneumovirus (MPV) and the recently isolated human MPV exhibit a common organization but have extensive sequence divergence in their putative SH and G genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toquin, D; de Boisseson, C; Beven, V; Senne, D A; Eterradossi, N

    2003-08-01

    The genes encoding the putative small hydrophobic (SH), attachment (G) and polymerase (L) proteins of the Colorado isolate of subgroup C avian pneumovirus (APV) were entirely or partially sequenced. They all included metapneumovirus (MPV)-like gene start and gene end sequences. The deduced Colorado SH protein shared 26.9 and 21.7 % aa identity with its counterpart in human MPV (hMPV) and APV subgroup A, respectively, but its only significant aa similarities were to hMPV. Conserved features included a common hydrophobicity profile with an unique transmembrane domain and the conservation of most extracellular cysteine residues. The Colorado putative G gene encoded several ORFs, the longer of which encoded a 252 aa long type II glycoprotein with aa similarities to hMPV G only (20.6 % overall aa identity with seven conserved N-terminal residues). The putative Colorado G protein shared, at best, 21.0 % aa identity with its counterparts in the other APV subgroups and did not contain the extracellular cysteine residues and short aa stretch highly conserved in other APVs. The N-terminal end of the Colorado L protein exhibited 73.6 and 54.9 % aa identity with hMPV and APV subgroup A, respectively, with four aa blocks highly conserved among Pneumovirus: Phylogenetic analysis performed on the nt sequences confirmed that the L sequences from MPVs were genetically related, whereas analysis of the G sequences revealed that among MPVs, only APV subgroups A, B and D clustered together, independently of both the Colorado isolate and hMPV, which shared weak genetic relatedness at the G gene level.

  15. High macrosomia rate in healthy fetuses after enlarged nuchal translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, E; Pajkrt, E; Snijders, R J M; Bilardo, C M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the first trimester screening variables nuchal translucency (NT), pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A), and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) and birth weight, with a focus on the prediction of macrosomia. The database of our Fetal Medicine Unit was searched for all singleton pregnancies, who underwent first trimester Down syndrome screening. Live born infants born at term without chromosomal or structural defects from non-diabetic mothers constituted the study population. Birth weight percentiles were corrected for gestational age at delivery, parity, and gender. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight ≥95th centile. We included 6503 fetuses. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that birth weight centile was positively correlated with NT multiples of the median (MoM), PAPP-A MoM, and maternal body mass index, and it was negatively correlated with smoking. An NT ≥95th centile was present in 315 fetuses (4.8%). Although median birth weight centile was not significantly different between cases with NT ≥95th centile and those 95th centile was more common (11% vs 7%) in the presence of NT ≥95th centile. Pregnancy associated plasma protein was elevated (≥95th centile) in 303 cases (7.9%). Median birth weight was higher (P56 vs P51, P = 0.03) in case of elevated PAPP-A compared with PAPP-A macrosomia rate in case of PAPP-A ≥95th centile (7.4% vs 6.3%, P = 0.07). Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for the prediction of macrosomia (birth weight ≥95th centile) by NT MoM, PAPP-A MoM, maternal body mass index, and maternal smoking was 0.64 (P macrosomia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  17. Pathohistological changes in fetuses with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đolai Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis or mucoviscidosis is a genetically caused disease. The intensity of disease and histopathological changes grow throughout the life. According to the literature, pathological changes characteristic of cystic fibrosis become noticeable around the sixth month of life. Case Report. After amniocentesis of a 5-lunar month-old fetus had been done, which confirmed cystic fibrosis, the Ethics Commission approved the preterm labor. The autopsy and histopathological analysis demonstrated the existence of typical histopathological changes in the pancreas and intestines. Discussion. In the late fetal period or during the period around the delivery, cystic fibrosis is usually manifested as meconial cap with or without obstruction of the intestinal lumen. Morphological changes in the exocrine glands usually develop only after birth. In this case, the existence of meconial obstruction, as well as the typical acidofil content in the secretory ducts and acini of the pancreas was confirmed, which is unusual for the fetal age of five months.

  18. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Association with Fetus Papyraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC is a rare malformation characterized by localized or a wide area absence of tissue. The disease may involve any site of the body, although usually seen on the scalp. Observed one in 10.000 births, it can occur as the ACC as an isolated lesion and may be associated with cleft palate/lip, syndactyly, absence of fingers, eye abnormalities and congenital heart disease. ACC’s a rare form due to intrauterine twin, which is a form of ex. Large lesions that require surgical repair small defects heal spontaneously with re-epithelialization. We present a rare case of newborn male with truncal ACC associated with fetus papyraceus.

  19. Etruscan Culture Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    EARLY this year an exhibition on the ancient civilization of Etruria was held at the Beijing-based China Millennium Monument.The theme of the exhibition was Etruscan Culture and on show were the most representative cultural and historical relics of this ancient civilization unearthed in the past 20 years. The 349 exhibits from various

  20. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  1. Neuropathological features in a female fetus with OPHN1 deletion and cerebellar hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Delphine; Alix, Eudeline; Michel, Jessica; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Labalme, Audrey; Guilbert, Hélène; Till, Marianne; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; de Haas, Pascale; Massardier, Jérôme; Portes, Vincent des; Edery, Patrick; Touraine, Renaud; Guibaud, Laurent; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Sanlaville, Damien

    2013-05-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old pregnant woman. The third-trimester ultrasound scan during pregnancy revealed fetal bilateral ventricular dilatation, macrosomia and a transverse diameter of the cerebellum at the 30th centile. A brain MRI scan at 31 weeks of gestation led to a diagnosis of hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis without hemisphere abnormalities and a non compressive expansion of the cisterna magna. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX. The pregnancy was terminated and array-CGH analysis of the fetus identified a 238 kb de novo deletion on chromosome Xp12, encompassing part of OPHN1 gene. Further studies revealed a completely skewed pattern of X inactivation. OPHN1 is involved in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) with cerebellar hypoplasia and encodes a Rho-GTPase-activating protein called oligophrenin-1, which is produced throughout the developing mouse brain and in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in adult mice. Neuropathological examination of the female fetus revealed cerebellar hypoplasia and the heterotopia of Purkinje cells at multiple sites in the white matter of the cerebellum. This condition mostly affects male fetuses in humans. We report here the first case of a de novo partial deletion of OPHN1, with radiological and neuropathological examination, in a female fetus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetus in fetu: molecular analysis of a fetiform mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, A; Corteville, J; Foglia, R P; Bliss, D P; Donis-Keller, H; Dowton, S B

    1993-09-01

    Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition presenting as a calcified intra-abdominal mass in the newborn infant. Over 50 cases of fetus-in-fetu have been reported since 1800. Karyotype analysis in 8 cases and protein polymorphisms in 4 documented identical findings in the host and fetiform mass. We report a case of fetus-in-fetu in a newborn female including cytogenetic and molecular studies of both the host and mass. Genotypic information from 7 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays representing 4 chromosomes demonstrates heterozygous and identical alleles in the infant and fetus-in-fetu at all loci studied. A review of the literature is provided including a discussion regarding the impact of molecular data on present hypotheses of fetus-in-fetu pathogenesis.

  3. Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit the Dose-Dependent Anti-Proliferative Effect against Human Squamous Carcinoma Cells Attenuated in the Presence of Berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Bułdak, Rafał J; Skonieczna, Magda; Cholewa, Krzysztof

    2016-03-17

    The biological activity of nanosize silver particles towards oral epithelium-derived carcinoma seems to be still underinvestigated. We evaluated the influence of low doses of nanosize scale silver particles on the proliferation and viability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes in vitro, alone and in conjunction with the plant alkaloid berberine. Cells of human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-25 (ATCC CRL-1628), cultivated with the mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, were exposed to silver nanoparticles alone (AgNPs, concentrations from 0.31 to 10 μg/mL) and to a combination of AgNPs with berberine chloride (BER, 1/2 IC50 concentration) during 24 h and 48 h. The cytotoxic activity of AgNPs with diameters of 10 nm ± 4 nm was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by treating cells with propidium iodide followed by flow-activated cell sorting. RT-QPCR reaction was used to assess expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein Bax genes expression. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles at a concentration of 10 μg/mL arrested SCC-25 cells cycle after 48 h at the G0/G1 phase in a dose- and time-dependent manner through disruption G0/G1 checkpoint, with increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio gene expression. AgNPs exhibit cytotoxic effects on SCC-25 malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, which is diminished when combined with BER. The AgNPs concentration required to inhibit the growth of carcinoma cells by 50% (IC50) after 48 h was estimated at 5.19 μg/mL. AgNPs combined with BER increased the expression of Bcl-2 while decreasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in SCC-25 cells. Silver particles at low doses therefore reduce the proliferation and viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. SCC-25 cells are susceptible to damage from AgNPs-induced stress, which can be regulated by the natural alkaloid berberine, suggesting that nanoparticles

  4. Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit the Dose-Dependent Anti-Proliferative Effect against Human Squamous Carcinoma Cells Attenuated in the Presence of Berberine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity of nanosize silver particles towards oral epithelium-derived carcinoma seems to be still underinvestigated. We evaluated the influence of low doses of nanosize scale silver particles on the proliferation and viability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes in vitro, alone and in conjunction with the plant alkaloid berberine. Cells of human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-25 (ATCC CRL-1628, cultivated with the mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle’s medium, were exposed to silver nanoparticles alone (AgNPs, concentrations from 0.31 to 10 μg/mL and to a combination of AgNPs with berberine chloride (BER, 1/2 IC50 concentration during 24 h and 48 h. The cytotoxic activity of AgNPs with diameters of 10 nm ± 4 nm was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by treating cells with propidium iodide followed by flow-activated cell sorting. RT-QPCR reaction was used to assess expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein Bax genes expression. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles at a concentration of 10 μg/mL arrested SCC-25 cells cycle after 48 h at the G0/G1 phase in a dose- and time-dependent manner through disruption G0/G1 checkpoint, with increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio gene expression. AgNPs exhibit cytotoxic effects on SCC-25 malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, which is diminished when combined with BER. The AgNPs concentration required to inhibit the growth of carcinoma cells by 50% (IC50 after 48 h was estimated at 5.19 μg/mL. AgNPs combined with BER increased the expression of Bcl-2 while decreasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in SCC-25 cells. Silver particles at low doses therefore reduce the proliferation and viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. SCC-25 cells are susceptible to damage from AgNPs-induced stress, which can be regulated by the natural alkaloid berberine, suggesting

  5. A mouse model for triple-negative breast cancer tumor-initiating cells (TNBC-TICs exhibits similar aggressive phenotype to the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kau Punit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC exhibit characteristics quite distinct from other kinds of breast cancer, presenting as an aggressive disease--recurring and metastasizing more often than other kinds of breast cancer, without tumor-specific treatment options and accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer with higher percentages in premenopausal African-American and Hispanic women. The reason for this aggressive phenotype is currently the focus of intensive research. However, progress is hampered by the lack of suitable TNBC cell model systems. Methods To understand the mechanistic basis for the aggressiveness of TNBC, we produced a stable TNBC cell line by sorting for 4T1 cells that do not express the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR or the gene for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. As a control, we produced a stable triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC cell line by transfecting 4T1 cells with rat HER2, ER and PgR genes and sorted for cells with high expression of ER and PgR by flow cytometry and high expression of the HER2 gene by Western blot analysis. Results We isolated tumor-initiating cells (TICs by sorting for CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells from TNBC (TNBC-TICs and TPBC (TPBC-TICs stable cell lines. Limiting dilution transplantation experiments revealed that CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells derived from TNBC (TNBC-TICs and TPBC (TPBC-TICs were significantly more effective at repopulating the mammary glands of naïve female BALB/c mice than CD24-/CD44-/ALDH1- cells. Implantation of the TNBC-TICs resulted in significantly larger tumors, which metastasized to the lungs to a significantly greater extent than TNBC, TPBC-TICs, TPBC or parental 4T1 cells. We further demonstrated that the increased aggressiveness of TNBC-TICs correlates with the presence of high levels of mouse twenty-five kDa heat shock protein (Hsp25/mouse HspB1 and seventy-two kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72/HspA1A. Conclusions

  6. Exhibiting Mozart: Rethinking Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The article analyses the new permanent exhibition in the composer Wolfgang A. Mozart’s apartment in Vienna, opened in 2006, from the curator’s perspective. The exhibition presents an approach to biographical display in which the exhibited person becomes part of a multifaceted web of contexts, and the article argues for the active deployment of the polysemic character of objects as a means of grasping the complexity of a person’s biography. Presenting a concept for the...

  7. Rotavirus y campylobacter fetus jejuni asociados a un brote de diarrea en terneros

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1984 Rotaviruses and Campylobacter fetus jejuni are ubiquitous agents of diarrheal disease in animals and humans. Under natural conditions they do not seem to cross inter-species barriers; a zoonosis has not been documented for man. However, animal rotaviruses might contribute to the emergence of new reassortment strains in view of their segmented genome, and thus, produce new antigenic variants. On the contrary,...

  8. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoof, R.; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) wer...

  9. Framing the fetus in medical work: rituals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clare

    2005-05-01

    What does it mean to investigate the fetus, and what might be the potential consequences? Although a number of feminists have engaged with the debate around the status of the fetus in terms of the possible implications for women, discussion of fetuses has been avoided by many feminists, in response to the politics around the abortion debate. However, there has recently been a move to explore the ways in which the meanings and significance of the fetus can be socially constructed. Set within a United Kingdom context, this paper focuses on two areas which are arguably changing perceptions of the fetus: the recent 'discovery' of fetal 'pain'; and the growing recognition of the fetus as a patient. One of the key concerns of those who support the autonomy of women is that any increasing discourse around the concept of fetal patienthood may promote the notion of fetal personhood, which in turn may affect the status of pregnant women. In exploring perceptions of the fetus, this article firstly cites some of the key policy documents and medical articles which were published during the 1990s, looking at apparent shifts in the ways in which the fetus is discussed in terms of pain and patienthood. It then explores how practitioners from different disciplines talked about fetal pain and patienthood in relation to the clinical setting. Although this paper does not provide conclusive evidence of a wholesale shift in terms of how the fetus is perceived by practitioners, it does point to subtle shifts occurring, which may or may not be significant. It is important to track such shifts closely, primarily because of the potential impact on women, but also for others involved, including practitioners. Such tracking needs to be set within specific cultural and policy contexts.

  10. Euthanasia of mouse fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaunberg, Brenda A; O'malley, James; Clark, Terri; Davis, Judith A

    2004-09-01

    We sought to determine whether any of the common methods of euthanasia for adult rodents would lead to an acceptable death for fetuses or neonates. We wanted to identify a method that was rapid, free of signs of pain or distress, reliable, and minimally distressful to the person performing the procedure and that minimized the amount of handling required to perform the procedure. We evaluated six methods of euthanasia, with and without anesthesia, in three age groups of mice: gravid mice (E14-20) and neonatal pups (P1-P7 and P8-P14). Euthanasia methods included: halothane inhalation, carbon dioxide inhalation, intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital, intravenous potassium chloride, and cervical dislocation with and without anesthesia. Noninvasive echocardiography was used to assess heartbeat during euthanasia. With cardiac arrest as the definition of death, no method of euthanasia killed fetal mice. Halothane inhalation (5% by vaporizer) was not an acceptable method of euthanasia for mice of the age groups tested. Intraperitoneal administration of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia required a higher dose than the previously established dose, and there is a risk of reduced efficacy in pregnant animals due to potential intrauterine injection. Carbon dioxide asphyxiation was the most efficient method of euthanasia for neonatal mouse pups P1-14. For pregnant adult mice, intravenous potassium chloride under anesthesia, carbon dioxide asphyxiation, and cervical dislocation alone or under anesthesia were excellent methods of euthanasia. Copyright 2004 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  11. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  12. Acardiac Parabiotic Fetus: A Rare Complication of Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acardiac parabiotic fetus is sequelae of complication of monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy also known as Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence (TRAP. It is rare affecting 1 in 35,000 births and 1 % of monozygotic twins. Acardiac parabiotic twin commonly known as parasite occurs rarely and may lead to high output cardiac failure, hydrops or premature delivery in the pump fetus. In this report, we present a 23 years old primigravida with twin pregnancy, with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with one of the twins being acardiac anceps and the other normal pump fetus. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore rarely documented.

  13. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  14. Test Control Center exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  15. Transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus is affected by maternal plasma cholesterol concentrations in the golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Katie T; Colvin, Perry L; Myatt, Leslie; Graf, Gregory A; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Woollett, Laura A

    2009-06-01

    The fetus has a high requirement for cholesterol and synthesizes cholesterol at elevated rates. Recent studies suggest that fetal cholesterol also can be obtained from exogenous sources. The purpose of the current study was to examine the transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus and determine the mechanism responsible for any cholesterol-driven changes in transport. Studies were completed in pregnant hamsters with normal and elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. Cholesterol feeding resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in the amount of LDL-cholesterol taken up by the fetus and a 2.4-fold increase in the amount of HDL-cholesterol taken up. LDL-cholesterol was transported to the fetus primarily by the placenta, and HDL-cholesterol was transported by the yolk sac and placenta. Several proteins associated with sterol transport and efflux, including those induced by activated liver X receptor, were expressed in hamster and human placentas: NPC1, NPC1L1, ABCA2, SCP-x, and ABCG1, but not ABCG8. NPC1L1 was the only protein increased in hypercholesterolemic placentas. Thus, increasing maternal lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations can enhance transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus, leading to 1) increased movement of cholesterol down a concentration gradient in the placenta, 2) increased lipoprotein secretion from the yolk sac (shown previously), and possibly 3) increased placental NPC1L1 expression.

  16. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and...

  17. SAR Computation inside Fetus by RF Coil during MR Imaging Employing Realistic Numerical Pregnant Woman Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Ikehira, Hiroo

    This paper presents the computational electromagnetic dosimetry inside an anatomically based pregnant woman models exposed to electromagnetic wave during magnetic resonance imaging. The two types of pregnant woman models corresponding to early gestation and 26 weeks gestation were used for this study. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in and around a fetus were calculated by radiated electromagnetic wave from highpass and lowpass birdcage coil. Numerical calculation results showed that high SAR region is observed at the body in the vicinity of gaps of the coil, and is related to concentrated electric field in the gaps of human body such as armpit and thigh. Moreover, it has confirmed that the SAR in the fetus is less than International Electrotechnical Commission limit of 10W/kg, when whole-body average SARs are 2W/kg and 4W/kg, which are the normal operating mode and first level controlled operating mode, respectively.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with anencephaly and thumb agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Cataliotti, Antonella; Indaco, Lara; Pappalardo, Elisa; Barrano, Barbara; Ettore, Giuseppe; Bianca, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    Severe anomalies of the forebrain together with reduction limb anomalies are a rare congenital anomalies association. We report a prenatal diagnosis of acalvaria, anencephaly and thumb agenesis in a voluntary terminated fetus and discuss the role of genetic counseling.

  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  1. Twin Fetuses Papyraeci in a Spontaneous Triplet Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2,3] The incidence of two ... taking place at home[6] the true incidence of fetus papyraceous ... anemia.[12,13] The index case presented with premature contractions before the age ... to neurological complications, cerebral palsy, renal failure,.

  2. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories ... Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  4. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  5. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dental pulp cells possess stem cell like potential and thus may be potential candidates for tissue engineering purposes particularly in the oro-facial region. Successful tissue engineering ideally requires that newly formed bone adapts its mass, shape, and trabecular...... and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation...

  6. A comparison of E15.5 fetus and newborn rat serum proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lilong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum proteins carry out several functions in the circulation, including transfer, immunological functions, messenger functions, coagulation, and regulation of homeostasis. To investigate changes in serum proteins that occur during development, the serum proteomes of embryonic 15.5 (E15.5 fetuses and newborn rats were compared using LC-MS/MS. Results A total of 958 proteins were identified in the serum of rats at both developmental stages. The serum proteome pattern of newborn rats was compared to E15.5 fetuses by relative quantitation. The expression patterns of hemoglobin subunits were different at the two stages, with most of the subunits having decreased expression in newborn rats compared to E15.5 fetuses. In addition, 8 of 12 apolipoproteins were significantly decreased and 10 of 11 identified complement molecules were increased, with 4 exhibiting a significant increase. Moreover, 11 of 14 of the significantly increased enzyme regulators were inhibitors. The serum proteome patterns of different littermates from both developmental stages were also compared. We found that the levels of many highly abundant serum proteins varied between littermates, and the variations were larger than the variations of the technical control. Conclusions The serum proteomes of newborn rats and E15.5 fetuses were compared. The expression patterns of hemoglobin subunits were different at the two developmental stages, with most of the subunits having decreased expression. The majority of apolipoproteins had significantly decreased expression, while almost all identified complement proteins had increased expression. The levels of several highly abundant serum proteins also varied among littermates at these two developmental stages. This is the first study using LC-MS/MS to investigate serum proteome development.

  7. MIO-M1 cells and similar muller glial cell lines derived from adult human retina exhibit neural stem cell characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, Jean M; Singhal, Shweta; Bhatia, Bhairavi; Keegan, David J; Reh, Thomas A; Luthert, Philip J; Khaw, Peng T; Limb, Gloria Astrid

    2007-01-01

    .... We first reported the Müller glial characteristics of the spontaneously immortalized human cell line MIO-M1, but recently we have derived similar cell lines from the neural retina of several adult eye donors...

  8. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  9. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  10. Evaluation of 2407 fetuses in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylaner, Gülay; Ceylaner, Serdar; Günyeli, Ilker; Ekici, Eyüp; Celasun, Bülent; Danişman, Nuri

    2007-09-01

    Congenital anomalies and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are frequent problems in pregnancies. Detection of the etiology is important for genetic counseling, and presenting the geographic distribution of the causes of disorders is necessary for a national policy on precautions. Here, we report the findings of terminated fetuses due to IUFD and congenital anomalies in Turkish population. Physical examinations of fetuses and genetic evaluations of families were done. X-ray studies and autopsy were done in the event of necessity. Findings of these studies were combined with prenatal ultrasound results. All cases were classified according to ICD-10. The number of fetuses examined was 2407. Out of these, 1268 fetuses had congenital anomalies. Neurologic anomalies and musculoskeletal system malformations were the most frequent disorders. Specific diagnoses were possible in 64% of all multiple malformation syndromes. Abnormal findings were detected in 18.8% of IUFD fetuses. Nine percent had congenital anomalies and 5.2% had cord complications. The percentage of twins and triplets was 7.5% and 13% of them had anomalies. Postmortem evaluation is useful to detect findings necessary for genetic counseling. Our protocol is effective especially in fetuses with congenital anomalies but it can detect only some of the fetal reasons in IUFD cases. A more detailed protocol is needed to investigate IUFD cases. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  11. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Enhanced Affinity for Human Type Sialic Acid Receptor and In-Contact Transmission in Model Ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Wei, Yandi; Sun, Yipeng; Hu, Jiao; Liu, Litao; Xu, Guanlong; Gao, Weihua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xuxiao; Huang, Yinhua; Chang, Kin-Chow; Liu, Xiufan; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-07-15

    Since May 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus has been reported to cause six severe human infections three of which were fatal. The biological properties of this subtype, in particular its relative pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals, are not known. We characterized the virus receptor-binding affinity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in mice and ferrets of four H5N6 isolates derived from waterfowl in China from 2013-2014. All four H5N6 viruses have acquired a binding affinity for human-like SAα2,6Gal-linked receptor to be able to attach to human tracheal epithelial and alveolar cells. The emergent H5N6 viruses, which share high sequence similarity with the human isolate A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 (H5N6), were fully infective and highly transmissible by direct contact in ferrets but showed less-severe pathogenicity than the parental H5N1 virus. The present results highlight the threat of emergent H5N6 viruses to poultry and human health and the need to closely track their continual adaptation in humans. Extended epizootics and panzootics of H5N1 viruses have led to the emergence of the novel 2.3.4.4 clade of H5 virus subtypes, including H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 reassortants. Avian H5N6 viruses from this clade have caused three fatalities out of six severe human infections in China since the first case in 2014. However, the biological properties of this subtype, especially the pathogenicity and transmission in mammals, are not known. Here, we found that natural avian H5N6 viruses have acquired a high affinity for human-type virus receptor. Compared to the parental clade 2.3.4 H5N1 virus, emergent H5N6 isolates showed less severe pathogenicity in mice and ferrets but acquired efficient in-contact transmission in ferrets. These findings suggest that the threat of avian H5N6 viruses to humans should not be ignored. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dental pulp cells possess stem cell like potential and thus may be potential candidates for tissue engineering purposes particularly in the oro-facial region. Successful tissue engineering ideally requires that newly formed bone adapts its mass, shape, and trabecular...... and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...

  14. Human psychophysics and rodent spinal neurones exhibit peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain in the UVB and UVB heat rekindling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jessica; Sikandar, Shafaq; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Translational research is key to bridging the gaps between preclinical findings and the patients, and a translational model of inflammatory pain will ideally induce both peripheral and central sensitisation, more effectively mimicking clinical pathophysiology in some chronic inflammatory conditions. We conducted a parallel investigation of two models of inflammatory pain, using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation alone and UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. We used rodent electrophysiology and human quantitative sensory testing to characterise nociceptive processing in the peripheral and central nervous systems in both models. In both species, UVB irradiation produces peripheral sensitisation measured as augmented evoked activity of rat dorsal horn neurones and increased perceptual responses of human subjects to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In both species, UVB with heat rekindling produces central sensitisation. UVB irradiation alone and UVB with heat rekindling are translational models of inflammation that produce peripheral and central sensitisation, respectively. The predictive value of laboratory models for human pain processing is crucial for improving translational research. The discrepancy between peripheral and central mechanisms of pain is an important consideration for drug targets, and here we describe two models of inflammatory pain that involve ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which can employ peripheral and central sensitisation to produce mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats and humans. We use electrophysiology in rats to measure the mechanically- and thermally-evoked activity of rat spinal neurones and quantitative sensory testing to assess human psychophysical responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation in a model of UVB irradiation and in a model of UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. Our results demonstrate peripheral sensitisation in both species driven by UVB irradiation, with a clear mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of

  15. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  16. Exhibitions in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    Today, few artists make serving vessels on a monumental scale. Here artists compete in this unique area of specialization prompted by the Campbell Museum in Camden, New Jersey, which is dedicated to collecting and exhibiting the very best in soup tureens. (Author/RK)

  17. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  18. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty Rahmatabady, Monireh; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Levels, Johannes; de Vries, Marcel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; Rezaee, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis fr

  19. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  20. Triploidy in a fetus following amniocentesis referred for maternal serum screening test at second trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagherizadeh E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniocentesis was carried out at 17 weeks gestation in a 27-year-old woman, following an abnormal maternal serum screening (MSS test. MSS test was carried out primarily to estimate the risk of trisomy for chromosome 21. The maternal serum markers used were alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, and unconjugated estriol (uE3, together with maternal age. The fetus was identified as screen-positive for Edward′s syndrome (trisomy 18, with low uE3, normal AFP and hCG levels. The calculated risk for trisomy 18 was more than 1:50. To identify any possible chromosomal abnormality, cytogenetic investigation was carried out on the amniotic fluid sample. The fetus′s karyotype showed triploidy with 69, XXX chromosome complement in all the metaphase spreads obtained from three different cultures, using GTG banding technique. Upon termination of the fetus, gross abnormalities indicative of triploidy were present in the fetus.

  1. Apigenin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells and exhibits anti-leukemic activity in vivo via inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK

    OpenAIRE

    Budhraja, Amit; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Son, Young-Ok; Cheng, Senping; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Hitron, Andrew; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional role of Akt and JNK signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo. Apigenin-induced apoptosis by inactivation of Akt with a concomitant activation of JNK, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 down-regulation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspases. Constitutively active myristolated Akt prevented apigenin-induced JNK, caspases activation, and apoptosis. Conversely...

  2. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Derived from the BC1 iPS Cell Line Exhibit a Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Katt, Moriah E.; Xu, Zinnia S.; Gerecht, Sharon; Searson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells that form capillaries in the brain are highly specialized, with tight junctions that minimize paracellular transport and an array of broad-spectrum efflux pumps that make drug delivery to the brain extremely challenging. One of the major limitations in blood-brain barrier research and the development of drugs to treat central nervous system diseases is the lack of appropriate cell lines. Recent reports indicate that the derivation of human brain microvascular endothelial...

  3. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturted fatty acids to the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso eGil-Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during gestation and development of the cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is that of maternal origin. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labelled fatty acids have shown the preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets (LD. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized in lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes related with lipolysis, modifying their rate of placental transfer and metabolization. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge on the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process.

  4. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashty, M; Motazacker, M M; Levels, J; de Vries, M; Mahmoudi, M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Rezaee, F

    2014-03-03

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis from the site of synthesis to effector locations. To better understand the role of VLDL and LDL in the transport of proteins, we applied a combination of LTQ ORBITRAP-XL (nLC-MS/MS) with both in-SDS-PAGE gel and in-solution tryptic digestion of pure and defined VLDL and LDL fractions. We identified the presence of 95 VLDL- and 51 LDL-associated proteins including all known apolipoproteins and lipid transport proteins, and intriguingly a set of coagulation proteins, complement system and anti- microbial proteins. Prothrombin, protein S, fibrinogen γ, PLTP, CETP, CD14 and LBP were present on VLDL but not on LDL. Prenylcysteine oxidase 1, dermcidin, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, TFPI-1 and fibrinogen α chain were associated with both VLDL and LDL. Apo A-V is only present on VLDL and not on LDL. Collectively, this study provides a wealth of knowledge on the protein constituents of the human plasma lipoprotein system and strongly supports the notion that protein shuttling through this system is involved in the regulation of biological processes. Human diseases related to proteins carried by VLDL and LDL can be divided in three major categories: 1 - dyslipidaemia, 2 - atherosclerosis and vascular disease, and 3 - coagulation disorders.

  5. Liquiritin (LT) exhibits suppressive effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells through activating Caspase-3 in vitro and xenograft mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, She-Hong; Liu, Hong-Gai; Zhou, Yu-Fei; Yue, Qing-Fen

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies worldwide. Liquiritin (LT), a major constituent of Glycyrrhiza Radix, possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective effects. However, its role in human cervical cancer remains to be elusive. In our study, we found that LT suppressed cervical cancer cell migration, invasion and cloning ability with little cytotoxicity to human normal cells. In addition, apoptosis was induced by LT in cervical cancer cells through activation of Caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. LT-triggered apoptosis was dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, which were relied on Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)- and Bcl-2/Bax-regulated pathways, leading to Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 cleavage, respectively. LT was found to increase FADD expression, while reduce Bcl-2 expression, contributing to Caspase-3 cleavage. And tumor suppressors, p21 and p53, were enhanced after LT treatment, inhibiting the growth of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Significantly, in vivo study suggested that tumor growth was impeded by LT in a dose-dependent manner through enhancing apoptosis. Together, the data here revealed that LT was an effective and promising candidate for preventing human cervical cancer progression via apoptosis enhancement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Human CD3+ T-Cells with the Anti-ERBB2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor Exhibit Efficient Targeting and Induce Apoptosis in ERBB2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisvaradass, Rusheni; Kumar, Suresh; Govindasamy, Chandramohan; Alnumair, Khalid S; Mok, Pooi Ling

    2017-09-08

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women. The innate and adaptive immune responses failed to be activated owing to immune modulation in the tumour microenvironment. Decades of scientific study links the overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2) antigen with aggressive tumours. The Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) coding for specific tumour-associated antigens could initiate intrinsic T-cell signalling, inducing T-cell activation, and cytotoxic activity without the need for major histocompatibility complex recognition. This renders CAR as a potentially universal immunotherapeutic option. Herein, we aimed to establish CAR in CD3+ T-cells, isolated from human peripheral blood mononucleated cells that could subsequently target and induce apoptosis in the ERBB2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line, SKBR3. Constructed CAR was inserted into a lentiviral plasmid containing a green fluorescent protein tag and produced as lentiviral particles that were used to transduce activated T-cells. Transduced CAR-T cells were then primed with SKBR3 cells to evaluate their functionality. Results showed increased apoptosis in SKBR3 cells co-cultured with CAR-T cells compared to the control (non-transduced T-cells). This study demonstrates that CAR introduction helps overcome the innate limitations of native T-cells leading to cancer cell apoptosis. We recommend future studies should focus on in vivo cytotoxicity of CAR-T cells against ERBB2 expressing tumours.

  7. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  8. Droplet Lamp Design exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu; Dean, Lionel Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in the use of digital fluid simulation techniques within a\\ud product design context. It discusses the adoption and adaptation of virtual modelling tools in\\ud 3D creative practice. This work is exhibited at EuroMold, the world-wide fair in Germany for\\ud mold making, tooling, design and application development with around 60.000 visitors and lasts\\ud 4 days. The fair brings together professionals from design, prototyping and manufacturing.

  9. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  10. Cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-I exhibit an overall mixed pro-inflammatory/modulated cytokine signature characteristic of human Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Mattoso-Barbosa, Armanda Moreira; Gouin, Nicolas; Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Marcelo; Valério-Dos-Reis, Leydiane; Costa, Ronaldo Peres; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues do; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene B; VandeBerg, Jane F; VandeBerg, John L

    2017-02-01

    Non-human primates have been shown to be useful models for Chagas disease. We previously reported that natural T. cruzi infection of cynomolgus macaques triggers clinical features and immunophenotypic changes of peripheral blood leukocytes resembling those observed in human Chagas disease. In the present study, we further characterize the cytokine-mediated microenvironment to provide supportive evidence of the utility of cynomolgus macaques as a model for drug development for human Chagas disease. In this cross-sectional study design, flow cytometry and systems biology approaches were used to characterize the ex vivo and in vitro T. cruzi-specific functional cytokine signature of circulating leukocytes from TcI-T. cruzi naturally infected cynomolgus macaques (CH). Results showed that CH presented an overall CD4+-derived IFN-γ pattern regulated by IL-10-derived from CD4+ T-cells and B-cells, contrasting with the baseline profile observed in non-infected hosts (NI). Homologous TcI-T. cruzi-antigen recall in vitro induced a broad pro-inflammatory cytokine response in CH, mediated by TNF from innate/adaptive cells, counterbalanced by monocyte/B-cell-derived IL-10. TcIV-antigen triggered a more selective cytokine signature mediated by NK and T-cell-derived IFN-γ with modest regulation by IL-10 from T-cells. While NI presented a cytokine network comprised of small number of neighborhood connections, CH displayed a complex cross-talk amongst network elements. Noteworthy, was the ability of TcI-antigen to drive a complex global pro-inflammatory network mediated by TNF and IFN-γ from NK-cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, regulated by IL-10+CD8+ T-cells, in contrast to the TcIV-antigens that trigger a modest network, with moderate connecting edges. Altogether, our findings demonstrated that CH present a pro-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine signature similar to that observed in human Chagas disease. These data bring additional insights that further validate these non-human

  11. Cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-I exhibit an overall mixed pro-inflammatory/modulated cytokine signature characteristic of human Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoso-Barbosa, Armanda Moreira; Gouin, Nicolas; Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Marcelo; Valério-dos-Reis, Leydiane; Costa, Ronaldo Peres; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-human primates have been shown to be useful models for Chagas disease. We previously reported that natural T. cruzi infection of cynomolgus macaques triggers clinical features and immunophenotypic changes of peripheral blood leukocytes resembling those observed in human Chagas disease. In the present study, we further characterize the cytokine-mediated microenvironment to provide supportive evidence of the utility of cynomolgus macaques as a model for drug development for human Chagas disease. Methods and findings In this cross-sectional study design, flow cytometry and systems biology approaches were used to characterize the ex vivo and in vitro T. cruzi-specific functional cytokine signature of circulating leukocytes from TcI-T. cruzi naturally infected cynomolgus macaques (CH). Results showed that CH presented an overall CD4+-derived IFN-γ pattern regulated by IL-10-derived from CD4+ T-cells and B-cells, contrasting with the baseline profile observed in non-infected hosts (NI). Homologous TcI-T. cruzi-antigen recall in vitro induced a broad pro-inflammatory cytokine response in CH, mediated by TNF from innate/adaptive cells, counterbalanced by monocyte/B-cell-derived IL-10. TcIV-antigen triggered a more selective cytokine signature mediated by NK and T-cell-derived IFN-γ with modest regulation by IL-10 from T-cells. While NI presented a cytokine network comprised of small number of neighborhood connections, CH displayed a complex cross-talk amongst network elements. Noteworthy, was the ability of TcI-antigen to drive a complex global pro-inflammatory network mediated by TNF and IFN-γ from NK-cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, regulated by IL-10+CD8+ T-cells, in contrast to the TcIV-antigens that trigger a modest network, with moderate connecting edges. Conclusions Altogether, our findings demonstrated that CH present a pro-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine signature similar to that observed in human Chagas disease. These data bring additional

  12. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  13. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Derived from the BC1 iPS Cell Line Exhibit a Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, Moriah E; Xu, Zinnia S; Gerecht, Sharon; Searson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells that form capillaries in the brain are highly specialized, with tight junctions that minimize paracellular transport and an array of broad-spectrum efflux pumps that make drug delivery to the brain extremely challenging. One of the major limitations in blood-brain barrier research and the development of drugs to treat central nervous system diseases is the lack of appropriate cell lines. Recent reports indicate that the derivation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a solution to this problem. Here we demonstrate the derivation of hBMECs extended to two new human iPSC lines: BC1 and GFP-labeled BC1. These hBMECs highly express adherens and tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. The addition of retinoic acid upregulates VE-cadherin expression, and results in a significant increase in transendothelial electrical resistance to physiological values. The permeabilities of tacrine, rhodamine 123, and Lucifer yellow are similar to values obtained for MDCK cells. The efflux ratio for rhodamine 123 across hBMECs is in the range 2-4 indicating polarization of efflux transporters. Using the rod assay to assess cell organization in small vessels and capillaries, we show that hBMECs resist elongation with decreasing diameter but show progressive axial alignment. The derivation of hBMECs with a blood-brain barrier phenotype from the BC1 cell line highlights that the protocol is robust. The expression of GFP in hBMECs derived from the BC1-GFP cell line provides an important new resource for BBB research.

  14. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Blasi

    Full Text Available Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  15. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Barbara; Tafer, Hakim; Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  16. ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE FETUS AS A PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Chervenak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and identify its implications for the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine.Methods: We describe secular medical ethics and its two fundamental principles, beneficence and respect for autonomy. We articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient on the basis of the ethical principle of beneficence.Results: In the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine guided by the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient, the perinatologist should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient. Directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is a patient. Non-directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is not a patient.Conclusion: Counseling pregnant women about the clinical management of their pregnancies should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient.

  17. Glycosylated Platinum(IV) Complexes as Substrates for Glucose Transporters (GLUTs) and Organic Cation Transporters (OCTs) Exhibited Cancer Targeting and Human Serum Albumin Binding Properties for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Qingpeng; Huang, Zhonglv; Yang, Xiande; Nie, Quandeng; Hao, Wenpei; Wang, Peng George; Wang, Xin

    2017-07-13

    Glycosylated platinum(IV) complexes were synthesized as substrates for GLUTs and OCTs for the first time, and the cytotoxicity and detailed mechanism were determined in vitro and in vivo. Galactoside Pt(IV), glucoside Pt(IV), and mannoside Pt(IV) were highly cytotoxic and showed specific cancer-targeting properties in vitro and in vivo. Glycosylated platinum(IV) complexes 5, 6, 7, and 8 (IC50 0.24-3.97 μM) had better antitumor activity of nearly 166-fold higher than the positive controls cisplatin (1a), oxaliplatin (3a), and satraplatin (5a). The presence of a hexadecanoic chain allowed binding with human serum albumin (HSA) for drug delivery, which not only enhanced the stability of the inert platinum(IV) prodrugs but also decreased their reduction by reductants present in human whole blood. Their preferential accumulation in cancer cells compared to noncancerous cells (293T and 3T3 cells) suggested that they were potentially safe for clinical therapeutic use.

  18. Antiviral CD8(+) T Cells Restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Exist during Natural HIV Infection and Exhibit Clonal Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Srinika; Lamothe, Pedro A; Soghoian, Damien Z; Kazer, Samuel W; Cole, Michael B; Shalek, Alex K; Yosef, Nir; Jones, R Brad; Donaghey, Faith; Nwonu, Chioma; Jani, Priya; Clayton, Gina M; Crawford, Frances; White, Janice; Montoya, Alana; Power, Karen; Allen, Todd M; Streeck, Hendrik; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Picker, Louis J; Kappler, John W; Walker, Bruce D

    2016-10-18

    CD8(+) T cell recognition of virus-infected cells is characteristically restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, although rare examples of MHC class II restriction have been reported in Cd4-deficient mice and a macaque SIV vaccine trial using a recombinant cytomegalovirus vector. Here, we demonstrate the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses with antiviral properties in a small subset of HIV-infected individuals. In these individuals, T cell receptor β (TCRβ) analysis revealed that class II-restricted CD8(+) T cells underwent clonal expansion and mediated killing of HIV-infected cells. In one case, these cells comprised 12% of circulating CD8(+) T cells, and TCRα analysis revealed two distinct co-expressed TCRα chains, with only one contributing to binding of the class II HLA-peptide complex. These data indicate that class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses can exist in a chronic human viral infection, and may contribute to immune control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  20. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Olga A; den Dunnen, Wilfred Fa; Sollie, Krystyne M; Muñoz, Rosa Iris; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; Rodríguez, Esteban M; Sival, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA) is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC) and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denud

  1. Muscle ultrasound density in human fetuses with spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Sollie, K. M.; Maurits, N. M.; Bos, A. F.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; Brouwer, O. F.; Sival, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Background: In fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements caudal to the meningomyelocele (MMC) are transiently present, but they disappear shortly after birth. Insight in the underlying mechanism could help to improve treatment strategies. In fetal SBA, the pathogenesis of neuromuscular damage p

  2. Muscle ultrasound density in human fetuses with spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Sollie, K. M.; Maurits, N. M.; Bos, A. F.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; Brouwer, O. F.; Sival, Deborah

    Background: In fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements caudal to the meningomyelocele (MMC) are transiently present, but they disappear shortly after birth. Insight in the underlying mechanism could help to improve treatment strategies. In fetal SBA, the pathogenesis of neuromuscular damage

  3. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Olga A; den Dunnen, Wilfred Fa; Sollie, Krystyne M; Muñoz, Rosa Iris; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; Rodríguez, Esteban M; Sival, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA) is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC) and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denud

  4. EL PÚBLICO OPINA: ESTUDIO ACERCA DE LA EXHIBICIÓN DE RESTOS HUMANOS EN EL MUSEO DE LA PLATA / The visitors opine: study about human remains exhibition in the Museo de La Plata

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    María Marta Reca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La exhibición de restos humanos es un tema controvertido. Cuestiones de índole política, ética y científica unidas a la sensibilidad que acompaña el tratamiento de estos temas genera posiciones encontradas. En este trabajo se evaluaron las opiniones de los visitantes en torno a la exhibición de restos humanos, tomando como referente la exhibición permanente “Ser y Pertenecer: un recorrido por la evolución humana” del Museo de La Plata, inaugurada en el año 2009. Se realizó una encuesta semi-estructurada a 200 individuos en la que se indaga acerca de su perfil sociodemográfico, sus motivaciones y expectativas de la visita, así como sus opiniones acerca de las políticas institucionales de exhibición de restos humanos. Sobre los datos se aplicaron análisis estadísticos (t de Student, Tablas de Contingencia y Prueba de Bondad de Ajuste. Los resultados indicaron que los visitantes mayoritariamente tienen preferencia por la observación de restos humanos, pero paradójicamente acuerdan con la decisión institucional de no exhibir restos de origen americano. Se espera que el estudio contribuya al diseño de una política institucional en materia de exhibiciones que otorgue un lugar significativo a los estudios de público.   Palabras claves: museo; políticas de exhibición; restos humanos; encuesta; comunicación     Abstract The exhibition of human remains is a controversial subject. Political, ethical and scientific aspects, with the sensitivity are together involved in the debate of this subject, producing contentious positions. In this study, we evaluated visitors’ opinions about the exhibition of human remains, considering as reference the permanent exhibition “Being and Belonging: a tour to human evolution”, opened in 2009 at the Museo de La Plata. Two hundred people were surveyed through a semi-structured questionnaire, which focuses on socio-demographic aspects, motivations and expectations for visiting the

  5. Pluripotent stem cells exhibiting similar characteristics can be isolated from human fetal bone marrow,heart,liver,muscle,lung,derma,kidney,and fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Baijun; SONG Yongping; ZHAO Chunhua; SHI Mingxia; LIN Quande

    2007-01-01

    Previously,we reported that a cell population derived from human fetal bone marrow fBM),termed here Flk1+CD34-postembryonic pluripotent stem cells(PPSCs)that have the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs),could difierentiate into ectodermal,endodermal and mesodermal celI types at the single cell level in vitro,and that these cells could also difierentiate into the epithelium of liver,lung,gut,as well as the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages after transplantion into irradiated non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient(NOD/SCID) mice.In this study,we further isolated pluripotent stem cells from human fetal heart,liver,muscle,lung,derma,kidney,and fat and then analyzed the characteristics and function of these stem cells.It was found that the phenotype of the culture-expanded pluripotent stem cells from different fetal tissues was similar to BM-derived Flk1+CD34-PPSCs.i.e.Flk1 and CD44 positive,GlyA,CD34,CD45,class I-HLA and HLA-DR negative.Morphologically,these cells were fibroblast-like and the doubling time was about 30 h.More importantly,culture-expanded pluripotent stem cells from all these fetal tissues were able to differentiate into cells with morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of adipocytes,osteocytes,neurons,gilal cells and hepatocytes.These pluripotent stem cells with characteristics similar to fetal BM-derived Flk1+CD34-PPSCs can be selected and cultured from tissues other than the BM.This phenomenon may help explain the"stem cell plasticity"found in multiple human tissues.In addition,as fetal BM-derived Flk1+CD34-PPSCs,these pluripotent stem cells from different fetal tissues had the capacity for self-renewal and multi-lineage difierentiation even after being expanded for more than 40 population doublings in vitro.Thus,they may be an ideal source of stem cells for treatment of inherited or degenerative diseases.

  6. The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg model of absence epilepsy exhibits alterations in fear conditioning and latent inhibition consistent with psychiatric comorbidities in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Wendie N; Cavanagh, Mary E; Greba, Quentin; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; Howland, John G

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural, neurological, and genetic similarities exist in epilepsies, their psychiatric comorbidities, and various psychiatric illnesses, suggesting common aetiological factors. Rodent models of epilepsy are used to characterize the comorbid symptoms apparent in epilepsy and their neurobiological mechanisms. The present study was designed to assess Pavlovian fear conditioning and latent inhibition in a polygenetic rat model of absence epilepsy, i.e. Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and the non-epileptic control (NEC) strain. Electrophysiological recordings confirmed the presence of spike-wave discharges in young adult GAERS but not NEC rats. A series of behavioural tests designed to assess anxiety-like behaviour (elevated plus maze, open field, acoustic startle response) and cognition (Pavlovian conditioning and latent inhibition) was subsequently conducted on male and female offspring. Results showed that GAERS exhibited significantly higher anxiety-like behaviour, a characteristic reported previously. In addition, using two protocols that differed in shock intensity, we found that both sexes of GAERS displayed exaggerated cued and contextual Pavlovian fear conditioning and impaired fear extinction. Fear reinstatement to the conditioned stimuli following unsignalled footshocks did not differ between the strains. Male GAERS also showed impaired latent inhibition in a paradigm using Pavlovian fear conditioning, suggesting that they may have altered attention, particularly related to previously irrelevant stimuli in the environment. Neither the female GAERS nor NEC rats showed evidence of latent inhibition in our paradigm. Together, the results suggest that GAERS may be a particularly useful model for assessing therapeutics designed to improve the emotional and cognitive disturbances associated with absence epilepsy.

  7. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kaur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2 is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs, but not their normal counterparts (hENs, resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression.

  8. A δ38 deletion variant of human transketolase as a model of transketolase-like protein 1 exhibits no enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    Full Text Available Besides transketolase (TKT, a thiamin-dependent enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, the human genome encodes for two closely related transketolase-like proteins, which share a high sequence identity with TKT. Transketolase-like protein 1 (TKTL1 has been implicated in cancerogenesis as its cellular expression levels were reported to directly correlate with invasion efficiency of cancer cells and patient mortality. It has been proposed that TKTL1 exerts its function by catalyzing an unusual enzymatic reaction, a hypothesis that has been the subject of recent controversy. The most striking difference between TKTL1 and TKT is a deletion of 38 consecutive amino acids in the N-terminal domain of the former, which constitute part of the active site in authentic TKT. Our structural and sequence analysis suggested that TKTL1 might not possess transketolase activity. In order to test this hypothesis in the absence of a recombinant expression system for TKTL1 and resilient data on its biochemical properties, we have engineered and biochemically characterized a "pseudo-TKTL1" Δ38 deletion variant of human TKT (TKTΔ38 as a viable model of TKTL1. Although the isolated protein is properly folded under in vitro conditions, both thermal stability as well as stability of the TKT-specific homodimeric assembly are markedly reduced. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopic analysis further indicates that TKTΔ38 is unable to bind the thiamin cofactor in a specific manner, even at superphysiological concentrations. No transketolase activity of TKTΔ38 can be detected for conversion of physiological sugar substrates thus arguing against an intrinsically encoded enzymatic function of TKTL1 in tumor cell metabolism.

  9. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-10-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression.

  10. Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies.

  11. Valproic Acid-Induced Syringomyelia in Rat Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among antiepileptic drugs, valproic acid (VA is a well known teratogenic agent. Although axial skeletal malformations (vertebral column and limb defects have been described, its main target organ is neuroepithelium of neural tube. Therefore it seems that administration of VA during early pregnancy may affect on neural tube and adjacent tissues. The goal of present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between maternal valproic acid exposure and developmental changes during neural tube and notochord and their interactions.For this reason, on 9th day of gestation, wistar rats were treated with double dose of 600 mg/kg VA given once in the morning and another in the evening (in experimental group. The controls were received the same volume of normal saline by animal feeding. For teratological studies, fetuses were examined on 20th day of gestation and histological study were carried out.Our findings showed that in addition to some well known congenital malformations (such as axial skeletal defects and spina bifida there was an abnormal cavitation in cervical and thoracic segments of spinal cord (syringomyelia which was accompanied with a delay in determination of notochord at these levels. At these area, the syrinx (cyst is lined by compact glial tissue. In this kind of abnormality there is an atrophy of gray and white matter in the neighboring of syrinx in the spinal cord.These data revealed that, there is a strong association between maternal VA administration and risk for severe spinal cord defect such as syringomyelia and the same pathological changes might occur in human .

  12. The fetal/neonatal mouse liver exhibits transcriptional features of the adult pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics through the expression of xenobiotic metabolism enxymes (XME). The fetus and neonate have been hypothesized to exhibit increased sensitivity to xenobiotic toxicity. T...

  13. The fetal/neonatal mouse liver exhibits transcriptional features of the adult pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics through the expression of xenobiotic metabolism enxymes (XME). The fetus and neonate have been hypothesized to exhibit increased sensitivity to xenobiotic toxicity. T...

  14. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  15. Fetus-in-fetu presenting as acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition in which a fetiform calcified mass is often present in the abdomen of its host; a newborn or infant. We present the case of a three-month-old male baby with acute intestinal obstruction and abdominal mass. X-ray abdomen and ultrasonogram revealed a cystic mass with calcification. On laparotomy, a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass causing high intestinal obstruction was identified. Total excision of the mass was done. Diagnosis of fetus-in-fetu was confirmed on histopathology. Postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  16. Antigenic differences among Campylobacter fetus S-layer proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubreuil, J D; Kostrzynska, M; Austin, J W; Trust, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of S-layer proteins extracted from Campylobacter fetus strains by using acid glycine buffer showed that the predominant S-layer proteins of different strains had subunit molecular weights in the range of 90,000 to 140,000. Electron microscopy revealed oblique S-layer lattices with a spacing of approximately 5.6 nm (gamma = 75 degrees) on wild-type strains VC1, VC119, VC202, and VC203. Three variants of C. fetus VC119 producing a predom...

  17. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  18. Teratogenic effects of Gentamicin on skeletal system of rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzban H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat. Gentamicin was administered subcutaneously on days 6-15 gestation at dose of 100 mg/kg. On gestation day 21, all live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations and variations. Increased resorptions and dead fetuses, and reduced fetal body weight were observed at dose of 100 mg/kg. Gentamicin caused severe skeletal anomalies, such as: wavy ribs, incomplete ossification of sternebrae, tail vertebra, metacarpus, metatarsus and calvaria. These results indicate the nature and extent of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of gentamicin in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  19. Apigenin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells and exhibits anti-leukemic activity in vivo via inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhraja, Amit; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Son, Young-Ok; Cheng, Senping; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Hitron, Andrew; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional role of Akt and JNK signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo. Apigenin-induced apoptosis by inactivation of Akt with a concomitant activation of JNK, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 down-regulation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspases. Constitutively active myristolated Akt prevented apigenin-induced JNK, caspases activation, and apoptosis. Conversely, LY294002 and a dominant negative construct of Akt potentiated apigenin-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. Interruption of JNK pathway showed marked reduction in apigenin-induced caspases activation and apoptosis in leukemia cells. Furthermore, in vivo administration of apigenin resulted in attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts accompanied inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK. Attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts by apigenin raises the possibility that apigenin may have clinical implications and can be further tested for incorporating in leukemia treatment regimens. PMID:22084167

  20. Caryophyllene oxide exhibits anti-cancer effects in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells via the inhibition of cell migration, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis

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    Zheng Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor and apoptotic effects of caryophyllene oxide in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. Cell viability of these cells was evaluated by MTT assay while as in vitro wound healing assay was used to study the effect of caryophyllene oxide on cell migration. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the changes in cell morphology once the cells undergo apoptosis. Caryophyllene oxide significantly led to cytotoxicity in MG-63 cells showing dose-dependent as well as time-dependent effects. Caryophyllene oxide led to an inhibition of wound closure significantly. At caryophyllene oxide doses of 20, 80 and 120 µM, the percentage of cell migration was shown to be 94.2, 67.1 and 14.8% respectively. With an increase in the caryophyllene oxide dose, the extent of apoptosis also increased characterized by cellular shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation.

  1. Human cancer cells with stem cell-like phenotype exhibit enhanced sensitivity to the cytotoxicity of IL-2 and IL-15 activated natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Wang, Guoping; He, Sisi; Liu, Qin; Sun, Jianhong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-02-01

    Tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. Nature killer (NK) cells are best known for their ability to directly recognize and kill malignant cells. However, the susceptibility of cancer stem cells to NK cells is not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that human CD44+CD24- breast CSCs were shown enhanced sensitivity to IL-2 and IL-15 activated NK cells. CD44+CD24- CSCs expressed higher levels of NKG2D ligands ULBP1, ULBP2 and MICA. Blockade assay showed that the sensitivity of CSCs to NK cells-mediated lysis was mainly dependent on NKG2D. Furthermore, redox oxygen species (ROS)-low tumor cells were more sensitive to NK cells. The presence of antioxidant enzymes inhibitor L-S,R-buthionine sulfoximine or H2O2 retarded the cytotoxicity of NK cells to CD44+CD24- CSCs. In addition, NK cells could readily target CD133+ colonal CSCs. Our findings provide novel targets for NK cells-based immunotherapy and are of great importance for translational medicine.

  2. 15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I from the Functional Food Salvia miltiorrhiza Exhibits Anticancer Activity in Human HL-60 Leukemia Cells: in Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jen; Wu, Hsueh-Hsia; Chen, Tzu-Ho; Leung, Wan; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2015-08-17

    15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS) is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge which is a functional food in Asia. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of DHTS on the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) type III HL-60 cell line. We found that treatment with 1.5 μg/mL DHTS increased proapoptotic Bax and Bad protein expressions and activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, thus leading to poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and resulting in cell apoptosis. DHTS induced sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Fas ligand (FasL) expression. The anti-Fas blocking antibody reversed the DHTS-induced cell death, and the JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, inhibited DHTS-induced caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARP cleavage. In a xenograft nude mice model, 25 mg/kg DHTS showed a great effect in attenuating HL-60 tumor growth. Taken together, these results suggest that DHTS can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibit HL-60 cell growth in vivo; the underlying mechanisms might be mediated through activation of the JNK and FasL signal pathways.

  3. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Impair Natural Killer Cell Function and Exhibit Low Susceptibility to Natural Killer-Mediated Lysis

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    DelaRosa, Olga; Sánchez-Correa, Beatriz; Morgado, Sara; Ramírez, Cristina; del Río, Borja; Menta, Ramón; Lombardo, Eleuterio

    2012-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been successfully used in treating numerous diseases. However, several aspects need to be considered, particularly in the context of allogeneic cell therapy. To better understand hASCs-host interactions, we studied the phenotype of hASCs and their modulatory effect on natural killer (NK) cells by using bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) as a reference. The hASCs displayed a lower susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis and a lower expression of ligands for DNAM-1 when compared with hBM-MSCs. Moreover, here we demonstrated that hASCs and hBM-MSCs can modulate NK cells through the action of soluble factors such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Altogether, these results suggest that for an adoptive cell therapy based on the transfer of allogeneic hASCs, the NK-hASCs crosstalk will not result in an immediate recognition of the transferred cells. Thus, hASCs may remain in the tissue long enough to balance the immune response before being cleared. PMID:21867426

  4. Unique case of oligoastrocytoma with recurrence and grade progression: Exhibiting differential expression of high mobility group-A1 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase.

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    Gandhi, Puneet; Khare, Richa; Niraj, Kavita; Garg, Nitin; Sorte, Sandeep K; Gulwani, Hanni

    2016-09-16

    Mixed gliomas, primarily oligoastrocytomas, account for about 5%-10% of all gliomas. Distinguishing oligoastrocytoma based on histological features alone has limitations in predicting the exact biological behavior, necessitating ancillary markers for greater specificity. In this case report, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and high mobility group-A1 (HMGA1); markers of proliferation and stemness, have been quantitatively analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a 34 years old patient with oligoastrocytoma. Customized florescence-based immunohistochemistry protocol with enhanced sensitivity and specificity is used in the study. The patient presented with a history of generalized seizures and his magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed infiltrative ill-defined mass lesion with calcified foci within the left frontal white matter, suggestive of glioma. He was surgically treated at our center for four consecutive clinical events. Histopathologically, the tumor was identified as oligoastrocytoma-grade II followed by two recurrence events and final progression to grade III. Overall survival of the patient without adjuvant therapy was more than 9 years. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, p53, Ki-67, nuclear atypia index, pre-operative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, are the other parameters assessed. Findings suggest that hTERT and HMGA1 are linked to tumor recurrence and progression. Established markers can assist in defining precise histopathological grade in conjuction with conventional markers in clinical setup.

  5. Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells Exhibited Enhanced Migration Capacity towards Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Comparison with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Role for Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor

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    Juan Bayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Unfortunately, the incidence and mortality associated with HCC are increasing. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed and the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs as carrier of therapeutic genes is emerging as a promising option. Different sources of MSCs are being studied for cell therapy and bone marrow-derived cells are the most extensively explored; however, birth associated-tissues represent a very promising source. The aim of this work was to compare the in vitro and in vivo migration capacity between bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs towards HCC. We observed that HUCPVCs presented higher in vitro and in vivo migration towards factors released by HCC. The expression of autocrine motility factor (AMF receptor, genes related with the availability of the receptor on the cell surface (caveolin-1 and -2 and metalloproteinase 3, induced by the receptor activation and important for cell migration, was increased in HUCPVCs. The chemotactic response towards recombinant AMF was increased in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSCs, and its inhibition in the conditioned medium from HCC induced higher decrease in HUCPVC migration than in BM-MSC. Our results indicate that HUCPVCs could be a useful cellular source to deliver therapeutic genes to HCC.

  6. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased.

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    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased superoxide/mitochondrial mass and hydrogen peroxide/mitochondrial mass ratios. Moreover, the increased ROS production correlates with the corresponding mitochondrial ATP production. Thus, myotubes differentiated from human myoblasts undergoing senescence have a reduced mitochondrial content, but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging.

  7. Actin Family Proteins in the Human INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex Exhibit Functional Roles in the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 with Hemin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Hirokazu; Akiyama, Yusuke; Katoh, Yasutake; Oma, Yukako; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Shibahara, Kei-ichi; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear actin family proteins, comprising of actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), are essential functional components of the multiple chromatin remodeling complexes. The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is evolutionarily conserved and has roles in transcription, DNA replication and repair, consists of actin and actin-related proteins Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8. We generated Arp5 knockout (KO) and Arp8 KO cells from the human Nalm-6 pre-B cell line and used these KO cells to examine the roles of Arp5 and Arp8 in the transcriptional regulation mediated by the INO80 complex. In both of Arp5 KO and Arp8 KO cells, the oxidative stress-induced expression of HMOX1 gene, encoding for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was significantly impaired. Consistent with these observations, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that oxidative stress caused an increase in the binding of the INO80 complex to the regulatory sites of HMOX1 in wild-type cells. The binding of INO80 complex to chromatin was reduced in Arp8 KO cells compared to that in the wild-type cells. On the other hand, the binding of INO80 complex to chromatin in Arp5 KO cells was similar to that in the wild-type cells even under the oxidative stress condition. However, both remodeling of chromatin at the HMOX1 regulatory sites and binding of a transcriptional activator to these sites were impaired in Arp5 KO cells, indicating that Arp5 is required for the activation of the INO80 complex. Collectively, these results suggested that these nuclear Arps play indispensable roles in the function of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex. PMID:28270832

  8. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  9. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Rong Hu

    Full Text Available 6-Shogaol is an active compound isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. In this work, we demonstrated that 6-shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in relation to caspase activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling. Proteomic analysis revealed that ER stress was accompanied by 6-shogaol-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. 6-shogaol affected the ER stress signaling by regulating unfolded protein response (UPR sensor PERK and its downstream target eIF2α. However, the effect on the other two UPR sensors IRE1 and ATF6 was not obvious. In prolonged ER stress, 6-shogaol inhibited the phosphorylation of eIF2α and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. Salubrinal, an activator of the PERK/eIF2α pathway, strikingly enhanced the phosphorylation of eIF2α in SMMC-7721 cells with no toxicity. However, combined treatment with 6-shogaol and salubrinal resulted in significantly increase of apoptosis and dephosphorylation of eIF2α. Overexpression of eIF2α prevented 6-shogaol-mediated apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, whereas inhibition of eIF2α by small interfering RNA markedly enhanced 6-shogaol-mediated cell death. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of tumor growth of mouse SMMC-7721 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, and inactivation of eIF2α. Altogether our results indicate that the PERK/eIF2α pathway plays an important role in 6-shogaol-mediated ER stress and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in vivo.

  10. A Novel Small Molecule, LLL12, Inhibits STAT3 Phosphorylation and Activities and Exhibits Potent Growth-Suppressive Activity in Human Cancer Cells

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    Li Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is frequently detected in cancer, promoting its emergence as a promising target for cancer treatment. Inhibiting constitutive STAT3 signaling represents a potential therapeutic approach. We used structure-based design to develop a nonpeptide, cell-permeable, small molecule, termed as LLL12, which targets STAT3. LLL12 was found to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation (tyrosine 705 and induce apoptosis as indicated by the increases of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in various breast, pancreatic, and glioblastoma cancer cell lines expressing elevated levels of STAT3 phosphorylation. LLL12 could also inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation induced by interleukin-6 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. The inhibition of STAT3 by LLL12 was confirmed by the inhibition of STAT3 DNA binding activity and STAT3-dependent transcriptional luciferase activity. Downstream targets of STAT3, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and survivin were also downregulated by LLL12 at both protein and messenger RNA levels. LLL12 is a potent inhibitor of cell viability, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations values ranging between 0.16 and 3.09 µM, which are lower than the reported JAK2 inhibitor WP1066 and STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 in six cancer cell lines expressing elevated levels of STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, LLL12 inhibits colony formation and cell migration and works synergistically with doxorubicin and gemcitabine. Furthermore, LLL12 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on breast and glioblastoma tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Our results indicate that LLL12 may be a potential therapeutic agent for human cancer cells expressing constitutive STAT3 signaling.

  11. Combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin exhibits synergistic growth inhibitory activity via apoptosis induction in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231

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    Azimahtol Hawariah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50 was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study. Results Isobole analysis revealed that substances interaction was synergistic when xanthorrhizol and curcumin were added concurrently to the cultures but merely additive when they were added sequentially. The synergistic combination treatment was then applied to the cultures to investigate the mode of cell death induced by the treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture™ revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which is one of the hallmark of apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to the treatment. Apoptotic cell death was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay, where internucleosomal excision of DNA was induced upon treatment with xanthorrhizol-curcumin. Conclusion This is the first time the combined cytotoxic effect of xanthorrhizol and curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells has been documented and our findings provide experimental support to the hypothesis that combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin showed synergistic growth inhibitory activity on

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Cardiac Function in Fetuses of Women with Maternal Gestational Thyroid Dysfunction Using VVI Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meixin; Yu, Jing; Fu, Xiuxiu; Wan, Wei

    2015-10-02

    The study aimed to investigate the clinical value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) in assessing heart function in fetuses of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction. The inter-observer and intra-observer variability was assessed for all VVI parameters observed. The participants were enrolled from singleton pregnant women with gestational ages ranging 24+0 to 40+1 weeks who visited the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, China, for prenatal care from July 2011 to February 2014. Digital 2-dimensional (2D) dynamic 4-chamber images of the heart were collected. A total of qualified 226 images from 125 fetuses of pregnant women with normal thyroid (control group), 64 fetuses of pregnant women with hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism group), and 37 fetuses of pregnant women with hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism group) were interrogated offline using VVI software. The echocardiographic parameters including the myocardium peak systolic velocity (Vs), peak diastolic velocity (Vd), peak systolic strain (S), peak systolic strain rate (SRs), peak diastolic strain rate (SRd) of RV and LV, were obtained from the velocity curves of 2D myocardial motion. The heart rate was measured using a virtual M-mode algorithm built into the software. The study found that the longitudinal Vs and Vd of both ventricles in the control group gradually decreased from basal segments to apical segments and significantly increased over the gestation. S, SRs, and SRd of both ventricles remained stable after middle gestation. Compared with the control group, the hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism groups exhibited significantly reduced S, SRs, and SRd, even for fetuses at 24-weeks gestation. There were no significant differences in global Vs and global Vd between the control group and the hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism groups. The thyroid dysfunction of pregnant women may damage fetal heart function, and VVI could be a sensitive technique to measure the

  13. The gene locus encoding iodothyronine deiodinase type 3 (Dio3) is imprinted in the fetus and expresses antisense transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo; Fiering, Steven; Martinez, Elena; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald

    2002-11-01

    The mouse Dio3 gene codes for the type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3), a conserved selenocysteine-containing enzyme that inactivates thyroid hormones and is highly expressed during early development. The mouse Dio3 gene and its human homolog map to chromosomal regions that are known to contain imprinted genes. We assessed the allelic expression of the Dio3 using a mouse model in which the gene had been inactivated by the introduction of a critical mutation in the selenocysteine codon. We compared Dio3 gene expression in fetuses that were either wild type or heterozygous (+/-Dio3) for the mutation. D3 enzymatic activities in the head, limbs, liver and body of heterozygous fetuses (E14 to E18) that inherited the mutation from the mother were no different from those found in their wild type littermates. However, D3 activities in heterozygous animals that inherited the mutation from the father were only 18 to 28% of the activities of their wild type littermates in these same tissues. No detectable activity was found in fetuses homozygous for the mutation indicating full inactivation of the enzyme. Northern analysis of mRNA from E15 fetuses showed that the Dio3 mRNA transcripts generated from the paternal allele were at least 5 times more abundant than the transcripts originated from the maternal allele. We conclude that the Dio3 gene is subject to genomic imprinting and preferentially expressed from the paternal allele in the mouse fetus. We also identified a gene that is transcribed antisense from the Dio3 locus. The Dio3 gene likely belongs to the same cluster of imprinted genes detected in mouse chromosome 12 and human chromosome 14 and should be considered as a candidate gene that might play a role in the phenotypic abnormalities associated with uniparental disomy of those chromosomes, a condition in which gene expression is altered due to abnormal genomic imprinting.

  14. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

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    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  15. INTRACRANIAL TERATOMA WITH MULTIPLE FETUSES - PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL APPEARANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, LN; VERMEIJKEERS, C; SMIT, DA; COHENOVERBEEK, TE; GERSSENSCHOORL, KBJ; DIJKHUIZEN, T

    1995-01-01

    An intracranial teratoma in which six distinct dysmorphic fetuses were included was studied at autopsy. Karyotopic studies showed a normal chromosomal number in the child and the same karyotype in the three tumoral parts that were examined. This is the second tumor of this type reported. Copyripht (

  16. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

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    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  17. Near-Term Fetuses Process Temporal Features of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Ribeiro, Aurelie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Bassereau, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The perception of speech and music requires processing of variations in spectra and amplitude over different time intervals. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, but whether they can process complex auditory streams, such as speech sequences and more specifically their temporal variations, fast or…

  18. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

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    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  19. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  20. Mutations of connexin43 in fetuses with congenital heart malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ping; XIE Li-jian; HUANG Guo-ying; ZHAO Xiao-qing; CHANG Cai

    2005-01-01

    Background Gap junction channels formed by connexin43 (Cx43) protein are important in cardiac morphogenesis, and Cx43 gene is thought to be associated with congenital heart malformation (CHM). This study was undertaken to detect the mutations of Cx43 in fetuses with CHM.Methods Cx43 extron DNA was amplified by PCR from 16 fetuses with a variety of CHM. The PCR products were analyzed by SSCP and DNA sequencing. Thirty children who had no CHM were selected as controls. Results Eight homozygous mutations of Cx43 were observed in a fetus with double outlet right ventricule (DORV), five of the 8 mutations were missense mutations including Arg239Trp, Ser251Thr, Ala253Pro, Pro283Leu and Thr290Asn, and the remaining 3 were silent polymorphisms including Gly252Gly, Pro256Pro and Thr275Thr. No mutations were found in other fetuses and the control group.Conclusions Mutations of Cx43 may be associated with congenital conotruncal anomalies. PCR-SSCP is an effective method for screening the mutations of Cx43.

  1. Senescence-Associated Molecular and Epigenetic Alterations in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultures from Amniotic Fluid of Normal and Fetus-Affected Pregnancy

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    Jūratė Savickienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs are interesting for their multilineage differentiation potential and wide range of therapeutic applications due to the ease of culture expansion. However, MSCs undergo replicative senescence. So far, the molecular mechanisms that underlie fetal diseases and cell senescence are still poorly understood. Here, we analyzed senescence-associated morphologic, molecular, and epigenetic characteristics during propagation of MSCs derived from AF of normal and fetus-affected pregnancy. AF-MSCs cultures from both cell sources displayed quite similar morphology and expression of specific cell surface (CD44, CD90, and CD105 and stemness (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1 markers but had interindividual variability in proliferation capability and time to reach senescence. Within passages 4 and 8, senescent cultures exhibited typical morphological features, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, increased levels of p16, and decreased levels of miR-17 and miR-21 but showed differential expression of p21, p53, and ATM dependently on the onset of cell senescence. These differences correlated with changes in the level of chromatin modifiers (DNMT1 and HDAC1 and polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, and BMI1 paralleling with changes in the expression of repressive histone marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 and stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1. Therefore epigenetic factors are important for AF-MSCs senescence process that may be related with individuality of donor or a fetus malignancy status.

  2. Senescence-Associated Molecular and Epigenetic Alterations in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultures from Amniotic Fluid of Normal and Fetus-Affected Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickienė, Jūratė; Baronaitė, Sandra; Zentelytė, Aistė; Treigytė, Gražina

    2016-01-01

    Human amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) are interesting for their multilineage differentiation potential and wide range of therapeutic applications due to the ease of culture expansion. However, MSCs undergo replicative senescence. So far, the molecular mechanisms that underlie fetal diseases and cell senescence are still poorly understood. Here, we analyzed senescence-associated morphologic, molecular, and epigenetic characteristics during propagation of MSCs derived from AF of normal and fetus-affected pregnancy. AF-MSCs cultures from both cell sources displayed quite similar morphology and expression of specific cell surface (CD44, CD90, and CD105) and stemness (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1) markers but had interindividual variability in proliferation capability and time to reach senescence. Within passages 4 and 8, senescent cultures exhibited typical morphological features, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, increased levels of p16, and decreased levels of miR-17 and miR-21 but showed differential expression of p21, p53, and ATM dependently on the onset of cell senescence. These differences correlated with changes in the level of chromatin modifiers (DNMT1 and HDAC1) and polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, and BMI1) paralleling with changes in the expression of repressive histone marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) and stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1). Therefore epigenetic factors are important for AF-MSCs senescence process that may be related with individuality of donor or a fetus malignancy status. PMID:27803714

  3. 2007Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 6th China (Guangzhou) International Seasoning Exhibition Date: May 11-13 Founded in: 2003.05 Venues: Guangzhou Int'l Convention &Exhibition Center (Pazhou) Exhibits: Seasonings, food additives, relevant material,equipment, service and publications

  4. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  5. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jakab, András; Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable mor...

  6. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Andras eJakab; Ernst eSchwartz; Gregor eKasprian; Gerlinde Maria Gruber; Daniela ePrayer; Veronika eSchöpf; Georg eLangs

    2014-01-01

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphologi...

  7. Trombosis venosa profunda asociada a bacteriemia por campylobacter fetus Deep vein thrombosis related to Campylobacter fetus bacteriemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Membrillo de Novales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente que ingresa por un cuadro de desorientación, fiebre y deposiciones diarreicas. La exploración y pruebas complementarias mostraron una trombosis venosa profunda en la pierna izquierda, junto con hemocultivos positivos a C. fetus. Está descrita la asociación de C. fetus a fenómenos tromboembólicos, pero no hemos encontrado en nuestra revisión biliográfica casos en la literatura donde se confirme dicha asociación con el aislamiento del microorganismo en hemocultivos, salvo una trombosis séptica de vena ovárica.We present a patient who was admitted with symptoms of disorientation, fever, and diarrheal stools. Examination and laboratory tests showed a deep vein thrombosis in the left leg, and isolation of C. fetus in blood cultures taken during a fever peak. The association of C. fetus with thromboembolic events has been reported, but we haven't found any cases in our biliograpich search describing this association confirmed by the isolation of the organism in blood cultures, except for a ovaric vein thrombosis.

  8. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefit to the pregnant woman, the prospect of a direct benefit both to the pregnant woman and the fetus... the fetus then the consent of the pregnant woman and the father is obtained in accord with...

  9. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy and age estimation of an early blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Rachel A; Lickorish, David; Buchholtz, Emily A

    2013-04-01

    The external anatomy of a 130-mm blue whale fetus (Balaenoptera musculus) is described, and its internal anatomy is reconstructed noninvasively from microCT scans. The specimen lies developmentally at the junction of the embryonic and fetal periods. Similarly to the embryos of many odontocetes, it lacks a caudal fluke and dorsal fin, but it also exhibits an elongated rostrum, resorbed umbilical hernia, partially exposed cornea, and spatial separation of the anus and genitalia seen in early odontocete fetuses. Dermal ossification of the cranial bones has begun, but the endochondral skeleton is completely cartilaginous. The shape and position of the maxilla suggest that the earliest stages of anterior skull telescoping have begun, but there is no indication of occipital overlap posteriorly. The nasopharynx, larynx, and heart already display the distinctive morphology characteristic of Balaenoptera. This study develops a model of body length changes during blue whale development by integrating the large International Whaling Statistics (IWS) database, historical observations of blue whale migration and reproduction, and descriptions of fetal growth trends in other mammals. The model predicts an age of 65 days postconception for the specimen. The early developmental milestones of Balaenoptera mirror those of the odontocete Stenella to a remarkable extent, but the first appearance of the caudal fluke and dorsal fin are delayed relative to other morphological transitions. The accelerated prenatal growth characteristic of Balaenoptera occurs during fetal, not embryonic, development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  12. [Angioarchitectonics of the costovertebral joints of embryos, fetuses, and newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavata, B V

    1981-09-01

    Blood supply of the costo-vertebral joints has been studied in human embryos (18), fetuses of various age (83) and newborns (4). Methods of preparation, circulatory bed injection with various contrasting masses--for roentgenography and Indian ink with gelatin suspension--for microscopic investigations have been applied. Histological sections (both sagittal and horizontal) have been stained after van Gieson. At the end of the 8th week of development the main sources of blood supply for the human costo-vertebral joints are branches of the segmental arteries, and at the end of the 12th week--those of the subclavian artery (the highest intercostal artery and the deep cervical artery) and those of the thoracic aorta (10 pairs of the posterior intercostal arteries). In the fetuses, variations in the course of the intercostal arteries have been revealed. The arteries situating within the costo-vertebral joints form extra organic branches which participate in blood supply of ligaments, articular capsules and cartilagenous epiphyses. Peculiar features in the angioarchitectonics of structural components of the costo-vertebral joints have been demonstrated. Interrelations of the blood vessels with some tissues of the costal head joint and the costo-transversal joints have been stated. The course and direction of capillaries in the cartilagenous tissue of the head, cervix and costal tubercle, and also in the transversal processes of the thoracic vertebrae have been described. No blood vessels have been revealed in the cartilage of the costo-vertebral joints.

  13. Myocardial tissue Doppler velocities in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himesh V Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI is a sensitive index of myocardial function. Its role in the fetus has not been extensively evaluated. Objective: To compare myocardial tissue Doppler velocities in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS to those of normal fetuses (matched for gestational age. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at 2 large perinatal centers (2003-2007. Fetuses with HLHS ( n = 13 were compared with normal fetuses ( n = 207 in 5 gestational age groups. TDI data included peak systolic (s′, peak early (e′, and late diastolic velocities (a′. Linear regression was used to compare TDI parameters in fetuses with HLHS to normal fetuses matched for gestational age. Results: Fetuses with HLHS had significantly reduced lateral tricuspid annular e′ as compared to normal fetuses. Both normal fetuses and those with HLHS had linear increase in TDI velocities with advancing gestational age. Conclusions: TDI velocities are abnormal in fetuses with HLHS. TDI can be useful in serial follow-up of cardiac function in fetuses with HLHS.

  14. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  15. Disrupted developmental organization of the structural connectome in fetuses with corpus callosum agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, András; Kasprian, Gregor; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde Maria; Mitter, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a model disease for disrupted connectivity of the human brain, in which the pathological formation of interhemispheric fibers results in subtle to severe cognitive deficits. Postnatal studies suggest that the characteristic abnormal pathways in this pathology are compensatory structures that emerge via neural plasticity. We challenge this hypothesis and assume a globally different network organization of the structural interconnections already in the fetal acallosal brain. Twenty fetuses with isolated corpus callosum agenesis with or without associated malformations were enrolled and fiber connectivity among 90 brain regions was assessed using in utero diffusion tensor imaging and streamline tractography. Macroscopic scale connectomes were compared to 20 gestational age-matched normally developing fetuses with multiple granularity of network analysis. Gradually increasing connectivity strength and tract diffusion anisotropy during gestation were dominant in antero-posteriorly running paramedian and antero-laterally running aberrant pathways, and in short-range connections in the temporoparietal regions. In fetuses with associated abnormalities, more diffuse reduction of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity was observed than in cases with isolated callosal agenesis. The global organization of anatomical networks consisted of less segregated nodes in acallosal brains, and hubs of dense connectivity, such as the thalamus and cingulate cortex, showed reduced network centrality. Acallosal fetal brains show a globally altered connectivity network structure compared to normals. Besides the previously described Probst and sigmoid bundles, we revealed a prenatally differently organized macroconnectome, dominated by increased connectivity. These findings provide evidence that abnormal pathways are already present during at early stages of fetal brain development in the majority of cerebral white matter.

  16. Morphometric analysis of the hip joint in fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Dariusz; Popko, Janusz

    2003-12-30

    Background. Information's about prenatal development of hip joint are necessary for full understanding of it's neonatal abnormalities. Material and methods. Our research was carried out during autopsies on 43 cadavers of 20-40 week old fetuses and 7 cadavers of newborns which died before twelfth week. Observation of development of hip in the second half of the prenatal growth and the neonatal period was based on morphometric analysis. Results and Conclusions. In the hips of 20 to 40 weeks old fetuses, 3 cases of dysplasia were found. Morphometric analysis of hips in this age group, showed very complex developmental processes. The most important of them seems to be the decreasing overlay of acetabulum over femoral head in the last few weeks before the birth. This physiological process is an result of the relative decrease in acetabulum depth and simultaneous faster increase of femoral head diameter in two last weeks of prenatal development.

  17. Misdiagnosis of fetus-in-fetu as meconium peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joo Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu (FIF is a rare congenital condition in which a fetiform mass is detected in the host abdomen and also in other sites such as the intracranium, thorax, head, and neck. This condition has been rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a fetus presenting with abdominal cystic mass and ascites and prenatally diagnosed as meconium pseudocyst. Explorative laparotomy revealed an irregular fetiform mass in the retroperitoneum within a fluid-filled cyst. The mass contained intestinal tract, liver, pancreas, and finger. Fetal abdominal cystic mass has been identified in a broad spectrum of diseases. However, as in our case, FIF is often overlooked during differential diagnosis. FIF should also be differentiated from other conditions associated with fetal abdominal masses.

  18. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  19. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Majhi, A. K.; Saha, K.; M. Karmakar; Sinha Karmakar, K.; Sen, A; Das, S

    2007-01-01

    Fetus in Fetu (FIF) is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass...

  20. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P cell donors and gestation duration in the cloned group. Even though the basal rectal temperature in the prepartum period was not different between control and cloned groups (36.9 ± 0.1 °C and 37.2 ± 0.1 °C, respectively), serum progesterone concentration on delivery day was significantly higher in the cloned group (2.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml) compared with the control group (0.5 ± 0.1 ng/ml; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods.

  1. [Influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M Q; Wang, Z J; Hou, K Z

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus in pregnant women. A total of 4 286 pregnant women, who received prenatal examination in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2015, were selected as study subjects. The incidence of hypothyroidism and the influence on pregnancy outcomes and fetus were investigated. In 4 286 pregnant women surveyed, 209 hypothyroidism cases were detected(4.9%), including 85 clinical hypothyroidism cases and 124 subclinical hypothyroidism cases. In health group, the premature delivery rate was 1.0%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(6.5%), the differences were significant(χ(2)= 38.884, Phypothyroidism group(18.8%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.7%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=30.949, Phypothyroidism group(14.1%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(4.8%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=50.593, Phypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(5.6%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=19.257, Phypothyroidism group(9.25 ± 0.45)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.28 ± 0.44), the differences were significant(t=8.823, PHypothyroidism during pregnancy has adverse influences on pregnancy outcome and fetus, and it is necessary to strengthen the hypothyroidism detection in pregnant women for the early treatment.

  2. Prenatal smokeless tobacco effects on the rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R B; Shanfeld, J; Mullet, D; Cole, J; Paulson, J O

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the development and bone ossification of the Sprague Dawley rat fetus at known nicotine blood levels. Dams were intubated with the ST extract three times daily on gestational days (GD) 6-18 with one of the following: ST equivalent to either 1.33 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-1), 6 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-2), or equal amounts of distilled water (sham-treated controls). Parallel groups of rats were used for nicotine-blood-level determinations. Dams were killed on GD 19, fetuses and placentas were weighed, and resorptions, deaths, and/or malformations were noted. Two thirds of the fetuses were further examined by Wilson's method, and the remaining one third was stained and cleared for skeletal examinations. Mean plasma nicotine levels, determined in a parallel group of nonpregnant/pregnant rats, were 220.4/283.3 ng/ml in the STD-1 group and 869.1/846.3 ng/ml in the STD-2 group. At these ST dosages, weight gain of dams was reduced in comparison with sham-treated controls (P effects of ST at the low dose are minimal, whereas the high ST dose resulted in significant growth retardation and decreased ossification levels (P < .05).

  3. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases.

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma M. Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1 and IgG (14 classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du S...

  19. Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA肝靶向性纳米基因载体对人胎肝细胞系L-02细胞的转染效率检测%Transfection efficiency of galactosylated poly (ethylene glycol) -graft-polyethylenimine as hepatocyte-tar geting psiRNA carrier in human fetus liver cells L-02 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂常富; 张彤; 陈规划; 韩风; 邱大鹏; 王云检; 庞春

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测半乳糖-聚乙二醇-聚乙烯亚胺/小干扰RNA质粒(Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA)肝靶向性纳米基因载体对人胎肝细胞系L-02细胞的转染效率.方法:合成Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA纳米复合物,采用纳米粒径仪测定复合物的粒径和zeta电位,用不同Gal-PEG-PEI氨基与siRNA磷酸基比例(N/P)的Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA纳米复合物转染L-02细胞,以Lipofectamine 2000、非靶向性载体PEG-PEI/psiRNA和裸siRNA转染为对照组,48 h后用流式细胞仪测定转染效率.转染前加入1 mg半乳糖观察其半乳糖竞争拮抗结果.结果:Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA纳米复合物的粒径随N/P增大而减小,N/P≥1/15时达最小粒径,约为80 nm.Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA纳米基因载体的转染率为(20.4±0.9)%,明显高于非肝靶向性载体PEG-PEI/psiRNA(P<0.01)及裸psiRNA (P <0.01),但低于Lipofectamine 2000(P<0.05);加入竞争性拮抗剂半乳糖后GaI-PEG-PEI/psiRNA纳米基因载体的转染率下降至(4.8±2.1)%,PEG-PEI/psiRNA介导的转染率则不受影响.结论:Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA纳米基因载体可明显提高人胎肝细胞系L-02细胞的转染效率,且具有良好的肝细胞靶向性.%Objective; To evaluate the transfection efficiency of galactosylated poly (ethylene glycol) -graft-polyethylenimine (Gal-PEG-PEI) as a nonviral gene carrier of hepatocyte-targeting plasmid siRNA (psiRNA ) in human fetus liver cells L-02 cells. Methods: The characteristics of the Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA nanoparticles were measured by dynamic light scattering. The transfection experiments were performed with the Gal-PEG-PEI/psiRNA using GFP as the reporter gene in L-02 cells and the transfection efficiency was evaluated by flow cytometry after 48 h. The competition assay was carried out to confirm the uptake of Gal-PEG-PEI /psiRNA by ASGP-R in L-02 cells by adding l mg galactose into the transfection media. Results: The results indicated that the particle sizes decreased with increasing charge ratios of Gal-PEG-PEI to psi

  20. Anencephalic fetuses can be an alternative for kidney transplantation: a stereological and histological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycioğlu, Ahmet; Karaca, Mehmet; Can, Ismail; Keleş, Osman Nuri; Uçüncü, Yilmaz; Gündogdu, Cemal; Uyanik, Abdullah; Unal, Bünyami

    2010-04-01

    In the study, stereological, histological, and anatomical techniques were used to investigate structural and morphometrical features of anencephalic and normal fetal kidneys. Twenty human fetal kidneys (5 male and 5 female anencephalic fetuses, and 5 male and 5 female normal fetuses) at gestational ages 30 to 35 weeks were examined. Our study used two basic research methods. One was conventional anatomical measurement at the macroscopic level, such as volume, length, weight, etc. The other consisted of conventional and modern microscopic techniques. The microscopic techniques were based on two research methods: histopathological examination at light microscopic level and stereological estimations, including mean kidney volumes, obtained by the Cavalieri method, and the total number and mean height of the glomeruli via the physical dissector method. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of width, height, weight, and fluid replacement volumes. Microscopic quantitative assessment found no statistical differences either, in terms of the kidney volumes and the number and height of the glomeruli. Our findings suggest that kidneys from anencephalic infants may be a suitable alternative for renal transplantation.

  1. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Maria M; Holle, Lori A; Stember, Katherine G; Devette, Christa I; Monroe, Dougald M; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination.

  2. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Aleman

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination.

  3. Amplified fragment length polymorphism based identification of genetic markers and novel PCR assay for differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Simons, G.; Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Rombout, J.; Wesley, I.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of Campylobacter fetus into C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is important for both clinical and economic reasons. In the past, several molecular typing methods have been used for differentiation, including amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

  4. db/db Mice Exhibit Features of Human Type 2 Diabetes That Are Not Present in Weight-Matched C57BL/6J Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Burke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand features of human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D that can be recapitulated in the mouse, we compared C57BL/6J mice fed a Western-style diet (WD to weight-matched genetically obese leptin receptor-deficient mice (db/db. All mice were monitored for changes in body composition, glycemia, and total body mass. To objectively compare diet-induced and genetic models of obesity, tissue analyses were conducted using mice with similar body mass. We found that adipose tissue inflammation was present in both models of obesity. In addition, distinct alterations in metabolic flexibility were evident between WD-fed mice and db/db mice. Circulating insulin levels are elevated in each model of obesity, while glucagon was increased only in the db/db mice. Although both WD-fed and db/db mice exhibited adaptive increases in islet size, the db/db mice also displayed augmented islet expression of the dedifferentiation marker Aldh1a3 and reduced nuclear presence of the transcription factor Nkx6.1. Based on the collective results put forth herein, we conclude that db/db mice capture key features of human T2D that do not occur in WD-fed C57BL/6J mice of comparable body mass.

  5. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  6. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  7. Fluid area measurements in the posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks in normal fetuses and fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katrin; Heling, Kai Sven; Chaoui, Rabih

    2015-01-01

    To measure the area of the intracranial translucency (IT) (syn: 4th ventricle) and the future cisterna magna (CM) in normal fetuses and to compare with fetuses with open spina bifida. In the midsagittal plane of the face of 220 fetuses between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, the areas of the IT and CM were measured and the sum, defined as the posterior fossa fluid (PFF) area was calculated. Reference ranges were constructed in relation to the crown-rump length. The study group consisted of 21 fetuses with open spina bifida and showed in all cases a single pocket of fluid in the posterior fossa. Fetuses with no fluid in the fossa were excluded. This PFF-area was measured and compared with the reference range of the IT-area and the PFF-area of normal fetuses and Z-scores were calculated. In normal fetuses, a significant increase of the IT-, the CM- and the PFF-area was found as a sign of the expanding posterior fossa. The mean PFF-area increased from 8.55 to 29.72 mm(2) in the observation period. Fetuses with open spina bifida had reduced fluid in the posterior fossa with values ranging between 2.39 and 5.08 mm(2) and significantly lower Z-scores. Fetuses with open spina bifida have an abnormally small posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks' and in cases where the cerebrospinal fluid is still present, the fluid area in the midsagittal plane is reduced when compared to normal fetuses. Area fluid assessment can be an additional useful measurement in suspicious cases for open spina bifida in early gestation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Three-dimensional ultrasonic images of normal fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C J; Yen, C F; Masrani, M R; Lee, C L; Chao, A S; Chang, S D; Soong, Y K

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness and feasibility of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound for routine fetal observation. Eighty-five normal pregnancies with gestational ages of 20-36 weeks were studied. A conventional ultrasound scanner with a specially designed operation unit, frame memory, and 3D probe was the apparatus used in this study. The unit has a circuit board consisting of digital integrated circuit chips designed to make calculations of volume ray tracings for volume rendering in real time. For each fetus, scanning was performed with different levels of opacity in the equation for volume rendering. In areas where there was an inadequate amniotic fluid pocket to perform an adequate examination, the pregnant woman was asked to push the fetus to the opposite side by gently pressing on her abdomen. Face, limbs, and fingers which are difficult to visualize on conventional ultrasonography could be seen clearly. Extremely satisfactory images were obtained at between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation that produced sonographic pictures easily recognized even by laypersons. Beyond 34 weeks of gestation due to the relative decrease in the size of amniotic fluid pockets, and before 24 weeks of gestation due to frequent fetal movement, the soft tissue of fetuses is thin and its acoustic impedance is virtually the same as that of water, so surface-rendered images are less satisfactory. In addition, the anterior wall placenta, multiple pregnancies, and oligohydramnios made viewing even more difficult. Between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, 3D ultrasound is a feasible and useful procedure for routine antenatal examination.

  9. Delayed muscle development in small pig fetuses around birth cannot be rectified by maternal early feed restriction and subsequent overfeeding during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchot, M H; Lefaucheur, L; Louveau, I; Mobuchon, L; Palin, M F; Farmer, C; Gondret, F

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine variations in nutrient allowance can alter body composition and tissue features of the porcine offspring around birth. This study aimed to determine the effects of fetal weight variations between littermates and of maternal dietary regimen during gestation on fetal muscle traits just before birth. Fourteen pregnant gilts were reared under a conventional (control, CTL; n=7) or an experimental (treatment, TRT; n=7) dietary regimen during gestation. The dietary treatment provided 70% of the protein and digestible energy contents of the CTL diet during the first 70 days of gestation and then, 115% of the protein and digestible energy contents up to farrowing. At 110 days of gestation, sows were sacrificed and one fetus having a low (824±140 g) and one having a normal (1218±192 g) BW per litter were sampled. Irrespective of maternal dietary regimen, the longissimus muscle of the small fetuses exhibited higher expression levels of DLK1/Pref1 and NCAM1/CD56, two genes known to be downregulated during normal skeletal muscle development. Expression levels of the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC), both at the mRNA and at the protein levels, were also higher in small fetuses. In addition, the ratios of perinatal to embryonic and of adult fast to developmental MyHC isoforms were generally lower in light fetuses compared with their medium-weight littermates. These modifications suggest a delayed myofiber development in spontaneous growth-retarded fetuses. Finally, GLUT1 was expressed to a lesser extent in the muscle of small v. normal fetuses, suggesting decreased ability for glucose uptake in muscle. Initial feed restriction and subsequent overfeeding of sows during gestation led to a lower expression of the myogenic factor MYOD1, a prerequisite for myogenic initiation in skeletal muscle. This maternal strategy was also associated with a lower expression level of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFR) but an upregulation of IGF2. This

  10. Exhibiting eugenics: response and resistance to a hidden history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave, Ralph; Sylva, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Human Plants, Human Harvest: The Hidden History of California Eugenics is the first-ever exhibition on the history of eugenics in California. The disappearance of this history for half a century, and the consequent absence of a "collective menory", were the primary factors determining the exhibit's sttrcture and content. Responses to the exhibit confirmed that most visitors "never knew" about this history. The exhibit is described in some detail, with selected imagery from the exhibit reproduced. After the initial exhibition, responses of other museums and foundation officials revealed a continuing resistance to this history being publicly displayed, though the sources of resistance varied.

  11. Identification of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations in fetuses with increased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leung, Tak Yeung; Vogel, Ida; Lau, Tze Kin;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) is assessed by ultrasound as a screening tool for aneuploidy at 11-13+6 weeks’ gestation. Fetuses with increased NT but apparently normal karyotyping result are still at higher risk of structural abnormality and a range of genetic syndromes, which may...... found to have increased NT >3.5mm during first trimester screening. These samples were examined by microarray based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using a 44K oligonucleotide array specifically constructed for prenatal screening. Variations in copy number (CNVs) were reported after excluding...

  12. Estrogenicity of food-associated estrogenic compounds in the fetuses of female transgenic mice upon oral and IP maternal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Veld, Marcel G R; Zawadzka, E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated to what extent seven food-associated in vitro estrogenic compounds can induce estrogenic effects in the fetuses of pregnant female mice with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase (luc) reporter gene system. The luc-induction was determined either 8h after maternal dosing with a single intraperitoneal (IP) dose or 24h after the last of a series of 8 daily oral dosages. Three known estrogens, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE) and 17beta-estradiol 3,17-dipropionate (EP) were used as positive controls at 1mg/kgbw and DMSO as solvent control. The food-associated estrogenic compounds tested were: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) both at 50mg/kgbw, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) at 50mg/kgbw, quercetin at 16.6 mg/kgbw, and di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) all at 100mg/kgbw. Exposure to E(2), EE and EP resulted in significant luc inductions upon both oral and/or IP dosing in a variety of tissues including liver, tibia and femurs, and upon IP dosing also in fetuses. BPA, NP, DEHA, DEHP, DIHP, DDE and quercetin were unable to significantly induce luc activity in fetuses. However, after maternal oral exposure during gestation to NP, BPA and DIHP placental luc activity was significantly lowered. The results indicate that at the current levels of exposure to food-associated estrogenic compounds, estrogenic effects to the fetus are not expected. The significant luc reduction in the placenta, should be further studied for its significance for fetal development and relevance for the human situation.

  13. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-07-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. One strain (1.2%) was completely resistant to tobramycin. The tetracyclines (tetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline) were generally effective, but 8% of the strains were totally resistant to them. Minocycline was the most active. Chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and clindamycin had good activity. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal distributions for colistin, nalidixic acid, and metronidazole were broad.

  14. Uterine rupture in twin pregnancy with normal fetus and complete hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luisa; Hernández-Martínez, Florentina; Machado-Linde, Francisco; Ferri, Belén; Carbonel, Pablo; Nieto-Diaz, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rare case of complete hydatidiform mole with twin live fetus (CHMTF) confirmed by histopathology, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction techniques. No malformations were observed, fetal karyotype was normal and β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were high (>100,000 IU/ml). The patient was informed of the risks and decided to continue with the pregnancy, but at week 15, she had to undergo hysterectomy due to uterine rupture. She subsequently developed persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) with pulmonary metastases that required treatment with polychemotherapy. Patients with CHMTF should be informed of all known risks, including the considerable risk of PTD, which is similar to or, even higher than that associated with a singleton complete mole. The risk does not appear to be increased by continuing the pregnancy. Because so few series have been published, there is a lack of evidence-based clinical management guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of uterine rupture in CHMTF.

  15. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  16. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme and macrorestr......Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme...... and macrorestriction profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Procedure The results of identification of 99 bacterial strains as determined by conventional phenotyping or by polymerase chain reaction were compared. Two of these were type strains of C fetus subsp fetus and C fetus subsp venerealis......; the remaining strains were field isolates putatively identified as C fetus. In cases where the subspecies identity was disputed, isolates were identified by means of a probabilistic identification scheme and by macrorestriction profiling. Results The agreement between strain identities initially suggested...

  17. Wild Animal Breeding Exhibition Management Requires Improvement of Measures for Human Safety%野生动物饲养展出管理要求提高人的安全行为能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴其锐

    2011-01-01

    People are occasionally injured by animals in zoos or wild animal farms in China and abroad during the animal breeding process.Personnel in wild animal breeding exhibitions are at great risk of injury.We analyzed incidents in which people were injured by animals at zoos or wild animal farms in China and abroad.We found that people were not only the victims of animal attacks but also the caused many incidents.Cause of incidents such as defective facilities,presence of dangerous animals, and human negligence were all attributed to careless human actions.In this paper,we point out the need of improving safety measures as a priority for wild animal breeding exhibition management.We recommend measures including accident risk prediction,improved capacity for safe management of breeding,and improved capacity for crisis management.%无论在国内还是国外,动物园或野生动物养殖场在生产过程中,动物伤人等事故都时有发生。相比较而言,野生动物饲养展出业是一种面临着较大危险源的职业。本文通过对国内外动物园或野生动物养殖场发生的一些动物伤人事故案例进行分析研究后,发现在许多事故中,人往往既是事故的受害者,同时又是事故的肇事者,无论是因为设施的缺陷,还是因为动物处于危险状态,还是因为人的疏忽,都是由于人的不安全行为激发了事故隐患,导致了事故的发生。本文认为,提高人的安全行为能力,是野生动物饲养与展出安全管理的重要工作。人的安全行为能力,包括对事故发生的预见性行为能力,对安全生产的掌控性行为能力和对危机的应对性行为能力。

  18. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsier, N.; Dahdouh, S.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Bloch, I.; Wiart, J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain.

  19. Maternal enrichment during pregnancy accelerates retinal development of the fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sale

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal environment on fetal development is largely unexplored, the available evidence concerns only the deleterious effects elicited by prenatal stress. Here we investigated the influence of prenatal enrichment on the early development of the visual system in the fetus. We studied the anatomical development of the rat retina, by analyzing the migration of neural progenitors and the process of retinal ganglion cell death, which exerts a key role in sculpturing the developing retinal system at perinatal ages. The number of apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer was analyzed using two distinct methods: the presence of pyknotic nuclei stained for cresyl violet and the appearance of DNA fragmentation (Tunel method. We report that environmental enrichment of the mother during pregnancy affects the structural maturation of the retina, accelerating the migration of neural progenitors and the dynamics of natural cell death. These effects seem to be under the control of insulin-like growth factor-I: its levels, higher in enriched pregnant rats and in their milk, are increased also in their offspring, its neutralization abolishes the action of maternal enrichment on retinal development and chronic insulin-like growth factor-I injection to standard-reared females mimics the effects of enrichment in the fetuses. Thus, the development of the visual system is sensitive to environmental stimulation during prenatal life. These findings could have a bearing in orienting clinical research in the field of prenatal therapy.

  20. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  1. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  2. Gene therapy for the fetus: is there a future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anna L; Peebles, Donald

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy uses the intracellular delivery of genetic material for the treatment of disease. A wide range of diseases - including cancer, vascular and neurodegenerative disorders and inherited genetic diseases - are being considered as targets for this therapy in adults. There are particular reasons why fetal application might prove better than application in the adult for treatment, or even prevention of early-onset genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Research shows that gene transfer to the developing fetus targets rapidly expanding populations of stem cells, which are inaccessible after birth, and indicates that the use of integrating vector systems results in permanent gene transfer. In animal models of congenital disease such as haemophilia, studies show that the functionally immature fetal immune system does not respond to the product of the introduced gene, and therefore immune tolerance can be induced. This means that treatment could be repeated after birth, if that was necessary to continue to correct the disease. For clinicians and parents, fetal gene therapy would give a third choice following prenatal diagnosis of inherited disease, where termination of pregnancy or acceptance of an affected child are currently the only options. Application of this therapy in the fetus must be safe, reliable and cost-effective. Recent developments in the understanding of genetic disease, vector design, and minimally invasive delivery techniques have brought fetal gene therapy closer to clinical practice. However more research needs to be done in before it can be introduced as a therapy.

  3. Chlorella suppresses methylmercury transfer to the fetus in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of chlorella on methylmercury (MeHg) transfer to the fetus during pregnancy, female C57BL/6N mice (aged 10 weeks) were housed for 7 to 8 weeks, from 4 weeks before mating to birth, with diets containing 0% or 10% chlorella powder (CP) and MeHg-containing drinking water (2 µg Hg/ml). The consumption volume of the MeHg-containing water was limited to 15 ml/mouse/week throughout the experiment. Distilled water and a basal diet (0% CP) was given to control mice. Except for the mating period, during the 5(th) week, mice were housed individually until parturition. Two neonates were randomly selected from each mother mouse within 24 hr after parturition for Hg analysis of the blood, brain, liver, and kidneys. Mother mice were sacrificed on the same day as neonates to obtain tissue samples for Hg analysis. The blood and brain Hg levels of both neonates and mothers in the CP diet group were significantly lower than those in the basal diet group. Although the hepatic and renal Hg levels were not significant in mothers between the two dietary groups, in neonates, the CP diet group showed significantly lower Hg levels in these tissues than the basal diet group. The results obtained here revealed that continuous CP intake suppressed MeHg transfer to the fetus, in addition to effective suppressing MeHg accumulation in brains of the mothers.

  4. Regulation of the pulmonary circulation in the fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuansheng; Raj, J Usha

    2010-10-01

    During the development of the pulmonary vasculature in the fetus, many structural and functional changes occur to prepare the lung for the transition to air breathing. The development of the pulmonary circulation is genetically controlled by an array of mitogenic factors in a temporo-spatial order. With advancing gestation, pulmonary vessels acquire increased vasoreactivity. The fetal pulmonary vasculature is exposed to a low oxygen tension environment that promotes high intrinsic myogenic tone and high vasocontractility. At birth, a dramatic reduction in pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance occurs with an increase in oxygen tension and blood flow. The striking hemodynamic differences in the pulmonary circulation of the fetus and newborn are regulated by various factors and vasoactive agents. Among them, nitric oxide, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin I(2) are mainly derived from endothelial cells and exert their effects via cGMP, cAMP, and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Alterations in these signaling pathways may lead to vascular remodeling, high vasocontractility, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in a Male Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Köker m

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in any of four known NADPH-oxidase components lead to CGD. X-linked CGD (X-CGD is caused by defects in CYBB, the gene that encodes gp91-phox. Autosomal recessive (AR CGD is caused by defects in the genes for p47 phox, p22-phox or p67-phox. The aim of this study was to screen the molecular defect in the fetus of an X-CGD carrier mother and postnatal confirmation of the results. In a family whose first-born child died from X-CGD, fetal DNA was obtained from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS. Direct sequencing was used to detect the previously identified CYBB gene mutation. The NADPH oxidase activity in the neutrophils from the carrier mother and from the newborn was analyzed by the DHR assay. Our studies predicted that the fetus in question was not affected by chronic granulomatous disease, which was demonstrated to be correct at birth. For prenatal screening in a pregnant X-CGD carrier, direct sequencing is a good method for detecting the mutation in the fetal DNA. Postnatal confirmation of results with the DHR assay is more practical than mutation screening to show whether the newborn have normal NADPH oxidase activity or does not.

  6. Shift in S-layer protein expression responsible for antigenic variation in Campylobacter fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, E; Garcia, M M; Blake, M. S.; Pei, Z.; Blaser, M J

    1993-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus strains possess regular paracrystalline surface layers (S-layers) composed of high-molecular-weight proteins and can change the size and crystalline structure of the predominant protein expressed. Polyclonal antisera demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity among these proteins but suggest differences in epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies to the 97-kDa S-layer protein of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strain 82-40LP showed three different reactivities. Monoclonal antibody 1D1...

  7. Chromosomal anomalies and additional sonographic findings in fetuses with open neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Lutfiye Eren Ensari; Malatyalioglu, Erdal; Sakinci, Mehmet; Tosun, Migraci; Bildircin, Fatma Devran; Ogur, Gonul; Karayel, Metin

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the results and the necessity of chromosome analysis in fetuses prenatally detected with a neural tube defect and to determine the significance of ultrasonographic evaluation for the identification of underlying or accompanying chromosomal anomalies. Ninety fetuses that underwent prenatal and/or postnatal chromosome analysis after being diagnosed with open neural tube defects (NTD) between the years 2006 and 2010 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Ondokuz Mayis University School of Medicine were included in this study. Detailed fetal ultrasonography was performed in all cases in order to investigate any additional anomalies. Karyotype was determined in the prenatal period by amniocentesis in 72 (80%) of the 90 fetuses, and by cordocentesis in 5 (5.5%). In 13 (13.3%) fetuses, karyotype was determined in the postnatal period by blood sampling. Fourteen (15.5%) of the 90 fetuses were diagnosed with acrania/anencephaly, 14 (15.5%) with encephalocele, 2 (2.2%) with iniencephaly, 60 (66.6%) with open spina bifida. None of the 90 fetuses with open NTD who had undergone chromosome analysis was diagnosed with chromosomal anomalies. None of the 19 (21.1%) fetuses diagnosed with additional ultrasound findings had a chromosomal abnormality, either. Seventy-one (78.9%) fetuses having sonograhically isolated NTD were also isolated in postmortem examination. In fetuses with open NTD, we could not find the chromosomal anomaly rate as high as reported in previous literature. The necessity of fetal karyotyping should be questioned especially in isolated cases.

  8. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

  9. The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, Jimena; Sobrinho, João S; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Asian-American (AA) HPV-16 variants are associated with higher risk of cancer. Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the higher oncogenic potential attributed to AA variant. We evaluated activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) transduced with E6/E7 of three HPV-16 variants: E-P, AA, E-350G. Phenotypes examined included migration, anchorage independent growth and invasion. AA PHKs presented the highest levels of active proteins involved in all cascades analyzed: MAPK-ERK, MAPK-p38 and PI3K-AKT. AA PHKs were more efficient in promoting anchorage independent growth, and in stimulating cell migration and invasion. MEK1 inhibition decreased migration. The mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin was increased in AA PHKs. Our results suggest that MEK1, ERK2, AKT2 hyperactivation influence cellular behavior by means of GSK-3b inactivation and EMT induction prompting AA immortalized PHKs to more efficiently surpass carcinogenesis steps.

  10. 人前脑啡肽基因修饰人胚胎肾细胞的构建%Construction of human embryonic kidney cells exhibiting human preproenkephalin gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白凤; 杨保仲; 薛朝霞; 潘喻飞; 黄平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To construct human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) modified with human preproenkephalin (hPPE) gene.Methods hPPE gene fragments were obtained from recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1( + )/hPPE by using restriction endonuelease Hind Ⅲ and Not Ⅰ.Homologous recombination of lentivirus and hPPE gene was produced by using recombinant DNA technology.HEK293 cells were then transfected with the recombinant lentivirus vectors.The expression of hPPE gene in HEK293 cells was detected by Western blot.Results The results of DNA sequencing indicated that the positive clone of recombinant lentivirus was completely consistent with sequencing of hPPE in Genebank.The titer of the concentrated virus was 2.07 × 108 TU/ml.GFP fluorescence was not seen in HEK293 cells transfected with the lentiviral vector under fluorescence microscope.A strong fluorescence was seen in HEK293 cells transfected with Ubc-GFP-L.V.empty viral vector.Positive expression of hPPE was demonstrated in HEK293 cells transfected with lentiviral vector by Western blot.Conclusion HEK293 cells modified with hPPE gene were successfully constructed and the target gene hPPE was stably expressed in HEK293 cells.%目的 构建人前脑啡肽基因(hPPE)修饰的人胚胎肾细胞(HEK293细胞).方法 重组质粒pcDNA3.1(+)/hPPE经限制性内切酶HindⅢ和Not Ⅰ进行双酶切获得hPPE基因,运用基因重组技术将hPPE基因与表达载体同源重组,转染293T细胞进行慢病毒包装、扩增、纯化,测定病毒滴度,再将重组的慢病毒载体转染HEK293细胞.用Western blot法检测hPPE基因在HEK293细胞中的表达.结果 重组慢病毒载体阳性克隆测序结果和基因库的hPPE基因序列完全一致.含有hPPE基因的慢病毒载体,滴度为2.07×108TU/ml.转染慢病毒载体后的HEK293细胞,在荧光显微镜下未见到GFP荧光.转染Ubc-GFP-L.V.空病毒载体的HEK293细胞,可见到较强的荧光.Western blot法检测到经慢病毒载体转染后的HEK293细胞中h

  11. Auto Technology Exhibition in Tianjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 4th International Automotive Technology Exhibition Tianjing2009,jointly hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China(SAE-China),China Automotive Technology and Research Center(CATRC)and Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area(TETD),is to be held in Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center from August 27 to August 30 this year.In line with China's national 11th Five-year Plan,The Automobile Industry Revitalization and Adjustments Planning and The Equipment Manufacturing Revitalization and Adjustments Planning,this Exhibition,centered on the theme of automobile and equipment manufacturing,arranges the exhibition halls respectively for private autos,commercial autos and equipment manufacturing etc.

  12. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  13. [Obstetrical ultrasound: can the fetus hear the wave and feel the heat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, J S; Kremkau, F W; Merz, E

    2012-06-01

    range. A previous report had hinted at similar phenomena 3.Ultrasound is a pressure wave with a frequency beyond (ultra) that detectable in the human auditory system. The human ear can discern sound at roughly 20 - 20 000 cycles (hertz) per second. The frequencies of diagnostic ultrasound are roughly 1 - 10 megahertz (MHz) or 1 000 000 to 10 000 000 cycles per second. It is a form of energy and, as such, may have effects in tissues it traverses. Any consequences occurring in living tissues secondary to an external influence are called biological effects or bioeffects. This term does not imply damage or harm. The two major mechanisms for bioeffects are thermal and non-thermal. Thermal effects are secondary to ultrasound energy being converted into heat in the tissue (indirect effect of ultrasound) and non-thermal effects are secondary to the alternating positive and negative pressures generated by the wave (direct effect). The definition of moderately loud sound is 60 - 70 dB (2 × 10-3-2 × 10-2 Pa), defined as high urban ambient sound, normal conversation at 1 m, or living room music 4. In comparison, quiet conversation is 40 dB, a railway diesel engine passing at 45 mph at 100 feet is 80 - 85 dB and a rock band is 110 dB 4. There have been a few publications describing harm to fetuses exposed to elevated levels of ambient noise, particularly industrial noise 567, specifically in the aircraft and textile industries, but while there have been reports of impaired hearing in infants who were exposed to ultrasound in the womb, several rigorous studies have disproved that notion 891011. Furthermore, a study of fetuses exposed in utero to vibroacoustic stimulation 12 and a recent study of fetuses exposed to noise generated during an MR exam of the pregnant women 13 showed no ill effect on the auditory system. There have been some reports of being able to hear a "hum" during transcranial ultrasound. This may be the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF), but, if so, it would be

  14. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  15. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  16. Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia P; Buss, Claudia; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever. Maternal/fetal dyads are assessed at ∼20, ∼25, ∼31 and ∼36 weeks of gestation. Infant assessments begin 24 h after delivery with the collection of cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of the heel-stick procedure and measures of neonatal neuromuscular maturity. Infant cognitive, neuromotor development, stress and emotional regulation are evaluated at 3, 6 12 and 24 months of age. Maternal psychosocial stress and demographic information is collected in parallel with infant assessments. Child neurodevelopment is assessed with cognitive tests, measures of adjustment and brain imaging between 5 and 8 years of age. Psychobiological markers of stress during pregnancy, especially early in gestation, result in delayed fetal maturation, disrupted emotional regulation and impaired cognitive performance during infancy and decreased brain volume in areas associated with learning and memory in 6- to 8-year-old children. We review findings from our projects that maternal endocrine alterations that accompany pregnancy and influence fetal/infant/child development are associated with decreased affective responses to stress, altered memory function and increased risk for postpartum depression. Our findings indicate that the mother and her fetus both are influenced by exposure to psychosocial and biological stress. The findings that fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel may have important implications for long-term child development and mother/child interactions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagina, N B; Fell, T P; Tolstykh, E I; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on (90)Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on (90)Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population.

  18. Developmental control of iodothyronine deiodinases by cortisol in the ovine fetus and placenta near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, Alison J; Curtis, Katrina; Kaptein, Ellen; Visser, Theo J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2006-12-01

    Preterm infants have low serum T4 and T3 levels, which may partly explain the immaturity of their tissues. Deiodinase enzymes are important in determining the bioavailability of thyroid hormones: deiodinases D1 and D2 convert T4 to T3, whereas deiodinase D3 inactivates T3 and produces rT3 from T4. In human and ovine fetuses, plasma T3 rises near term in association with the prepartum cortisol surge. This study investigated the developmental effects of cortisol and T3 on tissue deiodinases and plasma thyroid hormones in fetal sheep during late gestation. Plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations in utero were manipulated by exogenous hormone infusion and fetal adrenalectomy. Between 130 and 144 d of gestation (term 145+/-2 d), maturational increments in plasma cortisol and T3, and D1 (hepatic, renal, perirenal adipose tissue) and D3 (cerebral), and decrements in renal and placental D3 activities were abolished by fetal adrenalectomy. Between 125 and 130 d, iv cortisol infusion raised hepatic, renal, and perirenal adipose tissue D1 and reduced renal and placental D3 activities. Infusion with T3 alone increased hepatic D1 and decreased renal D3 activities. Therefore, in the sheep fetus, the prepartum cortisol surge induces tissue-specific changes in deiodinase activity that, by promoting production and suppressing clearance of T3, may be responsible for the rise in plasma T3 concentration near term. Some of the maturational effects of cortisol on deiodinase activity may be mediated by T3.

  19. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues.