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Sample records for human female embryo

  1. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  2. Feminists on the inalienability of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carolyn; Baylis, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    The feminist literature against the commodification of embryos in human embryo research includes an argument to the effect that embryos are "intimately connected" to persons, or morally inalienable from them. We explore why embryos might be inalienable to persons and why feminists might find this view appealing. But, ultimately, as feminists, we reject this view because it is inconsistent with full respect for women's reproductive autonomy and with a feminist conception of persons as relational, embodied beings. Overall, feminists should avoid claims about embryos' being inalienable to persons in arguments for or against the commodification of human embryos.

  3. Laboratory techniques for human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos A C

    2002-01-01

    This review is concerned with laboratory techniques needed for assisted conception, particularly the handling of gametes and embryos. Such methods are being increasingly refined. Successive stages of fertilization and embryogenesis require especial care, and often involve the use of micromanipulative methods for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Embryologists must take responsibility for gamete collection and preparation, and for deciding on the means of insemination or ICSI. Embryos must be assessed in culture, during the 1-cell, cleaving and morula/blastocyst stages, and classified according to quality. Co-culture methods may be necessary. The best embryos for transfer must be selected and loaded into the transfer catheter. Embryos not transferred must be cryopreserved, which demands the correct application of current methods of media preparation, seeding and the correct speed for cooling and warming. Before too long, methods of detecting abnormal embryos and avoiding their transfer may become widespread.

  4. Human embryo culture media comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Thomas B; Schoolfield, John; Han, David

    2012-01-01

    Every program of assisted reproduction strives to maximize pregnancy outcomes from in vitro fertilization and selecting an embryo culture medium, or medium pair, consistent with high success rates is key to this process. The common approach is to replace an existing medium with a new one of interest in the overall culture system and then perform enough cycles of IVF to see if a difference is noted both in laboratory measures of embryo quality and in pregnancy. This approach may allow a laboratory to select one medium over another but the outcomes are only relevant to that program, given that there are well over 200 other variables that may influence the results in an IVF cycle. A study design that will allow for a more global application of IVF results, ones due to culture medium composition as the single variable, is suggested. To perform a study of this design, the center must have a patient caseload appropriate to meet study entrance criteria, success rates high enough to reveal a difference if one exists and a strong program of quality assurance and control in both the laboratory and clinic. Sibling oocytes are randomized to two study arms and embryos are evaluated on day 3 for quality grades. Inter and intra-observer variability are evaluated by kappa statistics and statistical power and study size estimates are performed to bring discriminatory capability to the study. Finally, the complications associated with extending such a study to include blastocyst production on day 5 or 6 are enumerated.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of single versus double embryo transfer in IVF in relation to female age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loendersloot, Laura L.; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; van Wely, Madelon; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer followed by an additional frozen thawed single embryo transfer, if more embryos are available, as compared to double embryo transfer in relation to female age. Study design: We used a decision tree model to evaluate the costs

  6. Time to take human embryo culture seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Arne; Brison, Daniel; Dumoulin, John; Harper, Joyce; Lundin, Kersti; Magli, M Cristina; Van den Abbeel, Etienne; Veiga, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Is it important that end-users know the composition of human embryo culture media? We argue that there is as strong case for full transparency concerning the composition of embryo culture media intended for human use. Published data suggest that the composition of embryo culture media may influence the phenotype of the offspring. A review of the literature was carried out. Data concerning the potential effects on embryo development of culture media were assessed and recommendations for users made. The safety of ART procedures, especially with respect to the health of the offspring, is of major importance. There are reports from the literature indicating a possible effect of culture conditions, including culture media, on embryo and fetal development. Since the introduction of commercially available culture media, there has been a rapid development of different formulations, often not fully documented, disclosed or justified. There is now evidence that the environment the early embryo is exposed to can cause reprogramming of embryonic growth leading to alterations in fetal growth trajectory, birthweight, childhood growth and long-term disease including Type II diabetes and cardiovascular problems. The mechanism for this is likely to be epigenetic changes during the preimplantation period of development. In the present paper the ESHRE working group on culture media summarizes the present knowledge of potential effects on embryo development related to culture media, and makes recommendations. There is still a need for large prospective randomized trials to further elucidate the link between the composition of embryo culture media used and the phenotype of the offspring. We do not presently know if the phenotypic changes induced by in vitro embryo culture represent a problem for long-term health of the offspring. Published data indicate that there is a strong case for demanding full transparency concerning the compositions of and the scientific rationale behind the

  7. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  8. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  9. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  10. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  11. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  12. [Ethical viewpoints on cryopreservation of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, R

    1991-01-01

    In the introduction the author describes how moral judgements are being formed in the pluralistic structures of today's societies. Moral relativism and subjectivism are the wide spread consequences of empirical anthropological theories. In this situation the necessity of an objective and normative moral theory (Christian natural law theory) is being stressed. Neither biology nor medicine can pronounce final judgements on the value of human life. The arguments in favour of cryoconservation (medical progress, parents wish to have children, cost-reduction) are outweighed by those arguments which maintain that man cannot dispose of human life through the manipulation of the progenitive act outside marriage and of the juman act of procreation. There are also the risks and the endangering of the human value of the embryo, up to prolicide which is considered to be permissible in some cases, on these moral grounds the author objects to the cryoconservation of embryos as does the relevant instruction of the papal magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church (Donum vitae 1987). He does not, however, take a final stance on how the subjective decision of the physician is to be judged in the individual case.

  13. [Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Renli; Han, Dong; Liu, Caixia; Cai, Jiajie; Bi, Yanling; Wen, Anmin; Quan, Song

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.

  14. The number of oogonia and somatic cells in the human female embryo and fetus in relation to whether or not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Sørensen, K P; Larsen, K B

    2009-01-01

    of in utero exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Twenty-nine human first-trimester ovaries from legal abortions [aged 38-64 days post-conception (p.c.)] were collected. Mothers filled out a questionnaire about their smoking habits and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. The ovarian cell numbers...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA content in embryo culture medium is significantly associated with human embryo fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, S; Anserini, P; Venturini, P L; Scaruffi, P

    2013-10-01

    Is the amount of cell-free DNA released by human embryos into culture medium correlated with embryo morphological features? The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of culture medium is significantly associated with the fragmentation rate on Days 2 and 3 of embryo development, whether the oocyte came from women ≤ 35 or >35 years old. Cellular fragmentation is often utilized as one of the morphological parameters for embryo quality assessment. The amount of cellular fragments is considered to be an important morphological parameter for embryo implantation potential. It has been hypothesized that fragments are apoptotic bodies or anuclear cytoplasmatic pieces of blastomeres, although no definitive conclusion has been drawn about their pathogenesis. Human fertilized oocytes were individually cultured from Day 1 to Days 2 and 3. A total of 800 samples (166 spent media from Day 2 and 634 from Day 3) were enrolled into the present study. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was quantified in 800 spent embryo culture media by Pico Green dye fluorescence assay. After DNA purification, genomic DNA (gDNA) and mtDNA were profiled by specific quantitative PCR. Statistical analyses defined correlations among DNA contents, embryo morphology and maternal age. Different independent tests confirmed the presence of DNA into embryo culture medium and, for the first time, we demonstrate that both gDNA and mtDNA are detectable in the secretome. The amount of DNA is larger in embryos with bad quality cleavage compared with high-grade embryos, suggesting that the DNA profile of culture medium is an objective marker for embryo quality assessment. In particular, DNA profiles are significantly associated with fragmentation feature (total dsDNA: P = 0.0010; mtDNA; P = 0.0247) and advanced maternal age. It is necessary to establish whether DNA profiling of spent embryo culture medium is a robust onsite test that can improve the prediction of blastulation, implantation and/or pregnancy rate. The

  16. Cost-effectiveness of single versus double embryo transfer in IVF in relation to female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loendersloot, Laura L; Moolenaar, Lobke M; van Wely, Madelon; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Hompes, Peter G A; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer, if more embryos are available, as compared to double embryo transfer in relation to female age. We used a decision tree model to evaluate the costs from a healthcare provider perspective and the pregnancy rates of two embryo transfer policies: one fresh single embryo transfer followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer, if more embryos are available (strategy I), and double embryo transfer (strategy II). The analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the robustness of our model and to identify which model parameters had the strongest impact on the results. SET followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer if available was dominant, less costly and more effective, over DET in women under 32 years. In women aged 32 or older DET was more effective than SET followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer if available but also more costly. SET followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer should be the preferred strategy in women under 32 undergoing IVF. The choice for SET followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer or DET in women aged 32 or older depends on individual patient preferences and on how much society is willing to pay for an extra child. There is a strong need for a randomized clinical trial comparing the cost and effects of SET followed by an additional frozen-thawed single embryo transfer and DET in the latter category of women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of preimplantation genetic diagnosis on human embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ferreyra J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome abnormalities are extremely common in human oocytes and embryos and are associated with a variety of negative outcomes for both natural cycles and those using assisted reproduction techniques. Aneuploidies embryos may fail to implant in the uterus, miscarry, or lead to children with serious medical problems (e.g., Down syndrome. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a technique that allows the detection of aneuploidy in embryos and seeks to improve the clinical outcomes od assisted reproduction treatments, by ensuring that the embryos chosen for the transfer are chromosomally normal.

  18. Human embryo-conditioned medium stimulates in vitro endometrial angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, K.; Koolwijk, P.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der; Nieuw Amerongen, G. van; Plaisier, M.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Successful implantation and placentation depend on the interaction between the endometrium and the embryo. Angiogenesis is crucial at this time. In this article we investigate the direct influence of the human embryo on in vitro endometrial angiogenesis. Design: In vitro study. Setting:

  19. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echten-Arends, J. van; Mastenbroek, S.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Korevaar, J.C.; Heineman, M.J.; Veen, F. van der; Repping, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is

  20. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is

  1. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  2. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  3. Human embryo research and the 14-day rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Martin F

    2017-06-01

    In many jurisdictions, restrictions prohibit the culture of human embryos beyond 14 days of development. However, recent reports describing the successful maintenance of embryos in vitro to this stage have prompted many in the field to question whether the rule is still appropriate. This Spotlight article looks at the original rationale behind the 14-day rule and its relevance today in light of advances in human embryo culture and in the derivation of embryonic-like structures from human pluripotent stem cells. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. [The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo

    2008-01-01

    The possiblity of cloning human beings introduced a lot of issues in our ethical and legal frameworks. In this paper, we will put the focus into the necessary changes in the concept of embryo that our legal systems will have to implement in order to face the new situation. The description of the embryo as a group of cells able to develop into a human being will be defended here as the best way of doing so.

  5. Effects of fluoxetine on human embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G.; Hreinsson, Julius; Hornaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Akerud, Helena; Sundstrom-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus,

  6. The endometrial factor in human embryo implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to explore the role of the endometrium in the implantation process. At present, embryo implantation is the major rate-limiting step for success in fertility treatment. Clinicians have sought to develop clinical interventions aimed at enhancing implantation

  7. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Because human amniotic fluid is a physiological, balanced ultrafiltrate, it has been considered as an inexpensive alternative culture medium in. IVF. A study of the development of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid was undertaken to assess the suitability of this as an optional culture medium in human ...

  8. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  9. Status of the human embryo: Philosophical Foundations from Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia de Oliveira Schpallir Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulty in demonstrating the moment of ontogenesis in which personalization takes place, we sought to define, from a philosophic point of view, the nature of the human embryo regarding its individuality, using Phenomenology, specifically reflections of philosophers Bourghet and Merleau-Ponty on the embryo. Although the statement of their individuality does not entail ethical content in itself, from the point of view of ethical responsibility, it is an extremely important fact to be considered in the bioethical reflection about the moment of ontogeny from which human life must (ethical duty be protected.

  10. Development of the epaxial muscles in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Eleonore KÖhler, S.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2016-01-01

    Although the intrinsic muscles of the back are defined by their embryological origin and innervation pattern, no detailed study on their development is available. Human embryos (5-10 weeks development) were studied, using Amira3D® reconstruction and Cinema4D® remodeling software for visualization.

  11. A role for Aurora C in the chromosomal passenger complex during human preimplantation embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Margarida Avo; van de Werken, Christine; de Vries, Marieke; Jahr, Holger; Vromans, Martijn J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Fauser, Bart C.; Kops, Geert J.; Lens, Susanne M.; Baart, Esther B.

    BACKGROUND: Human embryos generated by IVF demonstrate a high incidence of chromosomal segregation errors during the cleavage divisions. To analyse underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the behaviour of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) in human oocytes and embryos. This important

  12. Derivation of Two New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines from Nonviable Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gavrilov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the derivation and characterization of two new human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines (CU1 and CU2 from embryos with an irreversible loss of integrated organismic function. In addition, we analyzed retrospective data of morphological progression from embryonic day (ED 5 to ED6 for 2480 embryos not suitable for clinical use to assess grading criteria indicative of loss of viability on ED5. Our analysis indicated that a large proportion of in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos not suitable for clinical use could be used for hESC derivation. Based on these combined findings, we propose that criteria commonly used in IVF clinics to determine optimal embryos for uterine transfer can be employed to predict the potential for hESC derivation from poor quality embryos without the destruction of vital human embryos.

  13. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Expression of Aquaporins in Human Embryos and Potential Role of AQP3 and AQP7 in Preimplantation Mouse Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Water channels, also named aquaporins (AQPs, play crucial roles in cellular water homeostasis. Methods: RT-PCR indicated the mRNA expression of AQPs 1-5, 7, 9, and 11-12, but not AQPs 0, 6, 8, and 10 in the 2∼8-cell stage human embryos. AQP3 and AQP7 were further analyzed for their mRNA expression and protein expression in the oocyte, zygote, 2-cell embryo, 4-cell embryo, 8-cell embryo, morula, and blastocyst from both human and mouse using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, respectively. Results: AQP3 and AQP7 were detected in all these stages. Knockdown of either AQP3 or AQP7 by targeted siRNA injection into 2-cell mouse embryos significantly inhibited preimplantation embryo development. However, knockdown of AQP3 in JAr spheroid did not affect its attachment to Ishikawa cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that multiple aquaporins are expressed in the early stage human embryos and that AQP3 and AQP7 may play a role in preimplantation mouse embryo development.

  15. NMR studies of preimplantation embryo metabolism in human assisted reproductive techniques: a new biomarker for assessment of embryo implantation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudakalakatti, Shivanand M; Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in understanding energy metabolism in human embryos generated using assisted reproductive techniques (ART) for improving the overall success rate of the method. Using NMR spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool, we studied human embryo metabolism to identify specific biomarkers to assess the quality of embryos for their implantation potential. The study was based on estimation of pyruvate, lactate and alanine levels in the growth medium, ISM1, used in the culture of embryos. An NMR study involving 127 embryos from 48 couples revealed that embryos transferred on Day 3 (after 72 h in vitro culture) with successful implantation (pregnancy) exhibited significantly (p < 10(-5) ) lower pyruvate/alanine ratios compared to those that failed to implant. Lactate levels in media were similar for all embryos. This implies that in addition to lactate production, successfully implanted embryos use pyruvate to produce alanine and other cellular functions. While pyruvate and alanine individually have been used as biomarkers, the present study highlights the potential of combining them to provide a single parameter that correlates strongly with implantation potential. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Emergency IVF for embryo freezing to preserve female fertility: a French multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbiere, B; Decanter, C; Bringer-Deutsch, S; Rives, N; Mirallié, S; Pech, J C; De Ziegler, D; Carré-Pigeon, F; May-Panloup, P; Sifer, C; Amice, V; Schweitzer, T; Porcu-Buisson, G; Poirot, C

    2013-09-01

    What are the outcomes of French emergency IVF procedures involving embryo freezing for fertility preservation before gonadotoxic treatment? Pregnancy rates after emergency IVF, cryopreservation of embryos, storage, thawing and embryo transfer (embryo transfer), in the specific context of the preservation of female fertility, seem to be similar to those reported for infertile couples undergoing ART. A French retrospective multicentre cohort study initiated by the GRECOT network-the French Study Group for Ovarian and Testicular Cryopreservation. We sent an e-mail survey to the 97 French centres performing the assisted reproduction technique in 2011, asking whether the centre performed emergency IVF and requesting information about the patients' characteristics, indications, IVF cycles and laboratory and follow-up data. The response rate was 53.6% (52/97). Fourteen French centres reported that they performed emergency IVF (56 cycles in total) before gonadotoxic treatment, between 1999 and July 2011, in 52 patients. The patients had a mean age of 28.9 ± 4.3 years, and a median length of relationship of 3 years (1 month-15 years). Emergency IVF was indicated for haematological cancer (42%), brain tumour (23%), sarcoma (3.8%), mesothelioma (n = 1) and bowel cancer (n = 1). Gynaecological problems accounted for 17% of indications. In 7.7% of cases, emergency IVF was performed for autoimmune diseases. Among the 52 patients concerned, 28% (n = 14) had undergone previous courses of chemotherapy before beginning controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). The initiation of gonadotoxic treatment had to be delayed in 34% of the patients (n = 19). In total, 56 cycles were initiated. The mean duration of stimulation was 11.2 ± 2.5 days, with a mean peak estradiol concentration on the day on which ovulation was triggered of 1640 ± 1028 pg/ml. Three cycles were cancelled due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (n = 1), poor response (n = 1) and treatment error (n = 1). A mean of 8

  17. Courts, legislators and human embryo research: lessons from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binchy, William

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to the matter of human embryo research law plays a crucial role in its development by helping to set the boundaries of what may be done, the sanctions for acting outside those boundaries and the rights and responsibilities of key parties. Nevertheless, the philosophical challenges raised by human embryo research, even with the best will of all concerned, may prove too great for satisfactory resolution through the legal process. Taking as its focus the position of Ireland, this paper explores the distinctive constitutional approach taken on this issue and addresses the difficulty of translating sound philosophy into judicial decrees and the difficulty of establishing expert commissions to make law reform proposals on matters of profound normative controversy. It concludes that the Irish experience does have useful lessons for those in other countries who are concerned with the legal approach to research on human embryos and points to the desirability of a diversity of normative positions in order to enrich the quality of the analysis so as to encourage more informed debate in society.

  18. Total mercury in female Pacific sharpnose sharks Rhizoprionodon longurio and their embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín G Frías-Espericueta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the Hg content of blood, placenta and umbilical cord of 20 pregnant females of the viviparous Pacific sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon longurio and of the livers of the embryos contained in their right and left uterus, aiming to provide information on the amount of this metal offloaded during pregnancy by the mother to the embryos. Hg content varied by close or higher than one order of magnitude in all tissues and showed the decreasing trend: maternal blood > umbilical cord > placenta > embryonic livers, with placenta and embryonic livers significantly lower than maternal blood. There were highly significant correlations (P 0.05. The results suggest transplacental Hg transfer and that the liver is not the main site of Hg accumulation.

  19. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  1. [Relationship between mitochondrial DNA copy number, membrane potential of human embryo and embryo morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Teng, X M; Li, Y F

    2017-11-25

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the embryo with the different morphological types in the third day and its mitochondrial copy number, the membrane potential. Methods: Totally 117 embryos with poor development after normal fertilization and were not suitable transferred in the fresh cycle and 106 frozen embryos that were discarded voluntarily by infertility patients with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer after successful pregnancy were selected. According to evaluation of international standard in embryos, all cleavage stage embryos were divided into class Ⅰ frozen embryo group ( n= 64), class Ⅱ frozen embryo group ( n= 42) and class Ⅲ fresh embryonic group (not transplanted embryos; n= 117). Real-time PCR and confocal microscopy methods were used to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and the mitochondrial membrane potential of a single embryo. The differences between embryo quality and mtDNA copy number and membrane potential of each group were compared. Results: The copy number of mtDNA and the mitochondrial membrane potential in class Ⅲ fresh embryonic group [(1.7±1.0)×10(5) copy/μl, 1.56±0.32] were significantly lower than those in class Ⅰ frozen embryo group [(3.4±1.7)×10(5) copy/μl, 2.66±0.21] and class Ⅱ frozen embryo group [(2.6±1.2)×10(5) copy/μl, 1.80±0.32; all Pembryo group were significantly higher than those in classⅡ frozen embryo group (both Pembryos of the better quality embryo are higher.

  2. Four stages of hepatic hematopoiesis in human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, D; Angotzi, F; Lai, F; Gerosa, C; Senes, G; Fanos, V; Faa, G

    2018-03-01

    The liver is a major hematopoietic organ during embryonic and fetal development in humans. Its hematopoietic activity starts during the first weeks of gestation and continues until birth. During this period the liver is colonized by undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that gradually differentiate and once mature, enter the circulatory system through the hepatic sinusoids, this process is called hepatic hematopoiesis. The morphology of hepatic hematopoiesis, has been studied in humans through the years, and led to a characterization of all the cell types that make up these phenomena. Studies on murine models also helped to describe the extent of hepatic hematopoiesis at different gestational ages. Using this knowledge, we attempted to describe how hepatic hematopoiesis morphologically evolves as gestation progresses, in human embryos and fetuses. Thus, we observed a total of 32 tissue specimens obtained from the livers of embryos and fetuses at different gestational ages. Basing our observations on the four stages of liver hematopoiesis identified by Sasaki and Sonoda in mice, we also described four consecutive stages of liver hematopoiesis in humans, which resulted to be highly similar to those described in murine models.

  3. Influence of female age on blastulation rate of embryo produced by ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Borges Soares

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a tendency to adopt prolonged culture inolder patients; however there are no conclusive results about theinfluence of age on blastulation rate. Therefore, we decided to analyzethe influence of female age on prolonged culture results. METHODS:One hundred and seven ICSI procedures performed in our centerfrom January 1999 to December 2000 were retrospectively analyzed.The blastulation rate was verified and correlated with patient age.RESULTS: In average, 2.8 blastocysts/patient were transferred. Theblastulation rate for each age group was: 180 (32% in the group 40 years. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significantdifference (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The percentage of embryosthat achieved the blastocyst stage was different in each age groupand this percentage dropped as patient age increased. Female agemay influence on blastulation rate of pre-embryos, observing a dropin this rate as patient age increased.

  4. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  5. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2017-08-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10 weeks of development. Human embryos (5-10 weeks of development) were visualized using Amira 3D ® reconstruction and Cinema 4D ® remodelling software. Vertebral bodies were identifiable as loose mesenchymal structures between the dense mesenchymal intervertebral discs up to 6 weeks and then differentiated into cartilaginous structures in the 7th week. In this week, the dense mesenchymal neural processes also differentiated into cartilaginous structures. Transverse processes became identifiable at 6 weeks. The growth rate of all vertebral bodies was exponential and similar between 6 and 10 weeks, whereas the intervertebral discs hardly increased in size between 6 and 8 weeks and then followed vertebral growth between 8 and 10 weeks. The neural processes extended dorsolaterally (6th week), dorsally (7th week) and finally dorsomedially (8th and 9th weeks) to fuse at the midthoracic level at 9 weeks. From there, fusion extended cranially and caudally in the 10th week. Closure of the foramen magnum required the development of the supraoccipital bone as a craniomedial extension of the exoccipitals (neural processes of occipital vertebra 4), whereas a growth burst of sacral vertebra 1 delayed closure until 15 weeks. Both the cranial- and caudal-most vertebral bodies fused to form the basioccipital (occipital vertebrae 1-4) and sacrum (sacral vertebrae 1-5). In the sacrum, fusion of its so-called alar processes preceded that of the bodies by at least 6 weeks. In conclusion, the highly ordered and substantial changes in shape of the vertebral bodies leading to the formation of the vertebral canal make the development of the spine an excellent, continuous staging system for

  6. Polypeptide profiles of human oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Bolton, V N

    1993-11-01

    The polypeptides that direct fertilization and early development until activation of the embryonic genome occurs, at the 4-8 cell stage in the human, are exclusively maternal in origin, and are either synthesized during oogenesis or translated later from maternal mRNA. Using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver stain, we have visualized and compared the polypeptides present in different populations of human oocytes and cleavage stage embryos obtained after superovulation and insemination in vitro. Two polypeptide patterns were resolved, differing in the region of mol. wt 69 kDa. The distribution of these patterns showed no correlation with the ability of individual oocytes to achieve fertilization and develop normally to the 8-cell stage.

  7. Differential expression of parental alleles of BRCA1 in human preimplantation embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulay, Pinar; Doshi, Alpesh; Serhal, Paul; SenGupta, Sioban B

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression from both parental genomes is required for completion of embryogenesis. Differential methylation of each parental genome has been observed in mouse and human preimplantation embryos. It is possible that these differences in methylation affect the level of gene transcripts from each parental genome in early developing embryos. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a parent-specific pattern of BRCA1 expression in human embryos and to examine if this affects embryo development when the embryo carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutation. Differential parental expression of ACTB, SNRPN, H19 and BRCA1 was semi-quantitatively analysed by minisequencing in 95 human preimplantation embryos obtained from 15 couples undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis. BRCA1 was shown to be differentially expressed favouring the paternal transcript in early developing embryos. Methylation-specific PCR showed a variable methylation profile of BRCA1 promoter region at different stages of embryonic development. Embryos carrying paternally inherited BRCA1 or 2 pathogenic variants were shown to develop more slowly compared with the embryos with maternally inherited BRCA1 or 2 pathogenic mutations. This study suggests that differential demethylation of the parental genomes can influence the early development of preimplantation embryos. Expression of maternal and paternal genes is required for the completion of embryogenesis. PMID:27677417

  8. Parliamentary cultures and human embryos: the Dutch and British debates compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirejczyk, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the technology of in vitro fertilization created a new artefact: the human embryo outside the woman's body. In many countries, political debates developed around this artefact. One of the central questions in these debates is whether it is permissible to use human embryos in

  9. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M.

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self organize and

  10. Endocardial tip cells in the human embryo - facts and hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugurel C Rusu

    Full Text Available Experimental studies regarding coronary embryogenesis suggest that the endocardium is a source of endothelial cells for the myocardial networks. As this was not previously documented in human embryos, we aimed to study whether or not endothelial tip cells could be correlated with endocardial-dependent mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis. Six human embryos (43-56 days were obtained and processed in accordance with ethical regulations; immunohistochemistry was performed for CD105 (endoglin, CD31, CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin antibodies. Primitive main vessels were found deriving from both the sinus venosus and aorta, and were sought to be the primordia of the venous and arterial ends of cardiac microcirculation. Subepicardial vessels were found branching into the outer ventricular myocardium, with a pattern of recruiting α-SMA+/desmin+ vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Endothelial sprouts were guided by CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/vimentin+ endothelial tip cells. Within the inner myocardium, we found endothelial networks rooted from endocardium, guided by filopodia-projecting CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/ vimentin+ endocardial tip cells. The myocardial microcirculatory bed in the atria was mostly originated from endocardium, as well. Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial networks. A general anatomical pattern of cardiac microvascular embryogenesis was thus hypothesized; the arterial and venous ends being linked, respectively, to the aorta and sinus venosus. Further elongation of the vessels may be related to the epicardium and subepicardial stroma and the intramyocardial network, depending on either endothelial and endocardial filopodia-guided tip cells in ventricles, or mostly on endocardium, in atria.

  11. Analysis of compaction initiation in human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kyoko; Yumoto, Keitaro; Sugishima, Minako; Mizoguchi, Chizuru; Kai, Yoshiteru; Iba, Yumiko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the initiation of compaction in human embryos in vitro by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC), with the goal of determining the precise timing of compaction and clarifying the morphological changes underlying the compaction process. One hundred and fifteen embryos donated by couples with no further need for embryo-transfer were used in this study. Donated embryos were thawed and processed, and then their morphological behavior during the initiation of compaction was dynamically observed via time-lapse cinematography (TLC) for 5 days. Although the initiation of compaction occurred throughout the period from the 4-cell to 16-cell stage, 99 (86.1 %) embryos initiated compaction at the 8-cell stage or later, with initiation at the 8-cell stage being most frequent (22.6 %). Of these 99 embryos, 49.5 % developed into good-quality blastocysts. In contrast, of the 16 (13.9 %) embryos that initiated compaction prior to the 8-cell stage, only 18.8 % developed into good-quality blastocysts. Embryos that initiated compaction before the 8-cell stage showed significantly higher numbers of multinucleated blastomeres, due to asynchronism in nuclear division at the third mitotic division resulting from cytokinetic failure. The initiation of compaction primarily occurs at the third mitotic division or later in human embryos. Embryos that initiate compaction before the 8-cell stage are usually associated with aberrant embryonic development (i.e., cytokinetic failure accompanied by karyokinesis).

  12. Effect of vitamin E on preovulatory stage irradiated female mouse expressed as chromosomal abnormalities in generated embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, M.; Mozdarani, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effects of preovulatory stage gamma-irradiation of female mice in the absence or presence of vitamin E on numerical chromosome abnormalities in 8-cell embryos after mating with non- irradiated males. Materials and Methods: The 8-11 weeks adult female NMRl mice were whole body irradiated at preovulatory stage (post PMSG injection and about 12-18 hours before Injecting HCG) with 4 Gy gamma-rays generated from a cobalt-60 source alone or in combination with 200 IU/kg vitamin E, intraperitoneally administered one hour prior to irradiation. Soon after HCG injection super ovulated irradiated females were mated with non-irradiated males. About 68-h post coitus (p.c), 8-cell embryos were flushed from the oviducts of pregnant mice and were fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for metaphase spreads and numerical chromosome abnormalities. Results: In control embryos, 8% of metaphase plates were aneuploidy whereas in preovulatory stage irradiated female mice, about 50% of metaphase plates of embryos showed numerical chromosome aberrations (P nd meiotic division. Reduction of the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the presence of vitamin E is probably due to antioxidant effects of this vitamin, and scavenging free radicals induced by gamma-rays in mice oocytes' environment

  13. [Is there either agenesis or regression of the Mullerian duct in female bird embryos under the influence of male hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y; Lutz, H

    1976-01-01

    The natural occurence of "Free-Martinism" in Birds and the chorio-allantoïc grafting experiments of testis fragments on female chick host-embryos allow to the authors to define the manner provoking the entire or partial disappearance of the müllerian ducts and to state exactly if the phenomenon is a agenesis or a regression.

  14. Differences in gene expression profiles between human preimplantation embryos cultured in two different IVF culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Eijssen, Lars M T; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Mantikou, Eleni; Jonker, Martijs J; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2015-10-01

    Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes involved in apoptosis, protein degradation, metabolism and cell-cycle regulation. Several human studies have shown an effect of culture medium on embryo development, pregnancy outcome and birthweight. However, the underlying mechanisms in human embryos are still unknown. In animal models of human development, it has been demonstrated that culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro affects gene expression. In humans, it has been found that culture medium affects gene expression of cryopreserved embryos that, after thawing, were cultured in two different media for 2 more days. In a multicenter trial, women were randomly assigned to two culture medium groups [G5 and human tubal fluid (HTF)]. Data on embryonic development were collected for all embryos. In one center, embryos originating from two pronuclei (2PN) zygotes that were not selected for transfer or cryopreservation on Day 2 or 3 because of lower morphological quality, were cultured until Day 6 and used in this study, if couples consented. Ten blastocysts each from the G5 and HTF study groups, matched for fertilization method, maternal age and blastocyst quality, were selected and their mRNA was isolated and amplified. Embryos were examined individually for genome-wide gene expression using Agilent microarrays and PathVisio was used to identify the pathways that showed a culture medium-dependent activity. Expression of 951 genes differed significantly (P differences observed between the study groups are caused by factors that we did not investigate. Extrapolation of these results to embryos used for transfer demands caution as in the present study embryos that were not selected for either embryo transfer or cryopreservation have been used for the

  15. Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt-Van der Zalm, J.P.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were

  16. Cryopreservation of human embryos and its contribution to in vitro fertilization success rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Kai Mee; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human embryos is now a routine procedure in assisted reproductive technologies laboratories. There is no consensus on the superiority of any protocol, and substantial differences exist among centers in day of embryo cryopreservation, freezing method, selection criteria for which

  17. Human cloning and embryo research: the 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert P

    2004-01-01

    The author, a member of the U.S. President's Council on Bioethics, discusses ethical issues raised by human cloning, whether for purposes of bringing babies to birth or for research purposes. He first argues that every cloned human embryo is a new, distinct, and enduring organism, belonging to the species Homo sapiens, and directing its own development toward maturity. He then distinguishes between two types of capacities belonging to individual organisms belonging to this species, an immediately exerciseable capacity and a basic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is the second type of capacity that is the ground for full moral respect, and that this capacity (and its concomitant degree of respect) belongs to cloned human embryos no less than to adult human beings. He then considers and rejects counter-arguments to his position, including the suggestion that the capacity of embryos is equivalent to the capacity of somatic cells, that full human rights are afforded only to human organisms with functioning brains, that the possibility of twinning diminishes the moral status of embryos, that the fact that people do not typically mourn the loss of early embryos implies that they have a diminished moral status, that the fact that early spontaneous abortions occur frequently diminishes the moral status of embryos, and that his arguments depend upon a concept of ensoulment. He concludes that if the moral status of cloned human embryos is equivalent to that of adults, then public policy should be based upon this assumption.

  18. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cimadomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential.

  19. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Salih, Sana M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, miR-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy. PMID:24795753

  20. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Approaches for prediction of the implantation potential of human embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Stamenov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of assisted reproductive technologies (ART has become the main goal of contemporary reproductive medicine. The main aspiration of scientists working in the field is to use less intervention to achieve more, and, if possible, in a more cost-effective way. A number of directions have been under development, namely – various stimulation protocols, ART with no stimulation whatever, all aiming at a single goal – the chase for Moby Dick, or the perfect embryo. Comprehensive embryo selection resulting in reducing the number of transferred embryos is one of the main directions for optimization of the ART procedures. Both clinical and laboratory procedures are being constantly improved, and today there is a significant number of clinics that report success rates of 30% and even higher. Based on results achieved, and analyzing data from millions of ART procedures, researchers from different centers are seeking to develop prognostic models in order to further improve success rates. One of the greatest challenges remains the reduction of the incidence of multifetal pregnancy, and that can be achieved only through reducing the number of embryos per transfer and a rise in single embryo transfer (SET numbers. This, however, depends on reliable methods for preliminary embryo selection, employing a growing number of morphological, biochemical, genetic and other characteristics of the embryo. A primary concern in developing prognostic models for in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome is selecting the prognostic parameters to be included. A number of publications define the main criteria that have an impact on fertilization outcome on the side of the embryo, and for the ultimate outcome of the ART procedure – on the side of the maternal organism as a whole. In this review, some of the most important parameters are discussed, with particular focus on their application for development of IVF prognostic models.

  2. Persons and their bodies: how we should think about human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Hugh V

    2002-01-01

    The status of human embryos is discussed particularly in the light of the claim by Fox, in Health Care Analysis 8 that it would be useful to think of them in terms of cyborg metaphors. It is argued that we should consider human embryos for what they are--partially formed human bodies--rather than for what they are like in some respects (and unlike in others)--cyborgs. However to settle the issue of the status of the embryo is not to answer the moral questions which arise concerning how embryos should be treated. Since persons rather than bodies have rights, embryos do not have rights. However, whether or not embryos have rights, people can have duties concerning them. Furthermore, the persons whose fully developed bodies embryos will, might (or might have) become can have rights. Contrary to what is often assumed, it is not merely persons who have (or have had) living, developed human bodies who have moral rights: so it is argued in this paper.

  3. Where does New Zealand stand on permitting research on human embryos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth

    2014-08-01

    In many respects New Zealand has responded to the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) as positively as many comparable societies, such as Australia and the UK. Consequently, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are widely available, as is non-commercial surrogacy utilising IVF. These developments have been made possible by the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology (HART) Act 2004, overseen by its two committees, the Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ACART) and the Ethics Committee (ECART). However, New Zealand stands apart from many of these other societies by the lack of permission for scientists to conduct research using human embryos. There is no doubt this reflects strongly held viewpoints on the part of some that embryos should be protected and not exploited. Legitimate as this stance is, the resulting situation is problematic when IVF is already designated as an established procedure. This is because the development of IVF involved embryo research, and continuing improvements in procedures depend upon ongoing embryo research. While prohibition of research on human embryos gives the impression of protecting embryos, it fails to do this and also fails to enhance the health and wellbeing of children born using IVF. This situation will not be rectified until research is allowed on human embryos.

  4. Barcode tagging of human oocytes and embryos to prevent mix-ups in assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Sergi; Nogués, Carme; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Santaló, Josep; Gómez-Martínez, Rodrigo; Esteve, Jaume; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Lluïsa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of human oocytes and embryos during assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs)? The direct tagging system based on lectin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes of micrometric dimensions is simple, safe and highly efficient, allowing the identification of human oocytes and embryos during the various procedures typically conducted during an assisted reproduction cycle. Measures to prevent mismatching errors (mix-ups) of the reproductive samples are currently in place in fertility clinics, but none of them are totally effective and several mix-up cases have been reported worldwide. Using a mouse model, our group has previously developed an effective direct embryo tagging system which does not interfere with the in vitro and in vivo development of the tagged embryos. This system has now been tested in human oocytes and embryos. Fresh immature and mature fertilization-failed oocytes (n = 21) and cryopreserved day 1 embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (n = 205) were donated by patients (n = 76) undergoing ARTs. In vitro development rates, embryo quality and post-vitrification survival were compared between tagged (n = 106) and non-tagged (control) embryos (n = 99). Barcode retention and identification rates were also calculated, both for embryos and for oocytes subjected to a simulated ICSI and parthenogenetic activation. Experiments were conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Barcodes were fabricated in polysilicon and biofunctionalizated with wheat germ agglutinin lectin. Embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and cultured in vitro until the blastocyst stage, when they were either differentially stained with propidium iodide and Hoechst or vitrified using the Cryotop method. Embryo quality was also analyzed by embryo grading and time

  5. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    recently demonstrated to occur from first cleavage cycle in mice using time-lapse microscopy, with the largest impact on the pre-compaction stages. However, embryonic development in mice differs in many aspects from human embryonic development. The objective of this retrospective, descriptive study...... was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2......) or in 5% O2 (group 3). Eligible were patients with age 8 oocytes retrieved. Group 1 consisted of 120 IVF/ICSI embryos from 26 patients recruited to a study conducted to evaluate the safety of the time-lapse incubator by randomising 1:1 embryos from a patient to culture...

  6. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    -points for each cell division and blastocyst stages were registered until 120 hours after oocyte retrieval. Only 2PN embryos completing the first cleavage were evaluated. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis test. Estimates are reported as medians with 95% confidence intervals. Time......Introduction: Data from a number of studies indicate -but not unequivocally- that culture of embryos in 5% O2 compared to 20% O2 improves blastocyst formation in humans and various animal species and may yield better pregnancy rates in IVF. The detrimental effects of atmospheric oxygen were...... was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2...

  7. Embryo density and medium volume effects on early murine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco, R S; Sparks, A E; Pearson, R E; Gwazdauskas, F C

    1992-10-01

    One-cell mouse embryos were used to determine the effects of drop size and number of embryos per drop for optimum development in vitro. Embryos were collected from immature C57BL6 female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by CD1 males. Groups of 1, 5, 10, or 20 embryos were cultured in 5-, 10-, 20-, or 40-microliters drops of CZB under silicon oil at 37.5 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. Development score for embryos cultured in 10 microliters was higher than that of embryos cultured in 20 or 40 microliters. Embryos cultured in groups of 5, 10, or 20 had higher development scores than embryos cultured singly. The highest development score was obtained by the combination of 5 embryos per 10-microliters drop. The percentage of live embryos in 20 or 40 microliters was lower than that of embryos cultured in 10 microliters. Additionally, the percentage of live embryos cultured singly was lower than that of embryos cultured in groups. Our results suggest that a stimulatory interaction occurs among embryos possibly exerted through the secretion of growth factors. This effect can be diluted if the embryos are cultured in large drops or singly.

  8. Correction of β-thalassemia mutant by base editor in human embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puping Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract β-Thalassemia is a global health issue, caused by mutations in the HBB gene. Among these mutations, HBB −28 (A>G mutations is one of the three most common mutations in China and Southeast Asia patients with β-thalassemia. Correcting this mutation in human embryos may prevent the disease being passed onto future generations and cure anemia. Here we report the first study using base editor (BE system to correct disease mutant in human embryos. Firstly, we produced a 293T cell line with an exogenous HBB −28 (A>G mutant fragment for gRNAs and targeting efficiency evaluation. Then we collected primary skin fibroblast cells from a β-thalassemia patient with HBB −28 (A>G homozygous mutation. Data showed that base editor could precisely correct HBB −28 (A>G mutation in the patient’s primary cells. To model homozygous mutation disease embryos, we constructed nuclear transfer embryos by fusing the lymphocyte or skin fibroblast cells with enucleated in vitro matured (IVM oocytes. Notably, the gene correction efficiency was over 23.0% in these embryos by base editor. Although these embryos were still mosaic, the percentage of repaired blastomeres was over 20.0%. In addition, we found that base editor variants, with narrowed deamination window, could promote G-to-A conversion at HBB −28 site precisely in human embryos. Collectively, this study demonstrated the feasibility of curing genetic disease in human somatic cells and embryos by base editor system.

  9. The timing of pronuclear formation, DNA synthesis and cleavage in the human 1-cell embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Taylor, A; Braude, P R; Bolton, V N

    1996-05-01

    The timing of pronuclear formation and breakdown, DNA synthesis and cleavage during the first cell cycle of human embryogenesis are described. Pronuclei formed between 3 and 10 h post-insemination (hpi; median 8 hpi). S-phase commenced between 8 and 14 hpi, and was completed between 10 and 18 hpi. M-phase was observed between 22 and 31 hpi (median duration 3 h), and cleavage to the 2-cell stage took place between 25 and 33 hpi. The timing of the same events was determined in 1-cell embryos derived from re-inseminated human oocytes that had failed to fertilize during therapeutic in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In these embryos, pronuclei formed between 3 and 8 h post-re-insemination (hpr-i), coinciding with the beginning of S-phase. While S-phase was completed as early as 10 hpr-i in some embryos, it extended until at least 16 hpr-i in others. Pronuclear breakdown and cleavage occurred from 23 and 26 hpr-i respectively; however, they did not occur in some embryos until after 46 hpr-i. The results demonstrate a markedly greater degree of variation in the timing of these events in embryos derived from re-inseminated oocytes compared with embryos derived from conventional IVF, and thus throw into question the validity of using the former as models for studies of the first cell cycle of human embryogenesis.

  10. Biopsy of human morula-stage embryos: outcome of 215 IVF/ICSI cycles with PGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Zakharova

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is commonly performed on biopsies from 6-8-cell-stage embryos or blastocyst trophectoderm obtained on day 3 or 5, respectively. Day 4 human embryos at the morula stage were successfully biopsied. Biopsy was performed on 709 morulae from 215 ICSI cycles with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS, and 3-7 cells were obtained from each embryo. The most common vital aneuploidies (chromosomes X/Y, 21 were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. No aneuploidy was observed in 72.7% of embryos, 91% of those developed to blastocysts. Embryos were transferred on days 5-6. Clinical pregnancy was obtained in 32.8% of cases, and 60 babies were born. Patients who underwent ICSI/PGS treatment were compared with those who underwent standard ICSI treatment by examining the percentage of blastocysts, pregnancy rate, gestational length, birth height and weight. No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the groups. Day 4 biopsy procedure does not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The increased number of cells obtained by biopsy of morulae might facilitate diagnostic screening. There is enough time after biopsy to obtain PGD results for embryo transfer on day 5-6 in the current IVF cycle.

  11. NGS Analysis of Human Embryo Culture Media Reveals miRNAs of Extra Embryonic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Immaculada; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ojeda, María; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ballesteros, Agustín; Domínguez, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Our objective in this work was to isolate, identify, and compare micro-RNAs (miRNAs) found in spent culture media of euploid and aneuploid in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Seventy-two embryos from 62 patients were collected, and their spent media were retained. A total of 108 spent conditioned media samples were analyzed (n = 36 day 3 euploid embryos, n = 36 day 3 aneuploid embryos, and n = 36 matched control media). Fifty hed-control media embryos were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. We detected 53 known human miRNAs present in the spent conditioned media of euploid and aneuploid IVF embryos. miR-181b-5p and miR-191-5p were found the most represented. We validated our results by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), but no significant results were obtained between the groups. In conclusion, we obtained the list of miRNAs present in the spent conditioned media from euploid and aneuploid IVF embryos, but our data suggest that these miRNAs could have a nonembryonic origin.

  12. Chromosome fragility at FRAXA in human cleavage stage embryos at risk for fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdyck, Pieter; Berckmoes, Veerle; De Vos, Anick; Verpoest, Willem; Liebaers, Inge; Bonduelle, Maryse; De Rycke, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited intellectual disability syndrome, is caused by expansion and hypermethylation of the CGG repeat in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. This expanded repeat, also known as the rare fragile site FRAXA, causes X chromosome fragility in cultured cells from patients but only when induced by perturbing pyrimidine synthesis. We performed preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on 595 blastomeres biopsied from 442 cleavage stage embryos at risk for FXS using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. In six blastomeres, from five embryos an incomplete haplotype was observed with loss of all alleles telomeric to the CGG repeat. In all five embryos, the incomplete haplotype corresponded to the haplotype carrying the CGG repeat expansion. Subsequent analysis of additional blastomeres from three embryos by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) confirmed the presence of a terminal deletion with a breakpoint close to the CGG repeat in two blastomeres from one embryo. A blastomere from another embryo showed the complementary duplication. We conclude that a CGG repeat expansion at FRAXA causes X chromosome fragility in early human IVF embryos at risk for FXS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Global gene expression profiling of individual human oocytes and embryos demonstrates heterogeneity in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shaw

    Full Text Available Early development in humans is characterised by low and variable embryonic viability, reflected in low fecundity and high rates of miscarriage, relative to other mammals. Data from assisted reproduction programmes provides additional evidence that this is largely mediated at the level of embryonic competence and is highly heterogeneous among embryos. Understanding the basis of this heterogeneity has important implications in a number of areas including: the regulation of early human development, disorders of pregnancy, assisted reproduction programmes, the long term health of children which may be programmed in early development, and the molecular basis of pluripotency in human stem cell populations. We have therefore investigated global gene expression profiles using polyAPCR amplification and microarray technology applied to individual human oocytes and 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. In order to explore the basis of any variability in detail, each developmental stage is replicated in triplicate. Our data show that although transcript profiles are highly stage-specific, within each stage they are relatively variable. We describe expression of a number of gene families and pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which are variably expressed and may be reflective of embryonic developmental competence. Overall, our data suggest that heterogeneity in human embryo developmental competence is reflected in global transcript profiles, and that the vast majority of existing human embryo gene expression data based on pooled oocytes and embryos need to be reinterpreted.

  14. Cryopreservation of human oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts: A comparison study between slow freezing and ultra rapid (vitrification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Al-Azawi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of female genetics is currently done primarily by means of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. The field has seen much progress during its four-decade history, progress driven predominantly by research in humans. It can also be done by preservation of ovarian tissue or entire ovary for transplantation, followed by oocyte harvesting or natural fertilization. Two basic cryopreservation techniques rule the field, slow-rate freezing, the first to be developed and vitrification which in recent years, has gained a foothold. The slow-rate freezing method previously reported had low survival and pregnancy rates, along with the high cost of cryopreservation. Although there are some recent data indicating better survival rates, cryopreservation by the slow freezing method has started to discontinue. Vitrification of human embryos, especially at early stages, became a more popular alternative to the slow rate freezing method due to reported comparable clinical and laboratory outcomes. In addition, vitrification is relatively simple, requires no expensive programmable freezing equipment, and uses a small amount of liquid nitrogen for freezing. Moreover, oocyte cryopreservation using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility by serving and freezing their oocytes at the optimal time. The aim of this research is to compare slow freezing and vitrification in cryopreservation of oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts during the last twelve years. Therefore, due to a lot of controversies in this regard, we tried to achieve an exact idea about the subject and the best technique used.

  15. Characterization and quantification of proteins secreted by single human embryos prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Maurizio; Ori, Alessandro; Child, Tim; Jaroudi, Souraya; Spath, Katharina; Beck, Martin; Wells, Dagan

    2015-11-01

    The use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has revolutionized the treatment of infertility and is now responsible for 1-5% of all births in industrialized countries. During IVF, it is typical for patients to generate multiple embryos. However, only a small proportion of them possess the genetic and metabolic requirements needed in order to produce a healthy pregnancy. The identification of the embryo with the greatest developmental capacity represents a major challenge for fertility clinics. Current methods for the assessment of embryo competence are proven inefficient, and the inadvertent transfer of non-viable embryos is the principal reason why most IVF treatments (approximately two-thirds) end in failure. In this study, we investigate how the application of proteomic measurements could improve success rates in clinical embryology. We describe a procedure that allows the identification and quantification of proteins of embryonic origin, present in attomole concentrations in the blastocoel, the enclosed fluid-filled cavity that forms within 5-day-old human embryos. By using targeted proteomics, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying multiple proteins in samples derived from single blastocoels and that such measurements correlate with aspects of embryo viability, such as chromosomal (ploidy) status. This study illustrates the potential of high-sensitivity proteomics to measure clinically relevant biomarkers in minute samples and, more specifically, suggests that key aspects of embryo competence could be measured using a proteomic-based strategy, with negligible risk of harm to the living embryo. Our work paves the way for the development of "next-generation" embryo competence assessment strategies, based on functional proteomics. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Biomedical research with human embryos: changes in the legislation on assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Martínez, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with issues of research with human embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization in the context of the Spanish Law. The paper focuses on Act 14/2006 on techniques of human assisted reproduction, which replaces the previous Act from 1988. The author claims that the main goals of Act 14/2006 are, on the one hand, to eliminate the restrictions affecting research with human embryos put in place by Act 45/2003 and, on the other, to pave the way for a future legislation on biomedical research. This paper argues for the need of an effective and adequate juridical protection of human embryos obtained in vitro according to responsibility and precautionary principles.

  17. Morphometric analysis of human embryos to predict developmental competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    pregnancy test, no matter what we choose in the laboratory. Still, both with the increasing complexity of infertile patients treated today and the important focus on reducing multiple pregnancies, it becomes increasingly important to improve our ability to predict the developmental competence of each embryo....... This involves an improved understanding of the basic biology controlling early embryonic development and, over the years, many groups have tried to identify parameters reflecting embryonic competence....

  18. Composition of commercial media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Krisher, Rebecca L; Herrick, Jason R; Baumann, Nikola A; Matern, Dietrich; Moyer, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    To determine the composition of commercially available culture media and test whether differences in composition are biologically relevant in a murine model. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Cryopreserved hybrid mouse one-cell embryos were used in experiments. Amino acid, organic acid, ions, and metal content were determined for two different lots of media from Cook, In Vitro Care, Origio, Sage, Vitrolife, Irvine CSC, and Global. To determine whether differences in the composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were thawed and cultured for 120 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in the presence or absence of protein in an EmbryoScope time-lapse incubator. The compositions of seven culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 39 individual amino acids, organic acids, ions, and elements. Blastocyst rates and cell cycle timings were calculated at 96 hours of culture, and the experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the 39 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium were present in variable concentrations, likely reflecting differences in the interpretation of animal studies. Essential trace elements, such as copper and zinc, were not detected. Mouse embryos failed to develop in one culture medium and were differentially affected by oxygen in two other media. Culture media composition varies widely, with differences in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids especially notable. Blastocyst development was culture media dependent and showed an interaction with oxygen concentration and presence of protein. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic profiles of polypeptides of human oocytes and normal and abnormal preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Bolton, V N

    1999-09-01

    There is considerable variation in the rate of development in vitro of individual preimplantation human embryos. The relationship between the rate of development and patterns of polypeptide synthesis in individual embryos was examined using SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. After incubation in [35S]methionine, 19 polypeptide bands were identified that change between fertilization and the morula stage. Although changes in two of the bands occurred in embryos that were developing normally and in ageing oocytes, and are thus independent of fertilization, the changes identified in the remaining 17 bands occurred only after fertilization. In embryos that were developing abnormally, as assessed by delayed cleavage, cleavage arrest or extensive fragmentation, the alteration in polypeptide synthetic profiles increased with increasing abnormality.

  20. Human developmental anatomy: microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) of four human embryos (from Carnegie Stage 10 to 20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuaire, Martin; Martinez, Agathe; Kaplan, Hervé; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renard, Yohann; Tonnelet, Romain; Braun, Marc; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances in the field of biological imaging now allow multi-modal studies of human embryo anatomy. The aim of this study was to assess the high magnetic field μMRI feasibility in the study of small human embryos (less than 21mm crown-rump) as a new tool for the study of human descriptive embryology and to determine better sequence characteristics to obtain higher spatial resolution and higher signal/noise ratio. Morphological study of four human embryos belonging to the historical collection of the Department of Anatomy in the Faculty of Medicine of Reims was undertaken by μMRI. These embryos had, successively, crown-rump lengths of 3mm (Carnegie Stage, CS 10), 12mm (CS 16), 17mm (CS 18) and 21mm (CS 20). Acquisition of images was performed using a vertical nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, a Bruker Avance III, 500MHz, 11.7T equipped for imaging. All images were acquired using 2D (transverse, sagittal and coronal) and 3D sequences, either T1-weighted or T2-weighted. Spatial resolution between 24 and 70μm/pixel allowed clear visualization of all anatomical structures of the embryos. The study of human embryos μMRI has already been reported in the literature and a few atlases exist for educational purposes. However, to our knowledge, descriptive or morphological studies of human developmental anatomy based on data collected these few μMRI studies of human embryos are rare. This morphological noninvasive imaging method coupled with other techniques already reported seems to offer new perspectives to descriptive studies of human embryology.

  1. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehannah Borup

    Full Text Available By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC and cumulus cell (CC transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth and non-competent (no pregnancy oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments.A case-control study.University based facilities for clinical services and research.MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study.MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set.We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level.We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on external data. This suggests that the gene signature at

  2. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M. J.; Wong, K. M.; van Montfoort, A. P. A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation embryos than the culture medium or

  3. Xenotransplantation of human adipose-derived stem cells in zebrafish embryos.

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    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is a widely used animal model with well-characterized background in developmental biology. The fate of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs after their xenotransplantation into the developing embryos of zebrafish is unknown. Therefore, human ADSCs were firstly isolated, and then transduced with lentiviral vector system carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene, and followed by detection of their cell viability and the expression of cell surface antigens. These GFP-expressing human ADSCs were transplanted into the zebrafish embryos at 3.3-4.3 hour post-fertilization (hpf. Green fluorescent signal, the proliferation and differentiation of human ADSCs in recipient embryos were respectively examined using fluorescent microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that human ADSCs did not change their cell viability and the expression levels of cell surface antigens after GFP transduction. Microscopic examination demonstrated that green fluorescent signals of GFP expressed in the transplanted cells were observed in the embryos and larva fish at post-transplantation. The positive staining of Ki-67 revealed the survival and proliferation of human ADSCs in fish larvae after transplantation. The expression of CD105 was observable in the xenotransplanted ADSCs, but CD31 expression was undetectable. Therefore, our results indicate that human ADSCs xenotransplanted in the zebrafish embryos not only can survive and proliferate at across-species circumstance, but also seem to maintain their undifferentiation status in a short term. This xenograft model of zebrafish embryos may provide a promising and useful technical platform for the investigation of biology and physiology of stem cells in vivo.

  4. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

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    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  5. Caspase activity and expression of cell death genes during development of human preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, S; Rice, S; Karagiannis, P; Taylor, D; Becker, D L; Winston, R M L; Hardy, K

    2002-09-01

    It has been observed that apoptosis occurs in human blastocysts. In other types of cell, the characteristic morphological changes seen in apoptotic cells are executed by caspases, which are regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins. This study investigated whether these components of the apoptotic cascade are present throughout human preimplantation development. Developing and arrested two pronucleate embryos at all stages were incubated with a fluorescently tagged caspase inhibitor that binds only to active caspases, fixed, counterstained with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to assess nuclear morphology and examined using confocal microscopy. Active caspases were detected only after compaction, at the morula and blastocyst stages, and were frequently associated with apoptotic nuclei. Occasional labelling was seen in arrested embryos. Expression of proapoptotic BAX and BAD and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 was examined in single embryos using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. BAX and BCL-2 mRNAs were expressed throughout development, whereas BAD mRNA was expressed mainly after compaction. Simultaneous expression of BAX and BCL-2 proteins within individual embryos was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The onset of caspase activity and BAD expression after compaction correlates with the previously reported appearance of apoptotic nuclei. As in other types of cell, human embryos express common molecular components of the apoptotic cascade, although apoptosis appears to be suppressed before compaction and differentiation.

  6. Imaging of a large collection of human embryo using a super-parallel MR microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Ono, Shinya; Otake, Yosuke; Handa, Shinya; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Shigeto; Uwabe, Chikako; Shiota, Kohei

    2007-01-01

    Using 4 and 8-channel super-parallel magnetic resonance (MR) microscopes with a horizontal bore 2.34T superconducting magnet developed for 3-dimensional MR microscopy of the large Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos, we acquired T 1 -weighted 3D images of 1204 embryos at a spatial resolution of (40 μm) 3 to (150 μm) 3 in about 2 years. Similarity of image contrast between the T 1 -weighted images and stained anatomical sections indicated that T 1 -weighted 3D images could be used for an anatomical 3D image database for human embryology. (author)

  7. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  8. Transient expression and activity of human DNA polymerase iota in loach embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Irina V; Kazakov, Andrey A; Makarova, Alena V; Khaidarova, Nella V; Kozikova, Larisa V; Nenasheva, Valentina V; Gening, Leonid V; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z; Andreeva, Ludmila E

    2012-02-01

    Human DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) is a Y-family DNA polymerase with unusual biochemical properties and not fully understood functions. Pol ι preferentially incorporates dGTP opposite template thymine. This property can be used to monitor Pol ι activity in the presence of other DNA polymerases, e.g. in cell extracts of tissues and tumors. We have now confirmed the specificity and sensitivity of the method of Pol ι activity detection in cell extracts using an animal model of loach Misgurnus fossilis embryos transiently expressing human Pol ι. The overexpression of Pol ι was shown to be accompanied by an increase in abnormalities in development and the frequency of pycnotic nuclei in fish embryos. Further analysis of fish embryos with constitutive or regulated Pol ι expression may provide insights into Pol ι functions in vertebrate animals.

  9. Promoting Cas9 degradation reduces mosaic mutations in non-human primate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhuchi; Yang, Weili; Yan, Sen; Yin, An; Gao, Jinquan; Liu, Xudong; Zheng, Yinghui; Zheng, Jiezhao; Li, Zhujun; Yang, Su; Li, Shihua; Guo, Xiangyu; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 is a powerful new tool for genome editing, but this technique creates mosaic mutations that affect the efficiency and precision of its ability to edit the genome. Reducing mosaic mutations is particularly important for gene therapy and precision genome editing. Although the mechanisms underlying the CRSIPR/Cas9-mediated mosaic mutations remain elusive, the prolonged expression and activity of Cas9 in embryos could contribute to mosaicism in DNA mutations. Here we report that tagging Cas9 with ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation signals can facilitate the degradation of Cas9 in non-human primate embryos. Using embryo-splitting approach, we found that shortening the half-life of Cas9 in fertilized zygotes reduces mosaic mutations and increases its ability to modify genomes in non-human primate embryos. Also, injection of modified Cas9 in one-cell embryos leads to live monkeys with the targeted gene modifications. Our findings suggest that modifying Cas9 activity can be an effective strategy to enhance precision genome editing. PMID:28155910

  10. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus.

  11. The developmental relationship between the deciduous dentition and the oral vestibule in human embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovořáková, Mária; Lesot, H.; Peterka, Miroslav; Peterková, Renata

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 209, č. 4 (2005), s. 303-313 ISSN 0340-2061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA MŠk(CZ) OC B23.002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : human embryo * tooth development Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.255, year: 2005

  12. Effect of in vitro culture of human embryos on birthweight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, John C.; Land, Jolande A.; Van Montfoort, Aafke P.; Nelissen, Ewka C.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Schreurs, Inge L.; Dunselman, Gerard A.; Kester, Arnold D.; Geraedts, Joep P.; Evers, Johannes L.

    In animal models, in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos has been shown to be a risk factor for abnormal fetal outcome, including high and low birthweight. In the human, mean birthweight of singletons after in vitro fertilization (IVF) is considerably lower than after natural conception, but it

  13. Characterization of bovine embryos cultured under conditions appropriate for sustaining human naïve pluripotency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Bas; van Tol, Helena T A; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Wubbolts, Richard W; Haagsman, Henk P; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian preimplantation development, pluripotent cells are set aside from cells that contribute to extra-embryonic tissues. Although the pluripotent cell population of mouse and human embryos can be cultured as embryonic stem cells, little is known about the pathways involved in formation of a

  14. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  15. No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Susanne; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Holm, Frida; Bergström, Rosita; Eklund, Linda; Strömberg, Anne-Marie; Hovatta, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Background The large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo quality is important as regards the likelihood of pregnancy, but there is little information regarding likelihood of stem cell derivation. Methods We evaluated the relationship of pronuclear zygote stage, the score based on embryo morphology and developmental rate at cleavage state, and the morphology of the blastocyst at the time of donation to stem cell research, to see how they correlated to successful establishment of new hESC lines. Results Derivation of hESC lines succeeded from poor quality and good quality embryos in the same extent. In several blastocysts, no real inner cell mass (ICM) was seen, but permanent well growing hESC lines could be established. One tripronuclear (3PN) zygote, which developed to blastocyst stage, gave origin to a karyotypically normal hESC line. Conclusion Even very poor quality embryos with few cells in the ICM can give origin to hESC lines. PMID:21217828

  16. Ultrastructural dynamics of human reproduction, from ovulation to fertilization and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Nottola, Stefania A; Sathananthan, A Henry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the updated, fine structure of human gametes, the human fertilization process, and human embryos, mainly derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART). As clearly shown, the ultrastructure of human reproduction is a peculiar multistep process, which differs in part from that of other mammalian models, having some unique features. Particular attention has been devoted to the (1) sperm ultrastructure, likely "Tygerberg (Kruger) strict morphology criteria"; (2) mature oocyte, in which the MII spindle is barrel shaped, anastral, and lacking centrioles; (3) three-dimensional microarchitecture of the zona pellucida with its unique supramolecular filamentous organization; (4) sperm-egg interactions with the peculiarity of the sperm centrosome that activates the egg and organizes the sperm aster and mitotic spindles of the embryo; and (5) presence of viable cumulus cells whose metabolic activity is closely related to egg and embryo behavior in in vitro as well as in vivo conditions, in a sort of extraovarian "microfollicular unit." Even if the ultrastructural morphodynamic features of human fertilization are well understood, our knowledge about in vivo fertilization is still very limited and the complex sequence of in vivo biological steps involved in human reproduction is only partially reproduced in current ART procedures.

  17. In vitro development of donated frozen-thawed human embryos in a prototype static microfluidic device: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslinger, Dorit C; Hao, Zhenxia; Vergouw, Carlijn G; Kostelijk, Elisabeth H; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Le Gac, Séverine

    2015-03-01

    To compare the development of human embryos in microfluidic devices with culture in standard microdrop dishes, both under static conditions. Prospective randomized controlled trial. In vitro fertilization laboratory. One hundred eighteen donated frozen-thawed human day-4 embryos. Random allocation of embryos that fulfilled the inclusion criteria to single-embryo culture in a microfluidics device (n = 58) or standard microdrop dish (n = 60). Blastocyst formation rate and quality after 24, 28, 48, and 72 hours of culture. The percentage of frozen-thawed day-4 embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage did not differ significantly in the standard microdrop dishes and microfluidic devices after 28 hours of culture (53.3% vs. 58.6%) or at any of the other time points. The proportion of embryos that would have been suitable for embryo transfer was comparable after 28 hours of culture in the control dishes and microfluidic devices (90.0% vs. 93.1%). Furthermore, blastocyst quality was similar in the two study groups. This study shows that a microfluidic device can successfully support human blastocyst development in vitro under static culture conditions. Future studies need to clarify whether earlier stage embryos will benefit from the culture in microfluidic devices more than the tested day-4 embryos because many important steps in the development of human embryos already take place before day 4. Further improvements of the microfluidic device will include parallel culture of single embryos, application of medium refreshment, and built-in sensors. NTR3867. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Bazrgar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results: Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%, while 2(6.7% were diploid, and 2(6.7% were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5% were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5% were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05; however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion: Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells.

  19. Time-lapse cinematography of dynamic changes occurring during in vitro development of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify developmental changes of early human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). For human ova, fertilization and cleavage, development of the blastocyst, and hatching, as well as consequent changes were repeatedly photographed at intervals of 5-6 days by using an inverse microscope under stabilized temperature and pH. Photographs were taken at 30 frames per second and the movies were studied. Cinematography has increased our understanding of the morphologic mechanisms of fertilization, development, and behavior of early human embryos, and has identified the increased risk of monozygotic twin pregnancy based on prolonged incubation in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Using TLC, we observed the fertilization of an ovum by a single spermatozoon, followed by early cleavages, formation of the morula, blastocyst hatching, changes in the embryonic plates, and the development of monozygotic twins from the incubated blastocysts.

  20. Immunoprotection of gonads and genital tracts in human embryos and fetuses: immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A; Ben-Hur, H; Moldavsky, M; Szvalb, S; Berman, V; Zusman, I

    2001-12-01

    The immune protection of genital organs in embryogenesis has not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of the secretory immune system (SIS) in the gonads and genital tracts of human embryos and fetuses. Developing gonads at different stages and genital tracts from 18 embryos and 39 fetuses in the first to third trimester of gestation were analyzed for presence of different component of SIS: secretory component (SC), joining (J) chain. IgA, IgM, IgG, macrophages, and subsets of lymphocytes. The material was divided into two groups: cases not subjected to foreign antigenic effects (group I, n = 31) and those under antigenic attack (chorioamnionitis, group II, n = 26). In embryos and fetuses of group I, SC, J chain, and IgG were seen in the epithelium of mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts, proliferating coelomic epithelium, epithelium of the uterine tubes and uterus, epithelium of the vas deferens, epididymis, and rete testis. IgA and IgM appeared in 6-week-old embryos. J chain, IgA, IgM, and IgG, but not SC, were found in the primary oocytes and oogonia, spermatogonia. and interstitial cells. An abundance of macrophages was seen in 4-week-old embryos. T and B lymphocytes first appeared in 6-7-week-old embryos. In embryos and fetuses of group II, reactivity of immunoglobulins (Igs) decreased until they disappeared altogether. Components of SIS were seen in genital organs in 4-5-week-old embryos and were present during the whole intrauterine period. We suggest the presence of two forms of immune protection of fetal genital organs. One form contains SC, J chain, and Igs and is present in the genital tract epithelium. The second form contains only J chain and Igs and is present in germ cells of gonads. The loss of Igs in cases with chorioamnionitis reflects the functional participation of the SIS of genital organs in response to antigen attack.

  1. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C

    2017-11-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N. vitripennis (Nv-tra2) and confirm its function in N. vitripennis sex determination. Knock down of Nv-tra2 by parental RNA interference (pRNAi) results in complete sex reversal of diploid offspring from female to male, indicating the requirement of Nv-tra2 for female sex determination. As Nv-tra2 pRNAi leads to frequent lethality in early developmental stages, maternal provision of Nv-tra2 transcripts is apparently also required for another, non-sex determining function during embryogenesis. In addition, lethality following Nv-tra2 pRNAi appears more pronounced in diploid than in haploid offspring. This diploid lethal effect was also observed following Nv-tra pRNAi, which served as a positive control in our experiments. As diploid embryos from fertilized eggs have a paternal chromosome set in addition to the maternal one, this suggests that either the presence of this paternal chromosome set or the dosage effect resulting from the diploid state is incompatible with the induced male development in N. vitripennis caused by either Nv-tra2 or Nv-tra pRNAi. The role of Nv-tra2 in activating the female sex determination pathway yields more insight into the sex determination mechanism of Nasonia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Human embryos secrete microRNAs into culture media--a potential biomarker for implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Evan M; Shelton, Dawne N; Wells, Lindsay M; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether human blastocysts secrete microRNA (miRNAs) into culture media and whether these reflect embryonic ploidy status and can predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Experimental study of human embryos and IVF culture media. Academic IVF program. 91 donated, cryopreserved embryos that developed into 28 tested blastocysts, from 13 couples who had previously completed IVF cycles. None. Relative miRNA expression in IVF culture media. Blastocysts were assessed by chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization analysis, and the culture media from 55 single-embryo transfer cycles was tested for miRNA expression using an array-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the identified miRNA was correlated with pregnancy outcomes. Ten miRNA were identified in the culture media; two were specific to spent media (miR-191 and miR-372), and one was only present in media before the embryos had been cultured (miR-645). MicroRNA-191 was more highly concentrated in media from aneuploid embryos, and miR-191, miR-372, and miR-645 were more highly concentrated in media from failed IVF/non-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Additionally, miRNA were found to be more highly concentrated in ICSI and day-5 media samples when compared with regularly inseminated and day-4 samples, respectively. MicroRNA can be detected in IVF culture media. Some of these miRNA are differentially expressed according to the fertilization method, chromosomal status, and pregnancy outcome, which makes them potential biomarkers for predicting IVF success. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of seminal plasma to female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology cycles (IVF, ICSI and frozen embryo transfer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Seyhan, Ayse; Buckett, William

    2018-02-28

    The female genital tract is not exposed to seminal plasma during standard assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. However, it is thought that the inflammatory reaction triggered by seminal plasma may be beneficial by inducing maternal tolerance to paternal antigens expressed by the products of conception, and may increase the chance of successful implantation and live birth. To assess the effectiveness and safety of application of seminal plasma to the female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in ART cycles. We searched the following databases from inception to October 2017: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Studies Online (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials, including International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Other sources searched were; Web of Knowledge, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, Google Scholar and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among women undergoing ART, comparing any procedure that would expose the female genital tract to seminal plasma during the period starting five days before embryo transfer and ending two days after it versus no seminal plasma application. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We pooled data to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I 2 statistic. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using GRADE methods. Our primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate. Secondary outcomes were live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and the incidence of other adverse events. We included 11 RCTs (3215 women). The quality of the evidence ranged

  4. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  5. Virtual embryology: a 3D library reconstructed from human embryo sections and animation of development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, M; Miura, T; Shiota, K; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    The volumetric shape of a human embryo and its development is hard to comprehend as they have been viewed as a 2D schemes in a textbook or microscopic sectional image. In this paper, a CAI and research support system for human embryology using multimedia presentation techniques is described. In this system, 3D data is acquired from a series of sliced specimens. Its 3D structure can be viewed interactively by rotating, extracting, and truncating its whole body or organ. Moreover, the development process of embryos can be animated using a morphing technique applied to the specimen in several stages. The system is intended to be used interactively, like a virtual reality system. Hence, the system is called Virtual Embryology.

  6. Human interleukin for DA cells or leukemia inhibitory factor is released by Vero cells in human embryo coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaxanthos-Roche, A; Taupin, J L; Mayer, G; Daniel, J Y; Moreau, J F

    1994-09-01

    In the light of the newly discovered implications of human interleukin for DA cells and leukemia inhibitory factor in embryology, we searched for the presence of this soluble cytokine in the supernatant of Vero cell coculture systems. Using a bioassay as well as a specific ELISA, we demonstrated that Vero cells are able to release large quantities of human interleukin for DA cells and leukemia inhibitory factor in the embryo-growing medium of such cocultures.

  7. Is the creation of admixed embryos "an offense against human dignity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the creation of admixed human-nonhuman embryos, and specifically of what have been termed "cybrids," involves a range of ethical and political issues. It is not reducible to a single question. This paper focuses on one question raised by that controversy, whether creating admixed human-nonhuman entities is "an offense against human dignity. "In the last decade there has been sustained criticism of the use of the concept of human dignity within bioethics. The concept has been criticized as "vague" and "useless." Nevertheless, the concept continues to be invoked in bioethical discussion and in international instruments. This paper defends a concept of human dignity that is coherent but that is wider than contemporary post-Kantian approaches. "Human dignity" is best regarded as having a set of analogically related meanings, more than one of which is relevant to the field of bioethics. A more subtle understanding of the concept of human dignity can help identify what is ethically problematic in human-nonhuman combinations and so shed light on one aspect of the admixed embryo debate.

  8. Cytological techniques to study human female meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.

  9. Imprinted Expression of SNRPN in Human Preimplantation Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Huntriss, John; Daniels, Robert; Bolton, Virginia; Monk, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two clinically distinct neurogenetic disorders arising from a loss of expression of imprinted genes within the human chromosome region 15q11-q13. Recent evidence suggests that the SNRPN gene, which is defective in PWS, plays a central role in the imprinting-center regulation of the PWS/AS region. To increase our understanding of the regulation of expression of this imprinted gene, we have developed single-cell-sensitive procedures for...

  10. Estimating limits for natural human embryo mortality [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural human embryonic mortality is generally considered to be high. Values of 70% and higher are widely cited. However, it is difficult to determine accurately owing to an absence of direct data quantifying embryo loss between fertilisation and implantation. The best available data for quantifying pregnancy loss come from three published prospective studies (Wilcox, Zinaman and Wang with daily cycle by cycle monitoring of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG in women attempting to conceive. Declining conception rates cycle by cycle in these studies indicate that a proportion of the study participants were sub-fertile. Hence, estimates of fecundability and pre-implantation embryo mortality obtained from the whole study cohort will inevitably be biased. This new re-analysis of aggregate data from these studies confirms the impression that discrete fertile and sub-fertile sub-cohorts were present. The proportion of sub-fertile women in the three studies was estimated as 28.1% (Wilcox, 22.8% (Zinaman and 6.0% (Wang. The probability of conceiving an hCG pregnancy (indicating embryo implantation was, respectively, 43.2%, 38.1% and 46.2% among normally fertile women, and 7.6%, 2.5% and 4.7% among sub-fertile women. Pre-implantation loss is impossible to calculate directly from available data although plausible limits can be estimated. Based on this new analysis and a model for evaluating reproductive success and failure it is proposed that a plausible range for normal human embryo and fetal mortality from fertilisation to birth is 40-60%.

  11. Expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 in the human cumulus cells as a biomarker of oocytes and embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirin B Demiray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the transforming growth factor-B superfamily, as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs subfamily and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, play a role during follicular development, and the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2, AMH, and THY1 are expressed in ovaries. Aim: This study was designed to define whether or not the expressions of these proteins in human cumulus cells (CCs can be used as predictors of the oocyte and embryo competence. Settings and Design: The study included nine female patients who were diagnosed as idiopathic infertility, aged 25–33 years (median 30 years and underwent Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Materials and Methods: The CCs from 60 oocyte–cumulus complexes obtained from the nine patients were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining in respect of BMPs, AMH and THY1 markers. The CCs surrounding the same oocytes were evaluated separately according to the oocyte and embryo quality. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative data were statistically analyzed for differences using the two-sided Mann–Whitney U test (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences in immunofluorescence staining were observed in oocyte quality and embryo quality for the BMP2 only (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed for AMH or CD90/THY1. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the expression of BMP2 in the CCs of good quality oocytes and subsequently a good embryo.

  12. Trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting by quantitative real-time PCR successfully distinguishes sibling human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard T; Su, Jing; Tao, Xin; Forman, Eric J; Hong, Kathleen H; Taylor, Deanne; Treff, Nathan R

    2014-11-01

    To validate a novel and more practical system for trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting which reliably distinguishes sibling embryos from each other. In this prospective and blinded study two-cell and 5-cell samples from commercially available sibling cell lines and excess DNA from trophectoderm biopsies of sibling human blastocysts were evaluated for accurate assignment of relationship using qPCR-based allelic discrimination from 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with low allele frequency variation and high heterozygosity. Cell samples with self relationships averaged 95.1 ± 5.9 % similarity. Sibling relationships averaged 57.2 ± 5.9 % similarity for all 40 SNPs, and 40.8 ± 8.2 % similarity for the 25 informative SNPs. Assignment of relationships was accomplished with 100 % accuracy for cell lines and embryos. These data demonstrate the first trophectoderm qPCR-based DNA fingerprinting technology capable of unequivocal discrimination of sibling human embryos. This methodology will empower research and development of new markers of, and interventions that influence embryonic reproductive potential.

  13. Altered methanol embryopathies in embryo culture with mutant catalase-deficient mice and transgenic mice expressing human catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, unlike its acute toxicity in humans, are unclear, but may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). Embryonic catalase, although expressed at about 5% of maternal activity, may protect the embryo by detoxifying ROS. This hypothesis was investigated in whole embryo culture to remove confounding maternal factors, including metabolism of MeOH by maternal catalase. C57BL/6 (C57) mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Catb/J acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 4 mg/ml MeOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally. MeOH was embryopathic in C57 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed and turning, whereas hCat embryos were protected. Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to C3H WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. MeOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, with reduced anterior neuropore closure and head length only in catalase-deficient embryos. These data suggest that ROS may be involved in the embryopathic mechanism of methanol, and that embryonic catalase activity may be a determinant of teratological risk.

  14. Predictive value of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies have been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day......-2 embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after the most commonly used Day-2 SET on pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal outcome. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 466 women who had...... p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after Day-2 SET during a randomized trial including 1050 unselected women (aged 18–40 years) undergoing their first in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. Results: The p-hCG predicted clinical pregnancy [area under the curve (AUC) 0.953; 95...

  15. No-Disjunction and loss of anafasica Hamster-human hybrid embryos of two cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsa, I.; Tusell, L.; Alvarez, R.; Genesca, A.; Miro, R.; Egozcue, J.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possible effect anafasica the ionizing radiations in masculine germinal cells a new test it has been developed combining two techniques, the fecundation interspecific gives ovocitos hamster without area pellucid with human sperms and the fluorescent in situ hybridization in cells in interface using probes gives DNA specific centrometricas. Analyzing the segregation gives the chromosomes marked in the embryos two cells, you can detect the reciprocal products easily an anomalous segregation. Give this way the recount the fluorescent signs in the nuclei siblings and in the micronucleus it provides an esteem the due aneuploidy to errors meiotic or premiotic, with this way the resulting aneuploidy the errors in the first division mitotic the embryos, as much no-disjunction as lost anafasica

  16. Research ethics in Canada: experience of a group operating a human embryo and fetal tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, N; Bamforth, S; Bagnall, K

    1999-04-01

    A Canadian research group is establishing a human embryo and fetal tissue bank. Its purpose is to provide researchers with frozen or fixed tissue specimens for use in protein and gene expression studies. Several legal and ethical issues have arisen, including questions about consent, use of these rare tissues, cost recovery, and profit-making. These issues are discussed here in light of the present lack of legislation in Canada. We make recommendations in these areas, and suggest that the bank's operations could legally fall under the jurisdiction of the Human Tissue Gift Act.

  17. Culture media for human pre-implantation embryos in assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed M A; Mantikou, Eleni; van Wely, Madelon; Van der Veen, Fulco; Al-Inany, Hesham G; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2015-11-20

    Many media are commercially available for culturing pre-implantation human embryos in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. It is unknown which culture medium leads to the best success rates after ART. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of different human pre-implantation embryo culture media in used for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the National Research Register, the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Register and the NHS Center for Reviews and Dissemination databases from January 1985 to March 2015. We also examined the reference lists of all known primary studies, review articles, citation lists of relevant publications and abstracts of major scientific meetings. We included all randomised controlled trials which randomised women, oocytes or embryos and compared any two commercially available culture media for human pre-implantation embryos in an IVF or ICSI programme. Two review authors independently selected the studies, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data. We sought additional information from the authors if necessary. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. The primary review outcome was live birth or ongoing pregnancy. We included 32 studies in this review. Seventeen studies randomised women (total 3666), three randomised cycles (total 1018) and twelve randomised oocytes (over 15,230). It was not possible to pool any of the data because each study compared different culture media.Only seven studies reported live birth or ongoing pregnancy. Four of these studies found no evidence of a difference between the media compared, for either day three or day five embryo transfer. The data from the fifth study did not appear reliable

  18. Congenital malformations in embryos of female mice exposed to alcohol and nicotinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Soares Simões dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the incidence of congenital malformations among the offspring of female mice exposed to alcohol or alcohol plus nicotinamide. Methods: Three groups of pregnant C57BL/6J mice were studied; G1 received alcohol (5 g/kg in saline solution (20% - vol/vol; G2 received nicotinamide, 50 mg/ml associated to alcohol; and G3, only saline solution; all by intraperitoneal injection on the seventh day of pregnancy. The animals were killed in a CO2 chamber on day 18 of pregnancy. The intrauterine content was assessed and the number of complete and reabsorbed fetuses was counted. The complete fetuses had their weight and crown-rump length measured and malformations were identified. Rresults: G1 showed the highest number of malformations: micrognathia, low set ears, hypertrophic nose, scoliosis, and atrophy of the lower and upper limbs. Weight was significantly different among the groups (p = 0.0139, and in G1 it was below average as compared to G3 (p = 0.3133. As for length, the lowest values were found in G2 and G3 showed the highest ones. There was a significant difference among the groups (p = 0.0145. Cconclusions: Ethanol, when administered to pregnant mice was teratogenic. However, length of G1 fetuses was, in average, higher than that of other groups. Nicotinamide decreased the number of malformations and may be a possible protector against alcohol effects.

  19. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid R. Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1 regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues.

  20. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data.

  1. Characterization of membrane lipid fluidity in human embryo cells malignantly transfer med post 238Pu α irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zirong; Sun Ling; Liu Guolian; Shen Zhiyuan

    1992-01-01

    The membrane lipid fluidity of malignantly transformed human embryo cells following 238 Pu α particlce irradiation in vitro has been studied. The results indicate that the ontogenesis depends on irradiation dose (Gy) and the membrane lipid fluidity in malignantly transformed cells is higher than that in normal embryo cells. With the microviscosity (η) of cells plotted against the cell counts, the correlation coefficient (γ) is calculated to be between 0.9936 and 0.9999. Since the malignant transformation of irradiated embryo cells is manifested early on cell membrane lipid, the fluidity of membrane lipid can be used as an oncologic marker

  2. Graphic and movie illustrations of human prenatal development and their application to embryological education based on the human embryo specimens in the Kyoto collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Nakatsu-Komatsu, Tomoko; Minekura, Yutaka; Iwakura, Masaji; Motoki, Tamaki; Nishimiya, Kazuhiko; Iiyama, Masaaki; Kakusho, Koh; Minoh, Michihiko; Mizuta, Shinobu; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Kose, Katsumi; Fujii, Shingo; Shiota, Kohei

    2006-02-01

    Morphogenesis in the developing embryo takes place in three dimensions, and in addition, the dimension of time is another important factor in development. Therefore, the presentation of sequential morphological changes occurring in the embryo (4D visualization) is essential for understanding the complex morphogenetic events and the underlying mechanisms. Until recently, 3D visualization of embryonic structures was possible only by reconstruction from serial histological sections, which was tedious and time-consuming. During the past two decades, 3D imaging techniques have made significant advances thanks to the progress in imaging and computer technologies, computer graphics, and other related techniques. Such novel tools have enabled precise visualization of the 3D topology of embryonic structures and to demonstrate spatiotemporal 4D sequences of organogenesis. Here, we describe a project in which staged human embryos are imaged by the magnetic resonance (MR) microscope, and 3D images of embryos and their organs at each developmental stage were reconstructed based on the MR data, with the aid of computer graphics techniques. On the basis of the 3D models of staged human embryos, we constructed a data set of 3D images of human embryos and made movies to illustrate the sequential process of human morphogenesis. Furthermore, a computer-based self-learning program of human embryology is being developed for educational purposes, using the photographs, histological sections, MR images, and 3D models of staged human embryos. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Tripolar mitosis in human cells and embryos: occurrence, pathophysiology and medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatova, Beata; Jesenska, Renata; Hlinka, Daniel; Dudas, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Tripolar mitosis is a specific case of cell division driven by typical molecular mechanisms of mitosis, but resulting in three daughter cells instead of the usual count of two. Other variants of multipolar mitosis show even more mitotic poles and are relatively rare. In nature, this phenomenon was frequently observed or suspected in multiple common cancers, infected cells, the placenta, and in early human embryos with impaired pregnancy-yielding potential. Artificial causes include radiation and various toxins. Here we combine several pieces of the most recent evidence for the existence of different types of multipolar mitosis in preimplantation embryos together with a detailed review of the literature. The related molecular and cellular mechanisms are discussed, including the regulation of centriole duplication, mitotic spindle biology, centromere functions, cell cycle checkpoints, mitotic autocorrection mechanisms, and the related complicating factors in healthy and affected cells, including post-mitotic cell-cell fusion often associated with multipolar cell division. Clinical relevance for oncology and embryo selection in assisted reproduction is also briefly discussed in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The real females of human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-11-01

    When "woman-the-gatherer" was first proposed as a counter to "man-the-hunter," we were only beginning to understand the many faces of primate females. In ensuing decades we have learned about the skills and talents of female chimpanzees in tool using, hunting, and transmitting behaviors from one generation to the next as teachers, and across space as newcomers to neighboring communities. The perspective of evolutionary time highlights the continuity of female lives from the origin of mammals to the origin of Homo sapiens. The combination of behavioral, fossil, and archeological information aid in reconstructing key ingredients acquired by females along the way that contributed to the success of our species. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat(b)/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug=GD 1), exposed for 24h to 2 or 4mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (pcatalase (PEG-cat) 8h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (pcatalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition of single-step media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Baumann, Nikola A; Oglesbee, Devin

    2017-04-01

    To determine compositions of commercial single-step culture media and test with a murine model whether differences in composition are biologically relevant. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Inbred female mice were superovulated and mated with outbred male mice. Amino acid, organic acid, and ions content were determined for single-step culture media: CSC, Global, G-TL, and 1-Step. To determine whether differences in composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were cultured for 96 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in a time-lapse incubator. Compositions of four culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 30 amino acids, organic acids, and ions. Blastocysts at 96 hours of culture and cell cycle timings were calculated, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the more than 30 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium varied in concentrations. Mouse embryos were differentially affected by oxygen in G-TL and 1-Step. Four single-step culture media have compositions that vary notably in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids. Blastocyst development was affected by culture media and its interaction with oxygen concentration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Functional Assay for Putative Mouse and Human Definitive Endoderm using Chick Whole-Embryo Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Martina; Semb, Tor Henrik; Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    . Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe a method whereby the in vivo functionality of DE derived from ESCs can be assessed. Methods: By directed differentiation, putative DE was derived from human and mouse ESCs. This putative DE was subsequently transplanted into the endoderm of chick embryos...... to determine any occurrence of integration. Putative DE was analyzed by gene and protein expression prior to transplantation and 48 h post transplantation. Results: Putative DE, derived from mouse and human ESCs, was successfully integrated within the chick endoderm. Endoderm-specific genes were expressed...... result show that putative DE integrates with the chick endoderm and participate in the development of the chicken gut, indicating the generation of functional DE from ESCs. This functional assay can be used to assess the generation of functional DE derived from both human and mouse ESCs and provides...

  8. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-31

    One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR) invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event) as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical operation. Finally, I will end the

  9. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical

  10. No specific gene expression signature in human granulosa and cumulus cells for prediction of oocyte fertilisation and embryo implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Burnik Papler

    Full Text Available In human IVF procedures objective and reliable biomarkers of oocyte and embryo quality are needed in order to increase the use of single embryo transfer (SET and thus prevent multiple pregnancies. During folliculogenesis there is an intense bi-directional communication between oocyte and follicular cells. For this reason gene expression profile of follicular cells could be an important indicator and biomarker of oocyte and embryo quality. The objective of this study was to identify gene expression signature(s in human granulosa (GC and cumulus (CC cells predictive of successful embryo implantation and oocyte fertilization. Forty-one patients were included in the study and individual GC and CC samples were collected; oocytes were cultivated separately, allowing a correlation with IVF outcome and elective SET was performed. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a quantitative real-time PCR validation. After statistical analysis of microarray data, there were no significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR<0,05 between non-fertilized and fertilized oocytes and non-implanted and implanted embryos in either of the cell type. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR were in consent with microarray data as there were no significant differences in gene expression of genes selected for validation. In conclusion, we did not find biomarkers for prediction of oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation in IVF procedures in the present study.

  11. Use of "excess" human embryos for stem cell research: protecting women's rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C B

    2000-01-01

    Proposed National Institutes of Health guidelines for stem cell research are too narrowly drawn and do not adequately protect the freedom of choice and health of women who donate embryos. They need to be expanded to cover not only the point of embryo donation, but also that of embryo creation. Guidelines are provided to ensure that donors undergoing hyperstimulation and egg retrieval gave voluntary informed consent to the production of embryos that might later prove in excess. A standard for determining when embryos have been overproduced is presented to address the possibility that additional embryos will be created for stem cell research in violation of the guidelines and at risk to women's health.

  12. Zona pellucida damage to human embryos after cryopreservation and the consequences for their blastomere survival and in-vitro viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Abbeel, E; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-02-01

    The study objective was to quantify zona pellucida (ZP) damage in cryopreserved human embryos. The influence of two different freezing containers was investigated, and the influence of freezing damage on the survival and viability of the embryos evaluated. ZP damage did not differ according to whether embryos originated from in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles or from IVF cycles in association with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The freezing container, however, significantly influenced the occurrence of ZP damage after cryopreservation. More damage was observed when the embryos were frozen-thawed using plastic cryovials than using plastic mini-straws (16.6% versus 2.3%; P plastic mini-straws. The further cleavage of frozen-thawed embryos suitable for transfer was not different whether there was ZP damage or not; however, it was higher when there was 100% blastomere survival as compared with when some blastomeres were damaged (79.0% versus 43.7%; P plastic mini-straws. In conclusion, the aim of a cryopreservation programme should be to have as many fully intact embryos as possible after thawing. Increased ZP damage might indicate a suboptimal cryopreservation procedure.

  13. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  14. Gene Coexpression and Evolutionary Conservation Analysis of the Human Preimplantation Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiancheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental biology (EVO-DEVO tries to decode evolutionary constraints on the stages of embryonic development. Two models—the “funnel-like” model and the “hourglass” model—have been proposed by investigators to illustrate the fluctuation of selective pressure on these stages. However, selective indices of stages corresponding to mammalian preimplantation embryonic development (PED were undetected in previous studies. Based on single cell RNA sequencing of stages during human PED, we used coexpression method to identify gene modules activated in each of these stages. Through measuring the evolutionary indices of gene modules belonging to each stage, we observed change pattern of selective constraints on PED for the first time. The selective pressure decreases from the zygote stage to the 4-cell stage and increases at the 8-cell stage and then decreases again from 8-cell stage to the late blastocyst stages. Previous EVO-DEVO studies concerning the whole embryo development neglected the fluctuation of selective pressure in these earlier stages, and the fluctuation was potentially correlated with events of earlier stages, such as zygote genome activation (ZGA. Such oscillation in an earlier stage would further affect models of the evolutionary constraints on whole embryo development. Therefore, these earlier stages should be measured intensively in future EVO-DEVO studies.

  15. Pregnancy derived from human zygote pronuclear transfer in a patient who had arrested embryos after IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John; Zhuang, Guanglun; Zeng, Yong; Grifo, Jamie; Acosta, Carlo; Shu, Yimin; Liu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear transfer of an oocyte into the cytoplasm of another enucleated oocyte has shown that embryogenesis and implantation are influenced by cytoplasmic factors. We report a case of a 30-year-old nulligravida woman who had two failed IVF cycles characterized by all her embryos arresting at the two-cell stage and ultimately had pronuclear transfer using donor oocytes. After her third IVF cycle, eight out of 12 patient oocytes and 12 out of 15 donor oocytes were fertilized. The patient's pronuclei were transferred subzonally into an enucleated donor cytoplasm resulting in seven reconstructed zygotes. Five viable reconstructed embryos were transferred into the patient's uterus resulting in a triplet pregnancy with fetal heartbeats, normal karyotypes and nuclear genetic fingerprinting matching the mother's genetic fingerprinting. Fetal mitochondrial DNA profiles were identical to those from donor cytoplasm with no detection of patient's mitochondrial DNA. This report suggests that a potentially viable pregnancy with normal karyotype can be achieved through pronuclear transfer. Ongoing work to establish the efficacy and safety of pronuclear transfer will result in its use as an aid for human reproduction. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical utilisation of a rapid low-pass whole genome sequencing technique for the diagnosis of aneuploidy in human embryos prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dagan; Kaur, Kulvinder; Grifo, Jamie; Glassner, Michael; Taylor, Jenny C; Fragouli, Elpida; Munne, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, the high cost of testing has restricted the availability of this potentially beneficial strategy. This study aimed to harness next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with the intention of lowering the costs of preimplantation aneuploidy screening. Embryo biopsy, whole genome amplification and semiconductor sequencing. A rapid (cost only two-thirds that of the most widely used method for embryo aneuploidy detection. Validation involved blinded analysis of 54 cells from cell lines or biopsies from human embryos. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The method was applied clinically, assisting in the selection of euploid embryos in two IVF cycles, producing healthy children in both cases. The NGS approach was also able to reveal specified mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes in parallel with chromosome assessment. Interestingly, elevated mitochondrial DNA content was associated with aneuploidy (pcost diagnosis of aneuploidy in cells from human preimplantation embryos and is rapid enough to allow testing without embryo cryopreservation. The method described also has the potential to shed light on other aspects of embryo genetics of relevance to health and viability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  18. Early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor in human embryos and fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebebrand, J.; Hofmann, D.; Reichelt, R.; Schnarr, S.; Knapp, M.; Propping, P.; Foedisch, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) was investigated in human embryos and fetuses between 7 and 26 weeks of gestation. Brain tissue was gained from terminated pregnancies or spontaneous abortions. Binding studies, which were performed with /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (FNZ), revealed that specific benzodiazepine binding is already detectable at an embryonal age of 7 weeks post conception. Binding at this early stage can be displaced potently by clonazepam and the inverse agonist ..beta..-CCE. Additionally, /sup 3/H-FNZ binding is enhanced by GABA. Thus, benzodiazepine binding is of the central type. Receptor density increases steeply in whole brain between weeks 8 and 11 of gestation. In frontal cortex receptor density increases gradually between weeks 12 and 26 of gestation. No specific fetal disease entity (including trisomy 21) was consistently associated with exceptionally high or low B/sub max/-values.

  19. DNA repair ability of cultured cells derived from mouse embryos in comparison with human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    DNA repair in mouse cells derived from embryos of 3 inbred strains were investigated in comparison with that in human cells. The levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV irradiation appeared to change at different passages, but capacities of host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus were always reduced to the same levels as those in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This implied that mouse cells are reduced in excision-repair capacities and that the apparently high levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis at certain passages are not quantitatively related to high levels of cell survival. Essentially no differences in DNA repair were noted among 3 strains - BALB/c, C3H/He and C57BL/10. (orig.)

  20. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat b /J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • EtOH developmental

  1. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat{sup b}/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • Et

  2. Eighteen-Year Cryopreservation Does Not Negatively Affect the Pluripotency of Human Embryos: Evidence from Embryonic Stem Cell Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Numchaisrika, Pranee; Ahnonkitpanit, Vichuda; Isarasena, Nipan; Virutamasen, Pramuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are considered to be a potential source for the therapy of human diseases, drug screening, and the study of developmental biology. In the present study, we successfully derived hES cell lines from blastocysts developed from frozen and fresh embryos. Seventeen- to eighteen-year-old frozen embryos were thawed, cultured to the blastocyst stage, and induced to form hES cells using human foreskin fibroblasts. The Chula2.hES cell line and the Chula4.hES and Chula5.hES cell lines were derived from blastocysts developed from frozen and fresh embryos, respectively. The cell lines expressed pluripotent markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), Oct3/4, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4, and tumor recognition antigen (TRA)-1-60 and TRA-1-81 as detected with immunocytochemistry. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the cell lines expressed pluripotent genes, including OCT3/4, SOX2, NANOG, UTF, LIN28, REX1, NODAL, and E-Cadherin. In addition, the telomerase activities of the cell lines were higher than in the fibroblast cells. Moreover, the cell lines differentiated into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The cell lines had distinct identities, as revealed with DNA fingerprinting, and maintained their normal karyotype after a long-term culture. This study is the first to report the successful derivation of hES cell lines in Thailand and that frozen embryos maintained their pluripotency similar to fresh embryos, as shown by the success of hES cell derivation, even after years of cryopreservation. Therefore, embryos from prolonged cryopreservation could be an alternative source for embryonic stem cell research. PMID:23514952

  3. Capturing Human Naïve Pluripotency in the Embryo and in the Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Park, Tea Soon; Zambidis, Elias T

    2017-08-15

    Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first derived almost 20 years ago, it was only recently acknowledged that they share closer molecular and functional identity to postimplantation lineage-primed murine epiblast stem cells than to naïve preimplantation inner cell mass-derived mouse ESCs (mESCs). A myriad of transcriptional, epigenetic, biochemical, and metabolic attributes have now been described that distinguish naïve and primed pluripotent states in both rodents and humans. Conventional hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) appear to lack many of the defining hallmarks of naïve mESCs. These include important features of the naïve ground state murine epiblast, such as an open epigenetic architecture, reduced lineage-primed gene expression, and chimera and germline competence following injection into a recipient blastocyst-stage embryo. Several transgenic and chemical methods were recently reported that appear to revert conventional human PSCs to mESC-like ground states. However, it remains unclear if subtle deviations in global transcription, cell signaling dependencies, and extent of epigenetic/metabolic shifts in these various human naïve-reverted pluripotent states represent true functional differences or alternatively the existence of distinct human pluripotent states along a spectrum. In this study, we review the current understanding and developmental features of various human pluripotency-associated phenotypes and discuss potential biological mechanisms that may support stable maintenance of an authentic epiblast-like ground state of human pluripotency.

  4. Presence of bile acids in human follicular fluid and their relation with embryo development in modified natural cycle IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, R. A.; van Montfoort, A. P. A.; Dikkers, A.; van Echten-Arends, J.; Homminga, I.; Land, J. A.; Hoek, A.; Tietge, U. J. F.

    STUDY QUESTION: Are bile acids (BA) and their respective subspecies present in human follicular fluid (FF) and do they relate to embryo quality in modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF)? SUMMARY ANSWER: BAconcentrations are 2-fold higher in follicular fluid than in serum and ursodeoxycholic acid

  5. In vitro development of donated frozen-thawed human embryos in a prototype static microfluidic device: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieslinger, Dorit C.; Hao, Zhenxia; Vergouw, Carlijn G.; Kostelijk, Elisabeth H.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; le Gac, Severine

    Objective: To compare the development of human embryos in microfluidic devices with culture in standard microdrop dishes, both under static conditions. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting: In vitro fertilization laboratory. Patient(s): One hundred eighteen donated frozen-thawed

  6. Do age and extended culture affect the architecture of the zona pellucida of human oocytes and embryos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Suha S; Cooke, Simon; Kan, Andrew K; Chapman, Michael G

    2006-02-01

    Advanced female age and extended in vitro culture have both been implicated in zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and thickening. This study aimed to determine the influence of (i) the woman's age and (ii) prolonged in vitro culture of embryos on ZP thickness and density using non-invasive polarized light (LC-PolScope) microscopy. ZP thickness and density (measured as retardance) were determined in oocytes, embryos and blastocysts in women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in two age groups (older, > 38 years; younger, vs 23.1 +/- 3.3 microm; p = 0.01) but ZP density was equal (2.8 +/- 0.7 nm). By day 2 of culture, embryos from the two groups had similar ZP thickness (22.2 +/- 2.2 microm vs 21.7 +/- 1.6 microm; p = 0.28) and density (2.9 +/- 0.7 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm; p = 0.57). For the embryos cultured to blastocyst (older: n = 20; younger: n = 18) ZP thickness was similar in the two groups (19.2 +/- 2.7 microm vs 19.1 +/- 5.0 microm; p = 0.8) but thinner than on day 2. The older group had significantly denser ZP than the younger group (4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm, p vs 2.9 +/- 0.7 nm, p vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm, p = 0.013). It is concluded that there is little relationship between ZP thickness and its density as measured by polarized light microscopy. While ZP thickness decreases with extended embryo culturing, the density of the ZP increases. ZP density increases in both age groups with extended culture and, interestingly, more in embryos from older compared with younger women.

  7. Transfer of human frozen-thawed embryos with further cleavage during culture increases pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat V Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the pregnancy rate following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos with or without overnight culture after thawing. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET cycles performed between January 2006 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: Out of 518 thaw cycles, 504 resulted in embryo transfers (ETs. Of the total FET cycles, 415 were performed after an overnight culture of embryos (group A; and in 89 cycles, ET was performed within 2 hours of embryo thawing (group B. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: We observed that with FET, women ≤30 years of age had a significantly higher (P=0.003 pregnancy rate (PR=28.9% as compared to women >30 years of age (17.5%. A significantly higher (P<0.001FNx08 pregnancy rate was also observed in women receiving 3 frozen-thawed embryos (29% as compared to those who received less than 3 embryos (10.7%. The difference in PR between group A (PR=24.3% and group B (PR=20.3% was not statistically significant. However, within group A, ET with cleaved embryos showed significantly ( P≤0.01 higher pregnancy rate compared to the uncleaved embryos, depending on the number of cleaved embryos transferred. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed between FETs made with transfer of embryos with overnight culture and those without culture. However, within the cultured group, transfer of embryos cleaved during overnight culture gave significantly higher PR than transfers without any cleavage.

  8. MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Virant-Klun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a family of naturally occurring small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important regulatory role in gene expression. They are suggested to regulate a large proportion of protein encoding genes by mediating the translational suppression and posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Recent findings show that microRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation, and are deeply involved in developmental processes including human preimplantation development. They keep a balance between pluripotency and differentiation in the embryo and embryonic stem cells. Moreover, it became evident that dysregulation of microRNA expression may play a fundamental role in progression and dissemination of different cancers including ovarian cancer. The interest is still increased by the discovery of exosomes, that is, cell-derived vesicles, which can carry different proteins but also microRNAs between different cells and are involved in cell-to-cell communication. MicroRNAs, together with exosomes, have a great potential to be used for prognosis, therapy, and biomarkers of different diseases including infertility. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the existent knowledge on microRNAs related to female fertility and cancer: from primordial germ cells and ovarian function, germinal stem cells, oocytes, and embryos to embryonic stem cells.

  9. Topography of the inferior alveolar nerve in human embryos and fetuses. An histomorphological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lvovich Kabak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the position of the inferior alveolar nerve in relation to the Meckel’s cartilage, the anlage of the mandibular body and primordia of the teeth, and also to trace the change in nerve trunk structure in the human prenatal ontogenesis. Serial sections (20µm from thirty-two 6-12 weeks-old entire human embryos and serial sections (10µm of six mandibles of 13-20 weeks-old human fetuses without developmental abnormalities were studied. Histological sections were impregnated with silver nitrate according to Bilshovsky-Buke and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. During embryonic development, the number of branches of the inferior alveolar nerve increases and its fascicular structure changes. In conclusion, the architecture of intraosseous canals in the body of the mandible, as well as the location of the foramina, is predetermined by the course and pattern of the vessel/nerve branching in the mandibular arch, even before the formation of bony trabeculae. Particularly, the formation of the incisive canal of the mandible can be explained by the presence of the incisive nerve as the extension of the inferior alveolar nerve. It has also been established that Meckel’s cartilage does not participate in mandibular canal morphogenesis.

  10. Is the ultimobranchial body a reality or myth: a study using serial sections of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkura, Yohei; Yamamoto, Masahito; Yoshimoto, Toshihito; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Katori, Yukio; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Reported morphologies of the ultimobranchial body had varied between researchers: a cluster of mitotic cells, a duct-like structure and a rosette-like cell mass. To clarify the true morphology, we studied tilted horizontal sections of 20 human embryos (crown-rump length 5-18 mm; 4-6 weeks). The sections displayed a ladder-like arrangement of the second to fourth endodermal pouches and, in 5 early embryos we found the fifth pouch attached to the fifth ectodermal groove near the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. The bilateral fifth pharyngeal pouches protruded anterolaterally to form a U-shaped lumen surrounding the arytenoid swelling. The third to fifth pouches were each characterized by a pedal-shaped inferior end. We identified several types of cell clusters as candidates for the ultimobranchial body, but morphologically most of them were, to various degrees, likely to correspond to the blind end of the lower pouch when cut tangentially. Because of the topographical relation to the common carotid artery, a cyst-like structure with a cell cluster seemed to be the most likely candidate of the ultimobranchial body (a common anlage of the thymus and parathyroid). However, we were not able to deny a possibility that a certain plane cutting the pouch end incidentally provided such a cyst-like structure in sections. At any stage, the ultimobranchial body might not appear as a definite structure that is discriminated from others with routine staining. A concept of the ultimobranchial body might be biased by comparative anatomy that shows the ultimobranchial gland in adult birds and reptiles.

  11. Noninvasive Metabolomic Profiling of Human Embryo Culture Media Using a Simple Spectroscopy Adjunct to Morphology for Embryo Assessment in in Vitro Fertilization (IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryo quality is crucial to the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF; however, the ability to precisely distinguish the embryos with higher reproductive potential from others is poor. Morphologic evaluation used to play an important role in assessing embryo quality, but it is somewhat subjective. The culture medium is the immediate environment of the embryos in vitro, and a change of the substances in the culture medium is possibly related to the embryo quality. Thus, the present study aims to determine whether metabolomic profiling of the culture medium using Raman spectroscopy adjunct to morphology correlates with the reproductive potential of embryos in IVF and, thus, to look for a new method of assessing embryo quality. Fifty seven spent media samples were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Combined with embryo morphology scores, we found that embryos in culture media with less than 0.012 of sodium pyruvate and more than −0.00085 phenylalanine have a high reproductive potential, with up to 85.7% accuracy compared with clinical pregnancy. So, sodium pyruvate and phenylalanine in culture medium play an important role in the development of the embryo. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool that provides a new and accurate assessment of higher quality embryos.

  12. Altered cleavage patterns in human tripronuclear embryos and their association to fertilization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette Warming; Agerholm, Inge; Hindkjaer, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the cleavage patterns in dipronuclear (2PN) and tripronuclear (3PN) embryos in relation to fertilization method. METHOD: Time-lapse analysis. RESULTS: Compared to 2PN, more 3PN IVF embryos displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p ... stage (p embryos, the 2nd and 3rd cleavage cycles were completed within the expected time frame. However, timing of the cell divisions within the cleavage cycles differed between the two groups. In contrast......, the completion of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cleavage cycle was delayed, but with a similar division pattern for 3PN ICSI compared with the 2PN ICSI embryos. 3PN, more often than 2PN ICSI embryos, displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p = 0.03) and arrested development from the compaction stage and onwards (p = 0...

  13. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  14. The influence of zygote pronuclear morphology on in vitro human embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Križančić-Bombek

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The selection of embryos with largest implantation potential is an important part in assisted reproduction. Besides the embryo or blastocyst morphology, selection criteria such as position and orientation of pronuclei (PN in relation to polar body positioning and the number, size and distribution of nucleolar precursor bodies (NPB have been proposed. In our study, a correlation between PN and NBP morphology with the development of early embryos (day 2 of cultivation and blastocysts (day 5 was investigated.Methods: 653 zygotes from 113 IVF (in vitro fertilization and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients, younger than 40 years, were assessed 18–20 hours post-insemination. Optimal zygotes (Z1 had thouching centrally located PN with equall numbers of alligned NPB. Other zygote types differred from Z1 in having scattered NPB in both PN (Z2 or alligned NPB in one PN (Z3 or in PN beeing distant from one another (Z4. For each zygote type a percentage of normal early embryos and blastocysts was calculated.Results: Among 653 assessed zygotes 21.8 % were Z1; 29.1 % Z2, 34.6 % Z3 and 14.5 % Z4. The percentage of normal early embryos decreased from Z1 to Z4 zygote type (70.4 % vs. 55.3 % vs. 59.7 % vs.45.3 %; p < 0.05 as well as the percentage of developed blastocysts (63.4 % vs. 55.3 % vs. 58.8 % vs. 43.2 %. However, the percentages of optimal blastocysts in the four groups did not differ (11.3 % vs. 11.1 % vs. 8.4 % vs. 6.3 %.Conclusions: Best grade zygotes result in batter early embryo and blastocyst development suggesting that zygote morphology can be used in combination with embryo and/or blastocyst evaluation as a method for embryo selection prior to embryo transfer.

  15. Assessment of human embryo development using morphological criteria in an era of time-lapse, algorithms and 'OMICS': is looking good still important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Balaban, Basak

    2016-10-01

    With the worldwide move towards single embryo transfer there has been a renewed focus on the requirement for reliable means of assessing embryo viability. In an era of 'OMICS' technologies, and algorithms created through the use of time-lapse microscopy, the actual appearance of the human embryo as it progresses through each successive developmental stage to the blastocyst appears to have been somewhat neglected in recent years. Here we review the key features of the human preimplantation embryo and consider the relationship between morphological characteristics and developmental potential. Further, the impact of the culture environment on morphological traits, how key morphological qualities reflect aspects of embryo physiology, and how computer-assisted analysis of embryo morphology may facilitate a more quantitative approach to selection are discussed. The clinical introduction of time-lapse systems has reopened our eyes and given us a new vantage point from which to view the beauty of the initial stages of human life. Rather than a future in which the morphology of the embryo is deemed irrelevant, we propose that key features, such as multinucleation, cell size and blastocyst differentiation should be included in future iterations of selection/deselection algorithms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [An exploratory study regarding the hypothetical human embryo donation in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Díaz, J A

    2007-12-01

    To explore opinions of patients who undergone to complex ART towards gamete and embryo donation, as well as the reasons to do it or not. The seat was the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile. There were interviewed ten participants (seven women, three men), who had undergone at least to one ART, without comprising of donation programs. It was a cross-sectional study of descriptive bioethics, done with ethnographic qualitative methodology with a semistructured interview applying speech analysis to the resulting text. Regarding embryo donation, six participants would accept to donate them, five to fertility therapy and one to research. Regarding the cryopreservation, three participants would always accept it, and three with some restrictions, just one on them would rather to discard instead of donating a cryopreserved embryo. It could be suggested: gamete donation is more commented and generally accepted; embryo donation is a more conflicting and less discussed subject, as much to donate as to accept; cryopreservation is a complex subject, commented but also conflicting, whose acceptance or not, as well as the destiny of the probably cryopreserved embryos, depends on the believes that participants have about the origin of the life, personal ethics, and the religion. It could be possible to say that a hypothesis constructed in this study (to be verified in future quantitative researches) is that embryo donation could take place, for therapy of fertility, and exceptionally to research.

  17. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    expression differs between viable and non-viable embryos in both human and non-humans, suggesting transcriptome analysis of trophectoderm (TE) as a novel method of improving embryo selection. Potential candidate marker genes have been identified with array studies on animal blastocysts. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  18. Tripolar chromosome segregation drives the association between maternal genotype at variants spanning PLK4 and aneuploidy in human preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Rajiv C; Newnham, Louise J; Ottolini, Christian S; Hoffmann, Eva R; Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Cornejo, Omar E; Zhan, Qiansheng; Zaninovic, Nikica; Rosenwaks, Zev; Petrov, Dmitri A; Demko, Zachary P; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Handyside, Alan H

    2018-04-24

    Aneuploidy is prevalent in human embryos and is the leading cause of pregnancy loss. Many aneuploidies arise during oogenesis, increasing with maternal age. Superimposed on these meiotic aneuploidies are frequent errors occurring during early mitotic divisions, contributing to widespread chromosomal mosaicism. Here we reanalyzed a published dataset comprising preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in 24,653 blastomere biopsies from day-3 cleavage-stage embryos, as well as 17,051 trophectoderm biopsies from day-5 blastocysts. We focused on complex abnormalities that affected multiple chromosomes simultaneously, seeking insights into their formation. In addition to well-described patterns such as triploidy and haploidy, we identified 4.7% of blastomeres possessing characteristic hypodiploid karyotypes. We inferred this signature to have arisen from tripolar chromosome segregation in normally-fertilized diploid zygotes or their descendant diploid cells. This could occur via segregation on a tripolar mitotic spindle or by rapid sequential bipolar mitoses without an intervening S-phase. Both models are consistent with time-lapse data from an intersecting set of 77 cleavage-stage embryos, which were enriched for the tripolar signature among embryos exhibiting abnormal cleavage. The tripolar signature was strongly associated with common maternal genetic variants spanning the centrosomal regulator PLK4, driving the association we previously reported with overall mitotic errors. Our findings are consistent with the known capacity of PLK4 to induce tripolar mitosis or precocious M-phase upon dysregulation. Together, our data support tripolar chromosome segregation as a key mechanism generating complex aneuploidy in cleavage-stage embryos and implicate maternal genotype at a quantitative trait locus spanning PLK4 as a factor influencing its occurrence.

  19. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebech, M M

    1998-01-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero? PMID:9800592

  20. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebech, M M

    1998-01-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero?

  1. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and foetus

    OpenAIRE

    Lebech, Mette

    1998-01-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council ofEurope (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics' deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero?

  2. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Lebech, Mette

    1998-01-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocal destined to fill a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero?

  3. Presence of bile acids in human follicular fluid and their relation with embryo development in modified natural cycle IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R A; van Montfoort, A P A; Dikkers, A; van Echten-Arends, J; Homminga, I; Land, J A; Hoek, A; Tietge, U J F

    2015-05-01

    Are bile acids (BA) and their respective subspecies present in human follicular fluid (FF) and do they relate to embryo quality in modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF)? BA concentrations are 2-fold higher in follicular fluid than in serum and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) derivatives were associated with development of top quality embryos on Day 3 after fertilization. Granulosa cells are capable of synthesizing BA, but a potential correlation with oocyte and embryo quality as well as information on the presence and role of BA subspecies in follicular fluid have yet to be investigated. Between January 2001 and June 2004, follicular fluid and serum samples were collected from 303 patients treated in a single academic centre that was involved in a multicentre cohort study on the effectiveness of MNC-IVF. Material from patients who underwent a first cycle of MNC-IVF was used. Serum was not stored from all patients, and the available material comprised 156 follicular fluid and 116 matching serum samples. Total BA and BA subspecies were measured in follicular fluid and in matching serum by enzymatic fluorimetric assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The association of BA in follicular fluid with oocyte and embryo quality parameters, such as fertilization rate and cell number, presence of multinucleated blastomeres and percentage of fragmentation on Day 3, was analysed. Embryos with eight cells on Day 3 after oocyte retrieval were more likely to originate from follicles with a higher level of UDCA derivatives than those with fewer than eight cells (P IVF were used, which resulted in 14 samples only from women with an ongoing pregnancy, therefore further prospective studies are required to confirm the association of UDCA with IVF pregnancy outcomes. The inter-cycle variability of BA levels in follicular fluid within individuals has yet to be investigated. We checked for macroscopic signs of contamination of follicular fluid by blood but the

  4. Choosy but not chaste: multiple mating in human females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scelza, Brooke A

    2013-01-01

    When Charles Darwin set out to relate his theory of evolution by natural selection to humans he discovered that a complementary explanation was needed to properly understand the great variation seen in human behavior. The resulting work, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, laid out the defining principles and evidence of sexual selection. In brief, this work is best known for illuminating the typically male strategy of intrasexual competition and the typically female response of intersexual choice. While these sexual stereotypes were first laid out by Darwin, they grew in importance when, years later, A. J. Bateman, in a careful study of Drosophila mating strategies, noted that multiple mating appeared to provide great benefit to male reproductive success, but to have no such effect on females. As a result, female choice soon became synonymous with being coy, and only males were thought to gain from promiscuous behavior. However, the last thirty years of research have served to question much of the traditional wisdom about sex differences proposed by Darwin and Bateman, illuminating the many ways that women (and females more generally) can and do engage in multiple mating. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Digestive Tract and Derived Primordia Differentiate by Following a Precise Timeline in Human Embryos Between Carnegie Stages 11 and 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Saki; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Männer, Jörg; Shiraki, Naoto; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    The precise mechanisms through which the digestive tract develops during the somite stage remain undefined. In this study, we examined the morphology and precise timeline of differentiation of digestive tract-derived primordia in human somite-stage embryos. We selected 37 human embryos at Carnegie Stage (CS) 11-CS13 (28-33 days after fertilization) and three-dimensionally analyzed the morphology and positioning of the digestive tract and derived primordia in all samples, using images reconstructed from histological serial sections. The digestive tract was initially formed by a narrowing of the yolk sac, and then several derived primordia such as the pharynx, lung, stomach, liver, and dorsal pancreas primordia differentiated during CS12 (21-29 somites) and CS13 (≥ 30 somites). The differentiation of four pairs of pharyngeal pouches was complete in all CS13 embryos. The respiratory primordium was recognized in ≥ 26-somite embryos and it flattened and then branched at CS13. The trachea formed and then elongated in ≥ 35-somite embryos. The stomach adopted a spindle shape in all ≥ 34-somite embryos, and the liver bud was recognized in ≥ 27-somite embryos. The dorsal pancreas appeared as definitive buddings in all but three CS13 embryos, and around these buddings, the small intestine bent in ≥ 33-somite embryos. In ≥ 35-somite embryos, the small intestine rotated around the cranial-caudal axis and had begun to form a primitive intestinal loop, which led to umbilical herniation. These data indicate that the digestive tract and derived primordia differentiate by following a precise timeline and exhibit limited individual variations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Distruption of retinoid and CYP systems and embryo development in marine organisms: a potential model for humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld

    Some environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can be highly toxic and pose risk for both natural fauna populations and humans. POPs can disrupt an array of molecular and cellular mechanisms causing endocrine disruptions, cancer and teratogenic effects. Potentially, POPs can interfere...... with embryo development and reproduction. At present, there is only limited knowledge of the potential effects of dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Danish environment. The Ph.D. project is expected to link exposure to POPs such as dioxin-like compounds and PAHs to effects...... to a better integrated exposure assessment for aquatic organisms as well as for humans....

  7. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H.; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.

    2017-01-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with

  9. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H.; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Zande, van de Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.

    2017-01-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with

  10. Release of sICAM-1 in oocytes and in vitro fertilized human embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Borgatti

    Full Text Available During the last years, several studies have reported the significant relationship between the production of soluble HLA-G molecules (sHLA-G by 48-72 hours early embryos and an increased implantation rate in IVF protocols. As consequence, the detection of HLA-G modulation was suggested as a marker to identify the best embryos to be transferred. On the opposite, no suitable markers are available for the oocyte selection.The major finding of the present paper is that the release of ICAM-1 might be predictive of oocyte maturation. The results obtained are confirmed using three independent methodologies, such as ELISA, Bio-Plex assay and Western blotting. The sICAM-1 release is very high in immature oocytes, decrease in mature oocytes and become even lower in in vitro fertilized embryos. No significant differences were observed in the levels of sICAM-1 release between immature oocytes with different morphological characteristics. On the contrary, when the mature oocytes were subdivided accordingly to morphological criteria, the mean sICAM-I levels in grade 1 oocytes were significantly decreased when compared to grade 2 and 3 oocytes.The reduction of the number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos represents the main target of assisted reproductive medicine. We propose sICAM-1 as a biochemical marker for oocyte maturation and grading, with a possible interesting rebound in assisted reproduction techniques.

  11. Human oocyte oolemma characteristic is positively related to embryo developmental competence after ICSI procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Danfour

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: The current study provides evidence that preselection at a very early stage based on oolemma behavior may be helpful to identify a subgroup of preimplantation embryos with good prognostic to form blastocyst and consequently to implant and to give pregnancy.

  12. Zygote arrest 1 gene in pig, cattle and human: evidence of different transcript variants in male and female germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royere Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1 is one of the few known oocyte-specific maternal-effect genes essential for the beginning of embryo development discovered in mice. This gene is evolutionary conserved in vertebrates and ZAR1 protein is characterized by the presence of atypical plant homeobox zing finger domain, suggesting its role in transcription regulation. This work was aimed at the study of this gene, which could be one of the key regulators of successful preimplantation development of domestic animals, in pig and cattle, as compared with human. Methods Screenings of somatic cell hybrid panels and in silico research were performed to characterize ZAR1 chromosome localization and sequences. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain full-length cDNAs. Spatio-temporal mRNA expression patterns were studied using Northern blot, reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Results We demonstrated that ZAR1 is a single copy gene, positioned on chromosome 8 in pig and 6 in cattle, and several variants of correspondent cDNA were cloned from oocytes. Sequence analysis of ZAR1 cDNAs evidenced numerous short inverted repeats within the coding sequences and putative Pumilio-binding and embryo-deadenylation elements within the 3'-untranslated regions, indicating the potential regulation ways. We showed that ZAR1 expressed exclusively in oocytes in pig ovary, persisted during first cleavages in embryos developed in vivo and declined sharply in morulae and blastocysts. ZAR1 mRNA was also detected in testis, and, at lower level, in hypothalamus and pituitary in both species. For the first time, ZAR1 was localized in testicular germ cells, notably in round spermatids. In addition, in pig, cattle and human only shorter ZAR1 transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing were found in testis as compared to oocyte. Conclusion Our data suggest that in addition to its role in early embryo

  13. Zygote arrest 1 gene in pig, cattle and human: evidence of different transcript variants in male and female germ cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, Svetlana; Roy-Sabau, Monica; Dalbiès-Tran, Rozenn; Perreau, Christine; Papillier, Pascal; Mompart, Florence; Thelie, Aurore; Pennetier, Sophie; Cognie, Juliette; Cadoret, Veronique; Royere, Dominique; Monget, Philippe; Mermillod, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1) is one of the few known oocyte-specific maternal-effect genes essential for the beginning of embryo development discovered in mice. This gene is evolutionary conserved in vertebrates and ZAR1 protein is characterized by the presence of atypical plant homeobox zing finger domain, suggesting its role in transcription regulation. This work was aimed at the study of this gene, which could be one of the key regulators of successful preimplantation development of domestic animals, in pig and cattle, as compared with human. Methods Screenings of somatic cell hybrid panels and in silico research were performed to characterize ZAR1 chromosome localization and sequences. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain full-length cDNAs. Spatio-temporal mRNA expression patterns were studied using Northern blot, reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Results We demonstrated that ZAR1 is a single copy gene, positioned on chromosome 8 in pig and 6 in cattle, and several variants of correspondent cDNA were cloned from oocytes. Sequence analysis of ZAR1 cDNAs evidenced numerous short inverted repeats within the coding sequences and putative Pumilio-binding and embryo-deadenylation elements within the 3'-untranslated regions, indicating the potential regulation ways. We showed that ZAR1 expressed exclusively in oocytes in pig ovary, persisted during first cleavages in embryos developed in vivo and declined sharply in morulae and blastocysts. ZAR1 mRNA was also detected in testis, and, at lower level, in hypothalamus and pituitary in both species. For the first time, ZAR1 was localized in testicular germ cells, notably in round spermatids. In addition, in pig, cattle and human only shorter ZAR1 transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing were found in testis as compared to oocyte. Conclusion Our data suggest that in addition to its role in early embryo development highlighted by

  14. Effects of ulipristal acetate on human embryo attachment and endometrial cell gene expression in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Boggavarapu, N R; Menezes, J; Lalitkumar, P G L; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2015-04-01

    Does ulipristal acetate (UPA) used for emergency contraception (EC) interfere with the human embryo implantation process? UPA, at the dosage used for EC, does not affect human embryo implantation process, in vitro. A single pre-ovulatory dose of UPA (30 mg) acts by delaying or inhibiting ovulation and is recommended as first choice among emergency contraceptive pills due to its efficacy. The compound has also been demonstrated to have a dose-dependent effect on the endometrium, which theoretically could impair endometrial receptivity but its direct action on human embryo implantation has not yet been studied. Effect of UPA on embryo implantation process was studied in an in vitro endometrial construct. Human embryos were randomly added to the cultures and cultured for 5 more days with UPA (n = 10) or with vehicle alone (n = 10) to record the attachment of embryos. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy, fertile women on cycle day LH+4 and stromal and epithelial cells were isolated. A three-dimensional in vitro endometrial co-culture system was constructed by mixing stromal cells with collagen covered with a layer of epithelial cells and cultured in progesterone containing medium until confluence. The treatment group received 200 ng/ml of UPA. Healthy, viable human embryos were placed on both control and treatment cultures. Five days later the cultures were tested for the attachment of embryos and the 3D endometrial constructs were analysed for endometrial receptivity markers by real-time PCR. There was no significant difference in the embryo attachment rate between the UPA treated group and the control group as 5 out of 10 human embryos exposed to UPA and 7 out of 10 embryos in the control group attached to the endometrial cell surface (P = 0.650). Out of 17 known receptivity genes studied here, only 2 genes, HBEGF (P = 0.009) and IL6 (P = 0.025) had a significant up-regulation and 4 genes, namely HAND2 (P = 0.003), OPN (P = 0.003), CALCR (P = 0.016) and

  15. Constraints on the coevolution of contemporary human males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stearns, Stephen C.; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Ewbank, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Because autosomal genes in sexually reproducing organisms spend on average half their time in each sex, and because the traits that they influence encounter different selection pressures in males and females, the evolutionary responses of one sex are constrained by processes occurring in the othe...... included (16.9 ± 15.7°), compared with when they were excluded (87.9 ± 31.6°). We conclude that intralocus sexual conflict constrains the joint evolutionary responses of the two sexes in a contemporary human population.......Because autosomal genes in sexually reproducing organisms spend on average half their time in each sex, and because the traits that they influence encounter different selection pressures in males and females, the evolutionary responses of one sex are constrained by processes occurring in the other...... sex. Although intralocus sexual conflict can restrict sexes from reaching their phenotypic optima, no direct evidence currently supports its operation in humans. Here, we show that the pattern of multivariate selection acting on human height, weight, blood pressure and glucose, total cholesterol...

  16. A 3D reconstruction of pancreas development in the human embryos during embryonic period (Carnegie stages 15-23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, M; Gaubert, J; Cristol-Gaubert, R; Baecker, V; Travo, P; Prudhomme, M; Godlewski, G; Prat-Pradal, D

    2010-01-01

    The goal in this paper was to rebuild a three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds, in the human embryos, at Carnegie stages 15-23. The early development of the pancreas is studied by tissue observation and reconstruction by a computer-assisted method, using a light micrograph images from consecutive serial sagittal sections (diameter 7 microm) of ten human embryos ranging from Carnegie stages 15-23, CRL 7-27 mm, fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin, were stained alternately with haematoxylin-eosin or Heindenhain'Azan. The images were digitalized by Canon Camera 350 EOS D. The serial views were aligned automatically by software, manual alignment was performed, the data were analysed following segmentation and threshold. The two buds were clearly identified at stage 15. In stage 16, both pancreatic buds were in final position, and begin to merge in stage 17. From stage 18 to the stage 23, surrounding connective tissue differentiated. In the stage 23, the morphology of the pancreas was definitive. The superior portion of the anterior face of the pancreas's head was arising from the dorsal bud. The rest of the head including the uncinate process emanated from the ventral bud. The 3D computer-assisted reconstruction of the human pancreas visualized the relationships between the two pancreatic buds. This explains the disposition and the modality of the components fusion. This embryologic development permits a better understanding of congenital abnormalities.

  17. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Kong

    Full Text Available Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI treatment cycles, n = 799 were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42. Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively. In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C. In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  18. Observation and quantitative analyses of the skeletal and central nervous systems of human embryos and fetuses using microimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Kohei; Yamada, Shigehito; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Nakajima, Takashi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogihara, Naomichi; Katayama, Kazumichi; Kose, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    High resolution images have been available to trace the organogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) and crania of human embryo and fetus with microimaging techniques of CT, novel MR microscopy and episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). The helical CT was conducted for Kyoto University's stock specimens of 31 fetuses at gestational stages 8-24 weeks to observe the skeletal development of neuro- and viscero-cranium in 2D and 3D view. Sixty seven landmarks were defined on the images at outer surface and lumen of the skull to analyze the morphological development. Increase of cranial length was found significant relative to width and height in fetus, confirming the faster development of neurocranium than viscero-region. Next, 1.5/2.34 T MR microscopic imaging was conducted for fixed specimens of >1000 embryos at 4-8 weeks after fertilization. For this, a newly developed contrast optimization by mapping the specimen with the relaxation time had been performed to acquire the highest resolution in the world of 80-120 micrometer, which enabled to image primordia of the inner embryonic structures like brain, spinal cord, choroid plexus, skeletons of skull and spinal column. The finding was thought helpful for analysis and diagnosis of their early development. EFIC of embryos was conducted firstly in the world, where spontaneous fluorescence of their cross section was captured by the fluorescent microscope with the resolution as high as <10 micrometer to reconstruct 2D/3D images. EFIC was found to give images of embryonic CNS, ventricular system, layering structures of brain and spinal cord without staining, and to give sequential changes of their volumes quantitated during the development. The reported microimaging techniques were concluded useful for analysis of normal and abnormal early development of CNS and skull in humans. (T.T.)

  19. Model of human recurrent respiratory papilloma on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane for tumor angiogenesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Kuzminienė, Alina; Palubinskienė, Jolita; Balnytė, Ingrida; Ulozienė, Ingrida; Valančiūtė, Angelija

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to develop a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of recurrent respiratory papilloma (RPP) and to evaluate its morphological and morphometric characteristics, together with angiogenic features. Fresh RRP tissue samples obtained from 13 patients were implanted in 174 chick embryo CAMs. Morphological, morphometric, and angiogenic changes in the CAM and chorionic epithelium were evaluated up until 7 days after the implantation. Immunohistochemical analysis (34βE12, Ki-67, MMP-9, PCNA, and Sambucus nigra staining) was performed to detect cytokeratins and endothelial cells and to evaluate proliferative capacity of the RRP before and after implantation on the CAM. The implanted RRP tissue samples survived on CAM in 73% of cases while retaining their essential morphologic characteristics and proliferative capacity of the original tumor. Implants induced thickening of both the CAM (241-560%, p=0.001) and the chorionic epithelium (107-151%, p=0.001), while the number of blood vessels (37-85%, p=0.001) in the CAM increased. The results of the present study confirmed that chick embryo CAM is a relevant host for serving as a medium for RRP fresh tissue implantation. The CAM assay demonstrated the specific RRP tumor growth pattern after implantation and provided the first morphological and morphometric characterization of the RRP CAM model that opens new horizons in studying this disease.

  20. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor neuropilin-1 at the human embryo-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston-Buest, Dunja M; Porn, Anne C; Schanz, Andrea; Kruessel, Jan-S; Janni, Wolfgang; Hess, Alexandra P

    2011-02-01

    Angiogenesis is required for successful implantation of the invading blastocyst. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important key player in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling during the implantation process. Besides its well-characterized receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to play an additional role in the signaling process of angiogenesis in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, as a co-receptor of VEGF. These findings led to the hypothesis that NRP-1 might play a role in the vascular remodeling process during embryo implantation and the establishment of a pregnancy. NRP-1 mRNA transcript and protein expression were investigated in human choriocarcinoma cell lines (JEG-3, Jar and BeWo) aiming to evaluate the expression of NRP-1 in vitro, as well as in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy, by western blot analysis (three samples of each trimester of pregnancy). The localization of NRP-1 in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (five samples of each trimester of pregnancy). NRP-1 transcript and protein were expressed in all cell lines examined. Corresponding to the analysis of human tissue by western blot and the localization by immunohistochemistry, NRP-1 protein higher expressed in samples of early pregnancy in comparison to the end of pregnancy. NRP-1 was expressed in the decidua, villi and invading cytotrophoblast of all samples investigated. This is the first study clearly showing the expression of NRP-1 in human decidua and trophoblast, suggesting an important role for the VEGF co-receptor NRP-1 besides the established receptor VEGFR2 at the embryo-maternal interface during embryonic implantation and placentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  2. A numerical analysis of the Born approximation for image formation modeling of differential interference contrast microscopy for human embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sigal; Feigin, Micha; Greenspan, Hayit; Sochen, Nir

    2008-03-01

    The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope is commonly used for the visualization of live biological specimens. It enables the view of the transparent specimens while preserving their viability, being a non-invasive modality. Fertility clinics often use the DIC microscope for evaluation of human embryos quality. Towards quantification and reconstruction of the visualized specimens, an image formation model for DIC imaging is sought and the interaction of light waves with biological matter is examined. In many image formation models the light-matter interaction is expressed via the first Born approximation. The validity region of this approximation is defined in a theoretical bound which limits its use to very small specimens with low dielectric contrast. In this work the Born approximation is investigated via the Helmholtz equation, which describes the interaction between the specimen and light. A solution on the lens field is derived using the Gaussian Legendre quadrature formulation. This numerical scheme is considered both accurate and efficient and has shortened significantly the computation time as compared to integration methods that required a great amount of sampling for satisfying the Whittaker - Shannon sampling theorem. By comparing the numerical results with the theoretical values it is shown that the theoretical bound is not directly relevant to microscopic imaging and is far too limiting. The numerical exhaustive experiments show that the Born approximation is inappropriate for modeling the visualization of thick human embryos.

  3. Human cloning and stem cell research: engaging in the political process. (Legislation review: prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 and the research involving Human Embryos Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Loane

    2008-03-01

    Committees appointed by governments to inquire into specific policy issues often have no further role when the Committee's report is delivered to government, but that is not always so. This paper describes the activities of members of the Australian Committee on human cloning and embryo research (the Lockhart Committee) to inform Parliament and the community about the Committee's recommendations after its report was tabled in Parliament. It explains their participation in the political process as their recommendations were debated and amending legislation was passed by Parliament. It illustrates a method of communication about scientific and policy issues that explores people's concerns and what they 'need to know' to make a judgment; and then responds to questions they raise, with the aim of facilitating discussion, not arguing for one view. The paper considers whether this type of engagement and communication is appropriate and could be used in other policy discussions.

  4. The Construction of cDNA Libraries from Human Single Preimplantation Embryos and Their Use in the Study of Gene Expression During Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adjaye, James; Daniels, Rob; Monk, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:The construction and application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cDNA libraries from unfertilized human oocytes and single preimplantation-stage embryos are described. The purpose of these studies is to provide a readily available resource for the study of gene expression during human preimplantation development.

  5. Possible evolutionary origins of human female sexual fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    I propose an evolutionary theory of human female sexual fluidity and argue that women may have been evolutionarily designed to be sexually fluid in order to allow them to have sex with their cowives in polygynous marriage and thus reduce conflict and tension inherent in such marriage. In addition to providing an extensive definition and operationalization of the concept of sexual fluidity and specifying its ultimate function for women, the proposed theory can potentially solve several theoretical and empirical puzzles in evolutionary psychology and sex research. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) confirm the theory's predictions that: (i) women (but not men) who experience increased levels of sexual fluidity have a larger number of children (suggesting that female sexual fluidity, if heritable, may be evolutionarily selected); (ii) women (but not men) who experience marriage or parenthood early in adult life subsequently experience increased levels of sexual fluidity; and (iii) sexual fluidity is significantly positively correlated with known markers of unrestricted sexual orientation among women whereas it is significantly negatively correlated with such markers among men. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2013-06-01

    While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparing 36.5°C with 37°C for human embryo culture: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Emad, Mai; Gad, Mostafa A; Sabry, Mohamed; Kasem, Hesham; Mahmoud, Manar; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A

    2018-03-27

    This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a culture temperature of 36.5°C versus 37°C on human embryo development in vitro. A total of 412 women undergoing IVF were randomized to two groups: the oocytes and embryos of the intervention group were cultured at 36.5°C; those of the control group were cultured at 37°C. Although no significant effect of culture temperature was observed on pregnancy or implantation rates, differences were found in embryo development. Embryo culture at 36.5°C was associated with a significantly higher cleavage rate (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.51), but a lower fertilization rate, fewer high-quality embryos on day 3, a lower blastocyst formation rate on day 5, and fewer high-quality and cryopreserved blastocysts (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98), (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.69), (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.97), (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.56) and (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.88), respectively, compared with 37°C. On the basis of these results, and in the absence of data on the optimal temperature for each stage of embryo development in vitro, we recommend continuation of the use of 37°C for human embryo culture. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive metabolomic profiling as an adjunct to morphology for noninvasive embryo assessment in women undergoing single embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seli, E.; Vergouw, C.G.; Morita, H.; Botros, L.; Roos, P.; Lambalk, C.B.; Yamashita, N.; Kato, O.; Sakkas, D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether metabolomic profiling of spent embryo culture media correlates with reproductive potential of human embryos. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Academic and a private assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs. Patient(s): Women undergoing single embryo

  10. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e.

  11. Human Sperm Bioassay for Reprotoxicity Testing in Embryo Culture Media: Some Practical Considerations in Reducing the Assay Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human sperm assay (HSA is a preferred in house quality control and proficiency test (PT practiced in fertility laboratories. HSA is performed over varying durations, apparently without following set criteria. To better understand the assay time required for reprotoxicity testing in embryo culture media, we compared American-Association-of-Bioanalysts-(AAB- administered HSA data to our own assay performed using PT samples obtained from AAB. Participating laboratories were required to culture sperm for 48 hours to determine media acceptability. Conclusions drawn from 48- and 24-hour observations were the same, suggesting that HSA could identify reprotoxic media in less time than required by AAB. Our assay revealed that changes in motility grade in adulterated media are significantly different from those in control media. Furthermore, grade changes can be identified earlier than differences in motility loss between samples. Analyzing motility and motility quality together provides a method for establishing an optimal time for HSA.

  12. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes

  13. The effects of chemical and physical factors on mammalian embryo culture and their importance for the practice of assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wale, Petra L; Gardner, David K

    2016-01-01

    Although laboratory procedures, along with culture media formulations, have improved over the past two decades, the issue remains that human IVF is performed in vitro (literally 'in glass'). Using PubMed, electronic searches were performed using keywords from a list of chemical and physical factors with no limits placed on time. Examples of keywords include oxygen, ammonium, volatile organics, temperature, pH, oil overlays and incubation volume/embryo density. Available clinical and scientific evidence surrounding physical and chemical factors have been assessed and presented here. Development of the embryo outside the body means that it is constantly exposed to stresses that it would not experience in vivo. Sources of stress on the human embryo include identified factors such as pH and temperature shifts, exposure to atmospheric (20%) oxygen and the build-up of toxins in the media due to the static nature of culture. However, there are other sources of stress not typically considered, such as the act of pipetting itself, or the release of organic compounds from the very tissue culture ware upon which the embryo develops. Further, when more than one stress is present in the laboratory, there is evidence that negative synergies can result, culminating in significant trauma to the developing embryo. It is evident that embryos are sensitive to both chemical and physical signals within their microenvironment, and that these factors play a significant role in influencing development and events post transfer. From the viewpoint of assisted human reproduction, a major concern with chemical and physical factors lies in their adverse effects on the viability of embryos, and their long-term effects on the fetus, even as a result of a relatively brief exposure. This review presents data on the adverse effects of chemical and physical factors on mammalian embryos and the importance of identifying, and thereby minimizing, them in the practice of human IVF. Hence, optimizing the

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin-administered natural cycle versus spontaneous ovulatory cycle in patients undergoing two pronuclear zygote frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Jung; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2018-03-01

    To compare human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-administered natural cycle with spontaneous ovulatory cycle in patients undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTET) in natural cycles. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the clinical outcome of a total of 166 consecutive FTET cycles that were performed in either natural cycle controlled by HCG for ovulation triggering (HCG group, n=110) or natural cycle with spontaneous ovulation (control group, n=56) in 166 infertile patients between January 2009 and November 2013. There were no differences in patients' characteristics between the 2 groups. The numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, grade I or II embryos and frozen embryos in the previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle in which embryos were frozen were comparable between the HCG and control groups. Significant differences were not also observed between the 2 groups in clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), embryo implantation rate, miscarriage rate, live birth rate and multiple CPR. However, the number of hospital visits for follicular monitoring was significantly fewer in the HCG group than in the control group ( P cycle reduces the number of hospital visits for follicular monitoring without any detrimental effect on FTET outcome when compared with spontaneous ovulatory cycles in infertile patients undergoing FTET in natural ovulatory cycles.

  15. Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 100 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the first 5 weeks of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Hutchins, G M; Moore, G W

    1984-11-01

    The sequence of events in the development of the brain in staged human embryos was investigated in much greater detail than in previous studies by listing 100 features in 165 embryos of the first 5 weeks. Using a computerized bubble-sort algorithm, individual embryos were ranked in ascending order of the features present. This procedure made feasible an appreciation of the slight variation found in the developmental features. The vast majority of features appeared during either one or two stages (about 2 or 3 days). In general, the soundness of the Carnegie system of embryonic staging was amply confirmed. The rhombencephalon was found to show increasing complexity around stage 13, and the postoptic portion of the diencephalon underwent considerable differentiation by stage 15. The need for similar investigations of other systems of the body is emphasized, and the importance of such studies in assessing the timing of congenital malformations and in clarifying syndromic clusters is suggested.

  16. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation

  17. Embryos, genes, and birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferretti, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    ... Structural anomalies The genesis of chromosome abnormalities Embryo survival The cause of high levels of chromosome abnormality in human embryos Relative parental risks - age, translocations, inversions, gonadal and germinal mosaics 33 33 34 35 36 44 44 45 4 Identification and Analysis of Genes Involved in Congenital Malformation Syndromes Peter J. Scambler Ge...

  18. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R.; Pfeifer, D.; Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M.; Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P.; Schaefer, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  19. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  20. Obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury in mouse embryos: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wenhong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but few reports have examined thawed embryo transfer in obese women. Many studies have shown that increased lipid accumulation aggravates vitrification injury in porcine and bovine embryos, but oocytes of these species have high lipid contents (63 ng and 161 ng, respectively. Almost nothing is known about lipids in human oocytes except that these cells are anecdotally known to be relatively lipid poor. In this regard, human oocytes are considered to be similar to those of the mouse, which contain approximately 4 ng total lipids/oocyte. To date, no available data show the impact of obesity on vitrification in mouse embryos. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of maternal diet-induced obesity and to characterize the effect of obesity on vitrification by investigating the survival rate and embryo developmental competence after thawing. Methods Prospective comparisons were performed between six–eight-cell embryos from obese and normal-weight mice and between fresh and vitrified embryos. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow (normal-weight group or a high-fat diet (obese group for 6 weeks. The mice were mated, zygotes were collected from oviducts and cultured for 3 days, and six–eight-cell embryos were then selected to assess lipid content in fresh embryos and to evaluate differences in apoptosis, survival, and development rates in response to vitrification. Results In fresh embryos from obese mice, the lipid content (0.044 vs 0.030, Pvs.9.3%, Pvs. 93.1%, P Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in survival and developmental rates between embryos from obese and normal-weight mice were eliminated after vitrification. Thus, maternal obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury, but obesity alone greatly impairs pre-implantation embryo survival and development.

  1. Two different pathways for the transport of primitive and definitive blood cells from the yolk sac to the embryo in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Jaime; Monge, Juan I; Niimi, Gen

    2010-08-01

    During the early human embryonic period nutrients and blood cells are temporarily provided by the extraembryonic yolk sac (YS). The YS before week six is involved not only in primitive but also in definitive erythropoiesis. While the destiny of primitive erythroid cells that fill the blood vessels of the YS is well known, the final destination of erythrocytes present in the endodermal vesicular system is unknown. In the present study we have investigated, step by step, the destiny of the erythrocytes present in the endodermal vesicles during the embryonic period. Twelve human YSs and their corresponding yolk stalks were analyzed between weeks 4 and 7 of embryonic age by light and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that erythrocytes (according to their size and morphological features) located within the endodermal vesicles of the YS wall are pulled out through endodermal pits into the YS cavity, from where they reach the lumen of the primitive gut of the embryo through the vitelline duct, a temporary pathway communicating both compartments. During the study period no erythrocytes were seen within the embryo's vascular network where only primitive erythroblasts were identified. Our results indicate that the vitelline duct plays an important transient role as a pathway for the transport of nutrients and blood cells between the YS and the embryo before week five of embryonic development that ends just at the time when YS-embryo circulation becomes established. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Die Behandlung menschliches Embryos und Menschenwurde

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    We are confronted with an old and new problem, which has come up with the progress of modern biotechnologies: what is a life or when does a life begin? The expectation of order-made medicine has build up since the discovery of Embryo Stem cell called "a dream master cell", while there is any condemnation against the destruction of human embryo in order to gain it. It is a question whether a human embryo is a human being in the world. Human dignity(=HD) is a principle that keeps human embryos ...

  3. Accessing key steps of human tumor progression in vivo by using an avian embryo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Martin; Javerzat, Sophie; Gilges, Delphine; Meyre, Aurélie; de Lafarge, Benjamin; Eichmann, Anne; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Experimental in vivo tumor models are essential for comprehending the dynamic process of human cancer progression, identifying therapeutic targets, and evaluating antitumor drugs. However, current rodent models are limited by high costs, long experimental duration, variability, restricted accessibility to the tumor, and major ethical concerns. To avoid these shortcomings, we investigated whether tumor growth on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane after human glioblastoma cell grafting would replicate characteristics of the human disease. Avascular tumors consistently formed within 2 days, then progressed through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-dependent angiogenesis, associated with hemorrhage, necrosis, and peritumoral edema. Blocking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways by using small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors abrogated tumor development. Gene regulation during the angiogenic switch was analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Defined sample selection for gene profiling permitted identification of regulated genes whose functions are associated mainly with tumor vascularization and growth. Furthermore, expression of known tumor progression genes identified in the screen (IL-6 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) as well as potential regulators (lumican and F-box-only 6) follow similar patterns in patient glioma. The model reliably simulates key features of human glioma growth in a few days and thus could considerably increase the speed and efficacy of research on human tumor progression and preclinical drug screening. angiogenesis | animal model alternatives | glioblastoma

  4. In vitro production of small ruminant embryos: late improvements and further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; Panneau, Barbara; Duffard, Nicolas; Locatelli, Yann; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Freitas, Vicente José de Figueirêdo; Mermillod, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Beyond the potential use of in vitro production of embryos (IVP) in breeding schemes, embryos are also required for the establishment of new biotechnologies such as cloning and transgenesis. Additionally, the knowledge of oocyte and embryo physiology acquired through IVP techniques may stimulate the further development of other techniques such as marker assisted and genomic selection of preimplantation embryos, and also benefit assisted procreation in human beings. Efficient in vitro embryo production is currently a major objective for livestock industries, including small ruminants. The heterogeneity of oocytes collected from growing follicles by laparoscopic ovum pick up or in ovaries of slaughtered females, remains an enormous challenge for IVM success, and still limits the rate of embryo development. In addition, the lower quality of the IVP embryos, compared with their in vivo-derived counterparts, translates into poor cryosurvival, which restricts the wider use of this promising technology. Therefore, many studies have been reported in an attempt to determine the most suitable conditions for IVM, IVF, and in vitro development to maximize embryo production rate and quality. This review aims to present the current panorama of IVP production in small ruminants, describing important steps for its success, reporting the recent advances and also the main obstacles identified for its improvement and dissemination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Xin [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tu Youying, E-mail: youytu@zju.edu.c [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  6. Delayed cell death, giant cell formation and chromosome instability induced by X-irradiation in human embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.; Kodama, Seiji; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Masami

    1999-01-01

    We studied X-ray-induced delayed cell death, delayed giant cell formation and delayed chromosome aberrations in normal human embryo cells to explore the relationship between initial radiation damage and delayed effect appeared at 14 to 55 population doubling numbers (PDNs) after X-irradiation. The delayed effect was induced in the progeny of X-ray survivors in a dose-dependent manner and recovered with increasing PDNs after X-irradiation. Delayed plating for 24 h post-irradiation reduced both acute and delayed lethal damage, suggesting that potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) can be effective for relieving the delayed cell death. The chromosome analysis revealed that most of the dicentrics (more than 90%) observed in the progeny of X-ray survivors were not accompanied with fragments, in contrast with those observed in the first mitosis after X-irradiation. The present results indicate that the potentiality of genetic instability is determined during the repair process of initial radiation damage and suggest that the mechanism for formation of delayed chromosome aberrations by radiation might be different from that of direct radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. (author)

  7. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Xin; Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao; Tu Youying

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  8. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  9. Monoclonal antibodies against human trophoblast in female infertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Alena; Elzeinová, Fatima; Bukovský, A.; Madar, J.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2005), s. 159 ISSN 0271-7352. [European Congress of Reproductive Immunology /3./. 05.09.11-05.09.15, Essex] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7838 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : monoclonal antibodies * female infertility * trophoblast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine the relationship between migration, prostitution and trafficking with respect to cross-border movement of women between three South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Researchers will. conduct an extensive review of the literature on female migration in the three countries;; examine ...

  11. A proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, J C

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to stimulate academic debate on embryo and fetal research from the perspective of the drafting of a protocol to the European Convention on Biomedicine. The Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe was mandated to draw up such a protocol and for this purpose organised an important symposium on reproductive technologies and embryo research, in Strasbourg from the 16th to the 18th of December 1996.

  12. Human female orgasm as evolved signal: a test of two hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Ryan M; Bailey, Drew H

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a study designed to empirically test predictions derived from two hypotheses regarding human female orgasm behavior as an evolved communicative trait or signal. One hypothesis tested was the female fidelity hypothesis, which posits that human female orgasm signals a woman's sexual satisfaction and therefore her likelihood of future fidelity to a partner. The other was sire choice hypothesis, which posits that women's orgasm behavior signals increased chances of fertilization. To test the two hypotheses of human female orgasm, we administered a questionnaire to 138 females and 121 males who reported that they were currently in a romantic relationship. Key predictions of the female fidelity hypothesis were not supported. In particular, orgasm was not associated with female sexual fidelity nor was orgasm associated with male perceptions of partner sexual fidelity. However, faked orgasm was associated with female sexual infidelity and lower male relationship satisfaction. Overall, results were in greater support of the sire choice signaling hypothesis than the female fidelity hypothesis. Results also suggest that male satisfaction with, investment in, and sexual fidelity to a mate are benefits that favored the selection of orgasmic signaling in ancestral females.

  13. Chromosome segregation analysis in human embryos obtained from couples involving male carriers of reciprocal or Robertsonian translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of chromosome segregation patterns in cleavage stage embryos obtained from male carriers of Robertsonian (ROB and reciprocal (REC translocations undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD at our reproductive center. We used FISH to analyze chromosome segregation in 308 day 3 cleavage stage embryos obtained from 26 patients. The percentage of embryos consistent with normal or balanced segregation (55.1% vs. 27.1% and clinical pregnancy (62.5% vs. 19.2% rates were higher in ROB than the REC translocation carriers. Involvement of non-acrocentric chromosome(s or terminal breakpoint(s in reciprocal translocations was associated with an increase in the percent of embryos consistent with adjacent 1 but with a decrease in 3∶1 segregation. Similar results were obtained in the analysis of nontransferred embryos donated for research. 3∶1 segregation was the most frequent segregation type in both day 3 (31% and spare (35% embryos obtained from carriers of t(11;22(q23;q11, the only non-random REC with the same breakpoint reported in a large number of unrelated families mainly identified by the birth of a child with derivative chromosome 22. These results suggest that chromosome segregation patterns in day 3 and nontransferred embryos obtained from male translocation carriers vary with the type of translocation and involvement of acrocentric chromosome(s or terminal breakpoint(s. These results should be helpful in estimating reproductive success in translocation carriers undergoing PGD.

  14. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Uwizera, Aline Umutoni; Mwamarangwe, Lambert; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Nel, Annalene; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  15. Induction of Morphological Changes in Human Embryo Liver Cells by the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Lasiocarpine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sylvia J.; Zuckerman, A. J.; Bird, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been implicated in the aetiology of liver disease in man and in animals. Studies of the effects of lasiocarpine indicate that they have several and perhaps independent effects on human liver cells in culture. These may be summarized as follows: 1. Nuclear and nucleolar changes which are probably related to the alkylation of DNA and ensuing inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. 2. The induction of possible chromosomal damage and mutation. 3. A generalized reduction of the metabolic activities of the cells due to membrane and mitochondrial damage, and to alkylation and inactivation of cell enzymes and proteins. 4. A long-term inhibition of mitosis leading to the formation of giant cells (“megalocytes”). The morphological effects induced by a number of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids were very similar but the pattern of metabolic changes varied somewhat. It is believed that the hepatotoxic effects are not due to the pyrrolizidine alkaloids themselves but to metabolic derivatives formed by the cell. ImagesFigs. 3-5Figs. 1-2 PMID:5032090

  16. Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 73 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the sixth week of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Hutchins, G M; Moore, G W

    1987-09-01

    The sequence of events in the development of the brain in human embryos, already published for stages 8-15, is here continued for stages 16 and 17. With the aid of a computerized bubble-sort algorithm, 71 individual embryos were ranked in ascending order of the features present. Whereas these numbered 100 in the previous study, the increasing structural complexity gave 27 new features in the two stages now under investigation. The chief characteristics of stage 16 (approximately 37 postovulatory days) are protruding basal nuclei, the caudal olfactory elevation (olfactory tubercle), the tectobulbar tracts, and ascending fibers to the cerebellum. The main features of stage 17 (approximately 41 postovulatory days) are the cortical nucleus of the amygdaloid body, an intermediate layer in the tectum mesencephali, the posterior commissure, and the habenulo-interpeduncular tract. In addition, a typical feature at stage 17 is the crescentic shape of the lens cavity.

  17. Median Sacral Artery, Sympathetic Nerves, and the Coccygeal Body: A Study Using Serial Sections of Human Embryos and Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco

    2016-07-01

    To examine how the median sacral artery (MSA) is involved with the coccygeal body or glomus coccygeum, we studied serial frontal or sagittal sections of 14 embryos (approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) and 12 fetuses (10-18 weeks). At five weeks, the caudal end of the dorsal aorta (i.e., MSA) accompanied putative sympathetic ganglion cells in front of the upper coccygeal and lower sacral vertebrae. At six weeks, a candidate for the initial coccygeal body was identified as a longitudinal arterial plexus involving nerve fibers and sympathetic ganglion cells between arteries. At 10-18 weeks, the MSA exhibited a highly tortuous course at the lower sacral and coccygeal levels, and was attached to and surrounded by veins, nerve fibers, and sympathetic ganglion cells near and between the bilateral origins of the levator ani muscle. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and chromogranin A in the nerves. However, throughout the stages examined, we found no evidence suggestive of an arteriovenous anastomosis, such as well-developed smooth muscle. An acute anterior flexure of the vertebrae at the lower sacrum, as well as regression of the secondary neural tube, seemed to induce arterial plexus formation from an initial straight MSA. Nerves and ganglion cells were likely to be secondarily involved with the plexus because of the close topographical relationship. However, these nerves might play a major role in the extreme change into adult morphology. An arteriovenous anastomosis along the MSA might be an overinterpretation, at least in the prenatal human. Anat Rec, 299:819-827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Developmental anatomy of the liver from computerized three-dimensional reconstructions of four human embryos (from Carnegie stage 14 to 23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuaire, Martin; Tonnelet, Romain; Renard, Yohann; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Duparc, Fabrice; Braun, Marc; Labrousse, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Some aspects of human embryogenesis and organogenesis remain unclear, especially concerning the development of the liver and its vasculature. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from a descriptive standpoint, the evolutionary morphogenesis of the human liver and its vasculature by computerized three-dimensional reconstructions of human embryos. Serial histological sections of four human embryos at successive stages of development belonging to three prestigious French historical collections were digitized and reconstructed in 3D using software commonly used in medical radiology. Manual segmentation of the hepatic anatomical regions of interest was performed section by section. In this study, human liver organogenesis was examined at Carnegie stages 14, 18, 21 and 23. Using a descriptive and an analytical method, we showed that these stages correspond to the implementation of the large hepatic vascular patterns (the portal system, the hepatic artery and the hepatic venous system) and the biliary system. To our knowledge, our work is the first descriptive morphological study using 3D computerized reconstructions from serial histological sections of the embryonic development of the human liver between Carnegie stages 14 and 23. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Endometrial signals improve embryo outcome: functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms on embryo development and implantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, N K; Evans, J; Gardner, D K; Salamonsen, L A; Hannan, N J

    2014-10-10

    Does vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have important roles during early embryo development and implantation? VEGF plays key roles during mouse preimplantation embryo development, with beneficial effects on time to cavitation, blastocyst cell number and outgrowth, as well as implantation rate and fetal limb development. Embryo implantation requires synchronized dialog between maternal cells and those of the conceptus. Following ovulation, secretions from endometrial glands increase and accumulate in the uterine lumen. These secretions contain important mediators that support the conceptus during the peri-implantation phase. Previously, we demonstrated a significant reduction of VEGFA in the uterine cavity of women with unexplained infertility. Functional studies demonstrated that VEGF significantly enhanced endometrial epithelial cell adhesive properties and embryo outgrowth. Human endometrial lavages (n = 6) were obtained from women of proven fertility. Four-week old Swiss mice were superovulated and mated with Swiss males to obtain embryos for treatment with VEGF in vitro. Preimplantation embryo development was assessed prior to embryo transfer (n = 19-30/treatment group/output). Recipient F1 female mice (8-12 weeks of age) were mated with vasectomized males to induce pseudopregnancy and embryos were transferred. On Day 14.5 of pregnancy, uterine horns were collected for analysis of implantation rates as well as placental and fetal development (n = 14-19/treatment). Lavage fluid was assessed by western immunoblot analysis to determine the VEGF isoforms present. Mouse embryos were treated with either recombinant human (rh)VEGF, or VEGF isoforms 121 and 165. Preimplantation embryo development was quantified using time-lapse microscopy. Blastocysts were (i) stained for cell number, (ii) transferred to wells coated with fibronectin to examine trophoblast outgrowth or (iii) transferred to pseudo pregnant recipients to analyze implantation rates, placental and

  20. Solar cycle predicts folate-sensitive neonatal genotypes at discrete phases of the first trimester of pregnancy: a novel folate-related human embryo loss hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucock, Mark; Glanville, Tracey; Yates, Zoë; Walker, James; Furst, John; Simpson, Nigel

    2012-08-01

    Folate, a key periconceptional nutrient, is ultraviolet light (UV-R) sensitive. We therefore hypothesise that a relationship exists between sunspot activity, a proxy for total solar irradiance (particularly UV-R) reaching Earth, and the occurrence of folate-sensitive, epigenomic-related neonatal genotypes during the first trimester of pregnancy. Limited data is provided to support the hypothesis that the solar cycle predicts folate-related human embryo loss: 379 neonates born at latitude 54°N between 1998 and 2000 were examined for three folate-sensitive, epigenome-related polymorphisms, with solar activity for trimester one accessed via the Royal Greenwich Observatory-US Air force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Sunspot Database (34,110 total observation days). Logistic regression showed solar activity predicts C677T-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T-MTHFR) and A66G-methionine synthase reductase (A66G-MSR) genotype at discrete phases of trimester one. Total and maximal sunspot activity predicts C677T-MTHFR genotype for days 31-60 of trimester one (p=0.0181 and 0.0366, respectively) and A66G-MSR genotype for days 61-90 of trimester one (p=0.0072 and 0.0105, respectively). Loss of UV-R sensitive folate associated with the sunspot cycle might therefore interact with variant folate genes to perturb DNA methylation and/or elaboration of the primary base sequence (thymidylate synthesis), as well as increase embryo-toxic homocysteine. We hypothesise that this may influence embryo viability leading to 677CC-MTHFR and 66GG-MSR embryo loss at times of increased solar activity. This provides an interesting and plausible link between well recognised 'folate gene originated developmental disorders' and 'solar activity/seasonality modulated developmental disorders'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. IVF/ICSI outcomes after culture of human embryos at low oxygen tension: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Sobrinho David B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved pregnancy, implantation, and birth rates have been reported after the use of reduced O2 concentration during embryo culture, mainly due to a reduction of the cumulative detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species. However, some studies have failed to report any positive effects. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of a low-O2 environment on IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes. Methods All available published and ongoing randomised trials that compared the effects of low (~5%; OC~5 and atmospheric (~20%; OC~20 oxygen concentrations on IVF/ICSI outcomes were included. Search strategies included online surveys of databases from 1980 to 2011. The outcomes measured were fertilisation rate, implantation rate and ongoing pregnancy rates. The fixed effects model was used to calculate the odds ratio. Results Seven studies were included in this analysis. The pooled fertilisation rate did not differ significantly (P = 0.54 between the group of oocytes cultured at low O2 tension and the group at atmospheric O2 tension. Concerning all cycles, the implantation (P = 0.06 and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.051 rates were not significantly different between the group receiving transferred sets containing only OC~5 embryos and the group receiving transferred sets with only OC~20 embryos. In a meta-analysis performed for only those trials in which embryos were transferred on day 2/3, implantation (P = 0.63 and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.19 rates were not significantly different between the groups. In contrast, when a meta-analysis was performed using only trials in which embryos were transferred on days 5 and 6 (at the blastocyst stage, the group with transferred sets of only OC~5 embryos showed a statistically significantly higher implantation rate (P = 0.006 than the group receiving transferred sets with only OC~20 embryos, although the ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.19 rates were not significantly

  2. Mechanical response of human female breast skin under uniaxial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, N; Khatam, Hamed; Reece, Gregory P; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Ravi-Chandar, Krishnaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Skin is a complex material covering the entire surface of the human body. Studying the mechanical properties of skin to calibrate a constitutive model is of great importance to many applications such as plastic or cosmetic surgery and treatment of skin-based diseases like decubitus ulcers. The main objective of the present study was to identify and calibrate an appropriate material constitutive model for skin and establish certain universal properties that are independent of patient-specific variability. We performed uniaxial tests performed on breast skin specimens freshly harvested during mastectomy. Two different constitutive models - one phenomenological and another microstructurally inspired - were used to interpret the mechanical responses observed in the experiments. Remarkably, we found that the model parameters that characterize dependence on previous maximum stretch (or preconditioning) exhibited specimen-independent universal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cervical Cancer Incidence in Young U.S. Females After Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Cofie, Leslie E; Berenson, Abbey B

    2018-05-30

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus vaccine has been recommended for young females in the U.S. This study aimed to compare cervical cancer incidence among young women before and after the human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Program for Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Incidence-U.S. Cancer Statistics 2001-2014 database for U.S. females aged 15-34 years. This study compared the 4-year average annual incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the 4 years before human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced (2003-2006) and the 4 most recent years in the vaccine era (2011-2014). Joinpoint regression models of cervical incidence from 2001 to 2014 were fitted to identify the discrete joints (year) that represent statistically significant changes in the direction of the trend after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in 2006. Data were collected in 2001-2014, released, and analyzed in 2017. The 4-year average annual incidence rates for cervical cancer in 2011-2014 were 29% lower than that in 2003-2006 (6.0 vs 8.4 per 1,000,000 people, rate ratio=0.71, 95% CI=0.64, 0.80) among females aged 15-24 years, and 13.0% lower among females aged 25-34 years. Joinpoint analyses of cervical cancer incidence among females aged 15-24 years revealed a significant joint at 2009 for both squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. Among females aged 25-34 years, there was no significant decrease in cervical cancer incidence after 2006. A significant decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer among young females after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine may indicate early effects of human papillomavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is the role of human female reproductive tract microbiota underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, D; Gajecka, M

    2017-05-30

    An issue that is currently undergoing extensive study is the influence of human vaginal microbiota (VMB) on the health status of women and their neonates. Healthy women are mainly colonised with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners; however, other bacteria may be elements of the VMB, particularly in women with bacterial vaginosis. The implementation of culture-independent molecular methods in VMB characterisation, especially next-generation sequencing, have provided new information regarding bacterial diversity in the vagina, revealing a large number of novel, fastidious, and/or uncultivated bacterial species. These molecular studies have contributed new insights regarding the role of bacterial community composition. In this study, we discuss recent findings regarding the reproductive tract microbiome. Not only bacteria but also viruses and fungi constitute important components of the reproductive tract microbiome. We focus on aspects related to the impact of the maternal microbiome on foetal development, as well as the establishment of the neonatal microbiomes, including the placenta microbiome, and the haematogenous source of intrauterine infection. We also discuss whether the role of the vaginal microbiome is currently understood and appreciated.

  5. Rat primary embryo fibroblast cells suppress transformation by the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 in somatic hybrid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasaka, M; Takami, Y; Inoue, H; Hakura, A

    1991-01-01

    The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) transform established lines of rat cells but not rat cells in primary culture irrespective of the expression of the two genes. The reason for this difference between the susceptibilities of cell lines and primary cells was examined by using hybrid cells obtained by somatic cell fusion of rat cell lines transformed by the E6 and E7 genes of HPV-16 and freshly isolated rat embryo fibroblast cells. In these hybrid cells, transformed ph...

  6. Human female meiosis revised: new insights into the mechanisms of chromosome segregation and aneuploidies from advanced genomics and time-lapse imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R; Cimadomo, Danilo; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura

    2017-11-01

    The unbalanced transmission of chromosomes in human gametes and early preimplantation embryos causes aneuploidy, which is a major cause of infertility and pregnancy failure. A baseline of 20% of human oocytes are estimated to be aneuploid and this increases exponentially from 30 to 35 years, reaching on average 80% by 42 years. As a result, reproductive senescence in human females is predominantly determined by the accelerated decline in genetic quality of oocytes from 30 years of age. Understanding mechanisms of chromosome segregation and aneuploidies in the female germline is a crucial step towards the development of new diagnostic approaches and, possibly, for the development of therapeutic targets and molecules. Here, we have reviewed emerging mechanisms that may drive human aneuploidy, in particular the maternal age effect. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister kinetochore configurations that were not predicted based on murine models. Elucidation of mechanisms that result in errors in chromosome segregation in meiosis may lead to therapeutic developments that could improve reproductive outcomes by reducing aneuploidy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Co-culture of human embryos with autologous cumulus cell clusters and its beneficial impact of secreted growth factors on preimplantation development as compared to standard embryo culture in assisted reproductive technologies (ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Vithoulkas

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion(s: The investigated factors, among other substances, may be causally connected to the beneficial effect observed on embryo development. Our findings suggest that co-culture with autologous cumulus cell clusters improves the outcome of embryo culture in IVF programs.

  8. Human papilloma virus infection in female kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Ghazizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of genital human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical intra-epithelial lesions in transplanted patients. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smear/HPV test and colposcopic examinations were performed in 58 patients who were candidates for renal transplant surgery; these tests were repeated one year later. Their age range was 26-53 years (mean, 37.2 years. Hypertension was the most common cause of renal insufficiency (34.4%, while in 41.4% of the patients, the causative pathology was unknown. In 24.1% of the patients, there was no history of dialysis, i.e. they had pre-emptive transplantation. The mean duration of marriage (years since first intercourse was 16.2 years (range, 1-35. Coitus interruptus was the most common contraceptive method used (37.9%, followed by tubal ligation and condom (10.3% and 6.9%, respectively. All patients had negative Pap tests and normal gynecologic exam before undergoing transplantation. The Pap test remained normal after transplant surgery, although the HPV test became positive in four patients (6.9%. There were five cases of white epithelium on colposcopy, but biopsy showed normal metaplasia. Two cases of extensive anogenital warts were treated by CO 2 laser, and one patient had recurrent warts, which responded well to second laser surgery. None of the study patients had squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL or vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasia. Our study suggests that screening with HPV and Pap test should be performed before transplant surgery and should be repeated at regular intervals in order to avoid irreversible situations such as high-grade SILs, which are difficult to treat. Avoiding high-risk sexual relations in this group of patients is highly recommended.

  9. Safety of cryopreservation straws for human gametes or embryos: a preliminary study with human immunodeficiency virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benifla, J L; Letur-Konïrsch, H; Collin, G; Devaux, A; Kuttenn, F; Madelenat, P; Brun-Vezinet, F; Feldmann, G

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this preliminary experimental study was to test the stability of cryopreservation straws to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Three kinds of straws were tested: four polyvinyl chloride (PVC), four polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) and 20 high-security ionomeric resin (IR). The PVC and PETG straws were sealed ultrasonically, and the IR straw by thermosoldering. Each sealed straw was cut in half to produce two demi-straws and then filled with 100 microl of HIV-1-containing supernatant (reverse transcriptase activity: 15 000 c.p.m./50 microl). The unsealed cotton end of PVC and PETG straws and the two halves of the IR straws (cotton and plastic plug ends) were tested. Each demi-straw was two- thirds submerged in RPMI medium at 37 degrees C, and RPMI samples were withdrawn on days 3, 7 and 11. Viral RNA was extracted from the medium and then amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by nested PCR using primers specific to HIV-1 protease. On day 7, no HIV-1 RNA was detected in any of the different samples of medium that had surrounded the unsealed PVC and PETG straws with cotton ends, but three IR specimens were positive. On day 11, PVC and PETG remained negative but HIV-1 RNA was detected in RPMI samples for two more IR demi-straws (n = 5). In conclusion, under these experimental conditions (at 37 degrees C), the unsealed cotton end PVC, PETG and thermosoldered cotton end IR demi-straws appeared to be safe for HIV-1, while IR straws, sealed or unsealed with a plastic plug and with unsealed cotton ends, leaked.

  10. In vivo oxygen, temperature and pH dynamics in the female reproductive tract and their importance in human conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Mingels, Roel; Morgan, Hywel; Macklon, Nick; Cheong, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Despite advances in ART, implantation and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer still remain low. IVF laboratories strive to ensure that the process of handling gametes in vitro closely mimics the in vivo environment. However, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the in vivo regulation and dynamic variation in biophysical parameters such as oxygen concentration, pH and temperature within the reproductive tract. To undertake a systematic review of the current understanding of the physico-chemical parameters of oxygen tension (pO2), pH and temperature within the female reproductive tract, and their potential implications in clinical and pathological processes related to fertility and those pertaining to limited reproductive capacity. A comprehensive literature search was performed using electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Pubmed to identify original and review articles addressing the biophysical parameters (pO2, pH and temperature) in the female reproductive tract of any species. The search included all studies published between 1946 and November 2015. Search terms included 'oxygen', 'pH', 'hydrogen ion concentration', 'acid base' and others terms. We also used special features and truncations to identify synonyms and broaden the search. Studies were excluded if they only assessed embryo culture conditions, fetal acid-base status, oxidative stress, outcomes of pregnancy and measurements of these parameters in non-reproductive organs. Our search generated 18 685 records and 60 articles were included. pO2 within the female reproductive tract shows cyclical variation and minute-to-minute oscillations, which may be influenced by uterine contractility, hormones, the autonomic system, cardiac pulsatility, and myometrial and smooth muscle integrity. Fine balanced control of pO2 and avoidance of overwhelming oxidative stress is crucial for embryogenesis and implantation. The pH in the female reproductive tract is graduated, with lowest p

  11. Embryonic cardiac morphometry in Carnegie stages 15-23, from the Complutense University of Madrid Institute of Embryology Human Embryo Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, L A; Turrero-Nogués, A; Marantos-Gamarra, D G

    2008-01-01

    We performed a morphometric study of cardiac development on human embryos to complement the scarce data on human embryonic cardiac morphometry and to attempt to establish, from these, algorithms describing cardiac growth during the second month of gestation. Thirty human embryos from Carnegie stages 15-23 were included in the study. Shrinkage and compression effects from fixation and inclusion in paraffin were considered in our calculations. Growth of the cardiac (whole heart) volume and volume of ventricular myocardium through the Carnegie stages were analysed by ANOVA. Linear correlation was used to describe the relationship between the ventricular myocardium and cardiac volumes. Comparisons of models were carried out through the R2 statistic. The relationship volume of ventricular myocardium versus cardiac volume is expressed by the equation: cardiac volume = 0.6266 + 2.4778 volume of ventricular myocardium. The relationship cardiac volume versus crown-rump length is expressed by the equation: cardiac volume = 1.3 e(0.126 CR length), where e is the base of natural logarithms. At a clinical level, these results can contribute towards the establishment of a normogram for cardiac development, useful for the design of strategies for early diagnosis of congenital heart disease. They can also help in the study of embryogenesis, for example in the discussion of ventricular trabeculation. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Development and application of the Chinese adult female computational phantom Rad-HUMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Cheng, Mengyun; Wang, Wen; Fan, Yanchang; Zhao, Kai; He, Tao; Pei, Xi; Shang, Leiming; Chen, Chaobin; Long, Pengcheng; Cao, Ruifen; Wang, Guozhong; Zhou, Shaoheng; Yu, Shengpeng; Hu, Liqin; Zeng, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Rad-HUMAN is a whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult woman which contains 46 organs and tissues and was created by MCAM6 software using the color photographs of the Chinese Visible Human dataset. This dataset was obtained from a 22-year old Chinese female cadaver judged to represent normal human anatomy as much as possible. The density and elemental composition recommended in the ICRP Publication 89 and in the ICRU report 44 were assigned to the organ and tissue in Rad-HUMAN for radiation protection purpose. The last step was to implement the anatomical data into a Monte Carlo code. Rad-HUMAN contains more than 28.8 billion tiny volume units, which produces an accurately whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult female

  13. Females are sensitive to unpleasant human emotions regardless of the emotional context of photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryousuke; Takeda, Yuji

    2017-06-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated that females exhibit higher sensitivity than males to the emotional state of a person in a photograph. The present study examined whether such females' sensitivity to human emotions could be observed even when the background emotional contexts were incongruent with facial expressions. The late positive potential (LPP) was measured while 19-female and 15-male participants viewed a photograph of a face with varied emotional expressions (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) superimposed on a background photograph with varied valences (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant). The results showed that unpleasant background photographs elicited a larger LPP compared to pleasant and neutral background photographs in both female and male participants. In contrast, a larger LPP for the unpleasant face photographs was observed only in female participants. Furthermore, the effect of face photographs did not interact with the effect of background photographs. These results suggest that females are sensitive to human emotions regardless of the emotional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Embryos, individuals, and persons: an argument against embryo creation and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, C

    2001-01-01

    One strategy for arguing that it should be legally permissible to create human embryos, or to use spare human embryos, for scientific research purposes involves the claim that such embryos cannot be persons because they are not human individuals while twinning may yet take place. Being a human individual is considered to be by most people a necessary condition for being a human person. I argue first that such an argument against the personhood of embryos must be rationally conclusive if their destruction in public places such as laboratories is to be countenanced. I base this argument on a popular understanding of the role that the notion of privacy plays in abortion laws. I then argue that such arguments against personhood are not rationally conclusive. The claim that the early embryos is not a human individual is not nearly as obvious as some assert.

  15. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs) by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...... in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process....

  16. Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intention Among Female Sex Workers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, E.; Dam, L. van; Kroone, N.; Alberts, C.J.; Craanen, M.; Zimet, G.D.; Heijmam, T.; Hogewoning, A.A.; Sonder, G.J.B.; Vries, H.J.C. de; Alberts, C.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced diseases but are currently not targeted by the HPV vaccination program in the Netherlands. We explored determinants of their intention to get vaccinated against HPV in case vaccination would be offered to

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  18. Male-Female Differences in Hourly Wages: The Role of Human Capital, Working Conditions, and Housework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni

    1991-01-01

    Data from a survey of 414 male and 217 female workers assessed the effects of human capital, household responsibilities, working conditions, and on-the-job training on wages. Household responsibilities had a negative effect on women's earnings; the presence of children positively affected wages of both sexes. (SK)

  19. Whole Genome Amplification of Day 3 or Day 5 Human Embryos Biopsies Provides a Suitable DNA Template for PCR-Based Techniques for Genotyping, a Complement of Preimplantation Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schaeffer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine if whole genome amplification (WGA provides suitable DNA for qPCR-based genotyping for human embryos. Single blastomeres (Day 3 or trophoblastic cells (Day 5 were isolated from 342 embryos for WGA. Comparative Genomic Hybridization determined embryo sex as well as Trisomy 18 or Trisomy 21. To determine the embryo’s sex, qPCR melting curve analysis for SRY and DYS14 was used. Logistic regression indicated a 4.4%, 57.1%, or 98.8% probability of a male embryo when neither gene, SRY only, or both genes were detected, respectively (accuracy = 94.1%, kappa = 0.882, and p<0.001. Fluorescent Capillary Electrophoresis for the amelogenin genes (AMEL was also used to determine sex. AMELY peak’s height was higher and this peak’s presence was highly predictive of male embryos (AUC = 0.93, accuracy = 81.7%, kappa = 0.974, and p<0.001. Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 21 were determined using the threshold cycle difference for RPL17 and TTC3, respectively, which were significantly lower in the corresponding embryos. The Ct difference for TTC3 specifically determined Trisomy 21 (AUC = 0.89 and RPL17 for Trisomy 18 (AUC = 0.94. Here, WGA provides adequate DNA for PCR-based techniques for preimplantation genotyping.

  20. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  1. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone elevation (PE during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the

  2. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G.; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  3. Evaluation of human sperm chromatin status after selection using a modified Diff-Quik stain indicates embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Silva, A F; Lourenço, B; Almeida-Santos, T; Sousa, A P; Ramalho-Santos, J

    2013-11-01

    Sperm chromatin/DNA damage can be measured by a variety of assays. However, it has been reported that these tests may lose prognostic value in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) cycles when assessed in post-prepared samples, possibly due to the normalizing effect promoted by sperm preparation procedures. We have recently implemented a modified version of the Diff-Quik staining assay that allows for the evaluation of human sperm chromatin status in native samples, together with standard sperm morphology assessment. However, the value of this parameter in terms of predicting in vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes after sperm selection is unknown. In this study, data from 138 couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments showed that sperm chromatin integrity was significantly improved after density gradient centrifugation and swim up (p embryo development rates (p > 0.05). However, sperm samples presenting lower percentages of damaged chromatin were associated with better quality (Grade I) embryos in both ART procedures (p selection may occur; but not in ICSI, where sperm selection is operator dependent. This quick and low-cost assay is suggested as an alternative method to detect sperm chromatin status in minimal clinical settings, when no other well-established and robust assays (e.g. Sperm chromatin structure assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling) are available. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 40 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the seventh week of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Hutchins, G M; Moore, G W

    1988-08-01

    The sequence of events in the development of the brain in human embryos, already published for stages 8-17, is here continued for stages 18 and 19. With the aid of a computerized bubble-sort algorithm, 58 individual embryos were ranked in ascending order of the features present. The increasing structural complexity provided 40 new features in these two stages. The chief characteristics of stage 18 (approximately 44 postovulatory days) are rapidly growing basal nuclei; appearance of the extraventricular bulge of the cerebellum (flocculus), of the superior cerebellar peduncle, and of follicles in the epiphysis cerebri; and the presence of vomeronasal organ and ganglion, of the bucconasal membrane, and of isolated semicircular ducts. The main features of stage 19 (approximately 48 days) are the cochlear nuclei, the ganglion of the nervus terminalis, nuclei of the prosencephalic septum, the appearance of the subcommissural organ, the presence of villi in the choroid plexuses of the fourth and lateral ventricles, and the stria medullaris thalami.

  5. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  6. Comparison of two commercial embryo culture media (SAGE-1 step single medium vs. G1-PLUSTM/G2-PLUSTM sequential media): Influence on in vitro fertilization outcomes and human embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pelayo, Iratxe; Gutiérrez-Romero, Javier María; Armada, Ana Isabel Mangano; Calero-Ruiz, María Mercedes; Acevedo-Yagüe, Pablo Javier Moreno de

    2018-04-26

    To compare embryo quality, fertilization, implantation, miscarriage and clinical pregnancy rates for embryos cultured in two different commercial culture media until D-2 or D-3. In this retrospective study, we analyzed 189 cycles performed in 2016. Metaphase II oocytes were microinjected and allocated into single medium (SAGE 1-STEP, Origio) until transferred, frozen or discarded; or, if sequential media were used, the oocytes were cultured in G1-PLUSTM (Vitrolife) up to D-2 or D-3 and in G2-PLUSTM (Vitrolife) to transfer. On the following day, the oocytes were checked for normal fertilization and on D-2 and D-3 for morphological classification. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests in PASW Statistics 18.0. The fertilization rates were 70.07% for single and 69.11% for sequential media (p=0.736). The mean number of embryos with high morphological quality (class A/B) was higher in the single medium than in the sequential media: D-2 [class A (190 vs. 107, pcultured in single medium were frozen: 197 (21.00%) vs. sequential: 102 (11.00%), pculture in single medium yields greater efficiency per cycle than in sequential media. Higher embryo quality and quantity were achieved, resulting in more frozen embryos. There were no differences in clinical pregnancy rates.

  7. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.

  8. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  9. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  10. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited : Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  11. A typological approach to testing the evolutionary functions of human female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Belsky, Jay

    2012-10-01

    Building on previous work that identified different types of orgasm in women (King, Belsky, Mah, & Binik, 2011), the goal of the present study was to extend such typological work and determine whether female orgasmic variability tracked potentially evolutionarily salient sexual partner characteristics (e.g., those displaying possible immune-system compatibility). A total of 265 females completed an Internet survey about their orgasmic experience-achieved either with partners or alone. For partnered orgasms, they also provided details of partner characteristics and sexual behaviors. Latent class analysis revealed two orgasm types which were meaningfully distinguishable in terms of sensations and location-either centered on the surface of genitalia or deep inside. Deep orgasms were associated with internal sensations consistent with proposed functions of female orgasm in terms of differential sperm insuck. Such orgasms were associated with partners who were perceived as considerate, dominant, with a noticeably attractive smell, and as providing firm penetration. However, some hypothesized reproductively significant partner characteristics were not differentially associated with deep orgasms (i.e., muscularity, aggression, masculinity). Results were discussed and future research directions outlined. In particular, it is suggested that sexual passion between partners is a non-accidental component of sexual functioning and that this has too frequently been missing in sex research involving humans. Direct physiological measures of the results of female orgasm need to be undertaken. Additionally, the intriguing phenomenon of female ejaculation deserves scientific attention.

  12. The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2013-12-22

    Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control.

  13. The Trojan Female Technique: A Novel, Effective and Humane Approach for Pest Population Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, Neil J. [Centre for Reproduction and Genomics and Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Jalilzadeh, Aidin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Didham, Raphael K. [School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia (Australia); CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Soboleva, Tanya [Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Ministry for Primary Industries, PO Box 2526, Wellington (New Zealand); Tompkins, Daniel M. [Landcare Research, Private Bag 1930, Dunedin (New Zealand); New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd., Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2014-01-15

    Full-text: Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour- intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan Female Technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. (author)

  14. PreproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract: expression and biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredkjoer, H E; Palle, C; Ekblad, E

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the localization, distribution, colocalization and biological effect of preproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract. Radioimmunoassays applying antisera against the five functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination with immunohistoc......The aim of the study was to elucidate the localization, distribution, colocalization and biological effect of preproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract. Radioimmunoassays applying antisera against the five functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination...... with immunohistochemistry were used. The effect of preproVIP 22-79, preproVIP 111-122 and preproVIP 156-170 on genital smooth muscle activity in the Fallopian tube was investigated in vitro and compared to that of VIP. All the preproVIP-derived peptides were expressed throughout the genital tract in neuronal elements...

  15. Wintering the common viper (Vipera berus with embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosov Andrey Victorovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the Vipers from Karelia phenomenon wintering females with embryos and the annual breeding were found. They were very large and heavy females (L.t. > 62 cm, W > 160 g, for which the mass loss due to pregnancy are not significant. Analysis of the size of 1450 individuals in a Kizhi population of viper showed that the proportion of females that can hibernate from embryos amounts to less than 3%.

  16. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, H.; Jinlu, S.; Shaoxiang, Z.; Qing, H.; Li-wen, T.; Chengjun, G.; Tang, X.; Jiang, S. B.; Xiano-lin, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  18. In vitro maturation, fertilization, embryo development & clinical outcome of human metaphase-I oocytes retrieved from stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The major cause of fertilisation failure after ICSI is failure of the oocyte to initiate the biochemical processes necessary for activation. This inability could be ascribed to cytoplasmic immaturity of those gametes even if they had reached nuclear maturity. The activation of a mature oocyte is characterised by release from metaphase II (MII arrest and extrusion of the second polar body, followed by pro-nuclear formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of in vitro matured (IVM metaphase I (MI oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI at different time intervals after extrusion of the first polar body (1PB in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods: A total of 8030 oocytes were collected from 1400 ICSI cycles, 5504 MII at the time of cumulus retrieval. Four hundred eight metaphase II (MII (27.1% matured to MII after in vitro culture for 2-26 h and 5389 sibling MII in the moment of oocyte denudation were injected. On the other hand, 49 ICSI cycles containing only MI oocytes at retrieval were injected at three different time intervals after reaching the MII. The intervals were as follows: 2-6 h (n=10, 8-11 h (n=4 and 23-26 h (n=10. Fertilization and development potential were evaluated in both studies. Results: Fertilization, embryo cleavage and quality were significantly lower in IVM MI compared to MII at time of denudation. Pregnancy rate was higher in group MII. Pregnancy was achieved in three embryo transfers when ICSI was performed within 2-6 h (group I and 8-11 h (group II after PB extrusion. One pregnancy was obtained in group I and a healthy neonate was born. Interpretation & conclusions: Immature oocytes from women whose ovaries have been stimulated could be matured, fertilized by ICSI, cleaved in vitro and to give rise to a live birth. However, the developmental competence of embryos derived from immature oocytes is reduced, compared with sibling in vivo matured oocytes

  19. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodology/Principal Findings Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. Conclusions/Significance These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning. PMID:22514643

  20. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elliot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  1. Reduced costs of reproduction in females mediate a shift from a male-biased to a female-biased lifespan in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Maklakov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    The causes underlying sex differences in lifespan are strongly debated. While females commonly outlive males in humans, this is generally less pronounced in societies before the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. Life-history theory suggests that reduced reproduction should benefit female lifespan when females pay higher costs of reproduction than males. Using unique longitudinal demographic records on 140,600 reproducing individuals from the Utah Population Database, we demonstrate a shift from male-biased to female-biased adult lifespans in individuals born before versus during the demographic transition. Only women paid a cost of reproduction in terms of shortened post-reproductive lifespan at high parities. Therefore, as fertility decreased over time, female lifespan increased, while male lifespan remained largely stable, supporting the theory that differential costs of reproduction in the two sexes result in the shifting patterns of sex differences in lifespan across human populations. Further, our results have important implications for demographic forecasts in human populations and advance our understanding of lifespan evolution. PMID:27087670

  2. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Banerjee, Joya; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Fried, Susana T

    2017-05-12

    Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. 2013), nor are they sufficient to respond to health needs of millions of women and girls living with FGM. International efforts to address FGM have thus far focused primarily on preventing the practice, with less attention to treating associated health complications, caring for survivors, and engaging health care providers as key stakeholders. Recognizing this imperative, WHO developed guidelines on management of health complications of FGM. In this paper, based on foundational research for the development of WHO's guidelines, we situate the practice of FGM as a rights violation in the context of international and national policy and efforts, and explore the role of health providers in upholding health-related human rights of women at girls who are survivors, or who are at risk. Findings are based on a literature review of relevant international human rights treaties and UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.

  3. Comprehensive genetic assessment of the human embryo: can empiric application of microarray comparative genomic hybridization reduce multiple gestation rate by single fresh blastocyst transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Eric Scott; Yang, Zhihong; Walsh, David J; Salem, Shala A

    2012-09-01

    The unacceptable multiple gestation rate currently associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) would be substantially alleviated if the routine practice of transferring more than one embryo were reconsidered. While transferring a single embryo is an effective method to reduce the clinical problem of multiple gestation, rigid adherence to this approach has been criticized for negatively impacting clinical pregnancy success in IVF. In general, single embryo transfer is viewed cautiously by IVF patients although greater acceptance would result from a more effective embryo selection method. Selection of one embryo for fresh transfer on the basis of chromosomal normalcy should achieve the dual objective of maintaining satisfactory clinical pregnancy rates and minimizing the multiple gestation problem, because embryo aneuploidy is a major contributing factor in implantation failure and miscarriage in IVF. The initial techniques for preimplantation genetic screening unfortunately lacked sufficient sensitivity and did not yield the expected results in IVF. However, newer molecular genetic methods could be incorporated with standard IVF to bring the goal of single embryo transfer within reach. Aiming to make multiple embryo transfers obsolete and unnecessary, and recognizing that array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) will typically require an additional 12 h of laboratory time to complete, we propose adopting aCGH for mainstream use in clinical IVF practice. As aCGH technology continues to develop and becomes increasingly available at lower cost, it may soon be considered unusual for IVF laboratories to select a single embryo for fresh transfer without regard to its chromosomal competency. In this report, we provide a rationale supporting aCGH as the preferred methodology to provide a comprehensive genetic assessment of the single embryo before fresh transfer in IVF. The logistics and cost of integrating aCGH with IVF to enable fresh embryo transfer are also

  4. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  5. Factors affecting conception rates in cattle following embryo transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) plays an important role in improving productivity of dairy cattle (Bos indicus). Embryo Transfer Technology allows top quality female livestock to improve a herd or flock in much the same way that artificial insemination has allowed greater use of superior sires. The technology hastens ...

  6. Meiotic and mitotic behaviour of a ring/deleted chromosome 22 in human embryos determined by preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a maternal carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laver Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ring chromosomes are normally associated with developmental anomalies and are rarely inherited. An exception to this rule is provided by deletion/ring cases. We were provided with a unique opportunity to investigate the meiotic segregation at oogenesis in a woman who is a carrier of a deleted/ring 22 chromosome. The couple requested preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD following the birth of a son with a mosaic karyotype. The couple underwent two cycles of PGD. Studies were performed on lymphocytes, single embryonic cells removed from 3 day-old embryos and un-transferred embryos. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH with specific probe sets in two rounds of hybridization. Results In total, 12 embryos were biopsied, and follow up information was obtained for 10 embryos. No embryos were completely normal or balanced for chromosome 22 by day 5. There was only one embryo diagnosed as balanced of 12 biopsied but that accumulated postzygotic errors by day 5. Three oocytes apparently had a balanced chromosome 22 complement but all had the deleted and the ring 22 and not the intact chromosome 22. After fertilisation all the embryos accumulated postzygotic errors for chromosome 22. Conclusion The study of the preimplantation embryos in this case provided a rare and significant chance to study and understand the phenomena associated with this unusual type of anomaly during meiosis and in the earliest stages of development. It is the first reported PGD attempt for a ring chromosome abnormality.

  7. Evidence for chronically altered cortical serotonin function in human female recreational ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Christina R; Watkins, Tristan J; Dietrich, Mary S; Cao, Aize; Blackford, Jennifer U; Rogers, Baxter; Ansari, Mohammed S; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Kessler, Robert M; Salomon, Ronald M; Benningfield, Margaret; Cowan, Ronald L

    2012-01-01

    Context MDMA (ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug that produces loss of serotonin (5-HT) axons in animal models. Whether MDMA produces chronic reductions in 5-HT signaling in humans remains controversial. Objective To determine if MDMA use is associated with chronic reductions in serotonin signaling in female human cerebral cortex as reflected by increased 5-HT2A receptors. Design Cross sectional case-control study comparing 5-HT2A receptor levels in abstinent female MDMA polydrug users to MDMA-naive females; within-group design assessing the association of lifetime MDMA use and 5-HT2A receptors. Subjects had at least 90 days abstinence from MDMA use as verified by hair sampling. Cortical 5-HT2A receptor levels were assayed with the 5HT2A-specific Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radioligand [18F]setoperone. Setting Academic Medical Center Research Laboratory. Participants Volunteer female MDMA users (N=14) and MDMA-naive controls (N=10). Main exclusion criteria were non-drug-related DSM-IV axis I psychiatric disorders and general medical illness. Main Outcome Measure Cortical 5-HT2A receptor non-displaceable binding potential (5-HT2ABPND). Results MDMA users had increased 5-HT2ABPND in occipital-parietal (19.7%), temporal (20.5%), occipito-temporal-parietal (18.3%), frontal (16.6%), and fronto-parietal (18.5%) regions (pMDMA use associated positively with 5-HT2ABPND in fronto-parietal (β=0.665;p=0.007), occipito-temporal (β=0.798;p=0.002), fronto-limbic (β=0.634;p=0.024), and frontal (β=0.691;p=0.008) regions. In contrast, there were no regions in which MDMA use was inversely associated with receptor levels. There were no statistically significant effects of the duration of MDMA abstinence on 5-HT2ABPND. Conclusions Human recreational MDMA use is associated with long-lasting increases in 5-HT2A receptor density. 5-HT2A receptor levels correlate positively with lifetime MDMA use and do not decrease with abstinence. These results suggest that MDMA produces

  8. Human papillomavirus vaccination of males: attitudes and perceptions of physicians who vaccinate females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas W; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Brenneman, Susan K; Klein, Jonathan D

    2010-07-01

    We assessed U.S. physicians' attitudes and perceptions regarding potential human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of males. We surveyed a random sample of 2,714 pediatricians and family practitioners identified in administrative claims of a U.S. health plan as HPV vaccinators of females; 595 pediatricians and 499 family practitioners participated. Most physicians would recommend HPV vaccination to males aged 11-12 (63.9%), 13-18 (93.4%), and 19-26 (92.7%) years. Physicians agreed that males should be vaccinated to prevent them from getting genital and anal warts (52.9% strongly and 36.0% somewhat) and to protect females from cervical cancer (75.3% strongly and 20.8% somewhat). Physicians agreed that an HPV vaccine recommendation for males would increase opportunities to discuss sexual health with adolescent male patients (58.7% strongly, 35.3% somewhat). Most did not strongly agree (15.4% strongly, 45.4% somewhat) that parents of adolescent male patients would be interested in HPV vaccination for males, that a gender-neutral HPV vaccine recommendation would increase acceptance by adolescent females and their parents (19.6% strongly, 42.0% somewhat), or that a gender-neutral recommendation would improve current female vaccination rates (10.4% strongly, 26.0% somewhat). Physicians who currently vaccinate females against HPV supported the concept of vaccinating males for its benefits for both sexes. They agreed that a gender-neutral HPV vaccination recommendation would be appropriate with regard to public health and believed that it would increase opportunities for sexual health discussions, but were less sure that such a recommendation would change patient or parental attitudes toward HPV vaccination or improve current HPV vaccination efforts. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles after GnRH-agonist triggering of final oocyte maturation in the collecting cycle with GnRH-antagonist. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, multicentric clinical study. SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated IVF centers...... a total of 228 participants. Surplus embryos or oocytes at the pronuclear stage were cryopreserved in 53 patients after hCG administration and 32 patients after GnRH-agonist administration on the basis of patient choice, pronuclear/embryo availability, and local laws. INTERVENTION(S): Transfer of frozen......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...

  10. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on others not only via the auditory and visual mode but also via chemosignals. In three studies, we attempted to replicate and extend Gelstein et al.'s findings by including an additional condition with irritant tears, by using pictures of sexually attractive women, and by testing related hypotheses on the pro-social effects of exposure to tears. All three studies, separately or combined in a meta-analysis, failed to replicate the original inhibitory effects of tears. In addition, sniffing tears did not affect measures of connectedness, aggression and pro-social behaviour. It is concluded that the effects of female tears on male arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, if any, are very weak at best. Rather, it seems that crying exerts its strong inter-personal effects through the visual and auditory sensory channels.

  11. Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Curtis R

    2011-08-05

    Preimplantation embryos from cattle, sheep, and goats may be cryopreserved for short- or long-term storage. Preimplantation embryos consist predominantly of water, and the avoidance of intracellular ice crystal formation during the cryopreservation process is of paramount importance to maintain embryo viability. Embryos are placed into a hypertonic solution (1.4 - 1.5 M) of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) such as ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol (GLYC) to create an osmotic gradient that facilitates cellular dehydration. After embryos reach osmotic equilibrium in the CPA solution, they are individually loaded in the hypertonic CPA solution into 0.25 ml plastic straws for freezing. Embryos are placed into a controlled rate freezer at a temperature of -6°C. Ice crystal formation is induced in the CPA solution surrounding the embryo, and crystallization causes an increase in the concentration of CPA outside of the embryo, causing further cellular dehydration. Embryos are cooled at a rate of 0.5°C/min, enabling further dehydration, to a temperature of -34°C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196°C). Cryopreserved embryos must be thawed prior to transfer to a recipient (surrogate) female. Straws containing the embryos are removed from the liquid nitrogen dewar, held in room temperature air for 3 to 5 sec, and placed into a 37°C water bath for 25 to 30 sec. Embryos cryopreserved in GLYC are placed into a 1 M solution of sucrose for 10 min for removal of the CPA before transfer to a recipient (surrogate) female. Embryos cryopreserved in EG, however, may be directly transferred to the uterus of a recipient.

  12. Laser Capture and Deep Sequencing Reveals the Transcriptomic Programmes Regulating the Onset of Pancreas and Liver Differentiation in Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Jennings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To interrogate the alternative fates of pancreas and liver in the earliest stages of human organogenesis, we developed laser capture, RNA amplification, and computational analysis of deep sequencing. Pancreas-enriched gene expression was less conserved between human and mouse than for liver. The dorsal pancreatic bud was enriched for components of Notch, Wnt, BMP, and FGF signaling, almost all genes known to cause pancreatic agenesis or hypoplasia, and over 30 unexplored transcription factors. SOX9 and RORA were imputed as key regulators in pancreas compared with EP300, HNF4A, and FOXA family members in liver. Analyses implied that current in vitro human stem cell differentiation follows a dorsal rather than a ventral pancreatic program and pointed to additional factors for hepatic differentiation. In summary, we provide the transcriptional codes regulating the start of human liver and pancreas development to facilitate stem cell research and clinical interpretation without inter-species extrapolation.

  13. Role of melatonin in embryo fetal development

    OpenAIRE

    Voiculescu, SE; Zygouropoulos, N; Zahiu, CD; Zagrean, AM

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine produced by the pineal gland and secreted in a circadian manner. In the past few decades, research over this topic has been enhanced. Melatonin has many important roles in the human physiology: regulator of the circadian rhythms, sleep inducer, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic. This paper reviews the involvement of melatonin in embryo fetal development. The pineal gland develops completely postpartum, so both the embryo and the fetus are dependent on the maternal mela...

  14. Role of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B in Puberty in Female Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Terasawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin (KISS1 and neurokinin B (NKB and their receptors (KISS1R and NK3R, respectively result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus with infusion of agonists and antagonists for kisspeptin and NKB reveal that kisspeptin and NKB signaling stimulate GnRH release independently or collaboratively by forming kisspeptin and NKB neuronal networks depending on the developmental age. For example, while in prepubertal females, kisspeptin and NKB signaling independently stimulate GnRH release, in pubertal females, the formation of a collaborative kisspeptin and NKB network further accelerates the pubertal increase in GnRH release. It is speculated that the collaborative mechanism between kisspeptin and NKB signaling to GnRH neurons is necessary for the complex reproductive function in females.

  15. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, Veronica; Ordiz, Andrés; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  16. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals: effects on the male and female reproductive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakis, Stavros; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) comprise a group of chemical compounds that have been examined extensively due to the potential harmful effects in the health of human populations. During the past decades, particular focus has been given to the harmful effects of EDCs to the reproductive system. The estimation of human exposure to EDCs can be broadly categorized into occupational and environmental exposure, and has been a major challenge due to the structural diversity of the chemicals that are derived by many different sources at doses below the limit of detection used by conventional methodologies. Animal and in vitro studies have supported the conclusion that endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the hormone dependent pathways responsible for male and female gonadal development, either through direct interaction with hormone receptors or via epigenetic and cell-cycle regulatory modes of action. In human populations, the majority of the studies point towards an association between exposure to EDCs and male and/or female reproduction system disorders, such as infertility, endometriosis, breast cancer, testicular cancer, poor sperm quality and/or function. Despite promising discoveries, a causal relationship between the reproductive disorders and exposure to specific toxicants is yet to be established, due to the complexity of the clinical protocols used, the degree of occupational or environmental exposure, the determination of the variables measured and the sample size of the subjects examined. Future studies should focus on a uniform system of examining human populations with regard to the exposure to specific EDCs and the direct effect on the reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of sulphur-35 on female gonadal cell kinetics in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, K.; Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation hazards of internally administered 35 S which is used as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent in human medicine are assessed. It is observed in the study that the treatment of females during pregnancy results in 35 S incorporation into ovaries of the embryos and may result in infertility and abortions or miscarriages. (author)

  18. [Prevalence of human papilloma virus isolated from cervix lesions in a female population from Transilvania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feticu, Lucia; Bocşan, I S; Bondor, Cosmina loana; Boboş, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Between the years 2008-2011 reverse hibridisation (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test) and genotyping 1a Roche (the kit: Linear array HPV genotyping test) were used for detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the cervix secretions of 182 female patients aged 16-63 years, predominantly of urban origin. 99 patients (54.4%) were identified as being infected with various types of HPV, prevalent in urban (53 single infections and 46 multiple infections). HPV infection was not detected in 83 (45.6%) patients. Only 7 females from rural areas were tested (5 females had single or multiple HPV infections). 32 types of HPV were identificated: 15 HPV types with high risk (51, 82, 56, 18, 39, 45, 59, 68, 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58, 73), 14 types with low risk (42, 61, 62, 72, 81, 83, 84, CP6108, 70, 6, 11, 55, 74, 54), and 3 types with possible high risk (26, 53, 66). The type of HPV could not be identified in other two cases. The most frecvent types of HPV with high risk isolated were: the type 16. The types 51 and 58 of HPV with high risk and the type 84 with low risk are detected in single infections in urban and in rural. HPV clades involved in single infections are: 1 (1 case), 3 (5 cases), 5 (4 cases), 6 (5 cases), 7 (5 cases), 9 (21 cases), 10 (7 cases). The clades 11 (7 cases) and 13 (6 cases) were involved only in multiple infections detected in urban. The types 35, 39, 59, 68 of HPV with high risk were isolated from multple infections. In rural, multiple infections with two HPV were detected. The citological screening by Babe-Papanicolaou examination was made only in 9 cases: HPV was not detected in 4 cases (one female had ASC-US: atypical squamous cells of "undetermined significance"); in 5 positive cases were detected HPV 16, 31, 58, 6.

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Shao, Rong; Rao, C V; Akoum, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Deep functional changes occurring within the endometrium during implantation are orchestrated by embryonic and maternal signals. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major embryonic signal, plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL) 1, one of the earliest embryonic signals, appears to exert a direct impact on the receptive endometrium and to induce major molecular changes that are essential for embryo implantation. Herein we investigate whether hCG can modulate endometrial stromal cell (ESC) receptivity to IL1 during the implantation window and assess the impact on angiogenesis in vitro. Primary cultures of ESCs from normal fertile women during the implantation window were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of hCG (0-100 ng/ml) and stimulated for 24 h with IL1B (0-0.1 ng/ml). IL1 receptors (IL1Rs), IL1R antagonist (IL1RA), and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 were analyzed by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The angiogenic activity in vitro was studied using human microvascular endothelial cell line, scratch wound assay, and cell proliferation via BrdU incorporation into DNA. Human CG induced a dose-dependent imbalance in ESC receptivity to IL1 by significantly upregulating the functional signaling IL1R1 and concomitantly downregulating the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and IL1RA upon subsequent exposure to IL1B. Prior exposure to hCG amplified MCP1 secretion by ESCs in response to IL1B and triggered the release of angiogenic activity in vitro in which MCP1 appeared to play a significant role. Overexpression of IL1R2 using cell transfection inhibited IL1 and hCG/IL1B-mediated MCP1 secretion. These findings suggest that hCG coordinates embryonic signal interaction with the maternal endometrium, and point to a new possible pathway by which it may promote embryonic growth.

  20. Red is not a proxy signal for female genitalia in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Johns

    Full Text Available Red is a colour that induces physiological and psychological effects in humans, affecting competitive and sporting success, signalling and enhancing male social dominance. The colour is also associated with increased sexual attractiveness, such that women associated with red objects or contexts are regarded as more desirable. It has been proposed that human males have a biological predisposition towards the colour red such that it is 'sexually salient'. This hypothesis argues that women use the colour red to announce impending ovulation and sexual proceptivity, with this functioning as a proxy signal for genital colour, and that men show increased attraction in consequence. In the first test of this hypothesis, we show that contrary to the hypothesis, heterosexual men did not prefer redder female genitalia and, by extension, that red is not a proxy signal for genital colour. We found a relative preference for pinker genital images with redder genitalia rated significantly less sexually attractive. This effect was independent of raters' prior sexual experience and variation in female genital morphology. Our results refute the hypothesis that men's attraction to red is linked to an implied relationship to genital colour and women's signalling of fertility and sexual proceptivity.

  1. Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ahnstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which is associated with lower blood flow. The present study investigates if cerebral arteries from men and women differ in cerebrovascular receptor upregulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Freshly obtained human cerebral arteries were placed in organ culture, an established model for studying receptor upregulation. 5-hydroxtryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 and endothelin-1 type A and B (ETA and ETB receptors were evaluated using wire myograph for contractile responses, real-time PCR for mRNA and immunohistochemistry for receptor expression. KEY RESULTS: Vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II and endothelin-1 was markedly lower in cultured cerebral arteries from women as compared to men. ETB receptor-mediated contraction occurred in male but not female arteries. Interestingly, there were similar upregulation in mRNA and expression of 5-HT1B, AT1, and ETB receptors and in local expression of Ang II after organ culture. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In spite of receptor upregulation after organ culture in both sexes, cerebral arteries from women were significantly less responsive to vasoconstrictors angiotensin II and endothelin-1 as compared to arteries from men. This suggests receptor coupling and/or signal transduction mechanisms involved in cerebrovascular contractility may be suppressed in females. This is the first study to demonstrate sex differences in the vascular function of human brain arteries.

  2. Breakeven costs for embryo transfer in a commercial dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T A; Troyer, B W

    1987-11-01

    Differences in Estimated Breeding Values expressed in dollars were compared by simulation of two, 100-cow, closed herds. One herd practiced normal intensity of female selection. The other herd generated various herd replacements by embryo transfer by varying 1) selection rate of embryo transfer dams and 2) numbers of daughters per dam from which embryos were transferred, while varying the merit of mates of embryo transfer dams. Estimated Breeding Value dollars were compounded each generation and regressed to remove age adjustments and added feed and health costs. Beginning values in both herds included a standard deviation of 55 Cow Index dollars, herd average of -23 Cow Index dollars, and a 120 Predicted Difference dollars for mates of dams not embryo transferred. Average merit of all sires used increased $12 per year. Herd calving rate (.70), proportion females (.5), calf loss (.15), and heifer survival rate (.83) were used. Breakeven cost per embryo transfer cow entering the milking herd was computed by Net Present Value analysis using a 10% discount rate over 10 and 20 yr. Breakeven cost or the maximum expense that would allow a 10% return on the expenditure ranged from $135 to $510 per surviving cow, $24 to $125 per transfer, $47 to $178 per pregnancy, and $81 to $357 per female calf born. As the number of replacements resulting from embryo transfer increased, breakeven cost per embryo transfer cow decreased due to diminishing return.

  3. Repression of TSC1/TSC2 mediated by MeCP2 regulates human embryo lung fibroblast cell differentiation and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chen; Deng, Ziyu; Bian, Erbao; Huang, Cheng; Lei, Ting; Lv, Xiongwen; Liu, Liping; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a severe inflammatory disease with limited effective treatments. It is known that the transdifferentiation of human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells from pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrogenesis. The tuberous sclerosis proteins TSC1 and TSC2 are two key signaling factors which can suppress cell growth and proliferation. However, the roles of TSC1 and TSC2 in lung fibroblast are unclear. Here, we developed a PF model with bleomycin (BLM) in mice and conducted several simulation experiments in HELF cells. Our study shows that the expression of TSC1 and TSC2 in fibrotic mice lung was reduced and stimulation of HELF cells with TGF-β1 resulted in a down-regulation of TSC1 and TSC2. In addition, overexpression of TSC1 or TSC2 decreased cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we found that reduced expression of TSC1 and TSC2 caused by TGF-β1 is associated with the promoter methylation status of TSC1 and TSC2. MeCP2, controls an epigenetic pathway that promotes myofibroblast transdifferentiation and fibrosis. We found that expression of TSC1 and TSC2 can be repressed by MeCP2, which regulates HELF cell differentiation and proliferation as myofibroblasts and lead to PF ultimately. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. On developing a thesis for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowship: a case study of ultra-low (2%) oxygen tension for extended culture of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Fellows in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility training are expected to complete 18 months of clinical, basic, or epidemiological research. The goal of this research is not only to provide the basis for the thesis section of the oral board exam but also to spark interest in reproductive medicine research and to provide the next generation of physician-scientists with a foundational experience in research design and implementation. Incoming fellows often have varying degrees of training in research methodology and, likewise, different career goals. Ideally, selection of a thesis topic and mentor should be geared toward defining an "answerable" question and building a practical skill set for future investigation. This contribution to the JARG Young Investigator's Forum revisits the steps of the scientific method through the lens of one recently graduated fellow and his project aimed to test the hypothesis that "sequential oxygen exposure (5% from days 1 to 3, then 2% from days 3 to 5) improves blastocyst yield and quality compared to continuous exposure to 5% oxygen among human preimplantation embryos."

  5. Cellular proliferation in the urorectal septation complex of the human embryo at Carnegie stages 13-18: a nuclear area-based morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot-Cegarra, Josep; Fàbregas, Pere Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma

    2005-10-01

    In order to analyse the patterns of cellular proliferation both in the mesenchyme of the urorectal septum (URS) and in the adjacent territories (posterior urogenital mesenchyme, anterior intestinal mesenchyme and cloacal folds mesenchyme), as well as their contribution to the process of cloacal division, a computer-assisted method was used to obtain the nuclear area of 3874 mesenchymal cells from camera lucida drawings of nuclear contours of selected sections of human embryos [Carnegie stages (CSs) 13-18]. Based on changes in the size of the nucleus during the cellular cycle, we considered proliferating cells in each territory to be those with a nuclear area over the 75th percentile. The URS showed increasing cell proliferation, with proliferation patterns that coincided closely with cloacal folds mesenchyme, and with less overall proliferation than urogenital and intestinal mesenchymes. Furthermore, at CS 18, we observed the beginning of the rupture in the cloacal membrane; however, no fusion has been demonstrated either between the URS and the cloacal membrane or between the cloacal folds. The results suggest that cloacal division depends on a morphogenetic complex where the URS adjacent territories could determine septal displacement at the time that their mesenchymes could be partially incorporated within the proliferating URS.

  6. [Assisted reproductive technologies and the embryo status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Y

    The status of the human embryo has always be a subject of philosophical and theological thoughts with major social consequences, but, until the 19th century, it has been mainly an abstraction. The arrival of the human embryo in vitro, materialized by Louise Brown's birth in 1978 and above all by the supernumerary embryos produced by the Australian team of Trounson and Wood following the introduction of ovarian stimulation, will turn theoretical thoughts into a reality. Nobody may ignore the hidden intentions behind the debate, as to recognise a status to a few days old embryo will immediately have a major impact on the status of a few weeks old foetus and therefore on the abortion rights. We will see that the embryo status, essentially based as well on a vision on the good and evil as on social order, cannot be based on a scientific analysis of the reproduction process but comes from a society's choice, by essence " arbitrary " and always disputable. This does not preclude the collectivity right and legitimacy to give a precise status and it is remarkable to observe the law is careful not to specify which status to give to the human embryo. It is more thru handling procedures and functioning rules that the law designed the embryo position, neither with a status of a person, nor of a thing. It nevertheless remains true that there is a constant risk that the legislation gives the embryo a status that would call into question it's unique characteristic of early reproductive stage, jeopardizing at once the hard-won reproductive freedom (reproductive choice) as well as freedom of research on embryonic stem cells, one of the most promising field of medical research.

  7. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  8. Effect of embryo density on in vitro developmental characteristics of bovine preimplantative embryos with respect to micro and macroenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelker, M; Rings, F; Lund, Q; Phatsara, C; Schellander, K; Tesfaye, D

    2010-10-01

    To overcome developmental problems as a consequence of single embryo culture, the Well of the Well (WOW) culture system has been developed. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of embryo densities with respect to both microenvironment and macroenvironment on developmental rates and embryo quality to get a deeper insight into developmentally important mechanisms. WOW diameter and depth significantly affected developmental rates (p < 0.05). WOWs with diameter of 500 μm reached significantly higher blastocyst rates (32.5 vs 21.1% vs 20.3%) compared to embryos cultured in WOWs of 300 μm diameter or plain cultured controls. Embryos cultured in WOWs with 700 μm depth reached significant higher developmental rates compared with embryos cultured in WOWs of 300 μm depth and control embryos (30.6 vs 22.6% vs 20.3%). Correlation of the embryo per WOW volume with developmental rates was higher (r(2) = 0.92, p = 0.0004) than correlation of WOW diameter or WOW depth with developmental rates. However, the embryo per WOW volume did not affect differential cell counts. An embryo per culture dish volume of 1 : 30 μl was identified to be optimal when the embryo per WOW volume was 1 : 0.27 μl increasing developmental rates up to the level of mass embryo production. Giving the opportunity to track each embryo over the complete culture period while keeping high developmental rates with normal mitotic dynamics, the results of this work will provide benefit for the single culture of embryos in human assisted reproduction, mammalian embryos with high economic interest as well as for scientific purpose. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Physiology and culture of the human blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Lane, Michelle; Schoolcraft, William B

    2002-01-01

    The human embryo undergoes many changes in physiology during the first 4 days of life as it develops and differentiates from a fertilized oocyte to the blastocyst stage. Concomitantly, the embryo is exposed to gradients of nutrients within the female reproductive tract and exhibits changes in its own nutrient requirements and utilization. Determining the nature of such nutrient gradients in the female tract and the changing requirements of the embryo has facilitated the formulation of stage-specific culture media designed to support embryo development throughout the preimplantation period. Resultant implantation rates attained with the culture and transfer of human blastocysts are higher than those associated with the transfer of cleavage stage embryos to the uterus. Such increases in implantation rates have facilitated the establishment of high pregnancy rates while reducing the number of embryos transferred. With the introduction of new scoring systems for the blastocyst and the non-invasive assessment of metabolic activity of individual embryos, it should be possible to move to single blastocyst transfer for the majority of patients.

  10. Biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoqing; Chen Rui; Yang Ping; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei; Liu Qizhan

    2007-01-01

    Biphasic dose-response relationship induced by environmental agents is often characterized with the effect of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Some studies showed that arsenite may induce cell proliferation and apoptosis via biphasic dose-response relationship in human cells; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the relationship between biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis and activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation may be stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 μM) arsenite but inhibited at higher concentrations (5 and 10 μM). When cell apoptosis was used as the endpoint, the concentration-response curves were changed to U-shapes. During stimulation phospho-JNK levels were significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 h after 0.1 or 0.5 μM arsenite exposure. Phospho-ERK1/2 levels were increased with different concentrations (0.1-10 μM) of arsenite at 6, 12, and 24 h. Blocking of JNK pathway with 20 μM SP600125 or ERK1/2 by 100 μM PD98059 significantly inhibited biphasic effect of arsenite in cells. Data in the present study suggest that activation of JNK and ERK1/2 may be involved in biphasic effect of arsenite when measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis in HELF cells. JNK activation seems to play a more critical role than ERK1/2 activation in the biphasic process

  11. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: reproductive experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of singleton black human females exposed to diagnostic x-ray in utero and controls matched by parity, hospital of birth and birthdate have been followed to ages 25 to 30 years in Baltimore, Maryland. The search for possible effects of prenatal irradiation has focused on health, growth, development, and reproductive experience of exposed and control women. This paper reports findings related to reproductive experience. From an original data set of 1458 matched exposed-control pairs of women, questionnaire responses were received from 1109 exposed and 1124 control women including 852 each from pairs in which both the exposed and control woman responded. After careful search for alternative explanations of the findings, the authors concluded that females exposed in utero to low doses of x-ray (probably 1 to 5 rads) had significant increases in their rates of early onset of menses, births at age 15 years or less, numbers of living children, stillbirths, and sterilizing operations by their mid-twenties. These findings are compatible with animal studies in which prenatal irradiation kills many oocytes, but accelerates the development of remaining cells to stages more closely correlated with fertility. Although these animals subsequently became sterile, this cannot be tested in the current study because significantly more of the irradiated women have had surgical sterilizations

  12. Long-term effects of prenatal X ray on development and fertility of human females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.; Merz, T.

    1976-01-01

    This continuing epidemiologic study investigates possible effects of X-ray exposure during foetal life on the subsequent development and fertility of human females and on their offspring. The study population comprises 1458 females exposed in utero to maternal diagnostic X ray such as pelvimetry, and 1458 unexposed controls matched by hospital of birth, parity, race and birthdate (1947-1952). Phase I of the study showed a 10-15% increase in fertility in young exposed women, based on ascertainment of live births and foetal deaths registered in Baltimore City. This statistically significant difference (p=0.011) remained after adjustment for differences between exposed and control women in economic, social and medical factors. Phase II of the study, a direct follow-up of exposed control pairs of women now aged 22-28, continues to show more total pregnancies among exposed women. Exposed-in-utero women had 15% more total pregnancies than controls in 1960-1969, and 7% more in 1970-1975. Exposed and control women are similar in number of siblings, number of children wanted, contraceptive use, and frequency of therapeutic abortion. Other findings suggest possible exposed-control differences in growth, development and behaviour. Exposed women have completed fewer grades of school, have poorer general health, more menstrual problems, more of certain diseases and accidents, and are heavier for height than controls. (author)

  13. The effect of unilateral ovariectomy on early embryonic survival and embryo development in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peiró

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral ovariectomy can be used to study uterine capacity in rabbits because an overcrowding of the functional uterine horn is produced. Due to the uterus duplex, the rabbit is the ideal model for such studies. However, this technique may affect embryo survival. The aim of this work is to study the effect of unilateral ovariectomy on early embryo survival and development in rabbit. A total of 101 unilateral ovariectomised females and 52 intact females were compared after slaughter at 30 h post-mating. Early embryo survival was estimated as the ratio between number of embryo recovered and ovulation rate. No differences were found between intact and unilaterally ovariectomised females in this trait. Unilateral ovariectomy did not change embryo development, measured as the number of embryo cells. Variability of embryo development was not affected either. At 30 h post-mating, the majority of embryos (86.2% were 4-cell stage. Embryo quality was evaluated according to morphological criteria. No difference in embryo quality between intact and unilaterally ovariectomised females was found. Therefore, unilateral ovariectomy performed before puberty in rabbit does not modify early embryo survival and development.

  14. Recreation and procreation: A critical view of sex in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J

    2015-04-01

    This review deals critically with many aspects of the functional genital anatomy of the human female in relation to inducing sexual arousal and its relevance to procreation and recreation. Various controversial problems are discussed including: the roles of clitorally versus coitally induced arousal and orgasm in relation to the health of women, the various sites of induction of orgasm and the difficulty women find in specifically identifying them because of "'ambiguity problems" and "genital site pareidolia," the cervix and sexual arousal, why there are so many sites for arousal, why multiple orgasms occur, genital reflexes and coitus, the sites of arousal and their representation in the brain, and identifying aspects and functions of the genitalia with appropriate new nomenclature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of a private Human Medicine Faculty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the

  16. ECTOPIA CORDIS TORÁCICA EN EMBRIÓN HUMANO DE 8 SEMANAS / Thoracic ectopia cordis in a human embryo of eight weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Vila Bormey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Los defectos de la pared corporal ventral se producen en el tórax, el abdomen y la pelvis; cuando afectan la región torácica, con desplazamiento total o parcial del corazón fuera de la cavidad, dan origen a la ectopia cordis torácica. Se presenta el caso de un embrión humano de 22 mm de longitud cráneo-raquis, semana 8, estadio 21 del desarrollo embrionario según Carnegie; proveniente de aborto voluntario por misoprostol. En el examen morfológico externo se constató como detalle anormal la presencia de un ápex cardíaco expuesto en la región ventral del tórax, lo que llevó al planteamiento diagnóstico de ectopia cordis torácica. El estudio morfológico de especímenes embrionarios abortados puede poner en evidencia anomalías del desarrollo que usualmente no son diagnosticadas por la pequeñez del producto y la precocidad de la pérdida. / Abstract Defects of the ventral body wall occur in the thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and when they affect the thoracic region, with total or partial displacement of the heart outside the cavity, they give rise to thoracic ectopia cordis. The case of a human embryo of 22 mm skull-spine, week 8, stage 21 of embryonic development according to Carnegie, from voluntary abortion with misoprostol, is presented. As abnormal feature, in the external morphological examination the presence of an exposed cardiac apex in the ventral region of the chest was noted, which led to the diagnosis of thoracic ectopia cordis. The morphological study of aborted embryonic specimens may reveal developmental abnormalities that are not usually diagnosed due to the smallness of the product and the precocity of the loss.

  17. Factors associated with future commitment and past history of human papilloma virus vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ping-Fen; Yeh, Ying-Tse; Sheu, Shuh-Jen; Wang, Tze-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors influencing commitment to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and prior vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan. Methods A quota sample of 400 female college students was recruited from nine colleges in northern Taiwan during March 2013. Of these, 398 completed the self administered questionnaire which was designed based on the health promotion model. Results The results showed that factors associated with prior vaccination behavior we...

  18. TP53 and lacZ mutagenesis induced by 3-nitrobenzanthrone in Xpa-deficient human TP53 knock-in mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucab, Jill E; Zwart, Edwin P; van Steeg, Harry; Luijten, Mirjam; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2016-03-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a highly mutagenic compound and possible human carcinogen found in diesel exhaust. 3-NBA forms bulky DNA adducts following metabolic activation and induces predominantly G:CT:A transversions in a variety of experimental systems. Here we investigated the influence of nucleotide excision repair (NER) on 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis of the human tumour suppressor gene TP53 and the reporter gene lacZ. To this end we utilised Xpa -knockout (Xpa-Null) human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) embryo fibroblasts (HUFs). As Xpa is essential for NER of bulky DNA adducts, we hypothesized that DNA adducts induced by 3-NBA would persist in the genomes of Xpa-Null cells and lead to an increased frequency of mutation. The HUF immortalisation assay was used to select for cells harbouring TP53 mutations following mutagen exposure. We found that Xpa-Null Hupki mice and HUFs were more sensitive to 3-NBA treatment than their wild-type (Xpa-WT) counterparts. However, following 3-NBA treatment and immortalisation, a similar frequency of TP53-mutant clones arose from Xpa-WT and Xpa-Null HUF cultures. In cells from both Xpa genotypes G:CT:A transversion was the predominant TP53 mutation type and mutations exhibited bias towards the non-transcribed strand. Thirty-two percent of 3-NBA-induced TP53 mutations occurred at CpG sites, all of which are hotspots for mutation in smokers' lung cancer (codons 157, 158, 175, 245, 248, 273, 282). We also examined 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis of an integrated lacZ reporter gene in HUFs, where we again observed a similar mutant frequency in Xpa-WT and Xpa-Null cells. Our findings suggest that 3-NBA-DNA adducts may evade removal by global genomic NER; the persistence of 3-NBA adducts in DNA may be an important factor in its mutagenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Female human resource professionals’ job embeddedness in relation to commitment foci: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Managers and human resource practitioners who are concerned about managing talent as a critical resource need to recognise how employees’ job embeddedness relates to their commitment foci within the organisation. By understanding this relationship, gaps can be identified and talent can be managed optimally. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was, firstly, to establish whether a significant relationship exists between job embeddedness and a set of commitment foci and, secondly, to identify the variables that contribute the most to the relationship. Motivation for the study: Organisations increasingly devote more attention to initiatives that enhance the commitment and job embeddedness of their employees in order to assist in the design of a sound talent management plan to close the talent gaps. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was used in this study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design to achieve the objective of the study. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were conducted. The participants were primarily black women at an early stage of their career, who were employed in the human resource management field in a professional capacity. Main findings: The results indicated that job embeddedness significantly and positively accounted for the variance in organisational and occupational commitment foci of the participants. Practical and managerial implications: Human resource practitioners and managers need to consider how the job embeddedness of employees – specifically female employees – affects their commitment foci in developing talent management plans as part of the organisational strategy. Conclusions: The findings of the study provided empirical confirmation of theoretical views on the psychological aspects that keep employees embedded in their jobs and how these aspects relate to their commitment foci.

  20. A multicenter prospective study to assess the effect of early cleavage on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Maria José; Arroyo, Gemma; Busquet, Ana; Calderón, Gloria; Cuadros, Jorge; Hurtado de Mendoza, Maria Victoria; Moragas, Marta; Herrer, Raquel; Ortiz, Agueda; Pons, Carme; Ten, Jorge; Vilches, Miguel Angel; Figueroa, Maria José

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of early cleavage (EC) on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rates. Prospective cross-sectional study. Multicenter study. Seven hundred embryo transfers and 1,028 early-stage human embryos. None. Implantation according to the presence of EC and embryo quality. The presence of EC is associated with embryo quality, especially in cycles with autologous oocytes. However, the use of EC as an additional criterion for selecting an embryo for transfer does not appear to significantly improve likelihood of implantation. Furthermore, embryos that presented EC had live-birth rates per implanted embryo similar to those that did not show any sign of cleavage. At least for conventional embryo culture and morphologic evaluations, the additional evaluation of EC in embryos may not be valuable to improve embryo implantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arabidopsis mitochondrial protein slow embryo development1 is essential for embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Chunying; Lu, Wenwen; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2016-01-01

    The plant seeds formation are crucial parts in reproductive process in seed plants as well as food source for humans. Proper embryo development ensure viable seed formation. Here, we showed an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant slow embryo development1 (sed1) which exhibited retarded embryogenesis, led to aborted seeds. Embryo without SED1 developed slower compared to normal one and could be recognized at early globular stage by its white appearance. In later development stage, storage accumulated poorly with less protein and lipid body production. In vitro culture did not rescue albino embryo. SED1 encoded a protein targeted to mitochondria. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria developed abnormally, and more strikingly plastid failed to construct grana in time in sed1/sed1 embryo. These data indicated that SED1 is indispensable for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, and the mitochondria may be involved in the regulation of many aspects of seed development. -- Highlights: •Arabidopsis SED1 is essential for embryo development. •The sed1 embryo accumulates less storage and has abnormal ultrastructure. •SED1 localizes to the mitochondrion.

  2. Arabidopsis mitochondrial protein slow embryo development1 is essential for embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Chunying; Lu, Wenwen; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen, E-mail: sodmergn@pku.edu.cn

    2016-05-27

    The plant seeds formation are crucial parts in reproductive process in seed plants as well as food source for humans. Proper embryo development ensure viable seed formation. Here, we showed an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant slow embryo development1 (sed1) which exhibited retarded embryogenesis, led to aborted seeds. Embryo without SED1 developed slower compared to normal one and could be recognized at early globular stage by its white appearance. In later development stage, storage accumulated poorly with less protein and lipid body production. In vitro culture did not rescue albino embryo. SED1 encoded a protein targeted to mitochondria. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria developed abnormally, and more strikingly plastid failed to construct grana in time in sed1/sed1 embryo. These data indicated that SED1 is indispensable for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, and the mitochondria may be involved in the regulation of many aspects of seed development. -- Highlights: •Arabidopsis SED1 is essential for embryo development. •The sed1 embryo accumulates less storage and has abnormal ultrastructure. •SED1 localizes to the mitochondrion.

  3. Patients' Preference for Number of Embryos Transferred During IVF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority is considering limiting the number of embryos that can be transferred to single embryo per cycle as has been done in several European countries, with the aim of reducing the rate of multiple pregnancies and its attendant complications following in vitro ...

  4. Effects of antiandrogenic progestins, chlormadinone and cyproterone acetate, and the estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and their mixtures: Transactivation with human and rainbowfish hormone receptors and transcriptional effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegenthaler, Patricia Franziska [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Bain, Peter [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Land and Water Flagship, PMB2, Glen Osmond, 5064 South Australia (Australia); Riva, Francesco [IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Environmental Biomarkers Unit, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, I-20156 Milan (Italy); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Department of Environmental System Sciences, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Agonistic and antagonistic activity of CMA and CPA were assessed in vitro. • CMA and CPA showed different interaction with human and fish receptors. • No progestogenic but antiandrogenic and antiglucocorticoid activity occurred in fish. • CMA and CPA showed transcriptional changes in zebrafish embryos. • Binary mixtures of the progestins with EE2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Synthetic progestins act as endocrine disrupters in fish but their risk to the environment is not sufficiently known. Here, we focused on an unexplored antiandrogenic progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), and the antiandrogenic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA). The aim was to evaluate whether their in vitro interaction with human and rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) sex hormone receptors is similar. Furthermore, we investigated their activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos. First, we studied agonistic and antagonistic activities of CMA, CPA, and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in recombinant yeast expressing either the human progesterone (PGR), androgen (AR), or estrogen receptor. The same compounds were also investigated in vitro in a stable transfection cell system expressing rainbowfish nuclear steroid receptors. For human receptors, both progestins exhibited progestogenic, androgenic and antiestrogenic activity with no antiandrogenic or estrogenic activity. In contrast, interactions with rainbowfish receptors showed no progestogenic, but antiandrogenic, antiglucocorticoid, and some antiestrogenic activity. Thus, interaction with and transactivation of human and rainbowfish PGR and AR were distinctly different. Second, we analyzed transcriptional alterations in zebrafish eleuthero‐embryos at 96 and 144 h post fertilization after exposure to CPA, CMA, EE2, and binary mixtures of CMA and CPA with EE2, mimicking the use in oral contraceptives. CMA led to slight down-regulation of the ar transcript, while CPA down-regulated ar

  5. 3-Amino-thieno[2,3-b]pyridines as microtubule-destabilising agents: Molecular modelling and biological evaluation in the sea urchin embryo and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurtivong, Chatchakorn; Semenov, Victor; Semenova, Marina; Konyushkin, Leonid; Atamanenko, Olga; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Kiselyov, Alex

    2017-01-15

    A series of 3-amino-thieno[2,3-b]pyridines was prepared and tested in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to identify potent and specific molecules that affect tubulin dynamics. The most active compounds featured a tricyclic core ring system with a fused cycloheptyl or cyclohexyl substituent and unsubstituted or alkyl-substituted phenyl moiety tethered via a carboxamide. Low nano-molar potency was observed in the sea urchin embryos for the most active compounds (1-5) suggestive of a microtubule-destabilising effect. The molecular modelling studies indicated that the tubulin colchicine site is inhibited, which often leads to microtubule-destabilisation in line with the sea urchin embryo results. Finally, the identified hits displayed a robust growth inhibition (GI 50 of 50-250nM) of multidrug-resistant melanoma MDA-MB-435 and breast MDA-MB-468 human cancer cell lines. This work demonstrates that for the thieno[2,3-b]pyridines the most effective mechanism of action is microtubule-destabilisation initiated by binding to the colchicine pocket. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the

  7. mRNA levels of imprinted genes in bovine in vivo oocytes, embryos and cross species comparisons in humans, mice and pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-six confirmed imprinted genes in the bovine were quantified in in vivo produced oocytes and embryos. Eighteen were detectable and their transcriptional abundance were categorized into five patterns: largely decreased (MEST and PLAGL1); first decreased and then increased (CDKN1C and IGF2R); p...

  8. Pericentric Inversion of Human Chromosome 9 Epidemiology Study in Czech Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šípek, A; Panczak, A; Mihalová, R; Hrčková, L; Suttrová, E; Sobotka, V; Lonský, P; Kaspříková, N; Gregor, V

    2015-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of human chromosome 9 [inv(9)] is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. It is largely considered a clinically insignificant variant of the normal human karyotype. However, numerous studies have suggested its possible association with certain pathologies, e.g., infertility, habitual abortions or schizophrenia. We analysed the incidence of inv(9) and the spectrum of clinical indications for karyotyping among inv(9) carriers in three medical genetics departments in Prague. In their cytogenetic databases, among 26,597 total records we identified 421 (1.6 %) cases of inv(9) without any concurrent cytogenetic pathology. This study represents the world's largest epidemiological study on inv(9) to date. The incidence of inv(9) calculated in this way from diagnostic laboratory data does not differ from the incidence of inv(9) in three specific populationbased samples of healthy individuals (N = 4,166) karyotyped for preventive (amniocentesis for advanced maternal age, gamete donation) or legal reasons (children awaiting adoption). The most frequent clinical indication in inv(9) carriers was "idiopathic reproductive failure" - 37.1 %. The spectra and percentages of indications in individuals with inv(9) were further statistically evaluated for one of the departments (N = 170) by comparing individuals with inv(9) to a control group of 661 individuals with normal karyotypes without this inversion. The proportion of clinical referrals for "idiopathic reproductive failure" among inv(9) cases remains higher than in controls, but the difference is not statistically significant for both genders combined. Analysis in separated genders showed that the incidence of "idiopathic reproductive failure" could differ among inv(9) female and male carriers.

  9. Non-invasive metabolomic profiling of embryo culture media and morphology grading to predict implantation outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Xu, Yan; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Wen-Bi; Liu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of embryo viability is a crucial component of in vitro fertilization and currently relies largely on embryo morphology and cleavage rate. Because morphological assessment remains highly subjective, it can be unreliable in predicting embryo viability. This study investigated the metabolomic profiling of embryo culture media using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for predicting the implantation potential of human embryos in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Spent embryo culture media was collected on day 4 after thawed embryo transfer (n = 621) and analysed using NIR spectroscopy. Viability scores were calculated using a predictive multivariate algorithm of fresh embryos with known pregnancy outcomes. The mean viability indices of embryos resulting in clinical pregnancy following FET were significantly higher than those of non-implanted embryos and differed between the 0, 50, and 100 % implantation groups. Notably, the 0 % group index was significantly lower than the 100 % implantation group index (-0.787 ± 0.382 vs. 1.064 ± 0.331, P  0.05). NIR metabolomic profiling of thawed embryo culture media is independent of morphology and correlates with embryo implantation potential in FET cycles. The viability score alone or in conjunction with morphologic grading is a more objective marker for implantation outcome in FET cycles than morphology alone.

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in female cervical lesions from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. B. Cavalcanti

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred-sixty paraffin-embedded specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 infections by non-isotopic in situ hybridization. The data were compared with histologic diagnosis. Eighty-eight (55 biopsies contained HPV DNA sequences. In low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN I, HPV infection was detected in 78.7 of the cases, the benign HPV 6 was the most prevalent type. HPV DNA was detected in 58 of CIN II and CIN III cases and in 41.8 of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Histologically normal women presented 20 of HPV infection. Oncogenic HPV was found in 10 of these cases, what may indicate a higher risk of developing CINs and cancer. Twenty-five percent of the infected tissues contained mixed infections. HPV 16 was the most common type infecting the cervix and its prevalence raised significantly with the severity of the lesions, pointing its role in cancer pathogenesis. White women presented twice the cervical lesions of mulatto and African origin women, although HPV infection rates were nearly the same for the three groups (approximately 50. Our results showed that HPV typing by in situ hybridization is a useful tool for distinguishing between low and high risk cervical lesions. Further studies are required to elucidate risk factors associated with HPV infection and progression to malignancy in Brazilian population.

  11. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females. II. Growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M B; Tonascia, J

    1981-09-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low doses of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term follow-up studies of 1458 human females exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional follow-up revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947-1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correctly among exposed and control mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factor rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women.

  12. Female Aging Alters Expression of Human Cumulus Cells Genes that Are Essential for Oocyte Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamadir Al-Edani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of female aging is an important issue in human reproduction. There was a need for an extensive analysis of age impact on transcriptome profile of cumulus cells (CCs to link oocyte quality and developmental potential with patient’s age. CCs from patients of three age groups were analyzed individually using microarrays. RT-qPCR validation was performed on independent CC cohorts. We focused here on pathways affected by aging in CCs that may explain the decline of oocyte quality with age. In CCs collected from patients >37 years, angiogenic genes including ANGPTL4, LEPR, TGFBR3, and FGF2 were significantly overexpressed compared to patients of the two younger groups. In contrast genes implicated in TGF-β signaling pathway such as AMH, TGFB1, inhibin, and activin receptor were underexpressed. CCs from patients whose ages are between 31 and 36 years showed an overexpression of genes related to insulin signaling pathway such as IGFBP3, PIK3R1, and IGFBP5. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the microRNAs that are potential regulators of the differentially expressed genes of the study. It revealed that the pathways impacted by age were potential targets of specific miRNAs previously identified in our CCs small RNAs sequencing.

  13. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Human papillomavirus in female sex workers in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ramírez, Azucena; López-Monteon, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Guapillo-Vargas, Mario R B

    2018-03-13

    Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limited to microscopic studies and the molecular screening of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is only done to women 35 years of age and older. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis and HPV infections in FSWs in the city of Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Samples from 105 FSWs were obtained by cervical swab and analyzed. The identification of T. vaginalis and HPV was performed by molecular methods. HPV DNA was identified in 5.71% of the samples with the presence of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58. A percentage of 25.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis for optical microscopy and 23.8% for PCR. The results of the study indicate the need to incorporate more sensitive methods for the timely diagnosis of STIs as well as comprehensive health promotion programs directed to the most vulnerable groups among FSWs. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Awareness of human papilloma virus and cervical cancer prevention among Greek female healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazi, Paraskevi A; Hadji, Panayiota; Roupa, Zoe

    2017-07-01

    The incidence rate of cervical cancer varies by geographic region, with less developed regions showing the highest rates. All risk factors for cervical cancer are actually preventable if appropriate lifestyle changes are adopted. In addition, vaccines protecting against the majority of human papilloma virus (HPV) high-risk types have been developed. Even though cervical cancer is preventable, not all women are aware of this or how it can be prevented. Thus, it is essential for every nation to assess the level of knowledge among women of cervical cancer and HPV prevention. In this work, we assessed the level of awareness and attitudes of Greek female healthcare workers on cervical cancer and HPV prevention through the delivery of a validated questionnaire between March and June 2012 in three hospitals in Greece. Our results show that there exist gaps in the knowledge of women on this topic, especially in terms of the newest information on cervical cancer prevention through HPV testing and vaccination. In fact, only 80% of surveyed women knew about the existence of HPV testing. We propose that more information needs to be transmitted to Greek women and men on HPV testing and vaccination. Even though the incidence of cervical cancer is not extremely high in Greece, this number can easily change, especially in the face of the economic crisis and the increasing rates of migration, which can result in higher rates of HPV infection in the population if no measures for HPV prevention are implemented.

  15. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low dosage of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term followup study of 1458 human females exposed in-utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight, and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in-utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional followup revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947 to 1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correlated among exposed and controlled mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factors rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women

  16. Estimation of the {beta}+ dose to the embryo resulting from {sup 18}F-FDG administration during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LIME, Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Inst Phys, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Nucl Med Serv, F-75475 Paris 10 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Although {sup 18}F-FDG examinations are widely used, data are lacking on the dose to human embryo tissues in cases of exposure in early pregnancy. Although the photon component can easily be estimated from available data on the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-FDG in female organs and from phantom measurements (considering the uterus as the target organ), the intensity of embryo tissue uptake, which is essential for deriving the {beta}+ dose, is not known. We report the case of a patient who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for tumor surveillance and who was later found to have been pregnant at the time of the examination(embryo age, 8 wk). Methods: The patient received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. Imaging started with an unenhanced CT scan 1 h after the injection, followed by PET acquisition. PET images were used to compute the total number of {beta}+ emissions in embryo tissues per unit of injected activity, from standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements corrected for partial-volume effects. A Monte Carlo track structure code was then used to derive the {beta}+ self-dose and the {beta}+ cross-dose from amniotic fluid. The photon and CT doses were added to obtain the final dose received by the embryo. Results: The mean SUV in embryo tissues was 2.7, after correction for the partial-volume effect. The mean corrected SUV of amniotic fluid was 1.1. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the {beta}+ dose to the embryo (self-dose plus cross-dose from amniotic fluid) was 1.8 E-2 mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG. Based on MIRD data for the photon dose to the uterus, the estimated photon dose to the embryo was 1.5 E-2 mGy/MBq. Thus, the specific {sup 18}F-FDG dose to the embryo was 3.3 E-2 mGy/MBq (10.6 mGy in this patient). The CT scan added a further 8.3 mGy. Conclusion: The dose to the embryo is 3.3 E-2 mGy/MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. The {beta}+ dose contributes 55% of the total dose. This value is higher than previous estimates in late nonhuman-primate pregnancies. (authors)

  17. Improvement of Gynecological Screening of Female Renal Transplant Recipients by Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinten, F.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Meeuwis, K.A.P.; Bergen-Verkuyten, M.C. van; Slangen, B.F.; Rossum, M.M. van; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hullu, J.A. de; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Female renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have increased risk for developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (pre)malignancies of the lower genital tract. Annual cervical screening is advised for RTRs, but the participation rate is low. The aim of this study is to investigate whether

  18. Efficiency of assisted hatching of the cryopreserved–melted embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pitko

    2018-04-01

    , parameters of positive results of tests on HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin (42 % against 27 % and quantity of clinical pregnancy (35 % against 24 % were statistically higher in the group with assisted hatching comparatively to the control group (P < 0.004; P < 0.001 accordingly. Conclusions. Implantation of the transfered embryos and number of clinical pregnancies were statistically improved due to selection of the optimum freezing conditions and subsequent cultivation and conducting of procedure of mechanical incision of ZP.

  19. The frequency of clinical pregnancy and implantation rate after cultivation of embryos in a medium with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with preceding failed attempts of ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevkin, S; Lokshin, V; Shishimorova, M; Polumiskov, V

    2014-10-01

    The application in IVF practice of modern techniques can improve positive outcome of each cycle in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs and the effectiveness of treatment as a whole. There are embryos in the female reproductive tract in physiological medium which contain various cytokines and growth factors. It plays an important role in the regulation of normal embryonic development, improve implantation and subsequently optimizing the development of the fetus and the placenta. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF is one of the cytokines playing an important role in reproductive function. Addition of recombinant GM-CSF to the culture medium can makes closer human embryos culture to in vivo conditions and improve the efficacy ART cycles. The analysis of culture embryos in EmbryoGen medium has shown that fertilization rate embryo culture and transfer to patients with previous unsuccessful attempts increases clinical pregnancy rate compared to the control group 39.1 versus 27.8%, respectively. It is noted that the implantation rate (on 7 weeks' gestation) and progressive clinical pregnancy rate (on 12 weeks' gestation) were significantly higher in group embryos culture in EmbryoGen medium compared to standard combination of medium (ISM1+VA), and were 20.4 and 17.4% versus 11.6 and 9.1%, respectively.

  20. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  1. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences between African-American adolescent females with and without human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Rose, Eve S; Sales, Jessica M

    2011-03-01

    An important policy question is whether high-risk populations can be identified and prioritised for human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation. Data collection included an audio computer-assisted survey interview and testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HPV among 295 African-American adolescent females. The results indicated that 43.1% tested positive for HPV. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with other sexually transmissible infections (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.51-1.41), unprotected vaginal sex (PR=1.04, 95% CI=0.56-1.92), having sex with an older male partner (PR=1.12, 95% CI=0.64-1.96), and having a casual partner (PR=0.89, 95% CI=0.54-1.48). Additionally, t-tests indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with frequency of vaginal sex (t=0.17, P=0.87), protected sex (t=-0.16, P=0.87), number of recent (t=0.40, P=0.69) or lifetime (t=1.45, P=0.15) sexual partners. However, those testing positive for HPV were younger (t=1.97, P=0.05) and reported current use of birth control pills (PR=2.38, 95% CI=1.00-5.63). It may not be possible to identify those with elevated risk of HPV acquisition. Thus, HPV vaccination, regardless of risk indicators, may be the most efficacious public health strategy.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. What explains the different rates of human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescent males and females in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonyoung Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors that explain differences in HPV vaccination rates for male and female adolescents and to determine self-reported barriers by parents affecting vaccination decisions. Methods: The sample included adolescents 13–17 years old with a vaccination record documented in the 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen dataset. A logistic regression model was developed with 13 socio-demographic factors and survey year, along with significant interaction pairs with gender. Results: Subjects included 20,355 and 18,350 adolescent boys and girls, respectively. About half of the females (56% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine, compared to 28% of males. Several factors differed between males and females, including higher vaccination rates among non-Hispanic Black males and lower vaccination rates for non-Hispanic Black females compared to Whites; and a stronger association with health care provider recommendation among males. The most common parental reasons for not vaccinating their children included ‘not recommended by a health care provider’ for males (24%, and ‘unnecessary’ for females (18%. Conclusion: We found a significant gender interaction with several socio-demographic variables in predicting vaccination uptake. These gender differences may be partially an artifact of timing, because male vaccination became routine approximately five years after female vaccination. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Adolescent health, Vaccination, NIS-Teen, Gender interaction

  5. Long term effects of prenatal X ray on human females: early fertility and frequency of operations to prevent pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a long-term epidemiological study of human females who were exposed to radiation from maternal diagnostic x-ray procedures when they were in utero, compared with matched, unexposed controls. The study was designed to investigate possible effects of in-utero exposure, with particular interest being paid to reproductive capacity. In the human female and other mammals, because all mitotic divisions of germ cells occur during fetal life, the female baby is born with a finite supply of oocytes and future eggs. This supply is continuously depleted throughout life by ovulation and by cell degeneration, and there is no way for damaged or lost cells to be replaced. Experimental studies in a number of species have shown that female germ cells are extremely sensitive to radiation damage at two times during development. In humans the first of these probably occurs at around 4 to 5 months of gestation, and the second probably occurs around the time of birth. Radiation damage at these sensitive stages might show up at puberty ad during reproductive life, and might be detected by a well-designed study

  6. [Chapter 9. The embryo in comparative law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastor, Wanda

    2018-03-07

    On the boundaries of life and, as a result, almost a question of metaphysics, still dividing science and continually fuelling debates, one question does seem to be legally insoluble, ie the question of the status of the human embryo. A comparatist look allows us to put into perspective the various national postures with regard to the embryo in order to confront them, by putting forward the areas where they converge or diverge. Although a very global approach allows us to note certain similarities, a more precise study of the question of abortion in particular reflects the evidence of the contextualisation of the embryo. It is what it is, subject or object, enjoying absolute or very relative protection, a simply legislative or constitutional status, only with regard to legal systems, but also moral and religious systems in which it takes its place.

  7. Perceived risk of female infidelity moderates the relationship between objective risk of female infidelity and sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, William F; Starratt, Valerie G; Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2011-08-01

    Female extrapair copulation (EPC) can be costly to a woman's long-term romantic partner. If a woman has copulated recently with a man other than her long-term partner, her reproductive tract may contain the sperm of both men, initiating sperm competition (whereby sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize an egg). Should the woman become pregnant, her long-term partner is at risk of cuckoldry-investing unwittingly in offspring to whom he is not genetically related. Previous research in humans (Homo sapiens) and in nonhuman animals suggests that males have evolved tactics such as partner-directed sexual coercion that reduce the risk of cuckoldry. The current research provides preliminary evidence that mated men (n = 223) at greater risk of partner EPC, measured as having spent a greater proportion of time apart from their partner since the couple's last in-pair copulation, more frequently perform partner-directed sexually coercive behaviors. This relationship is moderated, however, by men's perceived risk of partner EPC, such that the correlation between the proportion of time spent apart since last in-pair copulation and sexually coercive behaviors remains significant only for those men who perceive themselves to be at some risk of partner EPC. Discussion addresses limitations of this research and highlights directions for future research investigating the relationship between female EPC and men's partner-directed sexual coercion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Perturbation of the Developmental Potential of Preimplantation Mouse Embryos by Hydroxyurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Hills

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Women are advised not to attempt pregnancy while on hydroxyurea (HU due to the teratogenic effects of this agent, based on results obtained from animal studies. Several case reports suggest that HU may have minimal or no teratogenic effects on the developing human fetus. Fourteen cases of HU therapy in pregnant patients diagnosed with acute or chronic myelogenous leukemia, primary thrombocythemia, or sickle cell disease (SCD have been reported. Three pregnancies were terminated by elective abortion; 1 woman developed eclampsia and delivered a phenotypically normal stillborn infant. All other patients delivered live, healthy infants without congenital anomalies. We contend that case studies such as these have too few patients and cannot effectively address the adverse effect of HU on preimplantation embryo or fetuses. The objective of this study was to assess the risks associated with a clinically relevant dose of HU used for the treatment of SCD, on ovulation rate and embryo development, using adult C57BL/6J female mice as a model. In Experiment 1, adult female mice were randomly assigned to a treatment or a control group (N = 20/group. Treatment consisted of oral HU (30 mg/kg for 28 days; while control mice received saline (HU vehicle. Five days to the cessation of HU dosing, all mice were subjected to folliculogenesis induction with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Five mice/group were anesthetized at 48 hours post PMSG to facilitate blood collection via cardiac puncture for estradiol-17β (E2 measurement by RIA. Ovulation was induced in the remaining mice at 48 hours post PMSG with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and immediately caged with adult males for mating. Five plugged female mice/group were sacrificed for the determination of ovulation rate. The remaining mated mice were sacrificed about 26 hours post hCG, ovaries excised and weighed and embryos harvested and cultured in Whitten’s medium (WM supplemented with CZBt. In

  9. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  10. Condition-dependent clutch desertion in Great Tit (Parus major) females subjected to human disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nest desertion behaviour in relation to body condition and timing of breeding was studied in Great Tit (Parus major) females during two breeding seasons. Desertion, most likely unintentionally provoked by catching females during the incubation period, occurred at a very high rate with 41.2 and 25.6% of deserted first clutches in the two study years. The association between desertion probability, body condition (index calculated as residuals from the regression of body mass...

  11. impact on embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Tandara

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: In men with poorer semen quality, evaluated by standard semen parameters, a higher proportion of sperm with damaged DNA can also be expected. Higher sperm DNA damage, established by Halosperm test, also had an impact on embryo quality in this group of patients.

  12. Human Papilloma Virus Awareness Among Hispanic Females with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Acosta, José E; Aponte, Maysabel; Villamil, Irene; Romaguera, Josefina; Ortiz, Ana P; Torres, Esther A

    2016-03-01

    Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at increased risk of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and HPV-related malignancies, as many are immunocompromised secondary to the use of immunosuppressant agents. Several studies have addressed the knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors in different populations, particularly HPV infection and its association with cervical malignancies; most of these studies show poor patient knowledge. The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge of females with IBD about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. We performed a cross-sectional study in 147 consecutive patients attending the clinics of the University of Puerto Rico Center for IBD from 2009 to 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, lifestyles, and HPV-related knowledge of participants. Bivariate analysis using the chi-square statistics and Fisher's exact test was used to examine factors associated with HPV awareness. The mean age of participants was 36.6 years (SD = 13.91 years). Three fourth (77 %) of women had awareness of the existence of HPV, and 58 % did know about the existence of HPV vaccines. Among those who had heard about HPV, 79.6 % knew that HPV can cause cervical cancer, and 57.5 % knew that the virus is sexually transmitted. Among those who knew of the vaccine, 75.3 % learned about its existence through the media, while only 15.3 %, through their health-care provider. Only three women within recommended ages (2 %) had been vaccinated against HPV, although 50 % of participants indicated that they would definitely/probably vaccinate against HPV in the future. A significant trend was observed, where more educated women were more likely to have heard of HPV (p for trend = 0.0017). Women who were high school graduates/some college (OR = 6.63, 95 % CI = 1.71-25.66) and those with at least an associate degree (OR = 11.69, 95 % CI = 3.05-45.89) were more likely to

  13. Cell-cycle-dependent localization of human cytomegalovirus UL83 phosphoprotein in the nucleolus and modulation of viral gene expression in human embryo fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Rodighiero, Isabella; Mirandola, Prisco; De Conto, Flora; Covan, Silvia; Germini, Diego; Razin, Sergey; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The nucleolus is a multifunctional nuclear compartment widely known to be involved in several cellular processes, including mRNA maturation and shuttling to cytoplasmic sites, control of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and apoptosis; thus, it is logical that many viruses, including herpesvirus, target the nucleolus in order to exploit at least one of the above-mentioned functions. Recent studies from our group demonstrated the early accumulation of the incoming ppUL83 (pp65), the major tegument protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), in the nucleolus. The obtained results also suggested that a functional relationship might exist between the nucleolar localization of pp65, rRNA synthesis, and the development of the lytic program of viral gene expression. Here we present new data which support the hypothesis of a potentially relevant role of HCMV pp65 and its nucleolar localization for the control of the cell cycle by HCMV (arrest of cell proliferation in G1-G1/S), and for the promotion of viral infection. We demonstrated that, although the incoming pp65 amount in the infected cells appears to be constant irrespective of the cell-cycle phase, its nucleolar accumulation is prominent in G1 and G1/S, but very poor in S or G2/M. This correlates with the observation that only cells in G1 and G1/S support an efficient development of the HCMV lytic cycle. We propose that HCMV pp65 might be involved in regulatory/signaling pathways related to nucleolar functions, such as the cell-cycle control. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments have permitted to identify nucleolin as one of the nucleolar partners of pp65.

  14. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  15. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco J; Tollig S; Von Walter AW; Pezo D; Velez V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transfer...

  16. Knowledge of Saudi female university students regarding cervical cancer and acceptance of the human papilloma virus vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected in...

  17. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.

  18. The pharmacology of the human female orgasm - its biological and physiological backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J

    2014-06-01

    The female orgasm has been examined over the years by numerous scientific disciplines yet it still has many secrets to be disclosed. Because its physiology, especially its neurophysiology, is sparingly understood its pharmacology is necessarily limited based mainly on the side effects of drugs. Few published studies have used a placebo group as controls. The paucity of focussed studies is well illustrated by the fact that there still is no approved medication to treat female orgasmic dysfunction. The present brief overview examines the most important aspects of its biology and especially its physiology highlighting the many questions that need answering if we are to have a comprehensive pharmacology of the female orgasm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Arau´zo-Bravo, Marcos J.; le Gac, Severine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Do different human ART culture protocols prepare embryos differently for post-implantation development? ... Our data promote awareness that human ART culture media affect embryo development. Effects reported here in the mouse may apply also in human, because no ART medium presently available on the

  20. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a Longitudinal Cohort of U.S. Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Reisner, Sari L; Agénor, Madina; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to examine how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may differ across sexual orientation groups (e.g., bisexuals compared to heterosexuals)-particularly in boys and men, about whom little is known. Data were from a prospective cohort of 10,663 U.S. females and males enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study followed from 1996 to 2014. Participants were aged 11-24 years when the vaccine was approved for females in 2006 and 14-27 years when approved for males in 2009. In addition to reporting sexual orientation identity/attractions, participants reported sex of lifetime sexual partners. Log-binominal models were used to examine HPV vaccination across sexual orientation groups. Among females, 56% received ≥1 dose. In contrast, 8% of males obtained ≥1 dose; HPV vaccination initiation was especially low among completely heterosexual males. After adjusting for potential confounders, completely heterosexual (risk ratio [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 [0.30-0.68]) and mostly heterosexual (RR; 95% CI: 0.44 [0.25-0.78]) males were half as likely to have received even a single dose compared to gay males. Compared to lesbians, no differences were observed for completely heterosexual or bisexual females, but mostly heterosexual females were 20% more likely to have received at least one dose. HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. are strikingly low and special attention is needed for boys and men, especially those who do not identify as gay. Vaccinating everyone, regardless of sex/gender and/or sexual orientation, will not only lower that individual's susceptibility but also decrease transmission to partners, females and/or males, to help eradicate HPV through herd immunity.

  1. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; De Melo Lima, V J

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI A M and female RPI A F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  3. Female dominance in human groups : Effects of sex ratio and conflict level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    Compared to men, women less often attain high-level positions and generally have lower status in society. In smaller groups, the relative influence of men and women depends on gender composition, but research is inconclusive regarding the relation between gender composition and female influence.

  4. Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; Cao, Lei; Krause, Diana N

    2013-01-01

    Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which...

  5. Stem cell research on other worlds, or why embryos do not have a right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, R

    2006-03-01

    Anxieties about the creation and destruction of human embryos for the purpose of scientific research on embryonic stem cells have given a new urgency to the question of whether embryos have moral rights. This article uses a thought experiment involving two possible worlds, somewhat removed from our own in the space of possibilities, to shed light on whether early embryos have such rights as a right not to be destroyed or discarded (a "right to life"). It is argued that early embryos do not have meaningful interests or any moral rights. Accordingly, claims about the moral rights of embryos do not justify restrictions on stem cell research.

  6. Chronology of early embryonic development and embryo uterine migration in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picha, Y; Tibary, A; Memon, M; Kasimanickam, R; Sumar, J

    2013-03-01

    The objectives were to: (1) describe the chronology of early embryonic development from ovulation to entry into the uterus; and (2) to determine the timing of embryo migration to the left uterine horn when ovulation occurred from the right ovary. The experiment was conducted in Peru. Females (n = 132) were randomly assigned to 15 experimental groups. All females were mated to an intact male, given 50 μg GnRH im (Cystorelin) and ovulation time determined by transrectal ultrasonography, conducted every 6 hours, starting 24 hours postmating. Animals were slaughtered at a specific intervals postovulation and reproductive tracts were recovered and subjected to oviductal and uterine flushing for females slaughtered between 1 and 6 days postovulation (dpo; Day 0 = ovulation) and uterine flushing for females slaughtered from 7 to 15 dpo for recovery of oocytes/embryos. Season of mating did not influence the interval from mating to ovulation (winter: 29 ± 6 hours vs. summer: 30 ± 6 hours; P = 0.49). Ovulation rates for females mated during winter and summer were 92% versus 100%, respectively (P = 0.05). Fertilization rates for winter and summer mated females were 72% and 82% (P = 0.29). Unfertilized ova were not retained in the uterine tube. All embryos collected were in the uterine tube ipsilateral to the side of ovulation between 1 and 5 dpo. Embryos reached the uterus on 6 dpo. Embryos began to elongate on 9 dpo; at this time, 83% of embryos derived from right-ovary ovulations were collected from the left uterine horn. Embryos occupied the entire uterine cavity by 10 dpo. In conclusion, we characterized early embryo development and location of embryo during its early developmental stages in alpaca. This was apparently the first report regarding chronology of embryo development and migration to the left horn in alpaca which merits further investigation regarding its role in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoelectron microscopy in embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, W D

    2001-05-01

    Immunogold labeling of proteins in sections of embryos embedded in acrylate media provides an important analytical tool when the resolving power of the electron microscope is required to define sites of protein function. The protocol presented here was established to analyze the role and dynamics of the activated protein kinase C/Rack1 regulatory system in the patterning and outgrowth of limb bud mesenchyme. With minor changes, especially in the composition of the fixative solution, the protocol should be easily adaptable for the postembedding immunogold labeling of any other antigen in tissues of embryos of diverse species. Quantification of the labeling can be achieved by using electron microscope systems capable of supporting digital image analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Characterization of migratory primordial germ cells in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros of a 4.5 week-old human embryo: a toolbox to evaluate in-vitro early gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Fernandes, Maria; Bialecka, Monika; Salvatori, Daniela C F; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2018-03-08

    Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes. Although there is a great interest in generating human gametes in vitro, it is still unclear which markers are expressed during the early stages of hPGC development and many studies use markers described in mouse to benchmark differentiation of human PGC-like cells (hPGCLCs). Early post-implantation development differs significantly between mice and humans, and so some germ cells markers, including SOX2, SOX17, IFITM3 and ITGA6 may not identify mPGCs and hPGCs equally well. This immunofluorescence study investigated the expression of putative hPGC markers in the caudal part of a single human embryo at 4.5 weeks of development. We have investigated by immunofluorescence the expression of a set of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including pluripotency, germ cell, adhesion, migration, surface, mesenchymal and epigenetic markers on paraffin sections of the caudal part, including the AGM region, of a single human embryo (CS 12-13). The human material used was anonymously donated with informed consent from elective abortions without medical indication. We observed germ cell specific expression of NANOG, TFAP2C and PRDM1 in POU5F1+ hPGCs in the AGM. The epigenetic markers H3K27me3 and 5mC were sufficient to distinguish hPGCs from the surrounding somatic cells. Some mPGC-markers were not detected in hPGCs, but marked other tissues

  9. Doação e adoção como políticas para salvar os embriões humanos excedentes e congelados Donation and adoption as ways of saving excess frozen human embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Odilon Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da divergência científica existente com relação à sobra de embriões congelados, particularmente entre a biologia, a religião, o direito e a bioética, e focando especialmente nos meios e nas formas com que cada uma dessas ciências caracteriza o início da vida. É objetivo dos autores, ainda, fornecer alternativas para a proteção do embrião humano, como a adoção por casais ou apenas por mulheres que, por razões médicas, não podem ser fertilizadas, mas que podem gestar. Em se tratando de Brasil, os autores concluem ser legal e legítimo a doação e a adoção de embrião humano para fertilização, desde que sejam considerados o princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana e mantido o sigilo sobre a identidade dos doadores de gametas, cujos dados devem permanecer registrados de forma permanente no centro onde ocorreu a fertilização.This article deals with the existing scientific divergence with regard to the surplus of frozen embryos, especially between biology, religion, the law and bioethics, with a specific focus on the ways in which each of these areas determines the onset of life. The aim of the authors is to suggest alternatives that protect the human embryo, such as adoption by couples or by single women, who, for medical reasons, are infertile, but are capable of bearing a child. In the case of Brazil, the authors conclude that it is legal and legitimate to donate and adopt human embryos for fertilization, so long as the principle of human dignity is upheld and confidentiality maintained regarding the identity of the donors of the gametes, whose data should remain on file permanently at the center where fertilization occurred.

  10. Neutron irradiation of rat embryos in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the rat radiation is most effective in producing congenital anomalies during the organ-forming period (days 9 to 13), which is approximately equivalent to the 14th to 50th days of human pregnancy. We have exposed female Sprague--Dawley rats on the 18th day of pregnancy to single whole-body doses of fission neutrons (20 to 150 rads). After 20 rads there was a small decrease in body weight which lasted from birth to weaning. During this period 9% of the irradiated rats died compared with 4% of the controls. After 50 rads, 65/275 (23.6%) of the rats died between birth and weaning, and the body-weight loss of the survivors was increased. After 100 rads, 62/133 (47%) died at birth or day 1 and 103/133 (77.4%) died before weaning. A large and significant decrease in body weight persisted in the survivors. After 150 rads of fission neutrons, all 95 rats died within 48 hr of birth. From cross-fostering experiments, we believe this is a direct effect of radiation on the embryos and not an indirect action through the mother or her milk. The LD 50 for the period from birth to weaning is approximately 75 rads of fission neutrons. Studies of organ weight were conducted daily for the first week after birth in an attempt to find the cause of radiation mortality. Body weight of the irradiated animals averaged only about one-half that of the controls. The liver, kidney, brain, and testes of the neutron-irradiated rats weighed significantly less than those of the controls. The weights of the spleen, lungs, duodenum, and stomach were decreased but not significantly. The bone marrow appeared depleted in the irradiated long bones, but the spleen maintained active hematopoiesis 1 to 2 months after neutron exposure

  11. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li; Xu, Hong; Li, Rong; Huang, Hefeng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  12. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ningling [Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong1168@126.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Li, Rong [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Huang, Hefeng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  13. Factors associated with future commitment and past history of human papilloma virus vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Fen; Yeh, Ying-Tse; Sheu, Shuh-Jen; Wang, Tze-Fang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate factors influencing commitment to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and prior vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan. A quota sample of 400 female college students was recruited from nine colleges in northern Taiwan during March 2013. Of these, 398 completed the self administered questionnaire which was designed based on the health promotion model. The results showed that factors associated with prior vaccination behavior were family history of gynecologic malignancy, ever being advised to get HPV vaccination, perceived barriers of action and perceived self-efficacy. Predictors for commitment to HPV vaccination in the next 6 months were the cost of vaccination, ever being advised to get HPV vaccination, perceived self-efficacy and situational influences. Perceived self-efficacy was significantly influenced by relationship status, past receipt of a recommendation for HPV vaccination and level of knowledge about HPV. When formulating vaccination policies, governmental or medical institutions should include these factors to promote vaccination.

  14. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedd Jay N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.

  15. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.K. de; Salles, L.P.; Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract

  16. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.K. de [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade da Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Rosa e Silva, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  17. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  18. Early Menarche as an Alternative Reproductive Tactic in Human Females: An Evolutionary Approach to Reproductive Health Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan T. Gillette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. Thus, a worldwide decline in menarcheal age (timing of first menstrual period may have serious long-term consequences. Early menarcheal timing (first menstrual period before age 12 can have a negative effect on fecundity, as well as the quality and quantity of offspring, and may consequently influence population growth or decline. In this paper, we apply an evolutionary framework to modern human health, and assess both proximate and ultimate consequences of declining menarcheal age. Examination of human reproductive health within an evolutionary framework is innovative and essential, because it illuminates the ultimate consequences of a declining age of menarche and facilitates new ways of thinking about the long-term and intergenerational transmission of health and disease; thus, an evolutionary framework lends itself to innovative public health and policy programs. In this paper, we examine whether or not early menarche is an alternative reproductive tactic that modern human females employ in response to a stressful environment, and whether or not early menarche is ultimately beneficial.

  19. Nectar-related vs human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, W.A.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if

  20. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across the western US become drier and wolves recolonize portions of the region. In the absence of human harvest, wolves had additive, although limited, effects on mortality. However, human harvest, and its apparent use by managers to offset predation, primarily controls overall variation in adult female mortality. Altering harvest quotas is thus a strong tool for offsetting impacts of carnivore recolonization and shifting weather patterns on elk across western North America.

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Embryo development in golden king crab, Lithodes aequispina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data from this study, describes embryo development in Golden king crab, Lithodes aequispinus. Six female multiparous golden king crab were captured from the...

  2. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  3. Influence of embryo culture medium (G5 and HTF) on pregnancy and perinatal outcome after IVF: a multicenter RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, S.H.; Mantikou, E.; Slappendel, E.; Consten, D.; Echten-Arends, J. van; Wetzels, A.M.M.; Wely, M. van; Smits, L.J.; Montfoort, A.P. van; Repping, S.; Dumoulin, J.C.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in

  4. Influence of embryo culture medium (G5 and HTF) on pregnancy and perinatal outcome after IVF: a multicenter RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, Sander H. M.; Mantikou, Eleni; Slappendel, Els; Consten, Dimitri; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Wetzels, Alex M.; van Wely, Madelon; Smits, Luc J. M.; van Montfoort, Aafke P. A.; Repping, Sjoerd; Dumoulin, John C. M.; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in IVF/ICSI treatments currently exists. It is unknown which

  5. Influence of embryo culture medium (G5 and HTF) on pregnancy and perinatal outcome after IVF : a multicenter RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, Sander H. M.; Mantikou, Eleni; Slappendel, Els; Consten, Dimitri; van Echten - Arends, Jannie; Wetzels, Alex M.; van Wely, Madelon; Smits, Luc J. M.; van Montfoort, Aafke P. A.; Repping, Sjoerd; Dumoulin, John C. M.; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in IVF/ICSI treatments currently exists. It is unknown which

  6. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  7. Development of the Human Fetal Kidney from Mid to Late Gestation in Male and Female Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: These findings highlight spatial and temporal variability in nephrogenesis in the developing human kidney, whereas the relative cellular composition of glomeruli does not appear to be influenced by gestational age.

  8. Environment of oocyte and embryo determines heath of IVP offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Bevers, M.M.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) enhances the number of offspring from a single female and offers the possibility of accelerated genetic progress in animal husbandry. However, it also leads to a low but unacceptable percentage of anomalies in the offspring. The aim of this paper is to introduce the

  9. Enhancement of NMRI Mouse Embryo Development In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the systematic studies used in the development of human embryo culture media have been done first on mouse embryos. The general use of NMRI outbred mice is a model for toxicology, teratology and pharmacology. NMRI mouse embryo exhibit the two-cell block in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of four kinds of culture media on the development of zygotes (NMRI after embryo vitrification. One-cell mouse embryos were obtained from NMRI mice after superovulation and mating with adult male NMRI mice. And then randomly divided into 4 groups for culture in four different cultures media including: M16 (A, DMEM/Ham, F-12 (B, DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with Vero cells(C and DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with MEF cells (D. Afterward all of the embryos were vitrified in EFS40 solution and collected. Results of our study revealed, more blastocysts significantly were developed with co-culture with MEF cells in DMEM/Ham's F-12 medium. More research needed to understand the effect of other components of culture medium, and co-culture on NMRI embryo development.

  10. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r2 = 0.28; p embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r2 = 0.64; p embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-op

  11. Automatic Blastomere Recognition from a Single Embryo Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of blastomeres of human day 3 embryos is one of the most important criteria for evaluating embryo viability. However, due to the transparency and overlap of blastomeres, it is a challenge to recognize blastomeres automatically using a single embryo image. This study proposes an approach based on least square curve fitting (LSCF for automatic blastomere recognition from a single image. First, combining edge detection, deletion of multiple connected points, and dilation and erosion, an effective preprocessing method was designed to obtain part of blastomere edges that were singly connected. Next, an automatic recognition method for blastomeres was proposed using least square circle fitting. This algorithm was tested on 381 embryo microscopic images obtained from the eight-cell period, and the results were compared with those provided by experts. Embryos were recognized with a 0 error rate occupancy of 21.59%, and the ratio of embryos in which the false recognition number was less than or equal to 2 was 83.16%. This experiment demonstrated that our method could efficiently and rapidly recognize the number of blastomeres from a single embryo image without the need to reconstruct the three-dimensional model of the blastomeres first; this method is simple and efficient.

  12. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  13. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A Kushnir

    Full Text Available Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations.We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles, as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles.During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7% involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P 44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater.Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women.Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  14. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Albertini, David F; Darmon, Sarah K; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women women >44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  15. Repeated use of surrogate mothers for embryo transfer in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Thomas; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Rülicke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Embryo transfer in mice is a crucial technique for generation of transgenic animals, rederivation of contaminated lines, and revitalization of cryopreserved strains, and it is a key component of assisted reproduction techniques. It is common practice to use females only once as surrogate mothers. However, their reuse for a second embryo transfer could provide hygienic and economic advantages and conform to the concept of the 3Rs (replace, reduce, refine). This investigation evaluated the potential for a second embryo transfer in terms of feasibility, reproductive results, and experimental burden for the animal. Virgin female ICR mice (age 8-16 wk) were used as recipients for the first embryo transfer. Immediately after weaning of the first litter, a second surgical embryo transfer was performed into the same oviduct. Virgin females of comparable age to the reused mothers served as controls and underwent the same procedure. The first surgery did not affect the success of the second embryo transfer. Histological sections showed excellent wound healing without relevant impairment of involved tissues. We observed no differences in pregnancy rates or litter sizes between the transfer groups. Most importantly, we found no change in behavior indicating reduced well-being and no increase of corticosterone metabolites in the feces of surrogate mothers reused for a second embryo transfer. We conclude that a second embryo transfer in mice is feasible with regard to reproductive and animal welfare aspects.

  16. Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

  17. Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Murti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of  in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.

  18. A chimera embryo assay reveals a decrease in embryonic cellular proliferation induced by sperm from X-irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasaju, M.F.; Wiley, L.M.; Oudiz, D.J.; Raabe, O.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Mice in the experimental groups received one of three doses of acute X irradiation (1.73, 0.29, and 0.05 Gy) and together with the control unirradiated mice were then mated weekly to unirradiated female mice for a 9-week experimental period. Embryos were recovered from the weekly matings at the four-cell stage and examined by the chimera assay for proliferative disadvantage. Aggregation chimeras were constructed of embryos from female mice mated to irradiated males (experimental embryos) and embryos from females mated to unexposed males (control embryos) and contained either one experimental embryo and one control embryo (heterologous chimera) or two control embryos (control chimera). The control embryo in heterologous chimeras and either embryo in control chimeras were prelabeled with the vital dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and the chimeras were cultured for 40 h and viewed under phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy to obtain total embryo cell number and the cellular contribution from the FITC-labeled embryo. Experimental and control embryos that were cultured singly were also examined for embryo cell number at the end of the 40-h culture period. In control chimeras, the mean ratio of the unlabeled cells:total chimera cell number (henceforth referred to as ''mean ratio'') was 0.50 with little or no weekly variation over the 9-week experimental period. During Weeks 4-7, the mean ratios of heterologous chimeras differed significantly from the mean ratio of control chimeras with the greatest differences occurring during Week 7 (0.41 for chimeras of 0.05 Gy dose group, 0.40 for chimeras of the 0.29 Gy dose group, and 0.17 for chimeras of the 1.73 Gy dose group)

  19. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  20. Awareness, acceptability and uptake of human papilloma virus vaccine among Cameroonian school-attending female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Wamai, Richard G; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer HPV vaccine and willingness to vaccinate among adolescent females aged 12-26 years at clinics and schools in the North West Region of Cameroon where the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) conducted a sensitization and education campaign. A questionnaire survey was administered among female adolescents in schools and clinics. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and proportions were generated for independent variables and bivariate analyses (Chi square test) were used to assess the relationship between independent and outcome variables. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9.2. Out of a sample of 650 adolescent girls 553 willingly participated in this anonymous survey. Awareness of HPV (86.8%), cervical cancer (82.3%), and prevention of HPV infections through vaccination (75.9%) was significantly higher than in previous studies conducted in Cameroon and other developing countries. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with being sexually active (p = 0.0013), age (p = 0.0031) and level of education (p = 0.0274). Age and educational level were associated with HPV knowledge (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0008), respectively. The mean level of interest in HPV vaccination was 4.0 (SD = 1.27), which is above the mean. Our data indicate high awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among adolescents, and interest in receiving the vaccine and learning about the disease. CBCHS' community education strategy effectively raised acceptability and generated demand for HPV vaccine, making it a potential model for HPV immunization in Cameroon and other developing countries.

  1. “Collinsella vaginalis” sp. nov., a new bacterial species cultivated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoudia Diop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief description of “Collinsella vaginalis” strain P2666 (=CSUR P2666, a new bacterium that was cultivated from the vaginal sample of a 26-year-old woman affected from bacterial vaginosis. Keywords: “Collinsella vaginalis”, Culturomics, Vaginal flora, Bacterial vaginosis, Human microbiota

  2. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections among young heterosexual male and female STI clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in

  3. Dermal uptake of Tetrabromobisphenol A TBBPA by female Wistar Han rat and human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    TBBPA, a brominated analog of Bisphenol A, is the highest production volume brominated flame retardant in production and human exposure is ubiquitous. Although the major route of exposure to TBBPA is oral uptake, skin penetration is possible. In the studies presented here, the de...

  4. MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Virant-Klun, I.; Stahlberg, A.; Kubista, Mikael; Skutella, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 3984937. E-ISSN 1687-9678 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE * CUMULUS-OOCYTE COMPLEX * HUMAN GRANULOSA-CELLS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Chapter 1 Historical Background on Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jaffar; AlHarbi, Naif H; Ali, Nafisa

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of various species including human. It attempts to record in brief the main contributions of workers in their attempts to cryopreserve gametes and embryos. The initial difficulties faced and subsequent developments and triumphs leading to present-day state of the art are given in a concise manner. The main players and their contributions are mentioned and the authors' aim is to do justice to them. This work also attempts to ensure that credit is correctly attributed for significant advances in gamete and embryo cryopreservation. In general this chapter has tried to describe the historical development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos as accurately as possible without bias or partiality.

  6. Role of melatonin in embryo fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, S E; Zygouropoulos, N; Zahiu, C D; Zagrean, A M

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine produced by the pineal gland and secreted in a circadian manner. In the past few decades, research over this topic has been enhanced. Melatonin has many important roles in the human physiology: regulator of the circadian rhythms, sleep inducer, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic. This paper reviews the involvement of melatonin in embryo fetal development. The pineal gland develops completely postpartum, so both the embryo and the fetus are dependent on the maternal melatonin provided transplacentally. Melatonin appears to be involved in the normal outcome of pregnancy beginning with the oocyte quality and finishing with the parturition. Its pregnancy night-time concentrations increase after 24 weeks of gestation, with significantly high levels after 32 weeks. Melatonin receptors are widespread in the embryo and fetus since early stages. There is solid evidence that melatonin is neuroprotective and has a positive effect on the outcome of the compromised pregnancies. In addition, chronodisruption leads to a reproductive dysfunction. Thus, the influence of melatonin on the developing human fetus may not be limited to the entertaining of circadian rhythmicity, but further studies are needed.

  7. Biological and psychosocial determinants of male and female human sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2005-09-01

    Some propositions on male and female sexual orientation will be considered. Some of these are established; others are more speculative. The aim is to offer some notes towards a coherent, comprehensive theory of sexual orientation. 1. The distinction between butch and femme lesbians seems real rather than a social construct. 2. High levels of prenatal steroid hormones seem to be causally associated with the sexual orientation of butch lesbians. However it is not established whether the causal process operates prenatally or postnatally (or both). This is so because prenatal hormone levels are thought to correlate positively with postnatal hormone levels. And high postnatal hormone levels may facilitate homosexual behaviour as a consequence of sensation-seeking. 3. Male bisexuals also are interpreted to have been exposed to high prenatal testosterone levels. But (for reasons similar to those outlined above in regard to butch lesbians) it is unclear whether these have a direct prenatal effect on the brain or whether they are precursors of high postnatal testosterone levels, which are associated with male bisexual orientation by promoting sensation-seeking behaviour. 4. Postnatal learning processes seem to be causally involved in the sexual orientation of some femme lesbians and some exclusive male homosexuals. 5. Some homosexual men have genes that predispose to their sexual orientation. 6. The same may apply to some lesbians, but such genes have not, as far as I know, been identified. 7. People (of both sexes) who engage in same-sex sexual behaviour may be classified simultaneously in two ways, viz (1) 'active' vs 'passive' and (2) those who do and those who do not engage (or consider engaging) in sex with members of the opposite sex. Ex hypothesi, some of the 'active' ones initiate some of the 'passive' ones. The active ones are driven more by hormones and the passive ones by psychosocial factors. The active males contain a substantial proportion of self

  8. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P alopecia at a rate similar to that observed in males using the same parameters. © 2014 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differences in female and male development of the human cerebral cortex from birth to age 16

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Harriet Wehner

    1994-01-01

    This study compares the development of the human cerebral cortex of 224 girls and 284 boys in a series of cross-sectional analyses as measured by EEG coherence on normal children's brains (longisectional design). Correlations of these EEG readings taken from all brain regions between a mean age of 6 months and 16 years yield measures of synaptic communication. Time series of these measures reflect the changing growth patterns across the 16 years. Time series of mean EE...

  10. Viability of bovine demi embryo after splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo derived from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo embryo production was limited by number of donor, wide variability respond due to superovulation program and also immunoactifity of superovulation hormone (FSH. Splitting technology could be an alternative to increase the number of transferrable embryos into recipien cows. Splitting is done with cutting embryo becoming two equal pieces (called demi embrio base on ICM orientation. The objective of this research was to determine the viability of demi embryo obtained from embryo splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo. The results showed that demi embryos which performed blastocoel reexpansion 3 hours after embryo splitting using fresh and frozen thawed embryos were 76.9 and 76.2% respectively. Base on existention of inner cell mass (ICM, the number of demi embryos developed with ICM from fresh and frozen thawed embryos were not significantly different (90.6 and 85.7% respectively. The cell number of demi embryo from fresh embryos splitting was not different compared with those from frozen thawed embryos (36.1 and 35.9 respectively. These finding indicated that embryo splitting can be applied to frozen thawed embryos with certain condition as well as fresh embryos.

  11. Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Abas, Melanie; Bick, Debra; Boyle, Adrian; French, Rebecca; Jakobowitz, Sharon; Khondoker, Mizanur; Stanley, Nicky; Trevillion, Kylee; Howard, Louise; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-06-01

    To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country. Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014. Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29.3%), and labor exploitation (40.4%). Sixty-six percent of women reported forced sex during trafficking, including 95% of those trafficked for sexual exploitation and 54% of those trafficked for domestic servitude. Twenty-one percent of men and 24% of women reported ongoing injuries, and 8% of men and 23% of women reported diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. Finally, 78% of women and 40% of men reported high levels of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Psychological interventions to support the recovery of this highly vulnerable population are urgently needed.

  12. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference...... is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs...... is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  13. Role of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B in Puberty in Female Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Ei Terasawa; Ei Terasawa; James P. Garcia; Stephanie B. Seminara; Kim L. Keen

    2018-01-01

    In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin (KISS1) and neurokinin B (NKB) and their receptors (KISS1R and NK3R, respectively) result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the h...

  14. Electroporation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryos In Utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Carcagno, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Gene transfer by electroporation is possible in mouse fetuses within the uterus. As described in this protocol, the pregnant female is anesthetized, the abdominal cavity is opened, and the uterus with the fetuses is exteriorized. A solution of plasmid DNA is injected through the uterine wall directly into the fetus, typically into a cavity like the brain ventricle, guided by fiber optic illumination. Electrodes are positioned on the uterus around the region of the fetus that was injected, and electrical pulses are delivered. The uterus is returned to the abdominal cavity, the body wall is sutured closed, and the female is allowed to recover. The manipulated fetuses can then be collected and analyzed at various times after the electroporation. This method allows experimental access to later-stage developing mouse embryos. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) impairs fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R J; McClure, Neil; Cosby, S Louise; Stevenson, Michael; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate, a cyclic monophosphate-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to affect sperm function, on fertilization and early embryo cleavage. This acute mammal study included male and female mice assigned randomly, the females sacrificed after mating and their oocytes/embryos evaluated at four time periods after treatment. Academic research environment. Male and female CBAB(6) mice. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 IU gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate follicular growth and induce ovulation. They were each caged with a male that had been gavaged with sildenafil citrate (0.06 mg/0.05 mL) and allowed to mate. After 12, 36, 60, and 84 h, females were killed, their oviducts were dissected out, and retrieved embryos were assessed for blastomere number and quality. Fertilization rates and numbers of embryos were evaluated after treatment. Fertilization rates (day 1) were markedly reduced (-33%) in matings where the male had taken sildenafil citrate. Over days 2-4, the numbers of embryos developing in the treated group were significantly fewer than in the control group. There was also a trend for impaired cleavage rates within those embryos, although this did not reach significance. The impairments to fertility caused by sildenafil citrate have important implications for infertility centers and for couples who are using this drug precoitally while attempting to conceive.

  16. A Simple Method for Transportation of Mouse Embryos Using Microtubes and a Warm Box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Tokoro

    Full Text Available Generally, transportation of preimplantation embryos without freezing requires incubators that can maintain an optimal culture environment with a suitable gas phase, temperature, and humidity. Such incubators are expensive to transport. We reported previously that normal offspring were obtained when the gas phase and temperature could be maintained during transportation. However, that system used plastic dishes for embryo culture and is unsuitable for long-distance transport of live embryos. Here, we developed a simple low-cost embryo transportation system. Instead of plastic dishes, several types of microtubes-usually used for molecular analysis-were tested for embryo culture. When they were washed and attached to a gas-permeable film, the rate of embryo development from the 1-cell to blastocyst stage was more than 90%. The quality of these blastocysts and the rate of full-term development after embryo transfer to recipient female mice were similar to those of a dish-cultured control group. Next, we developed a small warm box powered by a battery instead of mains power, which could maintain an optimal temperature for embryo development during transport. When 1-cell embryos derived from BDF1, C57BL/6, C3H/He and ICR mouse strains were transported by a parcel-delivery service over 3 days using microtubes and the box, they developed to blastocysts with rates similar to controls. After the embryos had been transferred into recipient female mice, healthy offspring were obtained without any losses except for the C3H/He strain. Thus, transport of mouse embryos is possible using this very simple method, which might prove useful in the field of reproductive medicine.

  17. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success.

  18. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  19. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  1. Between Shame and Lack of Responsibility: The Articulation of Emotions among Female Returnees of Human Trafficking in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on qualitative research conducted with some female residents of a shelter for victims of trafficking located in Lào Cai, an urban centre on the Northern Vietnamese border with China, the intention, in this article, is to explore some of their expressed feelings and emotions. These seem to oscillate between a sense of shame and guilt, and a sense of self-pity and victimization. Such oscillation finds significant correspondence at two broader levels, that of Vietnamese society and of the international ideological discourse of human trafficking, which both present a stigmatizing, yet compassionate, approach to the returnees of trafficking. In this way, the aim is to show how emotions are embedded within socio-political power relations and gender inequalities.

  2. Some human albumine metabolism aspects, gathered with the utilization of 131I-albumine in normal female individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    14 female individuals underwent a study of some aspects of the 131 I human albumine metabolism, by following-up the decreasing plasmatic radioactivity rate of this substance. The outcome of this study led to the following conclusions: the distribution hal-life presented an average and confidence interval of 15,40 +- -+ 2,16 hours; renovation half-life showed a median and confidence interval of 11,17 +- -+ 2,10 days; the renovation ratio presented an average and confidence interval of 6,80 +- -+ 1,31% days -1 . The conclusions hereabove allowed the authors to discuss the performance of these parameters upon the evaluation of the albumine synthesis and catabolism [pt

  3. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transferred directly into the horn left. It was observed that only 40% of alpaca accept the male and female in all cases had to use two males for mating, but all llama males mounted on the first attempt and accepted all females breeding. Embryos were collected at 25 and 60% of alpacas and llamas washes respectively, all were grade 1 embryos transferable; the embryo transfer fertility evaluated by ultrasound at 25 days was 100 and 41.6% respectively for donor alpaca and llama, however ultrasound evaluation at 60 days fertility was 50 and 25% respectively for donor alpaca and llama. We conclude that there is greater reproductive seasonality in alpaca regard to llamas, all were grade 1 embryos collected, fertility evaluated by ultrasound 25 days down to 60 days, demonstrating embryonic mortality, possibly due to the non-breeding season of both species.

  4. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bianchi

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®-miniMAG(®, bioMérieux, the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.

  5. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®)-miniMAG(®), bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.

  6. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Bronislawa; Mazanowska, Natalia; Ekiel, Alicja M; Durlik, Magdalena; Martirosian, Gayane; Wielgos, Mirosław; Kaminski, Pawel

    2012-06-18

    Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37). There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have developed in the cervical canal.

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Bronislawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have

  8. Human papillomavirus vaccination: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of college female students in Lebanon, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H

    2015-02-18

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7% ± 1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47 ± 0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24 ± 0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98 ± 0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to

  9. Multivariate Cholesky models of human female fertility patterns in the NLSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Bard, David E; Miller, Warren B

    2007-03-01

    Substantial evidence now exists that variables measuring or correlated with human fertility outcomes have a heritable component. In this study, we define a series of age-sequenced fertility variables, and fit multivariate models to account for underlying shared genetic and environmental sources of variance. We make predictions based on a theory developed by Udry [(1996) Biosocial models of low-fertility societies. In: Casterline, JB, Lee RD, Foote KA (eds) Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories. The Population Council, New York] suggesting that biological/genetic motivations can be more easily realized and measured in settings in which fertility choices are available. Udry's theory, along with principles from molecular genetics and certain tenets of life history theory, allow us to make specific predictions about biometrical patterns across age. Consistent with predictions, our results suggest that there are different sources of genetic influence on fertility variance at early compared to later ages, but that there is only one source of shared environmental influence that occurs at early ages. These patterns are suggestive of the types of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions for which we must account to better understand individual differences in fertility outcomes.

  10. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  11. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: mortality and morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and long-term studies of humans exposed to ionizing radiation in utero and after birth show that these exposures increase the risk of cancer in childhood and in later life. A possible life-shortening effect has also been reported. This study followed to their mid-twenties 1458 women exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and 1458 matched, unexposed controls in Baltimore, Maryland, and obtained responses from over 100 women in each group. Information about general health and specific diseases was obtained from questionnaires. Deaths were ascertained through family members and death certificates. Mortality rates were slightly higher among exposure. Exposed women reported poor general health significantly more often than controls. Specific diseases occurred similarly in the two groups, although exposed women reported more epilepsy or fits, more ovarian tumors, and more high blood pressure. These strong correlation between weight and high blood pressure and the heavier weights of exposed women seemed to account for this difference. In summary, these matched exposed and control women, followed to their mid-twenties, experienced similar rates of morbidity and mortality. Radiation-induced cancers and life-shortening effects, if any, might not become evident until older ages

  12. Role of the phagocytes on embryos: some morphological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

    2002-06-15

    Phagocytosis in embryos was studied by Elie Metchnikoff more than a century ago and is a pillar of the Phagocytic Theory. Throughout the last three decades phagocytosis in embryos has been studied from different perspectives, which this review describes and analyzes. The following branches were identified: 1) the search for the origin and first identification of well-known adult phagocytes in embryos, including their role after induced injuries; 2) the search for the occurrence of phagocytosis in embryos and its role during their physiological development; and 3) the search for phagocytosis in embryos, as a tool to study identity and self-recognition. It is possible to verify that different cell types are able to undertake phagocytosis, under a variety of different stimuli, and that the nature of what is phagocytosed also varies widely. Although the overwhelming majority of species described among metazoarians are invertebrates, most published articles in this field relate to mammals (particularly mice and humans) and birds (particularly chicks). In order to enrich this field of knowledge, research using a wider variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species should be undertaken. Furthermore, the present knowledge of phagocytosis in embryos needs a revised paradigm capable of embracing all the above-mentioned research trends under a single, more general, biological theory. In this sense, Metchnikoff's Phagocytic Theory, which is based on a broad biological paradigm and is thus capable of dealing with all research trends mentioned herein, should be revisited in order to contribute to this edification. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Impact of motorboats on fish embryos depends on engine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain-Schlaepfer, Sofia; Fakan, Eric; Rummer, Jodie L; Simpson, Stephen D; McCormick, Mark I

    2018-01-01

    Human generated noise is changing the natural underwater soundscapes worldwide. The most pervasive sources of underwater anthropogenic noise are motorboats, which have been found to negatively affect several aspects of fish biology. However, few studies have examined the effects of noise on early life stages, especially the embryonic stage, despite embryo health being critical to larval survival and recruitment. Here, we used a novel setup to monitor heart rates of embryos from the staghorn damselfish ( Amblyglyphidodon curacao ) in shallow reef conditions, allowing us to examine the effects of in situ boat noise in context with real-world exposure. We found that the heart rate of embryos increased in the presence of boat noise, which can be associated with the stress response. Additionally, we found 2-stroke outboard-powered boats had more than twice the effect on embryo heart rates than did 4-stroke powered boats, showing an increase in mean individual heart rate of 1.9% and 4.6%, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first evidence suggesting boat noise elicits a stress response in fish embryo and highlights the need to explore the ecological ramifications of boat noise stress during the embryo stage. Also, knowing the response of marine organisms caused by the sound emissions of particular engine types provides an important tool for reef managers to mitigate noise pollution.

  14. Occult abnormal pregnancies after first post-embryo transfer serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Bartolucci, Alison; Sueldo, Carolina; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2016-04-01

    To assess the occult pregnancy rate after "negative" first post-embryo transfer (ET) serum β-hCG results. Two-part retrospective cohort study and nested case series. University-based fertility center. A total of 1,571 negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results were included in the study; 1,326 results (primary cohort, June 2009-December 2013) were initially reported as <5 mIU/mL and 245 results (secondary cohort, January 2014-March 2015) were reported as discrete values from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL. None. Rates of occult pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and complications after negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results. A total of 88.8% (1,178/1,326) of the negative first post-ET results reported as <5 were actually <1.0 mIU/mL. Occult pregnancy was incidentally identified in 1.2% (12/1,041) of subjects with follow-up. Six had ectopic pregnancies, and seven experienced serious complications; 11 (91.7%) of the 12 occult pregnancies had a first post-ET serum β-hCG level of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL and 1 (8.3%) <1.0 mIU/mL. All pregnancies with serious complications had initial β-hCG levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL. Of the 245 results reported as discreet values, occult pregnancies were diagnosed in 5.5% (9/163) of subjects with follow-up. One had an ectopic pregnancy, which was treated with methotrexate. There were no serious complications in the secondary cohort. The majority of negative first post-ET serum β-hCG levels are <1.0 mIU/mL. Results from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL may fail to exclude abnormal pregnancy and are associated with poor outcomes compared with β-hCG levels <1.0 mIU/mL. Serial serum β-hCG may be warranted in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is potentially the best way to preserve female fertility forunmarried women or young girls at risk of losing ovarian function. The aim of this study was tocompare fertilization and embryo development in frozen-thawed oocytes to their fresh siblings inwomen undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo transfer (ET.Materials and Methods: Eleven infertile women undergoing infertility treatment, between theages of 24 to 37 years (mean ± SD = 31.6 ± 3.5, were included in this study. Mature oocytesfrom each patient were randomized into cryopreserved and fresh groups prior to intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI. One hundred and thirty nine oocytes were retrieved, of which 105 were atmetaphase II (MII. Forty- five fresh MII oocytes were kept in culture whereas their sibling 60 MIIoocytes were cryopreserved using a slow cooling protocol. The frozen oocytes remained in LN2for 2 hours before thawing. ICSI was performed 1-2 hours after thawing for frozen oocytes and 4-5hours after retrieval for fresh oocytes. Fertilization and embryo development were compared.Results: Following thawing, 31 oocytes (51.6 % survived and 22 fertilized (79% while 32 freshoocytes fertilized upon ICSI (71%. The mean ± SE scores for embryos developing from frozenthawedoocytes were significantly lower at 48 and 72 hours post-ICSI than for embryos resultingfrom fresh oocytes (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that oocyte freezing resulted in acceptable survival ratesfollowing cryopreservation, and similar fertilization rates following ICSI as compared to the freshsibling oocytes. However the number of blastomeres and the embryo quality on day three wassuperior in embryos from fresh oocytes when compared to the frozen oocytes.

  16. Pre-persons, commodities or cyborgs: the legal construction and representation of the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores how embryos have been represented in law. It argues that two main models have underpinned legal discourse concerning the embryo. One discourse, which has become increasingly prevalent, views embryos as legal subjects or persons. Such representations are facilitated by technological developments such as ultrasound imaging. In addition to influencing Parliamentary debate prior to the passage of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, images of embryos as persons feature prominently in popular culture, including advertising and films, and this discourse came to the fore in the 'orphaned embryo' debate in 1996. The main opposing discourse dismisses embryos as commodifiable objects, which fits with a trend towards legal recognition that reproductive materials such as sperm may be classified as property which may be donated or sold. In the case of cryopreserved embryos these competing perspectives have resulted in litigation over the status of frozen embryos. In this paper I argue that it might be productive to shift the debate from this polarised dispute over whether embryos matter or not, whether they are pre-persons or commodities. Instead, I suggest that we should attempt to locate them in a biotechnological milieu, where cyborg metaphors may be utilised, and questions of how we should treat embryos would be contextualized alongside our response to other cyborgs.

  17. Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification

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    Nasrin Majidi Gharenaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. Objective: The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240 were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80, vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80, vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80. Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. Results: Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03. In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004, however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003, but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. Conclusion: Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage

  18. Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi Gharenaz, Nasrin; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mazaheri, Zohreh; Pour beiranvand, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. Objective: The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. Results: Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. Conclusion: Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage. PMID:27679826

  19. Telomere Length Reprogramming in Embryos and Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Kalmbach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect and cap linear chromosome ends, yet these genomic buffers erode over an organism’s lifespan. Short telomeres have been associated with many age-related conditions in humans, and genetic mutations resulting in short telomeres in humans manifest as syndromes of precocious aging. In women, telomere length limits a fertilized egg’s capacity to develop into a healthy embryo. Thus, telomere length must be reset with each subsequent generation. Although telomerase is purportedly responsible for restoring telomere DNA, recent studies have elucidated the role of alternative telomeres lengthening mechanisms in the reprogramming of early embryos and stem cells, which we review here.

  20. Female human pluripotent stem cells rapidly lose X chromosome inactivation marks and progress to a skewed methylation pattern during culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, M; Seriola, A; Barbé, L; Santalo, J; Veiga, A; Dée, K; Van Haute, L; Sermon, K; Spits, C

    2016-04-01

    Does a preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern exist in female human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and does the pattern change during long-term culture or upon differentiation? We identified two independent phenomena that lead to aberrant XCI patterns in female hPSC: a rapid loss of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and long non-coding X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression during culture, often accompanied by erosion of XCI-specific methylation, and a frequent loss of random XCI in the cultures. Variable XCI patterns have been reported in female hPSC, not only between different hPSC lines, but also between sub-passages of the same cell line, however the reasons for this variability remain unknown. Moreover, while non-random XCI-linked DNA methylation patterns have been previously reported, their origin and extent have not been investigated. We investigated the XCI patterns in 23 human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, during long-term culture and after differentiation, by gene expression analysis, histone modification assessment and study of DNA methylation. The presence and location of H3K27me3 was studied by immunofluorescence, XIST expression by real-time PCR, and mono- or bi-allelic expression of X-linked genes was studied by sequencing of cDNA. XCI-specific DNA methylation was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction and PCR, and more in depth by massive parallel bisulphite sequencing. All hPSC lines showed XCI, but we found a rapid loss of XCI marks during the early stages of in vitro culture. While this loss of XCI marks was accompanied in several cases by an extensive erosion of XCI-specific methylation, it did not result in X chromosome reactivation. Moreover, lines without strong erosion of methylation frequently displayed non-random DNA methylation, which occurred independently from the loss of XCI marks. This bias in X chromosome DNA methylation did not appear as a passenger event driven by clonal culture

  1. Studies on the abnormality of embryo sac and pollen fertility in aurotetraploid rice during different growing seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Jilanfan, S.; Changmin, W.; Peng, Z.; Xiang-dong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Auto tetraploid rice has a great genetic potential but low seed setting rate is the major encumbrance in its use. Embryo sac fertility and pollen fertility are the most important factors which affect the seed setting rate in auto tetraploid rice. Whole mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM) was used to study the fertility and abnormalities in embryo sacs of diploid and auto tetraploid rice during different seasons. The results indicated that the embryo sac fertility (64.5%) was much low in auto tetraploid than that in diploid rice (86%), and five main types of abnormal embryo sac were found in all 10 auto tetraploid rice. Moreover, some other type abnormal embryo sacs were also observed in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac without female germ unit and embryo sac degeneration were the most frequent types of abnormalities in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac fertility ranged from 49.3% to 79.3%, pollen fertility ranged from 56.2 to 85.9%, and seed setting rate varied from 12.5 to 69.01% in various genotypes of auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac and pollen fertility were found to have a significant correlation with seed setting rate. Seasons have significant effect on pollen and embryo sac fertility in both type of rice. All the auto tetraploid lines exhibited different types of embryo sac abnormalities which indicated that these might be related to different genotypes. (author)

  2. Establishing some Correlations between Certain Morphometric Parameters and Embryo Quality

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    Nicolae Păcală

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to establish some correlations between certain morphometric parameters and embryo quality. The morphometric parameters taken into consideration were: zona pellucida thickness, outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter. For experiments we used embryos recovered at 24 hours from mouse females superovulated with gonadotrope hormones (eCG and hCG. The embryos recovered were cultivated in KSOM media, supplemented with amino acids, and during the in vitro cultivation they were measured at different time intervals for establishing morphometric parameters. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Minitab 15, using Fitted Line Plot regression that allows testing of the linear and polynomial regression of one variable. After statistical analyze of the data we found that the thickness of the zona pellucida can constitute a morphometric parameter that can be used as an indicator of subsequent development of the 2 cell embryos to morula and blastocyst stage respectively. The other morphometric parameters studied (outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter cannot be used as indicators of the embryo development.

  3. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.

    2012-01-01

    Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...

  4. Surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I; Keino, H; Taniguchi, M

    1997-04-01

    Whole-embryo culture systems are useful in the fields of not only embryology but also teratology, toxicology, pharmacology, and physiology. Of the many advantages of whole-embryo culture, we focus here on the surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos. Whole-embryo culture allows us to manipulate mammalian embryos, similarly to fish, amphibian and avian embryos. Many surgical experiments have been performed in mammalian embryos in vitro. Such surgical manipulation alters the destiny of morphogenesis of the embryos and can answer many questions concerning developmental issues. As an example of surgical manipulation using whole-embryo culture systems, one of our experiments is described. Microsurgical electrocauterization of the deep preaxial mesodermal programmed cell death zone (fpp) in the footplate prevented the manifestation of polydactyly in genetic polydactyly mouse embryos (Pdn/Pdn), in which fpp was abolished.

  5. Oxygen diffusion in fish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2002-01-01

    All vertebrate embryos pass through a developmental period of remarkably low morphological variability. This period has been called phylotypic period. During the phylotypic period, organogenesis takes place, including blood vessel development. Before the phylotypic

  6. Action of uranium on pre implanted mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, Miriam S.

    2001-01-01

    The cultured preimplantation embryos are normally employed to evaluate the effects of environmental pollutants specially metals. Embryos were obtained from hybrid females CBA x C57 Bl following induction of super ovulation. They were incubated from 1 cell stage during 120 hs. in M16 cultured medium. Three different experiments were carried out: A, B and C using uranyl nitrate UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O as source of uranium. In experiment 'A' the embryos were cultivated in the same culture dish containing final U concentrations of 13, 26, 52, 104 and 208 μgU/ml. In experiment 'B' embryos in a one cell stage were placed in culture medium with uranyl nitrate with final U concentrations of 26, 52, 104 μgU/ml. After 24 hours those embryos which had reached the two-cell stage were transferred to another culture dish to which fresh solutions of uranyl nitrate were added, maintaining the same concentrations of the previous one. In experiment 'C' the embryos were cultivated containing final U concentrations of 26, 52 and 104 μgU/ml and they were transferred to another culture dish every day to which fresh solutions of uranyl nitrate were added. Different embryos parameters were analyzed: 1) Development grade; 2) Number of cell per embryo and metaphases index; and 3) Embryo ploidy. 1) Embryos were observed each 24 hs. to evaluate development grade: 2, 4 and 8 cell stage, morula, early -expanded- hatched blastocysts and atresic embryos. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of embryos arrested either in the one-cell or in the two cell stages in control culture medium regarding different concentrations of U, in a total of 4388 embryos analyzed. From 2 cell stage, moment that the embryo begins to synthesize its own ARNm, the delay in embryonic development increased dose dependent. On the other hand, the toxicological effects in the same concentration are increase from 'A' treatment to 'C' treatment. Embriotoxicology effects are evidenced by an increment in

  7. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-02-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grown in vivo. The application of different in vitro culture (IVC) media for human ART has an effect on birthweight of newborns. In the mouse model, differences in blastocyst formation were reported after culture in different ART media. Moreover, abnormalities in the liver and heart have been detected as a result of suboptimal IVC conditions. Fertilized oocytes from inbred and outbred breeding schemes were retrieved and either immediately transferred to foster mothers or incubated in control or human ART culture media up to the blastocyst stage prior to transfer. Placental and fetal anatomy and particularly bone development were evaluated. B6C3F1 female mice were used as oocyte donors after ovulation induction. C57Bl/6 and CD1 males were used for mating and CD1 females as foster mothers for embryo transfer. Fertilized oocytes were recovered from mated females and incubated in sequential human ART media (ISM1/ISM2 and HTF/Multiblast), in control media [KSOM(aa) and Whitten's medium] or grown in utero without IVC (zygote control). As in vivo, control B6C3F1 females were superovulated and left untreated. Fetuses and placentae were isolated by Caesarean section and analysed at 18.5 days post-coitum (dpc) for placenta composition and at 15.5 dpc for body weight, crown-rump length (CRL), fetal organ development, morphological development, total bone length and extent of bone ossification. No major differences in the number of implantation sites or in histological appearance of the placentae were detected. CRL of KSOM(aa) fetuses was higher compared with zygote control and Whitten's medium. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed no gross morphological differences compared

  8. Cost-effectiveness of female human papillomavirus vaccination in 179 countries: a PRIME modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc; Portnoy, Allison; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in settings with the highest burden of HPV is not universal, partly because of the absence of quantitative estimates of country-specific effects on health and economic costs. We aimed to develop and validate a simple generic model of such effects that could be used and understood in a range of settings with little external support. We developed the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to assess cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccination of girls against HPV before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical cancer and mortality. PRIME models incidence according to proposed vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18, vaccine coverage, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and HPV type distribution. It assumes lifelong vaccine protection and no changes to other screening programmes or vaccine uptake. We validated PRIME against existing reports of HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness, projected outcomes for 179 countries (assuming full vaccination of 12-year-old girls), and outcomes for 71 phase 2 GAVI-eligible countries (using vaccine uptake data from the GAVI Alliance). We assessed differences between countries in terms of cost-effectiveness and health effects. In validation, PRIME reproduced cost-effectiveness conclusions for 24 of 26 countries from 17 published studies, and for all 72 countries in a published study of GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccination of a cohort of 58 million 12-year-old girls in 179 countries prevented 690,000 cases of cervical cancer and 420,000 deaths during their lifetime (mostly in low-income or middle-income countries), at a net cost of US$4 billion. HPV vaccination was very cost effective (with every disability-adjusted life-year averted costing less than the gross domestic product per head) in 156 (87%) of 179 countries. Introduction of the vaccine in countries without national HPV vaccination at present would prevent substantially more cases

  9. [The destiny of cryopreserved embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, L; Achour-Frydman, N; Frydman, R; Flis-Trèves, M

    2007-12-01

    To know the psychological motivations of couples who keep their embryos so long (five years and more) and do not make a decision about them. We studied 84 couples refrained from making a decision on their cryopreserved embryos for at least five years. They were invited to fill out a questionnaire focusing on three points: the reasons of the indecision, their own representation of the cryopreserved embryos and their choice for the future: donation to another couple, to research, pregnancy or no solution for the moment. Mean (S.D.) women's and men's age were respectively, 38.8 (2.5)- and 41.3 (2.5)-years old. On average, three (1-9) embryos are preserved since 7.5 (5-12) years. Most of couples are parents. Four major reasons explain their attitudes: feeling of being too aged (25%), fear of a multiple pregnancy (45%), disagreement between members of couple (20%) and fear of failure (42.5%). Multiple choices were given to the future of the embryos: 25% wanted a pregnancy, 8% wanted to give them to infertile couples, 20% to research and 27.5% did not find any solution. Twenty percent were hesitating. The representation of those embryos is more symbolic than material. Most of the time, they see them like a potential child, a hope for the future or a brother or sister of their alive children. Those embryos are symbolized. They are a proof of fertility, a hope for another child. So, whatever the legal statement, couples will be in a dilemma because it is never easy for an infertile person to renounce to embryos, and the hope for children.

  10. [Birth weight and frozen embryo transfer: State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anav, M; Ferrières-Hoa, A; Gala, A; Fournier, A; Zaragoza, S; Vintejoux, E; Vincens, C; Hamamah, S

    2018-04-18

    The aim of this study was to update our acknowledgment if there is a link between assisted embryo cryopreservation and epigenetics in human? Animal studies have demonstrated epigenetics consequence and especially imprinting disorders due to in vitro culture. In human, it is important to note that after frozen embryo transfer birth weight is significantly increased by 81 to 250g. But these studies cannot identify the reasons of such difference. This review strongly suggests that embryo cryopreservation is responsible for birth weight variations but mechanisms not yet elucidated. Epigenetics is probably one of these but to date, none study is able to prove it. We have to be attentive on a possible link between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and epigenetics reprogrammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Monozygotic Triplets and Dizygotic Twins following Transfer of Three Poor-Quality Cleavage Stage Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive technology has been linked to the increased incidence of monozygotic twinning. It is of clinical importance due to the increased risk of complications in multiple pregnancies in general and in monozygotic twins in particular. Case. A 29-year-old female, nulligravida underwent her first IVF cycle. Three poor-quality cleavage stage embryos were transferred resulting in monochorionic triamniotic triplets and dichorionic diamniotic twins. Selective embryo reduction was performed at 12 weeks leaving dichorionic twins. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section due to preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing at 30 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Our case emphasizes that even embryos with significant morphological abnormalities should be considered viable and the possibility of simultaneous spontaneous embryo splitting must be factored into determining number of embryos to transfer.

  12. Reported changes in sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus knowledge in Peruvian female sex workers following participation in a human papillomavirus vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Heidari, O; Carcamo, C; Halsey, N A

    2013-07-01

    Limited data exist on the effect of clinical trial participation on sexual behavioural change. Two hundred female sex workers working in Lima, Peru received human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in either the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or modified (0, 3, 6 months) schedule. Participants received comprehensive screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), counselling on safe sex practices, education about HPV and the HPV vaccine, contraceptives (oral and condoms) and family planning at each visit. We assessed vaccine completion rates, change in sexual practices, and changes in HPV knowledge before and after participation in the vaccine trial. There were high rates of vaccine completion, 91% overall. The estimated number of reported new and total clients over a 30-day period decreased significantly (P Knowledge about HPV and HPV-related disease increased among all participants. In addition, all participants listed at least one preventive strategy during the month 7 follow-up survey.

  13. Derivation of HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 human embryonic stem cell lines from IVF embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for monogenic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Hmadcha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From 106 human blastocyts donate for research after in vitro fertilization (IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for monogenetic disorder, 3 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 were successfully derived. HVR1 was assumed to be genetically normal, HVR2 carrying Becker muscular dystrophy and HVR3 Hemophilia B. Despite the translocation t(9;15(q34.3;q14 detected in HVR2, all the 3 cell lines were characterised in vitro and in vivo as normal hESCs lines and were registered in the Spanish Stem Cell Bank.

  14. Derivation of HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 human embryonic stem cell lines from IVF embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkrim Hmadcha; Yolanda Aguilera; Maria Dolores Lozano-Arana; Nuria Mellado; Javier Sánchez; Cristina Moya; Luis Sánchez-Palazón; Jose Palacios; Guillermo Antiñolo; Bernat Soria

    2016-01-01

    From 106 human blastocyts donate for research after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenetic disorder, 3 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 were successfully derived. HVR1 was assumed to be genetically normal, HVR2 carrying Becker muscular dystrophy and HVR3 Hemophilia B. Despite the translocation t(9;15)(q34.3;q14) detected in HVR2, all the 3 cell lines were characterised in vitro and in vivo as normal hESCs lines and were r...

  15. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  16. The legal status of in vitro embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our science has advanced greatly and continues to do so. While being witnesses to this phenomenon, we are not yet ready to fully accept all of its results which can lead to the improvements of our biological structure, or our lives, in other words. There is a wide range of objections aimed at preventing any tests on embryos, deeming such actions as immoral, discriminatory or contrary to nature. However, the question is whether we are actually able to prevent such actions, to prevent obtaining further information that can assist in improving human life, i.e. to prevent future parents from providing the best future possible for their children?.

  17. Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of 27,158 singleton infants born after fresh single-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lessons from Embryos: Haeckel's Embryo Drawings, Evolution, and Secondary Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, developmental biologist Michael Richardson compared his research team's embryo photographs to Ernst Haeckel's 1874 embryo drawings and called Haeckel's work "noncredible". "Science" soon published "Haeckel's Embryos: Fraud Rediscovered," and Richardson's comments further reinvigorated criticism of Haeckel by…

  19. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression...

  1. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8 was derived from a frozen and thawed day 5 embryo cultivated to the blastocyst stage. The embryo was voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  3. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  4. Effect of Different Concentrations of Melatonin on Live Births Resulting from the Transfer of Two-Cell Embryos of NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Saadati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Infertility is a global problem affecting millions of men and women in developed and developing countries. In this regard, in-vitro fertilization (IVF plays an important role in improving the quality of life in infertile patients. However, studies have shown that the implantation failure in IVF is the main challenge of this procedure. Melatonin can increase the survival rate of embryos and IVF success rate through eliminating free radicals and removing reactive oxygen species. So, this study is conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of melatonin on the rate of newborns of mice following transfer oftwo-cell embryos .   Methods : In this study, female mice with average age of six to eight weeks were superovulated by administering pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG intraperitoneally (7.5 IU. ip, and followed after 48h by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (7.5 IU. ip. Two-cell mouse embryos were obtained from female mice oviduct after 48 h. The embryos transferred bilaterally into pseudopregnant mice of the same strain through surgical procedure and 8-14 embryos were transferred to each tube. The study included 4 treatment groups and one control group (6 mice in each group. The treatment groups were exposed to subcutaneous injection of concentrations of 100 µm , 10 µm , 1 µm and 100 nm of melatonin. After the cesarean on 18th day of pregnancy, the percentage of live births was assessed. The outcomes of the live birth rate were as­sessed using the chi-square test and statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version 16.0. Percentage of live birth was calculated and compared with the control group.   Results: A total of 701 two-cell mouse embryos were transferred into one control group and four experimental groups. The number and percentage of live births at concentrations of 100 µm and 10 µm of melatonin and the control groups were 21 (15.55%, 13 (9.15% and 9 (6

  5. Embryo density may affect embryo quality during in vitro culture in a microwell group culture dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Adam; Kaszas, Zita; Murber, Akos; Rigo, Janos; Urbancsek, Janos; Fancsovits, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Culturing embryos in groups is a common practice in mammalian embryology. Since the introduction of different microwell dishes, it is possible to identify oocytes or embryos individually. As embryo density (embryo-to-volume ratio) may affect the development and viability of the embryos, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different embryo densities on embryo quality. Data of 1337 embryos from 228 in vitro fertilization treatment cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Embryos were cultured in a 25 μl microdrop in a microwell group culture dish containing 9 microwells. Three density groups were defined: Group 1 with 2-4 (6.3-12.5 μl/embryo), Group 2 with 5-6 (4.2-5.0 μl/embryo), and Group 3 with 7-9 (2.8-3.6 μl/embryo) embryos. Proportion of good quality embryos was higher in Group 2 on both days (D2: 18.9 vs. 31.5 vs. 24.7%; p Culturing 5-6 embryos together in a culture volume of 25 μl may benefit embryo quality. As low egg number, position, and distance of the embryos may influence embryo quality, results should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  7. Live births after polar body biopsy and frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfer: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Fernando; Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Azevedo, Rodrigo A de; Martinhago, Ciro D; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2016-12-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) technology, has emerged and developed in the past few years, benefiting couples as it allows the selection and transfer of healthy embryos during IVF treatments. These techniques can be performed in oocytes (polar-body biopsy) or embryos (blastomere or trophectoderm biopsy). In this case report, we describe the first two live births to be published in Brazil after a polar-body (PB) biopsy. In case 1, a 42-year-old was submitted to PB biopsy with PGS due to advanced maternal age and poor ovarian reserve. Five MII oocytes underwent first and second polar body biopsy and four cleavage embryos were cryopreserved. The PGS analysis resulted in two euploid embryos (next generation sequence). A frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) was performed after endometrial priming and a healthy baby was delivered after a cesarean section (37 weeks, female, 3390g, 47.5 cm). In case 2, a 40-year old patient with balanced translocation and poor ovarian response was submitted to PB biopsy. Two MII oocytes underwent first and second polar body biopsy and two embryos were cryopreserved in cleavage stage. The analysis resulted in one euploid embryo that was transferred after endometrial priming. A preterm healthy baby (34 weeks, female, 2100g, 40 cm) was delivered via cesarean section. In conclusion, although the blastocyst biopsy is the norm when performing PGS/PGD during IVF treatments, other alternatives (as PB biopsy) should be considered in some specific situations.

  8. Effect of embryo culture media on percentage of males at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Zhuang, Xinjie; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence the percentage of males at birth? The percentage of males delivered after ICSI cycles using G5™ medium was statistically significantly higher than after cycles where Global, G5™ PLUS, and Quinn's Advantage Media were used. Male and female embryos have different physiologies during preimplantation development. Manipulating the energy substrate and adding growth factors have a differential impact on the development of male and female embryos. This was a retrospective analysis of the percentage of males at birth, and included 4411 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles between January 2011 and August 2013 at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Third Hospital Peking University. Only singleton gestations were included. Participants were excluded if preimplantation genetic diagnosis, donor oocytes and donor sperm were used. The database between January 2011 and August 2013 was searched with unique medical record number, all patients were present in the database with only one cycle. Demographics, cycle characteristics and the percentage of male babies in the four culture media groups were compared with analysis of variance or χ(2) tests. Multivariable logistic regression was done to determine the association between the sex at birth and culture media after adjusting for other confounding factors, including parental age, parental BMI, type of infertility, parity, number of embryos transferred, number of early gestational sacs, cycles with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm extraction (TESE), number of oocytes retrieved, cycles with blastocyst transfers, and gestational age within ICSI group. Within the IVF group, the percentage of males at birth for G5™, Global, Quinn's and G5™ PLUS media were comparable (P > 0.05); however, within the ICSI group, the percentage of male babies in cycles using G5™(56.1%) was statistically significantly higher than

  9. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    female oviduct, either due to infectious disease, nutritional status, hormonal imbalances, or sublethal intoxications, could affect the quality of secreted gelatinous capsules on eggs, thus rendering an egg mass susceptible to other stressors. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos presented in this chapter are Lucke frog herpesvirus Ranavirus (iridovirus) infection Bacteria Watermold infection (saprolegniasis) Algae Microsporidia

  10. Knowledge of Saudi female university students regarding cervical cancer and acceptance of the human papilloma virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K; Almussaed, Eman M; Fayed, Amel A; Khan, Farida H; Syed, Sadiqa B; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N; Elmorshedy, Hala N

    2014-10-01

    To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach's alpha was 0.82. The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father's health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs. 

  11. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-09-01

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.

  12. Does fertility status influence impulsivity and risk taking in human females? Adaptive influences on intertemporal choice and risky decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2013-07-18

    Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males), become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted--i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  13. Does Fertility Status Influence Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Human Females? Adaptive Influences on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Kaighobadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males, become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted—i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  14. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.

  15. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  16. Critical reappraisal of embryo quality as a predictive parameter for pregnancy outcome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, R; Binda, M M; Van Kerkhoven, G; Frederickx, V; Serneels, A; Roziers, P; Lopes, A S; Gordts, S; Puttemans, P; Gordts, S

    2010-01-01

    Pilot study to analyse the efficacy and embryo morphology using a new human embryo culture medium (GM501) versus the conventional used medium (ISM1). Over a four-month period, all patients at the Leuven Institute of Fertility and Embryology (LIFE) were -randomly allocated to have their embryos cultured in either the standard sequential culture medium ISM1 (control) or in a new universal medium (GM501) (study group). Primary outcome parameters were clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. The secondary outcome parameter was the correlation of embryo fragmentation rate with pregnancy outcome. We did not observe any differences between the ISM1 control group and GM501 study group with regard to fertilization, pregnancy, implantation rates, ongoing pregnancy, and babies born. The number of embryos with a minimal fragmentation rate (less than 30%) was significantly higher in the GM501 study group. Although a significant higher embryo fragmentation rate was seen in In vitro culture of embryos in GM501, pregnancy outcome results were comparable to those of embryos cultured in ISM1. According to our results the value of embryo morphological criteria as a parameter for pregnancy outcome should be examined and discussed again.

  17. Frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy in high quality embryos from young couples using preimplantation genetic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selection of the best embryo for transfer is very important in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Using morphological assessment for this selection demonstrated that the correlation between embryo morphology and implantation potential is relatively weak. On the other hand, aneuploidy is a key genetic factor that can influence human reproductive success in ART. Objective: The aim of this lab trial study was to evaluate the incidence of aneuploidies in five chromosomes in the morphologically high-quality embryos from young patients undergoing ART for sex selection. Materials and Methods: A total of 97 high quality embryos from 23 women at the age of 37or younger years that had previously undergone preimplantation genetic screening for sex selection were included in this study. After washing, the slides of blastomeres from embryos of patients were reanalyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. Results: There was a significant rate of aneuploidy determination in the embryos using preimplantation genetic screening for both sex and three evaluated autosomal chromosomes compared to preimplantation genetic screening for only sex chromosomes (62.9% vs. 24.7%, p=0.000. The most frequent detected chromosomal aneuploidy was trisomy or monosomy of chromosome 13. Conclusion: There is considerable numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos generated in vitro which cause in vitro fertilization failure and it seems that morphological characterization of embryos is not a suitable method for choosing the embryos without these abnormalities

  18. Pregnancy and Multiple Births rate after Transferring 2 or 3 Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mostajeran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF is a progressing common reproduction method and if the number of transferred embryo increases, the pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancies will increase which may lead to higher medical costs and human suffering. We compared pregnancy and multiple pregnancies rate after two or three transferred embryo via IVF. Methods: From April 2003 to June 2004, 301 referred infertile women to Isfahan infertility center underwent IVF with transferring two or three good quality embryos. Results: From 298 patients, 2 and 3 embryos were transferred in 155 patients and in 143 patients, respectively. Pregnancy rate was 19.4% versus 24.5% in 2 and 3 embryos transferred patients, respectively. Twin gestations were found in 5(3.2% of 2 embryos transferred patients and in 11(7.7% of 3 embryos transferred patients. Discussion: Transferring two or three embryos with good quality increase the rate of twin gestations in young women, without significant improve in the chance of singleton conception. Key words: In Vitro Fertilization, Multiple gestations, Embryo transfer

  19. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  20. Enzymatic amplification of a Y chromosome repeat in a single blastomere allows identification of the sex of preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.W.; Isola, L.M.; Gordon, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been adapted to identify the sex of preimplantation mouse embryos rapidly. PCR was used to amplify a specific repeated DNA sequence on the Y chromosome from a single isolated blastomere in under 12 hr. The remainder of the biopsied embryo was then transferred to a pseudopregnant female and carried to term. Using this technique, 72% of embryos can be classed as potentially either male or female. Transfers of such embryos have produced pregnancies with 8/8 fetuses (100%) being of the predicted sex. Variations of the technique have demonstrated certain limitations to the present procedure as well as indicated possible strategies for improvement of the assay. The PCR technique may have wide application in the genetic analysis of preimplantation embryos

  1. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for radiation molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repin Mikhail V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work is to obtain the correct relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for the use at FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Results The relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the male and female human diploid genomes have been calculated from the publicly available international Human Genome Project data. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of human chromosomes were compared with the data recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2001. The differences in the values of the relative DNA contents of chromosomes obtained by using different approaches for 15 human chromosomes, mainly for large chromosomes, were below 2%. For the chromosomes 13, 17, 20 and 22 the differences were above 5%. Conclusion New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes were obtained. This approach, based on the genome sequence, can be recommended for the use in radiation molecular cytogenetics.

  2. Immunization of early adolescent females with human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine containing AS04 adjuvant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, C.; Petaja, T.; Strauss, G.; Rumke, H.C.; Poder, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Spiessens, B.; Descamps, D.; Hardt, K.; Lehtinen, M.; Dubin, G.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: In female individuals 15-25-years of age, the AS04-containing human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine is highly immunogenic and provides up to 100% protection against HPV-16/18 persistent infection and associated cervical lesions up to 4.5 years. Optimal cervical cancer prevention will

  3. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  4. Long-distance transportation of primate embryos developing in culture: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Stephanie; Harvey, Alexandra; Gierbolini, Lynette; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Brenner, Carol; Bavister, Barry

    2010-03-01

    Non-human primate embryos are invaluable for conducting research relevant to human infertility and stem cells, but their availability is restricted. In this preliminary study, rhesus monkey embryos were produced by IVF at the Caribbean Primate Research Centre and shipped in tubes of gassed culture medium within a battery-powered transport incubator by overnight courier to Wayne State University in Michigan. Upon arrival, the embryos were incubated in fresh culture medium to evaluate further development. In 11 shipments comprising 98 cleavage-stage embryos developing from oocytes that were mature (MII) upon collection, 51 (52%) reached advanced preimplantation stages (morula to hatched blastocyst) during prolonged culture following transportation. However, most embryos produced from oocytes that were immature (MI) at collection arrested and only 5/51 (10%) reached advanced stages of development. This study demonstrates that non-cryopreserved primate embryos can be routinely transported between distant sites without loss of developmental ability. In this way, the processes of production and study of non-cryopreserved primate embryos need not be restricted to the same or nearby laboratories. This will expand the use of these embryos for research and facilitate generation of translationally relevant information. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Ultrasonography for Early Detection and Characterization of Embryo Implantation Site Development in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Peavey

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero. With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and embryonic developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from as early as 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c. through to 9.5 d.p.c. using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 (MS550S transducer. In addition to measurements of implantation site number, location, volume and spacing, embryo viability via cardiac activity monitoring was also achieved. A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c., 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in mesh or solid overlay format enabled visual representation in silico of implantation site location, number, spacing distances, and site volume within each uterine horn. Therefore, this short technical report describes the feasibility of using 3-D HFUS imaging for early detection and analysis of post-implantation events in the pregnant mouse with the ability to longitudinally monitor the development of these early pregnancy events in a non-invasive manner. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes, we believe this reliable and non-invasive method to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events will prove to be an invaluable investigative tool for the study of

  6. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-embryo transfer versus multiple-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology.

  8. The Well-of-the-Well system: an efficient approach to improve embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Korösi, Tamás; Du, Yutao; Nakata, Kumiko; Ieda, Shoko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2008-07-01

    Transfer of human embryos at the blastocyst stage may offer considerable benefits including an increased implantation rate and a decreased risk of multiple pregnancies; however, blastocyst culture requires an efficient and reliable in-vitro embryo culture system. In this study, the effect of the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system consisting of microwells formed on the bottom of the culture dish was tested in three mammalian species, including humans. The WOW system resulted in significant improvement when comparing the drops for culture of in-vitro-matured and parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes, and in-vivo-derived mouse zygotes. In human embryos, using a sibling oocyte design, embryos cultured in WOW developed to the blastocyst stage in a significantly higher proportion than did embryos cultured traditionally (55% in WOW and 37% in conventional culture; P WOW system or in microdrops. Transferable quality blastocyst development (48.9% of cultured zygotes) was observed in the WOW system. Ninety-four blastocysts transferred to 45 patients resulted in clinical pregnancy rates of 48.9%, including nine twin pregnancies, seven single pregnancies, five miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy. The results indicate that the WOW system provides a promising alternative for microdrop culture of mammalian embryos, including human embryos.

  9. Preimplantation maternal stress impairs embryo development by inducing oviductal apoptosis with activation of the Fas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Liang; Tan, Xiu-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Zhong; Yuan, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Ji, Chang-Li; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-11-01

    were used to confirm a role for the Fas system in triggering apoptosis of embryos and oviducts. Compared to those in control mice, while the number of blastocysts/mouse (5.0 ± 0.7 versus 11.1 ± 0.5), cell number/blastocyst (49.1 ± 1.3 versus 61.5 ± 0.9), percentages of term pregnancy (37.5% versus 90.9%) and litter size (3.7 ± 0.1versus 9.6 ± 0.6) decreased, blood CRH (560 ± 23 versus 455 ± 37 pg/ml), cortisol (27.3 ± 3.4 versus 5 ± 0.5 ng/ml) and OS index (OSI: 2.8 versus 1.7) increased significantly (all P stressed samples were modest and sometimes not significant between gld and wild-type mice whereas differences between control and stressed samples were always present within gld mice, it is deduced that signaling pathways other than the Fas/FasL system might be involved as well in the PIRS-triggered apoptosis of oviducts and embryos. The data are important for studies on the mechanisms by which psychological stress affects female reproduction, as FasL expression has been observed in human oviduct epithelium. Not applicable. This study was supported by grants from the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2014CB138503 and 2012CB944403), the China National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 31272444 and 30972096) and the Animal breeding improvement program of Shandong Province. All authors declare that their participation in the study did not involve factual or potential conflicts of interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Association Between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D; Schlecht, Nicolas F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the association of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyle. The sample (N = 745) comprised sexually active female adolescent patients (12-19 yr), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted principal component analyses for categorical data were used to derive multisystemic psychosocial risk indices using 9 indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any type, high-risk types, vaccine types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subjects had a median of 3 psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.2), with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine types (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose.

  11. Knowledge of Saudi female university students regarding cervical cancer and acceptance of the human papilloma virus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.82. Results: The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father’s health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs. PMID:25316467

  12. Human papillomavirus types distribution in eastern Sicilian females with cervical lesions. A correlation with colposcopic and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Maria; Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Caruso, Carmela; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Scalisi, Rosalba; Simone, Angela; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-07-01

    To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical lesions in a Southern Italian female population in Messina and their relationship between HPV type and grade of colposcopic and histopathological abnormality, a total of 253 women aged 17-68 years, with previous cytological abnormalities, were included in this study. HPV-DNA testing, colposcopy and biopsy were performed. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted, followed by a PCR-based HPV-DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping. HPV-16 was found the most common type (46.6 %) followed by HPV-31 (26.9 %), -6 (18.6 %), -58 (8.8 %), -18 (6.7 %), -66 (5.7 %), -52 and -53 (4.7 %). Out of 62 women with abnormal transformation zone (ATZ) area compatible with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or cervical cancer (CC), 64.5 % was found high risk (HR) HPV-positive. Moreover the severity of the colposcopic diagnosis was positively correlated with the higher HPV oncogenicity risk (HPV-16 P = 0.023; and HPV-53 P = 0.047). The HPV-16 was found the most prevalent type within each histological category: 66.7 %, 31.2 %, 44 % and 37.2 % of CC, high grade (H)SIL, low grade (L)SIL and chronic cervicitis respectively; followed by HPV-31 present in 25 %, 8 %, and 13.3 % of HSIL, LSIL and chronic cervicitis respectively. A higher HPV incidence than the rest of Italy was found, in agreement with that detected by other authors for the South of the country. These data provide further information about the types prevalence in women with cervical lesions living in Eastern Sicily, suggesting the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV.

  13. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M P; Kaur, M; Gupta, N; Kumar, A; Goyal, K; Sharma, A; Majumdar, M; Gupta, M; Ratho, R K

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs) due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) approach. The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01). The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5%) FSW versus 23/98 (23.5%) HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  15. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos

    Interna