Sample records for human factors ergonomics

  1. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors. (United States)

    Wilson, John R


    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.


    Ahasan, Rabiul


    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  3. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care. (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly


    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  4. An assessment system for rating scientific journals in the field of ergonomics and human factors


    Dul, Jan; Karwowski, W.


    textabstractA method for selecting and rating scientific and professional journals representing the discipline of ergonomics and human factors is proposed. The method is based upon the journal list, impact factors and citations provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), and the journal list published in the Ergonomics Abstracts. Three groups of journals were distinguished. The "ergonomics journals" focus exclusively on ergonomics or human factors. The "related journals" focus ...

  5. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety. (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J


    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  6. Advances in human factors and ergonomics in healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Vincent G


    Based on recent research, this book discusses how to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care through the application of human factors and ergonomics principles. It provides guidance for those involved with the design and application of systems and devices for effective and safe healthcare delivery from both a patient and staff perspective. Its huge range of chapters covers everything from the proper design of bed rails to the most efficient design of operating rooms, from the development of quality products to the rating of staff patient interaction. It considers

  7. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics. (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R


    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  8. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline. (United States)

    Norros, Leena


    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics.

  9. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik


    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  10. Human factors/ergonomics implications of big data analytics: Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors annual lecture. (United States)

    Drury, Colin G


    In recent years, advances in sensor technology, connectedness and computational power have come together to produce huge data-sets. The treatment and analysis of these data-sets is known as big data analytics (BDA), and the somewhat related term data mining. Fields allied to human factors/ergonomics (HFE), e.g. statistics, have developed computational methods to derive meaningful, actionable conclusions from these data bases. This paper examines BDA, often characterised by volume, velocity and variety, giving examples of successful BDA use. This examination provides context by considering examples of using BDA on human data, using BDA in HFE studies, and studies of how people perform BDA. Significant issues for HFE are the reliance of BDA on correlation rather than hypotheses and theory, the ethics of BDA and the use of HFE in data visualisation.

  11. Design and management of production systems: Integration of human factors and ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter


    Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...

  12. Recurring issues in the IEA, the discipline and the profession of ergonomics/human factors. (United States)

    Wilson, John R


    Although the past 25 years have seen many apparently new challenges for the academic discipline and the professional practice of ergonomics/human factors, and for the International Ergonomics Association, many issues in fact have recurred over the period. This paper takes the relevant decades and de3scribes the internal and external priorities of the IEA at the time, the main developments for researchers and practitioners, and the author's own professional interests at the time..Such an admittedly partial description of events and priorities could feed into current attempts to strengthen the position of ergonomics/ human factors for this and subsequent decades.

  13. 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

    CERN Document Server

    Duckwitz, Sönke; Flemisch, Frank; Frenz, Martin; Kuz, Sinem; Mertens, Alexander; Mütze-Niewöhner, Susanne


    These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.

  14. Roles of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Meeting the Challenge of Terrorism (United States)

    Nickerson, Raymond S.


    Human factors and ergonomics research focuses on questions pertaining to the design of devices, systems, and procedures with the goal of making sure that they are well suited to human use and focuses on studies of the interaction of people with simple and complex systems and machines. Problem areas studied include the allocation of function to…

  15. Roles of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Meeting the Challenge of Terrorism (United States)

    Nickerson, Raymond S.


    Human factors and ergonomics research focuses on questions pertaining to the design of devices, systems, and procedures with the goal of making sure that they are well suited to human use and focuses on studies of the interaction of people with simple and complex systems and machines. Problem areas studied include the allocation of function to…

  16. Human Factors And Ergonomics In The Planning Of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå


    For year’s integration of ergonomics into the planning of new production processes has been an ideal for regulating agencies supported by ergonomic experts. But the ideal appears to be difficult to live up to. A development of tools both by agencies and by groups of researchers has been seen...... as the strategy to move ergonomics from repair activities towards integration into planning. But the tools are available. An overview of the tools developed and discussed in the last two decades in the Scandinavian countries is presented. It is, therefore, argued that the focus shall be on the broader issues...... of organizational conditions for giving ergonomics a stronger position in the firm. Ergonomists have to tackle these issues, but it implies a new understanding of their roles, which goes beyond the traditional discussion of expert versus facilitator. The paper is based on an evaluation of a Swedish research...

  17. An assessment system for rating scientific journals in the field of ergonomics and human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W. Karwowski


    textabstractA method for selecting and rating scientific and professional journals representing the discipline of ergonomics and human factors is proposed. The method is based upon the journal list, impact factors and citations provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), and the

  18. Towards a sustainable world through human factors and ergonomics: it is all about values. (United States)

    Lange-Morales, Karen; Thatcher, Andrew; García-Acosta, Gabriel


    In this paper, we analyse two approaches that attempt to address how a human factors and ergonomics (HFE) perspective can contribute to the sustainability of the human race. We outline the principles, purposes and fields of application of ergoecology and green ergonomics, and thereafter deal with their context of emergence, and the overlaps in purpose, and principles. Shared values are deduced and related to socio-technical principles for systems' design. Social responsibility and environmental/ecospheric responsibility are the leading threads of ergoecology and green ergonomics, giving rise to the values of: respect for human rights, respect for the Earth, respect for ethical decision-making, appreciation of complexity, respect for transparency and openness, and respect for diversity. We discuss the consequences of considering these values in HFE theory and practice.

  19. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions. (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy


    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited. (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik


    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be.

  1. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development. (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim


    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  2. Person-centred ergonomics: a Brantonian view of human factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oborne, David J; Oborne, D.T


    ... Cataloguing in Publication Data Person-Centred Ergonomics A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-203-22123-0 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-27588-8 (Adobe eR...

  3. 'The perfect is the enemy of the good' - ergonomics research and practice. Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors Annual Lecture 2010. (United States)

    Buckle, Peter


    The relationship between research and practice in ergonomics and human factors has rarely been addressed in the literature. This presents specific problems for researchers when seeking to relate their work to the research community. Equally, practitioners are often frustrated by the lack of appropriate research to meet their needs. This paper seeks to identify current drivers for ergonomics research along with an analysis of how these are changing. Specifically, the use of bibliometric data to assess research output and its impact on a multi-disciplinary subject such as ergonomics is examined. Areas where action may be required to stimulate better research and improved practice are proposed. These include a greater role for the practitioner in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the evidence base for practice with, in particular, practitioners becoming more active in determining research priorities. It is concluded that combined effort is needed by researcher and practitioner communities to enable and promote a more effective understanding of the true impact of ergonomics across industry and society. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between ergonomics research and practice is examined. Research 'drivers' are identified, including the influence of bibliometric data. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. The role of practitioners in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the ergonomics evidence base is stressed, as is the need to promote the impact of ergonomics across society.

  4. Neuroscience in ergonomics and human factors research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.


    This article explores the possible application of neuroscientific knowledge in human factors research and pratice. Can this knowledge be implemented to improve the design and evaluation of systems and functional environments? Or - to take it one step further - could it bring about the integration of

  5. Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. (United States)

    Karwowski, W


    This paper provides a theoretical perspective on human factors and ergonomics (HFE), defined as a unique and independent discipline that focuses on the nature of human-artefact interactions, viewed from the unified perspective of the science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. Such systems include a variety of natural and artificial products, processes and living environments. The distinguishing features of the contemporary HFE discipline and profession are discussed and a concept of ergonomics literacy is proposed. An axiomatic approach to ergonomics design and a universal measure of system-human incompatibility are also introduced. It is concluded that the main focus of the HFE discipline in the 21st century will be the design and management of systems that satisfy human compatibility requirements.

  6. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics in Systems Engineering (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban


    The study, discovery, and application of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics to the design of tools, devices, machines, systems, job tasks and environments for effective human performance.

  7. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  8. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap. (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T


    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  9. Adding a strategic edge to human factors/ergonomics: principles for the management of uncertainty as cornerstones for system design. (United States)

    Grote, Gudela


    It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that incorporates both business and design concerns. The management of uncertainty is presented as a viable candidate for such a framework. A case is described where human factors/ergonomics experts in a railway company have used the management of uncertainty perspective to address strategic concerns at firm level. Furthermore, system design is discussed in view of the relationship between organization and technology more broadly. System designers need to be supported in better understanding this relationship in order to cope with the uncertainties this relationship brings to the design process itself. Finally, the emphasis on uncertainty embedded in the recent surge of introducing risk management across all business sectors is suggested as another opportunity for bringing human factors and ergonomics expertise to the fore.

  10. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L.J.


    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  11. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology. (United States)

    Or, Calvin K L; Valdez, Rupa S; Casper, Gail R; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion


    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention.

  12. Suitability of virtual prototypes to support human factors/ergonomics evaluation during the design. (United States)

    Aromaa, Susanna; Väänänen, Kaisa


    In recent years, the use of virtual prototyping has increased in product development processes, especially in the assessment of complex systems targeted at end-users. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of virtual prototyping to support human factors/ergonomics evaluation (HFE) during the design phase. Two different virtual prototypes were used: augmented reality (AR) and virtual environment (VE) prototypes of a maintenance platform of a rock crushing machine. Nineteen designers and other stakeholders were asked to assess the suitability of the prototype for HFE evaluation. Results indicate that the system model characteristics and user interface affect the experienced suitability. The VE system was valued as being more suitable to support the assessment of visibility, reach, and the use of tools than the AR system. The findings of this study can be used as a guidance for the implementing virtual prototypes in the product development process.

  13. Human Factors and Ergonomics in the Design of Health Information Technology: Trends and Progress in 2014. (United States)

    Pelayo, S; Ong, Ms


    To summarize significant contributions to the research on human factors and organizational issues in medical informatics. An extensive search using PubMed/Medline and Web of Science® was conducted to identify the scientific contributions, published in 2014, to human factors and organizational issues in medical informatics, with a focus on health information technology (HIT) usability. The selection process comprised three steps: (i) 15 candidate best papers were selected by the two section editors, (ii) external reviewers from a pool of international experts reviewed each candidate best paper, and (iii) the final selection of three best papers was made by the editorial board of the IMIA Yearbook. Noteworthy papers published in 2014 describe an efficient, easy to implement, and useful process for detecting and mitigating human factors and ergonomics (HFE) issues of HIT. They contribute to promote the HFE approach with interventions based on rigorous and well-conducted methods when designing and implementing HIT. The application of HFE in the design and implementation of HIT remains limited, and the impact of incorporating HFE principles on patient safety is understudied. Future works should be conducted to advance this field of research, so that the safety and quality of patient care are not compromised by the increasing adoption of HIT.

  14. Designing and Implementing an Ergonomics Inventory to Improve Management of Human Factors Programs. (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth A.

    Self-report ergometric inventories can provide valuable information to employers and can serve as a means of intervention to improve employee attributes. Based on the science of ergonomics (a science that studies the natural laws of work in order to maximize human efficiency in job performance), such an inventory focuses on the interaction of the…

  15. Ergonomics/Human Factors Needs of an Ageing Workforce in the Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Stedmon


    Full Text Available Background: As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work-ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force.Methods: This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF pers-pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen’s framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored.Results: There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers.Conclusion: Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  16. Ergonomics/Human factors needs of an ageing workforce in the manufacturing sector. (United States)

    W Stedmon, Alex; Howells, Hannah; R Wilson, John; Dianat, Iman


    As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work¬ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force. This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) pers¬pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen's framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored. There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers. Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  17. A systematic review of mixed methods research on human factors and ergonomics in health care. (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail


    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Human Factors and Ergonomics of P300-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Clark Powers


    Full Text Available Individuals with severe neuromuscular impairments face many challenges in communication and manipulation of the environment. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs show promise in presenting real-world applications that can provide such individuals with the means to interact with the world using only brain waves. Although there has been a growing body of research in recent years, much relates only to technology, and not to technology in use—i.e., real-world assistive technology employed by users. This review examined the literature to highlight studies that implicate the human factors and ergonomics (HFE of P300-based BCIs. We assessed 21 studies on three topics to speak directly to improving the HFE of these systems: (1 alternative signal evocation methods within the oddball paradigm; (2 environmental interventions to improve user performance and satisfaction within the constraints of current BCI systems; and (3 measures and methods of measuring user acceptance. We found that HFE is central to the performance of P300-based BCI systems, although researchers do not often make explicit this connection. Incorporation of measures of user acceptance and rigorous usability evaluations, increased engagement of disabled users as test participants, and greater realism in testing will help progress the advancement of P300-based BCI systems in assistive applications.

  19. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction. (United States)

    Szalma, James L


    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  20. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work. (United States)

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T


    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed.

  1. Ergonomics in Healthcare system-Human Factors models: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarzimoghadam


      Conclusion: Most of the published studies emphasize on application of ergonomic models in healthcare centers since these models may reduce their problems. These ergonomics approaches support patient-centered treatment processes, user-oriented design of medical environments, efficient utilization of resources and increase motivation of clinical staff.

  2. A question of our marketing or our preconceptions: commentary on the paper 'a strategy for human factors/ergonomics: developing the discipline and profession'. (United States)

    Nathanael, Dimitris; Marmaras, Nicolas


    The present paper is a commentary on the recently published IEA strategy for human factors/ergonomics (Dul, J., et al. (2012), A strategy for human factors/ergonomics: developing the discipline and profession. Ergonomics, 55(4), 377-395). Two main issues that demand attention are: (i) the way others understand our profession and discipline, and (ii) the way we understand our profession and added value to industry. First, it is advocated that the discussion on the future of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) should be focused more on the quality of the delivered value of HFE and less on its visibility and marketing. Second, the three fundamental characteristics of HFE, as proposed in the report, are discussed and the consequences of this proposal are further developed. Arguments are put forward on the endemic epistemological vagueness within the discipline and on the optimistic definition of its aim. Finally, a proposal is made at the epistemological level, which challenges some established convictions of the discipline. It is advocated that such an epistemological evolution may be necessary if HFE is to make progress towards contributing to system performance. The paper is a commentary on the IEA strategy for human factors/ergonomics. Issues discussed are, the way others understand our profession and the way we understand our profession and added value to industry. Some of the established convictions of the discipline are challenged and proposals are made to overcome these.

  3. Ergonomics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC


    Full Text Available situations at work could often be avoided by taking into account the physiological and psychological capabilities and limitations of humans. Ergonomics is a multi-disciplinary science as specialists from various areas, e.g., engineering, physiology..., medicine, psychology, industrial design and occupational hygiene contribute to the body of knowledge. Ergonomics should therefore not be viewed in isolation when applied in the work environment and it is essential to draw on all available skills...

  4. Ergonomic study on human-powered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Azman


    Full Text Available In this paper, new methods for ergonomic analysis of cyclist for 4-wheel recumbent seat human-powered vehicle (HPV are performed. An ergonomic index with fundamental formulation is developed in order to determine the level of comfortness during handling of the HPV. Basic reference of sitting postures are produced from three HPVs for 20 different individuals. All the dimensions, angles and measurements are recorded. The same individuals are required to sit on the three HPV models to evaluate their comfortness and ergonomic by observing the same dimensions, angles and measurements of leg and hand postures. The data is compared with reference comfort sitting ergonomic. This study is limited to a number of individuals which are the students of a university in Malaysia with age range from 20 to 24 years old. However, the ergonomic index can be expanded for Asian people and with some improvement in the parameters, it can be used for other countries. Derivation of ergonomic index and formulation in determining the comfort level and ergonomic of HPV. Using the ergonomic index, a new improved HPV can be developed. The index is also applicable with modification on several parameters in the formulation for other countries.

  5. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap. (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T


    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  6. Integration of human factors and ergonomics during medical device design and development: it's all about communication. (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher James; Li, Yunqiu; Blandford, Ann


    Manufacturers of interactive medical devices, such as infusion pumps, need to ensure that devices minimise the risk of unintended harm during use. However, development teams face challenges in incorporating Human Factors. The aim of the research reported here was to better understand the constraints under which medical device design and development take place. We report the results of a qualitative study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in the design, development and deployment of interactive medical devices. A thematic analysis was conducted. Multiple barriers to designing for safety and usability were identified. In particular, we identified barriers to communication both between the development organisation and the intended users and between different teams within the development organisation. We propose the use of mediating representations. Artefacts such as personas and scenarios, known to provide integration across multiple perspectives, are an essential component of designing for safety and usability.

  7. An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes. (United States)

    Village, J; Greig, M; Salustri, F; Zolfaghari, S; Neumann, W P


    In action research (AR), the researcher participates 'in' the actions in an organisation, while simultaneously reflecting 'on' the actions to promote learning for both the organisation and the researchers. This paper demonstrates a longitudinal AR collaboration with an electronics manufacturing firm where the goal was to improve the organisation's ability to integrate human factors (HF) proactively into their design processes. During the three-year collaboration, all meetings, workshops, interviews and reflections were digitally recorded and qualitatively analysed to inform new 'actions'. By the end of the collaboration, HF tools with targets and sign-off by the HF specialist were integrated into several stages of the design process, and engineers were held accountable for meeting the HF targets. We conclude that the AR approach combined with targeting multiple initiatives at different stages of the design process helped the organisation find ways to integrate HF into their processes in a sustainable way. Researchers acted as a catalyst to help integrate HF into the engineering design process in a sustainable way. This paper demonstrates how an AR approach can help achieve HF integration, the benefits of using a reflective stance and one method for reporting an AR study.

  8. Ergonomic Factors and Student Learning. (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew


    Results of a survey of computer users in a department of business studies in a college of further education in the United Kingdom focus on human factors problems associated with computer usage. Perceptions of health-related problems are explored, and findings from questionnaires and group discussions are described. (Nine references) (LRW)

  9. The helicopter - some ergonomic factors. (United States)

    Lovesey, E J


    Helicopter pilots are some of the hardest working human operators, because of the machine's inherant instability and control problems. This article covers some aspects where ergonomists might help to improve the overall system. After considering basic differences between helicopters and fixed wing aircraft, the author examines controls, where there are prospects of using miniature hand levers; cockpit vision and displays with particular reference to night and instrument flying; seating and vibration where the effects of protective clothing and harnesses are considered; and cabin noise from the engine, transmission and intercom systems. Finally, he assesses pilot activity using cine film techniques for different types of flight.

  10. A systematic review of human factors and ergonomics (HFE)-based healthcare system redesign for quality of care and patient safety. (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale


    Healthcare systems need to be redesigned to provide care that is safe, effective and efficient, and meets the multiple needs of patients. This systematic review examines how human factors and ergonomics (HFE) is applied to redesign healthcare work systems and processes and improve quality and safety of care. We identified 12 projects representing 23 studies and addressing different physical, cognitive and organisational HFE issues in a variety of healthcare systems and care settings. Some evidence exists for the effectiveness of HFE-based healthcare system redesign in improving process and outcome measures of quality and safety of care. We assessed risk of bias in 16 studies reporting the impact of HFE-based healthcare system redesign and found varying quality across studies. Future research should further assess the impact of HFE on quality and safety of care, and clearly define the mechanisms by which HFE-based system redesign can improve quality and safety of care.

  11. Ergonomic factors on task performance in laparoscopic surgery training. (United States)

    Xiao, D J; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Albayrak, A; Goossens, R H M


    This paper evaluates the effect of ergonomic factors on task performance and trainee posture during laparoscopic surgery training. Twenty subjects without laparoscopic experience were allotted into 2 groups. Group 1 was trained under the optimal ergonomic simulation setting according to current ergonomic guidelines (Condition A). Group 2 was trained under non-optimal ergonomic simulation setting that can often be observed during training in a skills lab (Condition B). Posture analysis showed that the subjects held a much more neutral posture under Condition A than under Condition B (poptimal ergonomic simulation setting leads to better task performance. In addition, no significant differences of task performance, for Groups 1 and 2 using the same test setting were found. However, better performance was observed for Group 1. It can be concluded that the optimal and non-optimal training setting have different learning effects on trainees' skill learning.

  12. The Simulation and Animation of Virtual Humans to Better Understand Ergonomic Conditions at Manual Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rossmann


    Full Text Available This article extends an approach to simulate and control anthro- pomorphic kinematics as multiagent-systems. These "anthro- pomorphic multiagent-systems" have originally been developed to control coordinated multirobot systems in industrial applica- tions, as well as to simulate humanoid robots. Here, we apply the approach of the anthropomorphic multiagent-systems to propose a "Virtual Human" - a model of human kinematics - to analyze ergonomic conditions at manual workplaces. Ergonom- ics provide a wide range of methods to evaluate human postures and movements. By the simulation and animation of the Virtual Human we develop examples of how results from the field of ergonomics can help to consider the human factor during the design and optimization phases of production lines.

  13. The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits (United States)

    Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  14. Evaluation of ergonomic risk factors among veterinary ultrasonographers. (United States)

    Randall, Elissa; Hansen, Chad; Gilkey, David; Patil, Anuja; Bachand, Annette; Rosecrance, John; Douphrate, David


    Between 65% and 91% of human-patient sonographers report musculoskeletal symptoms related to their work activities. Ergonomic risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) include force, repetition, and awkward postures of the upper extremities. We hypothesized that veterinary sonographers experience similar risk factor exposures as their colleagues in human-patient sonography, and that work-related exposures may lead to similar prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography published MSD prevention guidelines in 2003. Similar guidance for sonographers examining animal patients does not exist. This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among veterinary sonographers and identify reported risk factors. A 59-item survey questionnaire was administered via email to veterinary specialists likely to perform ultrasound. Musculoskeletal pain related to performing ultrasound exams was reported by 62% of the respondents. Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 4.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-10.19), age (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.10), previous work-related trauma (OR, 6.86; 95% CI, 1.71, 27.40), not consistently using a normal height chair (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.19, 5.80), and 15°-45° abduction of shoulder (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.11, 4.92) . It was concluded that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among veterinary sonographers was similar to that occurring in human-patient sonographers. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  15. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong


    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  16. A framework of motion capture system based human behaviours simulation for ergonomic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ruina; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang


    With the increasing of computer capabilities, Computer aided ergonomics (CAE) offers new possibilities to integrate conventional ergonomic knowledge and to develop new methods into the work design process. As mentioned in [1], different approaches have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the ergonomic evaluation. Ergonomic expert systems, ergonomic oriented information systems, numerical models of human, etc. have been implemented in numerical ergonomic software. Until now, there are ergonomic software tools available, such as Jack, Ergoman, Delmia Human, 3DSSPP, and Santos, etc. [2-4]. The main functions of these tools are posture analysis and posture prediction. In the visualization part, Jack and 3DSSPP produce results to visualize virtual human tasks in 3-dimensional, but without realistic physical properties. Nowadays, with the development of computer technology, the simulation of physical world is paid more attention. Physical engines [5] are used more and more in computer game (CG) field. The a...

  17. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji


    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  18. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the score, the lower workers' satisfaction related to the area investigated. The results indicated that noise was common in the working environment (66%. Most workers (54.7% pointed out that the work was too hard and that it required attention and reasoning (85.7%. The workers emphasized the lack of training for working in mining (59.3% and few of them regarded the maintenance of the workplace as a component to prevent lumbago (32.3%. Risk of accidents was pointed out as the factor that needed increased attention in daily work (56.6%. All occupational risks were mentioned, including physical and chemical risks. There was significant correlation between age and occupational risks, indicating that the greater the age, the greater the perception of harmful agents (ρ = -0.23; p < 0.01. In the end, it was observed that, to a greater or lesser degree, all workers perceived ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks in informal mining. Length of service and age were the features that interfered significantly with the understanding of those factors and occupational risks.

  19. Musculoskeletal Disorders in Broadcasting Engineers: The Role of Ergonomic Factors and Work Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.


    Full Text Available The rate of musculoskeletal disorders is increasing in white collar workers and often is discussed in relation to ergonomic and work organization issues. The aim of the study was to follow the rate and determinants of musculoskeletal disorders in broadcasting engineers under shift work. Job analysis and ergonomic evaluation of the workplaces of 168 broadcasting engineers, working different shift work schedules, was carried. The self reported working conditions, psychosocial and ergonomic factors were followed. Questioning for distribution and localization of musculoskeletal complaints and diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders was carried. Data were analyzed with variation, correlation and regression analysis. A lot of ergonomic and work organization problems, simultaneous work on two monitors, changes of workplace during the shift were found. More than 50% of the employees were not content with shift work schedules, 38.7% worked often under time pressure and 23.8% in non-ergonomic work posture. A high incidence of musculoskeletal complaints mainly in the region of the back and neck was found. 35.1% of the employee reported musculoskeletal disorders, determined by non-ergonomic work posture, problems in shift work schedules, lack of control and decision making in a highly significant model. Measures for improving workplace ergonomics and work organization were proposed in order to reduce stress, fatigue and health risks in broadcasting staff.

  20. Identification of factors that affect the adoption of an ergonomic intervention among Emergency Medical Service workers. (United States)

    Weiler, Monica R; Lavender, Steven A; Crawford, J Mac; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M; Browne, Michael W


    This study explored factors contributing to intervention adoption decisions among Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers. Emergency Medical Service workers (n = 190), from six different organisations, participated in a two-month longitudinal study following the introduction of a patient transfer-board (also known as slide-board) designed to ease lateral transfers of patients to and from ambulance cots. Surveys administered at baseline, after one month and after two months sampled factors potentially influencing the EMS providers' decision process. 'Ergonomics Advantage' and 'Patient Advantage' entered into a stepwise regression model predicting 'intention to use' at the end of month one (R (2 )= 0.78). After the second month, the stepwise regression indicated only two factors were predictive of intention to use: 'Ergonomics Advantage,' and 'Endorsed by Champions' (R (2 )= 0.58). Actual use was predicted by: 'Ergonomics Advantage' and 'Previous Tool Experience.' These results relate to key concepts identified in the diffusion of innovation literature and have the potential to further ergonomics intervention adoption efforts. Practitioner Summary. This study explored factors that potentially facilitate the adoption of voluntarily used ergonomics interventions. EMS workers were provided with foldable transfer-boards (slideboards) designed to reduce the physical demands when laterally transferring patients. Factors predictive of adoption measures included perceived ergonomics advantage, the endorsement by champions, and prior tool experience.

  1. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)


    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  2. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin


    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  3. The Simulation and Animation of Virtual Humans to Better Understand Ergonomic Conditions at Manual Workplaces


    Jürgen Rossmann; Christian Schlette


    This article extends an approach to simulate and control anthro- pomorphic kinematics as multiagent-systems. These "anthro- pomorphic multiagent-systems" have originally been developed to control coordinated multirobot systems in industrial applica- tions, as well as to simulate humanoid robots. Here, we apply the approach of the anthropomorphic multiagent-systems to propose a "Virtual Human" - a model of human kinematics - to analyze ergonomic conditions at manual workplaces. Ergonom- ics pr...

  4. Evaluating ergonomic risk factors in non-regulated stone carving units of Jaipur. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Srivastava, Saurabh


    Stone carving at Jaipur in Rajasthan state of India, is a traditional craft employing a large number of local youths. As an unorganized sector problems are many ranging from lack of benefits to occupational ergonomic issues of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders(WMSDs) and injury to body parts. Twenty five male workers were selected in each of the three sections of a stone carving unit. The focus was to identify different ergonomic risk factors associated in this profession from the field. Still photography and video photography was used to record different activities. Different types of non invasive tools like Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Occupational Repetitive Action Index (OCRA) were used. Psychophysical measures were investigated by Body part discomfort map, rated perceived exertion scale and visual analogue scale. Objective measurements (heart arte and skin temperature) were recorded with stop watch and digital thermometer. The working heart rate after 30 minutes of work was 112.4 beats per minute categorizing the work as moderately heavy. Postural analysis by REBA indicated high score (13/13). Similarly postural analysis by RULA showed high score (7/7). These indicate vulnerability of many of the postures to musculoskeletal disorders and injury. The study indicates that majority of the activities are in the high risk category and demands immediate ergonomic intervention in the form of tool, workstation and process design. This could be done by involving different Non Government Organizations (NGOs), political parties, and the Human Rights Department both at the center and at the state level.

  5. Interactive production planning and ergonomic assessment with Digital Human Models--introducing the Editor for Manual Work Activities (ema). (United States)

    Fritzsche, Lars; Leidholdt, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Jäckel, Thomas; Moreno, Adrian


    The aging workforce is a risk factor for manufacturing industries that contain many jobs with high physical workloads. Thus, ergonomic risk factors have to be avoided in early phases of production planning. This paper introduces a new tool for simulating manual work activities with 3D human models, the so-called emaΦ. For the most part, the emaΦ software is based on a unique modular approach including a number of complex operations that were theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of motion capturing technologies. Using these modules for defining the digital work process enables the production planner to compile human simulations more accurately and much quicker compared to any of the existing modeling tools. Features of the emaΦ software implementation, such as ergonomic evaluation and MTM-time analyses, and the workflow for practical application are presented.

  6. The Ergonomics audit as an everyday factor in safe and efficient working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.G. (Commission of the European Community (Luxembourg). ECSC Ergonomics Programme)


    Several of the ECSC Ergonomics Programmes have incorporated the concepts of risk perception and hazard awareness in a wider framework of human error to develop an Ergonomics Based Human Error Audit. The article describes the Audit and its application to a locomotive haulage route in an underground coal mine. A current project (7250/12/025) will in the course of its work develop the Audit into a system which can be used routinely by non-specialist staff. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Ergonomics applications of a mechanical model of the human operator in power hand tool operation. (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert; Nembhard, David


    Applications of a new model for predicting power threaded-fastener-driving tool operator response and capacity to react against impulsive torque reaction forces are explored for use in tool selection and ergonomic workplace design. The model is based on a mechanical analog of the human operator, with parameters dependent on work location (horizontal and vertical distances); work orientation (horizontal and vertical); and tool shape (in-line, pistol grip, and right angle); and is stratified by gender. This model enables prediction of group means and variances of handle displacement and force for a given tool configuration. Response percentiles can be ascertained for specific tool operations. For example, a sample pistol grip nutrunner used on a horizontal surface at 30 cm in front of the ankles and 140 cm above the floor results in a predicted mean handle reaction displacement of 39.0 (SD=28.1) mm for males. Consequently 63%of the male users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement limit. When a right angle tool of similar torque output is used instead, the model predicted that only 4.6%of the male tool users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement. A method is described for interpolating individual subject model parameters at any given work location using linear combinations in relation to the range of modeled factors. Additional examples pertinent to ergonomic workstation design and tool selection are provided to demonstrate how the model can be used to aid tool selection and workstation design.

  8. Multi-dimensional digital human models for ergonomic analysis based on natural data representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.


    Digital human models are often used for ergonomic analysis of product designs, before physical prototypes are available. However, existing digital human models cannot be used to simultaneously: 1) consider the tissue loads and the physiological effects of the tissue loads; 2) optimise the product pr

  9. Multi-dimensional digital human models for ergonomic analysis based on natural data representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.


    Digital human models are often used for ergonomic analysis of product designs, before physical prototypes are available. However, existing digital human models cannot be used to simultaneously: 1) consider the tissue loads and the physiological effects of the tissue loads; 2) optimise the product

  10. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process. (United States)

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel


    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities.

  11. Specifying comfortable driving postures for ergonomic design and evaluation of the driver workspace using digital human models. (United States)

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A


    Specifying comfortable driving postures is essential for ergonomic design and evaluation of a driver workspace. The present study sought to enhance and expand upon several existing recommendations for such postures. Participants (n = 38) were involved in six driving sessions that differed by vehicle class (sedan and SUV), driving venue (laboratory-based and field) or seat (from vehicles ranked high and low by vehicle comfort). Sixteen joint angles were measured in preferred postures to more completely describe driving postures, as were corresponding perceptual responses. Driving postures were found to be bilaterally asymmetric and distinct between vehicle classes, venues, age groups and gender. A subset of preferred postural ranges was identified using a filtering mechanism that ensured desired levels of perceptual responses. Accurate ranges of joint angles for comfortable driving postures, and careful consideration of vehicle and driver factors, will facilitate ergonomic design and evaluation of a driver workspace, particularly when embedded in digital human models.

  12. Meeting diversity in ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.


    Key Features: Offers the conceptual tools for creating more adaptable ergonomic designs to meet the needs of diverse human populations, Unlock the strategic business value found in ergonomically safe and comfortable products, Learn from in-depth case studies how ergonomic intervention was

  13. Physical ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M. de; Koningsveld, E.


    Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we ex

  14. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.


    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  15. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.


    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  16. Human reliability and ergonomics: a literature review from 1963 to 2011. (United States)

    Silva, João Alexandre Pinheiro; Menegon, Nilton Luis; de Carvalho, Marly Monteiro


    This study reviews the academic literature on human reliability from the ergonomics perspective. The methodological approach used in this analysis combines several techniques, including bibliometric, content analysis, and social network analysis. The initial sample consisted of 304 articles, which totalized 1,872 citations, published in 94 journals, from the 47-year period between 1963 and 2011. From this initial sample, only 50 articles (16%), totalizing 471 citations are classified as ergonomics area, published in 14 journals, which involve 108 authors, with 471 citations. This sample was expanded via the seminal studies of ergonomics. These articles were coded and tabulated according to their year of publication, the number of publications per journal, major areas of interest, and the relationship between the articles and the research methods discussed. Networks were prepared by keywords, co-citations, and cross-citations.

  17. Human Factors Considerations in System Design (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)


    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  18. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty


    Full Text Available Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD, also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD is the computertechnology used for the design processing and designdocumentation. CAD has now been used extensivelyin many applications such as automotive,shipbuilding, aerospace industries, architectural andindustrial designs, prosthetics, computer animationfor special effects in movies, advertising andtechnical manuals. As a technology, digital humanmodeling (DHM has rapidly emerged as atechnology that creates, manipulates and controlhuman representations and human-machine systemsscenes on computers for interactive ergonomic designproblem solving. DHM promises to profoundlychange how products or systems are designed, howergonomics analysis is performed, how disorders andimpairments are assessed and how therapies andsurgeries are conducted. The imperative andemerging need for the DHM appears to be consistentwith the fact that the past decade has witnessedsignificant growth in both the software systemsoffering DHM capabilities as well as the corporateadapting the technology.The authors shall dwell atlength and deliberate on how research in DHM hasfinally brought about an enhanced HCI, in thecontext of computer-aided ergonomics or humancentricdesign and discuss about future trends in thiscontext.

  19. Cognitive models applied to human effectiveness in national security environments (ergonomics of augmented cognition system design and application).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntuen, Celestine (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC); Winchester, Woodrow III (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC)


    In complex simulation systems where humans interact with computer-generated agents, information display and the interplay of virtual agents have become dominant media and modalities of interface design. This design strategy is reflected in augmented reality (AR), an environment where humans interact with computer-generated agents in real-time. AR systems can generate large amount of information, multiple solutions in less time, and perform far better in time-constrained problem solving. The capabilities of AR have been leveraged to augment cognition in human information processing. In this sort of augmented cognition (AC) work system, while technology has become the main source for information acquisition from the environment, the human sensory and memory capacities have failed to cope with the magnitude and scale of information they encounter. This situation generates opportunity for excessive cognitive workloads, a major factor in degraded human performance. From the human effectiveness point of view, research is needed to develop, model, and validate simulation tools that can measure the effectiveness of an AR technology used to support the amplification of human cognition. These tools will allow us to predict human performance for tasks executed under an AC tool construct. This paper presents an exploration of ergonomics issues relevant to AR and AC systems design. Additionally, proposed research to investigate those ergonomic issues is discussed.

  20. Evaluation of ergonomic factors and postures that cause muscle pains in dentistry students’ bodies


    Shirzaei, Masoumeh; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Khaje Alizade, Ali; Mohammadi, Mahdi


    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders commonly experienced by dental professionals are one of the main occupational health problem affecting their health and well-being.This study was conducted to evaluate ergonomic factors and profession-related postures and also investigate relationship between demographic factors and work condition with pain in dental students. Material and Methods 60 freshman and sophomore dentistry students were randomly chosen as the subjects of control grou...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Ketola


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4%. A poor physical work environment and placement of the keyboard were work-related factors increasing the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. The randomized intervention study included questionnaire survey, a diary of discomfort, and ergonomic rating of the workstations. The subjects (n=124 were allocated into three groups. The intensive and the education groups had less musculoskeletal discomfort than the control group at the 2-month follow-up. After the intervention, the level of ergonomics was distinctly higher in the intensive ergonomic group than in the education or control group. Two experts in ergonomics analyzed and rated the ergonomics of workstations before and after intervention. The validity of the assessment method was rated against the technical measurements, assessment of tidiness and space, and work chair ergonomics. The intraclass correlation coefficient between ratings of the two experts was 0.74. Changes in the location of the input devises and the screen, as well as the values of tidiness and space and work chair ergonomics showed a significant association with the ratings of both experts. The method to assess the loads imposed on the upper limbs was validated against the expert observations from the video, continuous recordings of myoelectric activity of forearm muscles, and wrist posture, measured with goniometers. Inter-observer repeatability and validity were

  2. The Role of Knowledge Objects in Participatory Ergonomics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm


    Participatory ergonomics simulations, taking place in simulation labs, have the tendency to get detached from the surrounding design process, resulting in a knowledge gap. Few studies in the human factors and ergonomics field have applied knowledge management based object concepts in the study...... in generation of ergonomics knowledge and transfer of this knowledge to actors in the surrounding design process. Design actors receiving simulation documenting objects interpret and transform the represented knowledge according to their local context and experiences....



    Ritva Ketola


    The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU) workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual inc...

  4. Musculoskeletal diseases of spine and risk factors during Dentistry: Multilevel ergonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charilaos Koutis


    Full Text Available The prevalence of occupational musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs among dentists is estimated to be high, despite the ergonomic interventions in this sector. The aim of the present study was a the evaluation of spine MSDs in dentists and b the assessment of risk factors related to dentist practice. Material and Method: The sample of the present study consisted of 16 dentists (n=16. The participants divided into two (2 groups, based on MSDs of the spine. A multilevel ergonomic analysis was conducted in both groups, which evaluated individual, physical and occupational risk factors during nine (9 dental procedures. For the analysis of data were used, direct methods (video, observation, amended postural analysis OWAS, indirect method (questionnaire and quantitative methods of ergonomic analysis (computerized mediball postural stabilizer cushion. Results: The most frequent MSDs of spine among dentists in the present research are localized on low back (66,7% and neck (8,3%. Based on OWAS analysis of 2348 working postures, statistically significant correlation was found between dentists' MSDs and factors concerning both dentists (weakness of stabilizer muscles of spine, awkward positions during working time, fatigue (p< 0,05 as well as the nature of dental work (specific dental procedures, patient's, the position of patients, tools and dentists during the working time, certain areas of the mouth, working hours, lack of breaks, etc (p< 0,05 respectively. Conclusions: Low back pain and neck pain are the most frequent MSDs of dentists' spine. They are related to individual and other occupational factors which could have been prevented using proper ergonomic interventions.

  5. Indonesia ergonomics roadmap: where we are going? (United States)

    Wignjosoebroto, Sritomo


    There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least

  6. Occupational ergonomics in space (United States)

    Stramler, J.


    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  7. Performance assessment of human resource by integration of HSE and ergonomics and EFQM management system. (United States)

    Sadegh Amalnick, Mohsen; Zarrin, Mansour


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated framework for performance evaluation and analysis of human resource (HR) with respect to the factors of health, safety, environment and ergonomics (HSEE) management system, and also the criteria of European federation for quality management (EFQM) as one of the well-known business excellence models. Design/methodology/approach In this study, an intelligent algorithm based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) along with fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA) are developed and employed to assess the performance of the company. Furthermore, the impact of the factors on the company's performance as well as their strengths and weaknesses are identified by conducting a sensitivity analysis on the results. Similarly, a design of experiment is performed to prioritize the factors in the order of importance. Findings The results show that EFQM model has a far greater impact upon the company's performance than HSEE management system. According to the obtained results, it can be argued that integration of HSEE and EFQM leads to the performance improvement in the company. Practical implications In current study, the required data for executing the proposed framework are collected via valid questionnaires which are filled in by the staff of an aviation industry located in Tehran, Iran. Originality/value Managing HR performance results in improving usability, maintainability and reliability and finally in a significant reduction in the commercial aviation accident rate. Also, study of factors affecting HR performance authorities participate in developing systems in order to help operators better manage human error. This paper for the first time presents an intelligent framework based on ANFIS, FDEA and statistical tests for HR performance assessment and analysis with the ability of handling uncertainty and vagueness existing in real world environment.

  8. Contextual factors affecting task distribution in two participatory ergonomic interventions: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Dixon, Shane Michael; Theberge, Nancy


    This article provides an analysis of the evolution of the division of labour in participatory ergonomics (PE) programmes in two worksites. The analysis is based on interviews and field observations in the worksites. In both settings there was meaningful participation by both worker and management members of ergonomic change teams (ECTs) in the hazard assessment and solution identification stages, but as the teams moved to the implementation stage, worker representatives were marginalised and the participatory nature of the programmes was severely curtailed. The removal of workers from the process was the outcome of the interplay among the type of activities pursued in the implementation stage, the skills and knowledge required to carry out those activities, and workers' limited influence in the organisational hierarchies. Findings highlight the salience of the social context in which participatory programmes are located and the importance of examining participatory programmes as they evolve over time. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article contributes to a growing literature on the process and implementation of PE programmes. The article's focus on social and organisational factors that affect the division of labour and attention to the evolution of involvement over time extend current understandings of participation in ergonomics programmes.

  9. An Integrated and Multivariate Model along with Designing Experiments Approach for Assessment of Micro- and Macro- Ergonomic Factors: The Case of a Gas Refinery. (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Mohammadfam, I; Sadjadi, M; Hamidi, Y; Kianfar, A


    The objectives of this paper are three folds. First, an integrated framework for designing and development of the integrated health, safety and environment (HSE) model is presented. Second, it is implemented and tested for a large gas refinery in Iran. Third, it is shown whether the total ergonomics model is superior to the conventional ergonomics approach. This study is among the first to examine total ergonomics components in a manufacturing system. This study was conducted in Sarkhoon & Qeshm Gas refinery- Iran in 2006. To achieve the above objectives, an integrated approach based on total ergonomics factors was developed. Second, it is applied to the refinery and the advantages of total ergonomics approach are discussed. Third, the impacts of total ergonomics factors on local factors are examined through non-parametric statistical analysis. It was shown that total ergonomics model is much more beneficial than conventional approach. It should be noted that the traditional ergonomics methodology is not capable of locating the findings of total ergonomics model. The distinguished aspect of this study is the employment of a total system approach based on integration of the conventional ergonomics factors with HSE factors.

  10. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong


    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  11. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withaya Chanchai


    Full Text Available (1 Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2 Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3 Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4 Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%. The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5 Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment.

  12. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies (United States)

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory


    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  13. Optimization of healthcare supply chain in context of macro-ergonomics factors by a unique mathematical programming approach. (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Motevali Haghighi, S; Gaeini, Z; Shabanpour, N


    This study presents an integrated approach for analyzing the impact of macro-ergonomics factors in healthcare supply chain (HCSC) by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The case of this study is the supply chain (SC) of a real hospital. Thus, healthcare standards and macro-ergonomics factors are considered to be modeled by the mathematical programming approach. Over 28 subsidiary SC divisions with parallel missions and objectives are evaluated by analyzing inputs and outputs through DEA. Each division in this HCSC is considered as decision making unit (DMU). This approach can analyze the impact of macro-ergonomics factors on supply chain management (SCM) in healthcare sector. Also, this method ranks the relevant performance efficiencies of each HCSC. In this study by using proposed method, the most effective macro-ergonomics factor on HCSC is identified as "teamwork" issue. Also, this study would help managers to identify the areas of weaknesses in their SCM system and set improvement target plan for the related SCM system in healthcare industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for macro-ergonomics optimization of HCSC.

  14. Ergonomics method for prevention of the musculoskeletal discomforts among female industrial workers: physical characteristics and work factors. (United States)

    Chavalitsakulchai, P; Shahnavaz, H


    In industrial work, working postures play an important role, separately and combined with other strain factors. The combined effects may be worse than those of single factors. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the body size, work postures and musculoskeletal discomforts between a group of female workers in a pharmaceutical plant and another group in a textile plant. Two hundred workers have participated in the following studies; (i) measuring anthropometric data in the standing and sitting positions, (ii) using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), and (iii) using the detail Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for analyzing the musculoskeletal troubles in different parts of the body. The investigation has identified five main factors associated with the musculoskeletal discomforts: (i) lack of worker selection and lack of appropriate training to prevent occupational hazards or work-related diseases, (ii) poor ergonomic design of the work place and task including work organization, (iii) poor working postures, (iv) lack of task variation, and (v) insufficient rest breaks. These could be improved by introducing ergonomic interventions for both adjusting the individual work places and the task performed. It is necessary to consider preventive measures for musculoskeletal disorders, especially for female workers in industrially developing countries. Ergonomic aspects of the preventive measures should include: (a) consideration of appropriate worker selection for various works with sufficient training and instruction, (b) ergonomic redesign of work places, and (c) ergonomic considerations in work organization.

  15. Evaluation of ergonomic physical risk factors in a truck manufacturing plant: case study in SCANIA Production Angers (United States)

    ZARE, Mohsen; MALINGE-OUDENOT, Agnes; HÖGLUND, Robert; BIAU, Sophie; ROQUELAURE, Yves


    The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner’s viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner’s point of view in the automotive assembly plant. PMID:26423331

  16. Evaluation of ergonomic physical risk factors in a truck manufacturing plant: case study in SCANIA Production Angers. (United States)

    Zare, Mohsen; Malinge-Oudenot, Agnes; Höglund, Robert; Biau, Sophie; Roquelaure, Yves


    The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner's viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner's point of view in the automotive assembly plant.

  17. An ergonomic study in building demolition: Assessment of musculoskeletal disorders risk factors by PATH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajaghazadeh


    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was the investigation of musculoskeletal disorders risk factors among building demolition workers. Materials and Methods: Posture, activity, tools, and handling (PATH method as a work sampling method was applied to record the postures, activities, and handling of building demolition workers in four tasks. The percentage of working time is reported for each item to compare the risk factors in tasks. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire also was used to study the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders over 12 months. Results: Trunk, leg(s, and arm(s postures differed significantly among tasks. Neutral arm posture and non-neutral leg(s and trunk postures were observed frequently. Manual materials handling (MMH activities are distributed differently among tasks. Moving was the most observed (35% and carrying was the less observed (11.8% MMH activity. Gross grasp was the most observed (78.5% hand activity in building demolition workers. The most observed weight category was 0 kg≤load<5 kg. Low back had the highest prevalence of MSDs symptoms (91.1% and hip had the lowest prevalence of symptoms (6.7%. Conclusions: PATH is applicable to building demolition process. Ergonomic intervention is necessary in high prevalence body regions such as lower back and wrist to decrease the symptoms. With respect to the results of PATH method, ergonomic interventions for trunk and leg(s are necessary in all tasks, but only task #3 is in the priority of arm(s intervention.

  18. Translating concepts of complexity to the field of ergonomics. (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura


    Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.

  19. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa


    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply...... sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains....

  20. Ergonomics in Laparoscopic Surgery--A Survey of Symptoms and Contributing Factors. (United States)

    Shepherd, Joanna M; Harilingam, Mohan Raj; Hamade, Ayman


    We aimed to investigate physical/cognitive symptoms experienced by clinicians undertaking laparoscopic surgery (LS) in relation to demographics, operating factors, and instruments. Fifty trainees/consultants practicing LS in Southeast England completed a 17-question survey. Results were analyzed using nonparametric tests of metric, ordinal, and binomial data. Forty-five percent of respondents reported moderate/severe symptoms during long cases (>2 h). Worse neck/shoulder (N=45, P=0.01), back (N=44, P=0.002), and fatigue/irritability (N=42, P=0.02) symptoms were reported for long (vs. short) cases. Assistants reported worse back symptoms than principle operators (N=43, P=0.02, long cases). Females (vs. males), glove size ≤6.5 (vs. ≥7.0), and experience ≤5years (vs. 5 to 10, >10 y) reported worse symptoms relating to handle dimensions (N=45, P=0.004, 0.001, 0.01, respectively). Ninety-six percent believe ergonomics should be incorporated into LS courses. Principle and assistant surgeons experience adverse symptoms during LS; ergonomics training and handles dimensions, accommodating female surgeons, and smaller glove sizes may reduce this.

  1. Integrating digital human modeling into virtual environment for ergonomic oriented design

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei


    Virtual human simulation integrated into virtual reality applications is mainly used for virtual representation of the user in virtual environment or for interactions between the user and the virtual avatar for cognitive tasks. In this paper, in order to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, the integration of virtual human simulation and VR application is presented to facilitate physical ergonomic evaluation, especially for physical fatigue evaluation of a given population. Immersive working environments are created to avoid expensive physical mock-up in conventional evaluation methods. Peripheral motion capture systems are used to capture natural movements and then to simulate the physical operations in virtual human simulation. Physical aspects of human's movement are then analyzed to determine the effort level of each key joint using inverse kinematics. The physical fatigue level of each joint is further analyzed by integrating a fatigue and recovery model on the basis of physical task parameters. All the pr...

  2. HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach. (United States)

    Karltun, Anette; Karltun, Johan; Berglund, Martina; Eklund, Jörgen


    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors' experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO.

  3. Prognostic factors for the effects of two interventions for work-related neck-shoulder complaints: myofeedback training and ergonomic counselling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.E.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.; Sandsjo, L.; Kadefors, R.; Hermens, H.J.


    AIM: To explore prognostic factors for the effects of two interventions (myofeedback training in combination with ergonomic counselling (Mfb/EC) and ergonomic counselling alone (EC)) on discomfort and disability in work-related neck-shoulder complaints. METHODS: Thirty-six females completed the inte

  4. Prognostic factors for the effects of two interventions for work-related neck-shoulder complaints: Myofeedback training and ergonomic counselling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerlienke E.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.; Sandsjö, Leif; Kadefors, Roland; Hermens, Hermie J.


    Aim To explore prognostic factors for the effects of two interventions (myofeedback training in combination with ergonomic counselling (Mfb/EC) and ergonomic counselling alone (EC)) on discomfort and disability in work-related neck–shoulder complaints. Methods Thirty-six females completed the inter

  5. Building Taxonomy Knowledge ‘Systemic Ergonomics Intervention Work’: a Product Joining up practice with theory in an Industrially Developing Country and its 'Meta-Reflection'


    Helali, Faramarz


    Based on evidence accumulated during the author’s 19 years of ergonomics intervention experiences and investigations with the different challenges and roles, the ergonomics ‘know-how’ transfer explores and describes the models to success implementation of Ergonomics and Human Factors Management in an Industrially Developing Country. A systematic ergonomics ‘know-how’ transfer management at Micro and Macroergonomics-based levels for training and learning could be managed and led in an industri...

  6. Upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders: Prevalence and associated ergonomic factors in an electronic assembly factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somthus Pullopdissakul


    Full Text Available Objectives:To determine the magnitude, distribution and associated ergonomic factors of upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD among workers of electronic assembly in Thailand. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. 591 of 853 workers in an electronic and electrical appliance assembly factory in Bangkok, Thailand, participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data and ergonomic factors was collected from October 2010 to January 2011. Clinical examination of each worker was performed by an occupational physician. The criteria for diagnosis of UEMSD came as a result of a consensus reached by a group of orthopedists. The associated factors were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. Results: The point prevalence of clinically diagnosed UEMSD was as follows: radial styloid tenosynovitis - 13.03% (95% CI: 10.31-15.75, trigger finger - 9.48% (95% CI: 7.11-11.84, carpal tunnel syndrome - 8.12% (95% CI: 5.91-10.33, lateral epicondylitis - 3.38% (95% CI: 1.92-4.85, and medial epicondylitis - 1.69% (95% CI: 0.65-2.73, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio with statistical significance associated with UEMSD was as follows: high force of wrist - 1.78 (95% CI: 1.06-2.99, awkward posture of wrist - 2.37 (95% CI: 1.28-4.37 and contact stress at wrists - 1.75 (95% CI: 1.02-3.00 to develop radial styloid tenosynovitis. For trigger finger, the ratios were awkward posture of fingers - 2.09 (95% CI: 1.12-3.90 and contact stress on finger - 1.86 (95% CI: 1.04-3.34. For medial epicondylitis, it was an awkward posture of using elbows - 3.14 (95% CI: 1.10-8.95. However, this study did not find any associations between repetitive motion and any UEMSD. Conclusions: UEMSD are most commonly found in electronic assembly workers. The relevant parties should provide comprehensive ergonomic resolution for these workers.

  7. A new muscle fatigue and recovery model and its ergonomics application in human simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Zhang, Wei; Guillaume, François; 10.1080/17452759.2010.504056


    Although automatic techniques have been employed in manufacturing industries to increase productivity and efficiency, there are still lots of manual handling jobs, especially for assembly and maintenance jobs. In these jobs, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the major health problems due to overload and cumulative physical fatigue. With combination of conventional posture analysis techniques, digital human modelling and simulation (DHM) techniques have been developed and commercialized to evaluate the potential physical exposures. However, those ergonomics analysis tools are mainly based on posture analysis techniques, and until now there is still no fatigue index available in the commercial software to evaluate the physical fatigue easily and quickly. In this paper, a new muscle fatigue and recovery model is proposed and extended to evaluate joint fatigue level in manual handling jobs. A special application case is described and analyzed by digital human simulation technique.

  8. [Inter-rater agreement on self-reported exposure to ergonomic risk factors for the upper extremities among mechanic assemblers in an automotive industry]. (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Fontana, Dario; Merogno, Angela


    to assess reproducibility of self-reported exposure to ergonomic hazards for the upper limbs, measured through a questionnaire based on a diffused checklist for the assessment of ergonomic risk (OCRA) in a sample of mechanical assemblers of an automotive industry. cross-sectional study; reproducibility was assessed as interrater agreement of a composite index of ergonomic risk, estimated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). 58 mechanical assemblers, working in 29 twin areas, characterised by same work stations and tasks. composite index of ergonomic risk for the upper limbs. reproducibility of the ergonomic index was high in the overall sample (ICC: 0.81) and it was higher for the twin areas employing same-gender workers (ICC: 0.96), compared to those with workers of the opposite gender (ICC: 0.66). these results indicate that a questionnaire measuring with a great detail the exposure to the main ergonomic risk factors for the upper limbs, as the one based on the OCRA checklist used for this study, would allow to obtain a highly reproducible ergonomic index. If its validity against the corresponding observational checklist will be found elevated by future studies, this questionnaire may represent a useful tool for a preliminary assessment of workers' exposure to ergonomic hazards for the upper limbs.

  9. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies (United States)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata


    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  10. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies (United States)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata


    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  11. Study and analysis of occupational risk factors for ergonomic design of construction worksystems. (United States)

    Parida, Ratri; Ray, Pradip Kumar


    Manual material handling (MMH) is unavoidable because of the nature of jobs or tasks as and man-machine interfaces in a construction worksystem. Data were collected from six strata of workers viz., masons, mason helpers, carpenters, welders, gas cutters and ground-level helpers (259 out of 700 workers) from a construction site of a steel plant located in India to analyze different types of occupational risk factors, such as awkward posture, repetitive movements and others associated with MMH activities to assess their impact on musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It is essential that these risk factors are required to be under control through application of ergonomics-based design approaches for construction worksystem. In this context, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the significant risk factors among the workers. The results shows that masons, mason helpers, carpenters, welders/gas cutters and ground-level helpers are greatly affected by static body posture, type of tools used, excessive stress due to repetition, awkward postures and extreme climate, respectively. Appropriate preventive and corrective measures are suggested for minimization of risks associated with such jobs/tasks to improve health and performance of the workers.

  12. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego


    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  13. An ergonomic task analysis of spinal anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajmal, Muhammad


    Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.

  14. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays. (United States)

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D


    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  15. The ergonomics of learning: educational design and learning performance. (United States)

    Smith, T J


    The application of ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) principles and practices, and the implementation of ergonomics programmes, have achieved proven success in improving performance, productivity, competitiveness, and safety and health in most occupational sectors. However, the benefits that the application of E/HF science might bring to promoting student learning have yet to be widely recognized. This paper deals with the fundamental purpose of education - student learning - and with the question of how the ergonomic design of the learning environment influences learning performance. The underlying premise, embodied in the quote below, is that student learning performance to a substantial degree is context specific - influenced and specialized in relation to specific design factors in the learning environment. The basic scientific question confronting learning ergonomics is which design characteristics in the learning environment have the greatest influence on variability in learning performance. Practically, the basic challenge is to apply this scientific understanding to ergonomic interventions directed at design improvements of learning environments to benefit learning. This paper expands upon these themes by addressing the origins and scope of learning ergonomics, differing perspectives on the nature of learning, evidence for context specificity in learning and conclusions and research implications regarding an ergonomics perspective on learning.

  16. A survey on ergonomic stress factors of musculoskeletal system in Iranian carpet restoration workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi B


    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the major problems, encountering work force today. Many researches have revealed the disadvantages and inconveniences that such problems have caused. Some kinds of careers are traditional and complex and are more probable to cause disorders. Carpet restoration is one of these jobs causing musculoskeletal disorders in the work force. The nature of this job puts a lot of pressure on the worker's body. The postures are most of the time problematic and are in need of some ergonomic actions to be taken in order to prevent from diseases and disorders of musculoskeletal system.Methods: In a cross- sectional survey, 144 male carpet restoration workers enrolled. NORDIC and PLIBEL checklists were used to assess the musculoskeletal stress factors with injury effects. Another checklist was employed to address demographic characteristics of the population under study.Results: The results showed that 82% of these workers suffered from some forms of musculoskeletal disorders mostly from knee and lower back discomfort. The more they had job experience, the more they suffered from MSDs. Disorders of neck and upper back had significant relationship with the duration of work experience. Also badly designed tools and awkward posture were of main risk factors. PLIBEL checklist successfully showed the main threatening risk factors of all body parts.Conclusion: The survey revealed that the incidence of MSDs in these workers is high and there are several risk factors affecting their body during work unsuitable design of tools, incorrect work height and bending position of the body during work were the most risk factors, which observed.

  17. Using ergonomics digital human modeling in evaluation of workplaces design and prevention of occupational hazards onboard fishing vessel


    Zhang, Bing; Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel


    This paper seeks to present methods for improving the occupational health and safety of Spanish fishermen, and for redesigning the workplace onboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps: First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish was studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). Third, the wo...

  18. Effects of measurement errors on psychometric measurements in ergonomics studies: Implications for correlations, ANOVA, linear regression, factor analysis, and linear discriminant analysis. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Salvendy, Gavriel


    This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of measurement errors on psychometric measurements in ergonomics studies. A variety of sources can cause random measurement errors in ergonomics studies and these errors can distort virtually every statistic computed and lead investigators to erroneous conclusions. The effects of measurement errors on five most widely used statistical analysis tools have been discussed and illustrated: correlation; ANOVA; linear regression; factor analysis; linear discriminant analysis. It has been shown that measurement errors can greatly attenuate correlations between variables, reduce statistical power of ANOVA, distort (overestimate, underestimate or even change the sign of) regression coefficients, underrate the explanation contributions of the most important factors in factor analysis and depreciate the significance of discriminant function and discrimination abilities of individual variables in discrimination analysis. The discussions will be restricted to subjective scales and survey methods and their reliability estimates. Other methods applied in ergonomics research, such as physical and electrophysiological measurements and chemical and biomedical analysis methods, also have issues of measurement errors, but they are beyond the scope of this paper. As there has been increasing interest in the development and testing of theories in ergonomics research, it has become very important for ergonomics researchers to understand the effects of measurement errors on their experiment results, which the authors believe is very critical to research progress in theory development and cumulative knowledge in the ergonomics field.

  19. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.


    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  20. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.


    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  1. Ergonomic activity analysis of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Paraná state: risk factors and workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Lima


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the risk factors present in the work activity and their impact on the health of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana state. It is a descriptive qualitative research based on the method of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis of Francophone strand, used as a tool by occupational therapists in the health-work interface. The following procedures were performed: bibliographical survey, documental analysis of productivity data, production and quality of the task, systematic observation of the rehearsals of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana, task and workplace analysis with the application of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA and, confrontation of the data analyzed with an instrumental musician. As a result, the study showed significant deviations with reference to the standards described in Brazilian Norm 17 (Ergonomics, especially regarding individual cognitive and physical demands as well as demands related to work organization, considering each item evaluated by this analytical instrument. The action of occupational therapy was grounded on the insertion in the health and illness process, health promotion, illness prevention, and training of musicians as workers and social actors, envisioning the transformation of work situations.

  2. Evidence-based ergonomics: a model and conceptual structure proposal. (United States)

    Silveira, Dierci Marcio


    In Human Factors and Ergonomics Science (HFES), it is difficult to identify what is the best approach to tackle the workplace and systems design problems which needs to be solved, and it has been also advocated as transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary the issue of "How to solve the human factors and ergonomics problems that are identified?". The proposition on this study is to combine the theoretical approach for Sustainability Science, the Taxonomy of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline and the framework for Evidence-Based Medicine in an attempt to be applied in Human Factors and Ergonomics. Applications of ontologies are known in the field of medical research and computer science. By scrutinizing the key requirements for the HFES structuring of knowledge, it was designed a reference model, First, it was identified the important requirements for HFES Concept structuring, as regarded by Meister. Second, it was developed an evidence-based ergonomics framework as a reference model composed of six levels based on these requirements. Third, it was devised a mapping tool using linguistic resources to translate human work, systems environment and the complexities inherent to their hierarchical relationships to support future development at Level 2 of the reference model and for meeting the two major challenges for HFES, namely, identifying what problems should be addressed in HFE as an Autonomous Science itself and proposing solutions by integrating concepts and methods applied in HFES for those problems.

  3. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang


    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  4. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang


    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  5. Factores de riesgo ergonométricos y biomecánicos en pagadores de punto y banca


    Frigerio, Agustín Andrés


    La presente investigación se centra en el estudio de como los factores de riesgo ergonómicos afectan la postura correcta de trabajo en los pagadores de Punto y Banca en un Casino en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, se buscó determinar los cambios posturales a lo largo del turno laboral. Por medio de una escala de dolor se constató el grado de dolor lumbar y se buscó determinar los factores ergonométricos con la intensidad de dolor. Finalmente se elaboró un protocolo de prevención. Objetivo: ...

  6. Ergonomics Factors in English as a Foreign Language Testing: The Case of PLEVALEX (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal-Royo, Teresa; de Siqueira Rocha, Jose Macario; Alvarez, Miguel Fernandez


    Although much has been said about ergonomics in interface and in computer tools and interface design, very few articles in major journals have addressed this topic in relation to language testing. This article describes an experiment carried out at the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, in which 27 Media and Communication students provided…

  7. Ergonomics Considerations in Microcomputing. (United States)

    Torok, Andrew G.


    Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…

  8. Ergonomics Considerations in Microcomputing. (United States)

    Torok, Andrew G.


    Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…

  9. Ergonomics research methods (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.


    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  10. [Lavoisier, forerunner of ergonomics]. (United States)

    Valentin, M


    Marcelin Berthelot has written that Lavoisier's physiological revolution has been nearly as important as his chemical one. Moreover he went beyond theoretical researches by a continual approach of labour and human environment, making himself a real precursor of ergonomics. Thus indeed can be considered his works on lighting, room aeration, hospitals reorganization, improvement of jails, transfer of slaughter-houses, watering and water-course, cesspools. Finally and chiefly his experimentation with Seguin on respiration and perspiration, as well as the wording of the program of the Prizes of Insalubrious Arts realize a genius' prospect of labour physiology and medicine already enclosed in what will later be ergonomics.

  11. Elementary Ergonomics (United States)

    Grayson, Jennifer


    What's the number 1 threat to young students using computers today? According to Dan Odell, Microsoft's in-house ergonomist, when he asked parents this very question, "the things they were most concerned about were online predators and people taking advantage of their kids. Ergonomics was fairly far down the list." Unfortunately, that…

  12. The Application of Surface Electromyography in the Assessment of Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated with Manual Lifting Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 杨磊; 丁嘉顺; 王正伦


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ergonomic risk factors associated with manual lifting tasks using surface electromyography (EMG). 13 volunteers lifted loads of 6 and 13kg at two speeds and at two horizontal distances in 3 different postures and three boxes of different sizes, from floor to knuckle height, performing 72 lifting tasks. For each lift, the surface electromyography signals from the erector spinae muscles, bilaterally at T10 and L3, was recorded. The ergonomic risk factors associated with manual lifting tasks were evaluated by comparing the average amplitude of EMG signals from the erector spinae muscles. The EMG average amplitude for lifting the load of 13 kg was 14.3 % greater than that for lifting the load of 6kg (t= -10.93, P<0.01).The EMG average amplitude at the site of L3 was 10.3 % greater than that at the site of T10 (t= -7.98, P<0.01). The EMG average amplitude when performing "fast" lift was 5.9 %greater than the "slow" lift (t= -4.63, P<0.01 ). The posture of lifting affected the EMG average amplitude.It was lowest with semi-squat posture and greatest with squat posture (F= 27.76, P<0.01). The result of multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the loads of lifting, the size of box, horizontal distance, posture of lifting, the site of the spine subjected to force, lifting speed were the factors affecting the EMG average amplitude. The most significant factor was the loads of lifting,followed by the site of the spine subjected to force and the lifting speed in terms of risk. The ergonomic risk factors associated with manual lifting tasks includes the loads, posture, lifting speed,horizontal distance, the site of the spine subjected to force etc. The results of signal amplitude of EMG from the erector spinae muscles showed that semi-squat posture is the best posture for lifting tasks.

  13. Ergonomic Simulation Revisited Using Parametric Virtual Humans in the Biomechanical Framework


    Puthiya Veettil, Hareesh


    The conventional CAD/CAM approach to design does not show the essential spatial relationships between user and product that are crucial for intuitive design analysis. As populations age and the home appliance market stagnates, Universal Design principles implemented with computerized virtual worlds become more important for meeting the ergonomic problems of heterogeneous populations that are increasingly difficult to adequately test with real-world ...

  14. Software Support of Modelling using Ergonomic Tools in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Dupláková


    Full Text Available One of the preconditions for correct development of industrial production is continuous interconnecting of virtual reality and real world by computer software. Computer software are used for product modelling, creation of technical documentation, scheduling, management and optimization of manufacturing processes, and efficiency increase of human work in manufacturing plants. This article describes the frequent used ergonomic software which helping to increase of human work by error rate reducing, risks factors of working environment, injury in workplaces and elimination of arising occupational diseases. They are categorized in the field of micro ergonomics and they are applicable at the manufacturing level with flexible approach in solving of established problems.

  15. Human factors for a sustainable future. (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P


    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.

  16. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles. (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.


    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  17. The ergonomics simulation and evaluation architecture for the automobile (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Sun, Shouqian; Liu, Tao


    The architecture of ergonomics simulation and evaluation for the automobile was described. Ergonomics analysis and evaluation is one of the most important processes in product design at present. This ergonomics simulation system based on the elements of ergonomics analysis and evaluation can provide an excellent solution to take human element into account earlier in the design phase and make proactive choices in automobile design than those traditional methods. Thinking of the characteristics of the automobile industry, this system adopted the anatomy-based and parameterized human model for Chinese, the simulation technique using motion editing and the mathematical models of ergonomics to solve real ergonomic design problems in the design phases.

  18. Assessment of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA Method and implementing ergonomics intervention programs in Sepah Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nasiri


    .Conclusion: Using the ROSA technique was seemed to be beneficialto assess the ergonomic risk factors of office works, and the deficiencies in the workstation can be identified through this method. Moreover,by design and implementation of an educational intervention program along with engineering interventions which comply with the elements of this technique, the defects can be eliminated.

  19. Participatory ergonomics to reduce exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain: Results of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der


    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme to reduce workers9 exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors. Methods: 37 departments (n=3047 workers) from four Dutch companies participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial

  20. Evaluation of influence of stretching therapy and ergonomic factors on postural control in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawda


    Ergonomic factors are often accompanied by the appearance of LBP. The restrictions within the musculoskeletal system cause disorders in muscle synergies, which is expressed by an increase in the angular velocity of the COG. In patients with chronic back pain syndrome, selected stretching therapy techniques improves the range of motion of the spine and reduces pain.

  1. Software development for the evaluation of the ergonomic compatibility on the selection of advanced manufacturing technology. (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, A; Reyes, R; Guillen, L; García, J


    Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) is one of the most relevant resources that companies have to achieve competitiveness and best performance. The selection of AMT is a complex problem which involves significant amount of information and uncertainty when multiple aspects must be taken into consideration. Actual models for the selection of AMT are found scarce of the Human Factors and Ergonomics perspective which can lead to a more complete and reliable decision. This paper presents the development of software that enhances the application of an Ergonomic Compatibility Evaluation Model that supports decision making processes taking into consideration ergonomic attributes of designs. Ergonomic Compatibility is a construct used in this model and it is mainly based in the concept of human-artifact compatibility on human compatible systems. Also, an Axiomatic Design approach by the use of the Information Axiom was evolved under a fuzzy environment to obtain the Ergonomic Incompatibility Content. The extension of this axiom for the evaluation of ergonomic compatibility requirements was the theoretical framework of this research. An incremental methodology of four stages was used to design and develop the software that enables to compare AMT alternatives by the evaluation of Ergonomic Compatibility Attributes.

  2. Review of Ergonomic Virtual Human and Its Application%工效虚拟人及其应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周前祥; 丁松涛; 郑晓慧; 柳忠起


    Ergonomic Virtual is very important for ergonomic design and analysis of modern man - machine system. Firstly, the definition of ergonomic virtual human was put forward. Secondly, its main research fields were de-tailedly described and some key technical problems were discussed. Finally, its development trends were explored for reference.%工效虚拟人在人-机系统工效学设计与分析中具有十分重要的意义.首先明确了工效虚拟人概念,归纳并分析其目前研究的主要内容以及拟解决的关键技术问题.在此基础上,提出在深入应用中需要重点关注的研究方向.最后,总结了几点看法以供讨论.

  3. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa


    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challeng...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed....

  4. An Integrated Simulation System for Human Factors Study

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ying; Bennis, Fouad; Chablat, Damien


    It has been reported that virtual reality can be a useful tool for ergonomics study. The proposed integrated simulation system aims at measuring operator's performance in an interactive way for 2D control panel design. By incorporating some sophisticated virtual reality hardware/software, the system allows natural human-system and/or human-human interaction in a simulated virtual environment; enables dynamic objective measurement of human performance; and evaluates the quality of the system design in human factors perspective based on the measurement. It can also be for operation training for some 2D control panels.

  5. Ergonomics technology (United States)

    Jones, W. L.


    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  6. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA. (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai


    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng


    Full Text Available In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai


    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  9. Ergonomic Models of Anthropometry, Human Biomechanics and Operator-Equipment Interfaces (United States)

    Kroemer, Karl H. E. (Editor); Snook, Stover H. (Editor); Meadows, Susan K. (Editor); Deutsch, Stanley (Editor)


    The Committee on Human Factors was established in October 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council. The committee is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation. The workshop discussed the following: anthropometric models; biomechanical models; human-machine interface models; and research recommendations. A 17-page bibliography is included.

  10. The stage of change approach for implementing ergonomics advice - Translating research into practice. (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Oakman, Jodi; Tappin, David; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan


    The Stage of Change (SOC) approach has been proposed as a method to improve the implementation of ergonomics advice. However, despite evidence for its efficacy there is little evidence to suggest it has been adopted by ergonomics consultants. This paper investigates barriers and facilitators to the implementation, monitoring and effectiveness of ergonomics advice and the adoption of the SOC approach in a series of focus groups and a subsequent survey of members of the Human Factors Societies of Australia and New Zealand. A proposed SOC assessment tool developed for use by ergonomics practitioners is presented. Findings from this study suggest the limited application of a SOC based approach to work-related musculoskeletal injury prevention by ergonomics practitioners is due to the absence of a suitable tool in the ergonomists' repertoire, the need for training in this approach, and their limited access to relevant research findings. The final translation of the SOC assessment tool into professional ergonomics practice will require accessible demonstration of its real-world usability to practitioners and the training of ergonomics practitioners in its application.

  11. How could you use the ergonomics 'knowhow' transfer management to enhance human working for sustainable improvements in industrially developing countries? (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz


    This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining.

  12. ISS Payload Human Factors (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan


    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  13. Ergonomics, quality and continuous improvement--conceptual and empirical relationships in an industrial context. (United States)

    Eklund, J


    This paper reviews the literature comparing the fields of ergonomics and quality, mainly in an industrial context, including mutual influences, similarities and differences. Relationships between ergonomics and the factors: work conditions, product design, ISO 9000, continuous improvements and TQM are reviewed in relation to the consequence, application, and process domains. The definitions of ergonomics and quality overlap substantially. Quality deficiencies, human errors and ergonomics problems often have the same cause, which in many cases can be traced to the design of work, workplace and environment e.g. noise, light, postures, loads, pace and work content. In addition, the possibility of performing to a high standard at work is an important prerequisite for satisfaction and well-being. Contradictions between the two fields have been identified in the view of concepts such as standardization, reduction of variability and copying of best practice, requiring further research. The field of quality would gain by incorporating ergonomics knowledge, especially in the areas of work design and human capability, since these factors are decisive for human performance and also therefore the performance of the systems involved. The field of ergonomics, on the other hand, would benefit from developing a stronger emphasis on methodologies and structures for improvement processes, including a clearer link with leadership and company strategies. Just as important is a further development of practicable participative ergonomics methods and tools for use at workplaces by the workers themselves, in order to integrate the top-down and the bottom-up processes and achieve better impact. Using participative processes for problem-solving and continuous improvement, focusing ergonomics and quality jointly has a great potential for improving working conditions and quality results simultaneously, and satisfying most of the interested parties.

  14. Mining ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhee, B.


    Changes in work practices and a drive for greater productivity have introduced a range of emerging issues in ergonomics in mining. Some of the practices appear to be at odds with the need to improve general occupational health and safety. Longer shift lengths and fatigue, mental overload and underload, intermittent heavy physical work, reduced task variation, sedentary work in fixed postures and whole-body vibration all have risks for health and safety. The increasing age of some of the workforce is of concern. There appears to be a need to recognise these as potential causes of health problems. The article gives a review of these problems are reports on research findings. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  15. On the identification and prevention of ergonomic risk factors:with special regard to reported occupational injuries of the musculo-skeletal system.


    Kemmlert, Kristina


    A checklist for the screening of ergonomic risks was designed, evaluated and applied at work place assessments. Training for measurements for the revised NIOSH lifting equation was described and the inter-observer reliability discussed. With a view to prevention and with an age perspective, 1 600 extual descriptions of slip trip and fall accidents were studied. Older people reported accidents of this kind more often than younger, but as regards contributing factors there were no considerable ...

  16. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa


    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challeng...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed.......The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challenges...... in knowledge intensive work to establish productive and satisfying jobs by a case study of our own place of work: a university department. Testimonials from a young associate professor, a first line manager and the department manager lead us to identify some of the major challenges for ergonomics to comply...

  17. Using ergonomics Digital Human Modeling in Evaluation of workplace Design and Prevention of work related musculoeskeletal disorders aboard small fishing vessels r


    Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Zhang, Bing; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel


    This article seeks to presentmethods for preventing work-relatedmusculoskeletal disorders of Spanish fishermen and for redesigning the workplace aboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps. First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish were studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). ...

  18. Robotics and ergonomics. (United States)

    Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Rattner, David


    Industrial robotics have proven the benefit of using an untiring machine to perform precise repetitive tasks in uncomfortable or dangerous for humans environments. Highly skilled surgeons are trained to operate and adapt to difficult conditions. They are even capable of developing intelligent mechanisms to exploit a variety of tactile, visual, and other cues. The robotic systems, however, can enhance the surgeon's capability to perform a wide variety of tasks. They cannot replace the surgeon's problem-solving ability. Instead, they will redefine his role. They will significantly enhance the surgeon's skills and dexterity by providing their complementary capabilities and an ergonomically efficient and more user-friendly working environment.

  19. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable. (United States)

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey


    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  20. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.L.


    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  1. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design. (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia


    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  2. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities. (United States)

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet


    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  3. A total approach in ergonomics is a must to attain humane, competitive and sustainable work systems and products. (United States)

    Manuaba, Adnyana


    Globalization brings along complexity, competition and change as anticipated by working in teams, quality enhancement of human resources and a change of mind-set to be more holistic in approaches. Enhancement of expertise, widening of the horizon, developing added values as well as preparedness to carry out management of the future have to be built and developed. Conditioning and customizing programs through formal and informal education and training should also be carried out in bridging existing gaps, filling needs and solving key problems. New proper and appropriate curricula must be developed together with encouraging the change of mind-set. It is essential to attain the highest capabilities to work in a team and to think and act holistically, as well as to enhance human relations capabilities in communicating the research results. By so doing, the gaps between research and implementation and between theory and practice need to be bridged; the felt real needs of the target groups could thus be filled; and the root causes of the problems faced in any activity could be solved in a sustainable manner. In implementation, a SHIP (Systemic, Holistic, Interdisciplinary and Participatory) approach must be conducted for identifying, analyzing and solving the problems so as to attain sustainable results. In defining the technology being used, it must be comprehensively assessed through six criteria so that it can be technically, economically, ergonomically and socio-culturally sound, save energy and preserve the environment. Through this total approach, work organization and work systems and their products are expected to be more humane (healthier, safer, comfortable, efficient), competitive and sustainable, as prerequisites for survival and continual development.

  4. Prevalence of low back pain in salespersons and its association with ergonomic risk factors in Ahmedabad, Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutvik Shyamal Purani


    Full Text Available Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially low back pain (LBP, cause substantial economic loss to individuals as well as to the community. Salespersons in department stores are at an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. Among these, LBP is most extensively reported. Their jobs involve prolonged standing and manual handling tasks such as lifting, carrying, pushing, and pulling which have been identified as risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of LBP in salespersons and its association with ergonomic risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey consisting of 150 salespersons from different malls between 20 and 40 years with body mass index between 18 and 24 kg/m 2 , having at least 1-year working experience and standing for 5 h/day, was conducted in Ahmedabad. Those with a history of trauma, preexisting medical conditions, or musculoskeletal deformities were excluded. One-year prevalence of self-reported LBP was assessed using Standardized Nordic Pain Questionnaire. Individual factors and ergonomic risk factors were also assessed. The level of significance was set at 5%. Statistical software GraphPad Prism version 5 was used for analysis. Results: One-year prevalence of self-reported LBP was 58%. Frequency of prolonged forward bending and twisting the body was significantly associated with LBP (P < 0.001. Working in static posture for longer periods during work was also associated with LBP (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Prevalence of self-reported LBP in salespersons of Ahmedabad was 58%, and it has a significant association with ergonomic risk factors.

  5. Workplace Ergonomic and Psychosocial Factors in Occupational Back Disorders, Healthcare Utilization, and Lost Time: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies (United States)


    and work stress exposure) entered last . Once the multivariate logistic regression results were examined~ variables that failed to reach a minimum...terms (social problem solving, ergonomic exposure, and work stress exposure) entered last . Healthcare Utilization: The healthcare utilization outcome was... AMBLYOPIA . OTH SPEC VISUAL DISTURBANCES ACUTE CONJUNCTIVITIS. UNSPEC CONJUNCTIVITIS. UNSPEC · TRICHIASIS OF EYELID WIO ENTROPION EXOTROPIA. UNSPEC

  6. The PhOCoe Model--ergonomic pattern mapping in participatory design processes. (United States)

    Silva e Santos, Marcello


    The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be.

  7. Ergonomics Issues in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Loo


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ergonomics so far has had little impact in Malaysia. For most Malaysian managers, ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance, but rather with occupational health and safety and legislation. Approach: This study reviews the development of ergonomics in Malaysia and the underlying issues related to national development. Results: Many changes need to be made within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by integrating concepts from the social sciences with technological advances into Malaysian culture to enhance productivity and sustainable improvements in the quality of life, while achieving essential health and safety goals. Conclusion/Recommendation: Ergonomics helps to improve performance besides enhancing workplace OSH. It is essential to promote ergonomics concepts and practice to various industries in Malaysia. More effort and skills are required to compensate for the lack of infrastructure in providing a framework within which ergonomics recommendations can be disseminated and realized.

  8. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Lükö


    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  9. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Modern Control/Display Components and Standard Parts. (United States)


    Journal of Ergonomics and the Human Factors Journal indexes were reviewed. DDC and NASA STIF data bases were also searched. Human engineers specializing...addition, the Journal of Ergonomics and the Human Factors Journal indexes were reviewed. DDC and NASA STIF data bases were also searched. Human

  10. Ergonomic risk factors and physical discomfort in laptop-computer users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vladimir


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for discomfort in laptop users. Subjective feeling, load level, intensity and frequency of discomfort were examined. The study included 186 subjects. In the first phase participants completed a questionnaire about the subjective feeling of discomfort and specifics of laptop usage, while in the second phase 10 participants were observed while working on a laptop. Upper body postures were assessed with the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA technique. Nearly one fifth of respondents showed a higher incidence of discomfort. Majority of subjects reported wrong sitting posture and unusual body postures as main factors that increase discomfort after laptop usage. After using a laptop, discomfort increases primarily in the neck, with risk factors being working for several hours continuously, in the environments with no fixed area for device placement and without using the external devices. In most positions neck extension/ flexion was noticed as a result of the specific device design. Discomfort is increased in the back, although somewhat less than in the neck. Risk factors are amplified while working continuously for several hours, working for more than five hours and in postures like sitting on the bench and without external devices. Discomfort also increases in hand wrist, in users who mostly sit on fixed surfaces. The RULA observation has shown that the risk is the greatest in the following positions: when laptop is used while sitting on the floor, lying down, and with the device on the lap. The findings have important implications for improving laptop users' wellbeing in contemporary work environment.

  11. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception (United States)

    Keravel, Francine


    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  12. A case study on implementing lean ergonomic manufacturing systems (LEMS) in an automobile industry (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Niraj, Malay


    Lean manufacturing is a business strategy developed in Japan. In the present scenario, the global market is developing new techniques for getting more and more production rate with a good quality under low cost. In this context, human factors have to be given importance to their working conditions. The study demonstrates the adoption of ergonomic conditions in lean manufacturing for the improvement of organizational performance of the industry. The aim of ergonomics is to adapt the new techniques to their work in efficient and safe ways in order to optimize the human health conditions and increasing the production rate. By conducting survey on various disciplines and showed how the production rate and human ergonomic conditions is affected.

  13. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  14. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics. (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC


    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  15. Ergonomics: case study in a university library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Capri


    Full Text Available This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics were contextualized and linked to the library and the university library. Referring to the methodology, the Ergonomical Assessment of the Built Environment was used as a reference. The study subjects comprised a sample of 15, among students and library staff. In the results obtained, when related to the physical-environmental analysis of the library, it was found that there are some aspects that differ from the regulatory standards and that also fall short in relation to feedback from users. Aspects such as lighting and noise were cited as unsatisfactory, but the temperature factor was analyzed as satisfactory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sharm


    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations compete between themselves in various categories such as faster delivery, price tags, state of art - technology and higher quality dimensio ns. A Conceptual framework with lean manufacturing and hum an factors interventions for improving business performance in terms of improved quality, reduced cost and faster de livery is presented and example s from literature are given to illustrate the desir ed situation in which ergonomics is considered as an integrated part of performance strategy . A case from an industry engaged in manufacturing shafts using lean manufacturing practices with successful ergonomic or human factors interventions is also inves tigated.

  17. Study on Multi-effect Time Parameters of Ergonomic Validity Index in Low-carbon Residential Kitchen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ji; Hong Jin


    In the study on functional low⁃carbon ergonomic validity in buildings, ergonomic validity is different from resource validity which is easy for quantitative analysis. To eliminate the complexity and uncertainty impacts of human factors on quantitative study, it proposes a method of building a parameter of ergonomic validity —multi⁃effect time by using cardiotachometer to record heart rate change, being used to evaluate the functional low⁃carbon ergonomic validity targeting at the ontological characteristics of kitchen. This method is used to determine the physical consumption intensity ( multi⁃effect ) through heart rate incremental relation based on the principles of physiology and ergonomics, and to confirm the ergonomic validity of environmental factors by the time to complete standard work as well as multi⁃effect quantitative analysis. The test results show that, under the kitchen operating conditions, the multi⁃effect( ME) can properly reflect the real⁃time status of the operator and is easily operated; the parameters obtained are not significantly related to the physiological status of the operator, and multi⁃effect time( MT) is sensitive to the physical consumption brought about to the operator due to kitchen environmental factors;thus, it can be taken as an objective index,which is simple and easy to operate in residential kitchen functional low⁃carbon evaluation.

  18. East European Ergonomics. (United States)


    Ergonomics Analysis" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976, 9/3, 121-126 Positions defined on some essential conceptual and dmethodological questions relating to...Bartha "The Scientific-Technical Revolution and Ergonomics" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1978, 11/4, 217-221. Review of theoretical and practical problems of...Quantification of Means of Production" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976 9/4 221-223. Actions taken in the course of Comecon ergonomic cooperation, difficulties in a

  19. Integration of ergonomics into hand tool design: principle and presentation of an example. (United States)

    Aptel, Michel; Claudon, Laurent; Marsot, Jacques


    The development of ergonomic tools responds to health protection needs on the part of workers, especially the work related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs and to the development of ergonomic tools to take into account the needs of the factories. Only an ergonomic design process can enable tool manufacturers to meet these requirements. Three factors are involved: integration of ergonomics into the design process, definition of the different ergonomic stages involved, and finally knowledge of the different factors involved in hand tool design. This document examines these 3 elements in more detail and presents briefly a project of research whose main purpose is to integrate ergonomic criteria into a design process.

  20. Human Factors Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  1. Enhancement of human performance with developing ergonomic workplace environment and providing work-life balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Forgacs,


    Full Text Available Ergonomy aims at creating a work place that suits the employee’s needs. A well-developed office does not only increase work efficiency but it can also significantly reduce costs. This study researches and reveals the specific personal attributes and the factors of workplace environment, which have an effect on the efficiency of the workforce. We were searching for studies, where the core work wasn’t changed -the increase in work efficiency was reached only by changing the work environment.

  2. Exercise and sports equipment: some ergonomics aspects. (United States)

    Reilly, T; Lees, A


    Sports equipment encompasses a gamut of devices used in laboratory, training and competitive contexts and these form the content of this paper. Ergometers range in sophistication from friction braked stationary bicycles to computer controlled simulators which incorporate exercise modes specific to the athletic user. These are now used in training, as experimental devices and in some instances for competition purposes. Training equipment exhibits a similar emphasis on exercise specificity, safety being an important aspect of its use. Design of projectiles for sporting activities has mainly reflected their traditional modes of use, the introduction of synthetic materials having some ergonomics implications. Similarly, materials science and design technology have contributed innovations in equipment for racquet sports and hitting implements. The changes have tended to be associated with availability of new materials for product construction and have implications for safety and skill in the transition to using the new products. Ski equipment design illustrates ergonomics factors in interfacing the performer with the sporting environment and how equipment has progressed by regenerative design processes. Enhancement of performance in some sports must be accompanied by an awareness of safety requirements: where appropriate, risks to participants should be reduced by use of protective clothing and equipment. Enforced validation of protective equipment is recommended to raise safety levels in certain sports and the safety of spectators must not be neglected. Human factors criteria can then be applied in monitoring, officiating and spectating at sporting events.

  3. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.


    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  4. Action in Ergonomics (United States)

    Training Officer, 1975


    A discussion with James Crowley of British Steel Corporation on the changing face of ergonomics in practice today and yesterday examines the influence of experimental psychology on the method of study and data collection. The broadening scope of ergonomics from only safety concerns to cost effectiveness and the computer are analyzed. (Author/JB)



    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM


    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  6. Ergonomic applications to dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Gupta


    Full Text Available The term "work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs," refers to musculoskeletal disorders to which the work environment contributes significantly, or to musculoskeletal disorders that are made worse or longer lasting by work conditions or workplace risk factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in reporting WMSDs for dental persons. Risk factors of WMSDs with specific reference to dentistry include - stress, poor flexibility, improper positioning, infrequent breaks, repetitive movements, weak postural muscles, prolonged awkward postures and improper adjustment of equipment. Ergonomics is the science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. In this article, 20 strategies to prevent WMSDs in the dental operatory are discussed.

  7. Ergonomic Interventions in Manual Handling of Carpets to the retail sellers in a textile company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Darvishi


    .Conclusion: By implementing ergonomics interventions in carpet delivery sites, the risk factors of MSDs, induced by manual carpet handling, were reduced and safety and ergonomic conditions of the retailers were improved, compared to the previous conditions.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of ergonomic interventions in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P.d e; Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Rhijn, J.W. van


    Early cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions in manufacturing is in the interest of the production management and the ergonomics specialist. Because of the variety of factors and the complexity to quantify these factors, this task is not an easy one. In this article we present a case study

  9. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole


    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, ...

  10. [Ergonomics of the workplace in radiology]. (United States)

    García-Lallana, A; Viteri-Ramírez, G; Saiz-Mendiguren, R; Broncano, J; Dámaso Aquerreta, J


    The replacement of conventional films and view boxes with digital images and computer monitors managed by PACS has clearly improved the diagnostic imaging workplace. The new setup has many advantages, including increased productivity brought about by decreased overall time required for image interpretation. On the other hand, the implementation of the digital workplace has increased the importance of factors like background lighting and the position of the chair, work table, mouse, keyboard, and monitor to prevent lesions that can disable the radiologist. The influence of these factors is often undervalued in the design and implementation of the radiological workplace. This article provides recommendations for the design of the radiological workplace based on ergonomics, which is the science that studies interactions among humans and other elements of a system.

  11. Crossing levels in systems ergonomics: a framework to support 'mesoergonomic' inquiry. (United States)

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Waterson, Patrick; Holden, Richard J


    In this paper we elaborate and articulate the need for what has been termed 'mesoergonomics'. In particular, we argue that the concept has the potential to bridge the gap between, and integrate, established work within the domains of micro- and macroergonomics. Mesoergonomics is defined as an open systems approach to human factors and ergonomics (HFE) theory and research whereby the relationship between variables in at least two different system levels or echelons is studied, and where the dependent variables are human factors and ergonomic constructs. We present a framework which can be used to structure a set of questions for future work and prompt further empirical and conceptual inquiry. The framework consists of four steps: (1) establishing the purpose of the mesoergonomic investigation; (2) selecting human factors and ergonomics variables; (3) selecting a specific type of mesoergonomic investigation; and (4) establishing relationships between system levels. In addition, we describe two case studies which illustrate the workings of the framework and the value of adopting a mesoergonomic perspective within HFE. The paper concludes with a set of issues which could form part of a future agenda for research within systems ergonomics.

  12. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)


    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  13. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics


    Broberg, Ole


    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.

  14. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole


    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However......, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries....

  15. [Ergonomics in planning and reconstruction]. (United States)

    Baglioni, A; Capolongo, S


    The state of well being of people is not represented only by any illness, but also by the satisfaction of all environmental components around him. For this reason, the hospitals demand new and more project attentions and in particular they demand specific attentions for all the environmental qualities (light, colours, indoor air qualities, and temperature), the equipment, the furniture and the privacy. This new attention to the requirements of people, during the phase of planning, needs the ergonomic studies. This kind of discipline, in fact, has got the objective of good relationships between men and context where they live. The study of ergonomic qualities needs different competence of multiple areas of acquaintance, that collaborate to analyse the requirements of sanitary structure, and in particular they analyse needs of different categories of people that work or stay in this place (the patients, visitors and sanitary staff). Moreover ergonomic studies concurs to analyse the various factors of complexity, of the buildings, that are very important for the project of hospital. From the scientific literature, we say that some physical environmental characteristics (light, colour, noise,) can influence the psychological conditions of people, and in particular they can generate three different categories of reactions: behavioural, neuropsychological, neuroendocrinal. For this reason the study of all the environmental factors, simple and composed, is a primary necessity in the hospital planning. In this way we can guarantee to the patient, a better sanitary service and a better comfort, and we can guarantee to all sanitary staff adequate conditions of security and functionality.

  16. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn


    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  17. Helicopter human factors (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.


    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  18. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) You will receive and invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  19. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) You will be invited by email after your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  20. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! •\tErgonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) •\tErgonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) You will receive an invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  1. Early variability in the conceptualisation of "sustainable development and human factors". (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew


    The sub-discipline of "sustainable development and human factors" is relatively new, first being used in 2006 with a Technical Committee of the IEA being established only in 2009 and a similar special interest group on "green ergonomics" at the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors being established in 2010. In general though, the definitions and practice of "sustainable development" is highly contentious and ambiguous across a range of disciplines. This paper examines the diversity of definitions and approaches to sustainable development and human factors in the early papers in this sub-discipline. An examination of 45 chapters and papers (from 2008 to 2011) reveals a surprising consistency in the definitions used for sustainable development but also a large proportion of the papers where no definitions are given at all. The majority of papers were, however, biased towards an economic capital and social capital emphasis, which is to be expected of work traditionally in the ergonomics paradigm. Further, most papers were theoretical in nature demonstrating a great opportunity for empirical work. The variability in definitions is discussed in relation to the future challenges facing the growth of this emergent sub-discipline and opportunities for further theoretical and empirical work.

  2. A study on the design system of human sensibility ergonomics for development of a customer-oriented product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.G.; Yang, S.M.; Park, J.S.; Lee, S.Y. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The human sense is measured and analyzed by physical design factors and can be applied also for the product design. At this point of view, this paper describes the implementation process of Virtual Modeling system for a customer-oriented product. The first step implementing virtual modeling is to make a human sensibility({sup K}ansei{sup )} database -human sensibility database is constructed with the relational data of Kansei words and design factors-. The next step is extraction the design information from the human sensibility database by fuzzy inference algorithm. This design information is used for the input data for the graphic database. Virtual implementation software compounds 3D shape of product. The final product can be modified according to the customer`s requirement. (author). 13 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Human Factors Model (United States)


    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  4. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide (United States)

    ... as well as tips for prevention of repetitive stress injuries. Ensuring proper ergonomics in the workplace is a smart business decision because it increases employee productivity and satisfaction. CAP works to ensure that people with disabilities have equal ...

  5. History of ergonomics and occupational therapy. (United States)

    Gainer, Rochelle D


    Ergonomics is commonly known as "the scientific study of human work" [14, p. 3] and "the application of scientific information concerning human beings to the design of objects, systems, and environments" (p. 4). The American Occupational Therapy Association defines occupational therapy as "skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It gives people the 'skills for the job of living' necessary for independent and satisfying lives [1]." Both professions share common backgrounds. Occupational therapy has been involved in health care and ergonomics is looking for its place in the health care field.

  6. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics. (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A


    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  7. Human factors in network security


    Jones, Francis B.


    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  8. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents. (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W


    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Ergonomics in Laparoscopic Surgery


    Supe Avinash; Kulkarni Gaurav; Supe Pradnya


    Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comf...

  10. Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Avinash


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.

  11. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson


    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  12. The importance of ergonomics to sustainability throughout a building's life cycle. (United States)

    Miller, Linda; Dorsey, Julie; Jacobs, Karen


    Protecting and conserving environmental resources is a global concern. Over the past decade, a number of certification processes have emerged to help designers and operators of buildings assess the potential impact of a building on the environment. Certifications such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) consider the environmental impact through the lifecycle of a building, but may not be considering the people that construct and utilize it. It is important to remember the human factor. Considering the human factor throughout the lifecycle is crucial to ensure individuals are protected during construction and in operation in the built environment. The paper highlights how ergonomics can be integrated into the life cycle of a building to promote sustainability goals for both the human factor and the environment. A case study approach will be used to illustrate how ergonomics was integrated into a LEED renovation and expanded into its daily operations on a large university campus..

  13. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy


    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  14. Helicopter Human Factors (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)


    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  15. Helicopter Human Factors (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)


    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  16. Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: an ILO perspective. (United States)

    Niu, Shengli


    The ILO has a mandate to protect workers against sickness, diseases and injuries due to workplace hazards and risks including ergonomic and work organization risk factors. One of the main functions for the ILO is to develop international standards related to labour and work. ILO standards have exerted considerable influence on the laws and regulations of member States. The ILO standards take the form of international Conventions and Recommendations. ILO Conventions and Recommendations relevant to protection of workers against ergonomic risk factors at the workplace include Convention No. 127 and Recommendation No.128 which specify the international requirements concerning the manual transport of a load. To help member States in applying the ILO standards, the ILO produces practical guides and training manuals on ergonomics at work and collects and analyses national practices and laws on ergonomics at the workplace. The ILO also conducts technical cooperation activities in many countries on ergonomics to support and strengthen the capacities of its tripartite constituents in dealing with workplace ergonomic and work organization risks. The ILO's technical cooperation activities give priorities on the promotion of voluntary, participatory and action-oriented actions to improve working conditions and work organizations of the small and medium sized enterprises. This paper reviews ILO's policies and activities on ergonomics in relation to occupational safety and health and prescribes ILO's considerations for its future work on ergonomics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JENČEK


    Full Text Available The number and consequences of traffic accidents and work accidents in road transport represent a burden for individuals and society, as well as a substantial economic burden for transport companies, while also affecting their competitiveness. Research in the area of transport and road vehicle ergonomics can contribute to ensuring conditions for a more secure and efficient operation of commercial road vehicles, thereby reducing the risk of road accidents. The safety of vehicle operation and road transport depends in large part on good comportment between ergonomic vehicle design and human capabilities and limitations. Eventual ergonomic incongruity between these elements may have negative safety implications. The article presents an approach to ergonomic design of commercial road vehicles and their ergonomic evaluation, which occurs in two stages, the design of the vehicle and its exploitation.

  18. Ergonomics research: Impact on injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.


    No tool has characterized the modern workplace like the personal computer. An estimated 60 million PCs adorn desks in virtually every work environment today, achieving remarkable increases in productivity while virtually transforming entire industries. At the same time, however, an increasing number of employees are heavy computer users who suffer painful and sometimes debilitating (and occasionally career-ending) injuries called work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) involving their hands and arms. Within computer-intensive occupations the incidence of injury has doubled every year for the past four years. These disorders cost the nation over $40 billion per year in medical costs alone. When productivity losses and disability and retraining costs are included, the total bill may top $80 billion per year. A common injury is tendonitis--inflammation of tendons, which connect muscle to bone. Another well-publicized injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, involves damage to the median nerve that travels through a tight space in the wrist called the carpal tunnel. In the past, safety at most work sites, including Lawrence Livermore, traditionally focused on avoiding accidental injuries caused by hazardous materials or industrial equipment. As a result, procedures and instruments were developed that can detect, for example, toxic solvents at extremely low levels. Little is known about the range of WRMSDs which can lend itself to avoiding these problems. In response to the lack of scientific data, Lawrence Livermore`s Interdisciplinary Ergonomics Research Program is addressing comprehensively the problem of WRMSDs plaguing US industry. The program uses a multidisciplinary research team that taps LLNL`s strengths in human factors design and engineering, computational modeling, biomechanical engineering, sensors, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine.

  19. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane


    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  20. Integration of human factors principles in LARG organizations--a conceptual model. (United States)

    Figueira, Sara; Machado, V Cruz; Nunes, Isabel L


    Nowadays many companies are undergoing organizational transformations in order to meet the changing market demands. Thus, in order to become more competitive, supply chains (SC) are adopting new management paradigms to improve SC performance: lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG paradigms). The implementation of new production paradigms demands particular care with the issues related with Human Factors to avoid health and safety problems to workers and losses to companies. Thus, the successful introduction of these new production paradigms depends among others on a Human Factors oriented approach. This work presents a conceptual framework that allows integrating ergonomic and safety design principles during the different implementation phases of lean, agile, resilient and green practices.

  1. Inter-rater agreement on self-reported exposure to ergonomic risk factors for the upper extremities among mechanic assemblers in an automotive industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    d'Errico, Angelo; Fontana, Dario; Merogno, Angela


    ...) in a sample of mechanical assemblers of an automotive industry. cross-sectional study; reproducibility was assessed as interrater agreement of a composite index of ergonomic risk, estimated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC...

  2. Learning without Pain: Ergonomics Prevents Injuries. Revised (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012


    "Ergonomics" is a body of knowledge about human abilities and limitations and how these abilities and limitations should be applied to the design of equipment, machinery, and other devices to ensure safe, comfortable and effective use. Most homes and schools today are equipped with computers for student use. Backpacks have become the…

  3. Positive outcomes of office ergonomics in terms of higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terek Edit


    Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.

  4. [Ergonomic movement in dentistry]. (United States)

    Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W


    'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.

  5. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient. (United States)

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P


    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care.

  6. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.


    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  7. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement. (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello


    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  8. 保健型人机键盘的参数优化与工效学设计%Optimization and Ergonomics Design of Human-computer Keyboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article analyzes the keyboard functions on the basis of man-machine relations and innovative design both the functional needs of the human body and strong features of the modern health - type keyboard. In which the whole appearance of the keyboard, the key board layout , the bit keys and the design materials . All of these are human ergonomics - based innovative design. That not only is a new attempt of the keyboard design but also is a challenge the human product.%目的:文章探讨键盘参数设计与工作舒适性的关系,拟设计出布局合理,参数优化的保健型人机键盘.方法:采用调查问卷与人机测量相结合的方法,抽样调查100名样本人群,进行手型及手指操作分工测量,得出键盘操作规律.结果:主键盘采用分离设计的思想,Backspace键,delete键移到了主键盘,设置了一组快捷功能键,增加键枯托,键艋的色彩、材料重新选择,初步完成了全新一体化的办公键盘的设计.

  9. User Experience As A Challenge For Cognitive Psychology And Ergonomics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauro Marchitto; José J. Cañas


    .... In this new context, cognitive psychology and ergonomics should be able to assist the innovation process through an analysis of the actions that constitute human life and the role that technology plays in these actions...

  10. Ergonomía


    Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel


    Conté: 1. Fundamentos. 2. Confort y estrés térmico. La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.

  11. The demands and benefits of ergonomics in Sri Lankan apparel industry: A case study at MAS holdings. (United States)

    Abeysekera, John; Illankoon, Prasanna


    Apparel exports bring in sizeable foreign income to Sri Lanka. To protect and promote this industry is a paramount need. This can be carried out by applying Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) which has proved to control negative effects at work places. This paper reports a case study which describes the demands and benefits of HFE in MAS Holdings which owns a large share of the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of walk through observation survey, a questionnaire survey and ergonomic work place analysis followed by a training programme to selected employees in three companies. Positive responses to questionnaires revealed good ergonomic practices in the work places surveyed. Ergonomically unfit chairs and potential hazards e.g. exposure to noise and hot environment were detected. It is seen that MAS have introduced strategies originated by Toyota Production System viz. 5S, Kaizen, six sigma etc., which are in fact ergonomic methods. A progressive project MAS boast of viz. 'MAS Operating System' (MOS) empowers training and development to employees. MAS Holdings has adequately realized the benefits of applying HFE as evident by the number of awards received. Relevant companies were advised to take appropriate corrective measures to control the potential hazards.

  12. Integrating Human Factors into Space Vehicle Processing for Risk Management (United States)

    Woodbury, Sarah; Richards, Kimberly J.


    This presentation will discuss the multiple projects performed in United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance (HEMAP) Lab, improvements that resulted from analysis, and the future applications of the HEMAP Lab for risk assessment by evaluating human/machine interaction and ergonomic designs.

  13. Ergonomics and kansei design; Ergonomics to kansei sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes product design in which a concept of ergonomics is employed and sensibility (kansei) is taken into consideration. In reference to an interface between human beings and machinery, the compatibility with both of them consists of five sides, namely compatibility in body, brain, time, environment and operation. It is necessary to give thought generally to each of these sides at the time of planning a design. Observing, scientific measuring and asking have been proposed methodologically in the utilization of ergonomics, a science to think over an interface. Especially, the scientific measuring is constituted of a measurement from a psychological side by SD method for example and a measurement from a physiological side by such method as heartbeat and a flicker value; the physiological data concerning sensibility is stored in a data base and made available for design work. Importantly, the composition of an interface that enhances sensibility increases the transparency of the interface as well; difference is obvious in a design work using a computer whether the screen is characters only or whether it is assisted with GUI(graphical user interface). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Bad Enough Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Peteri


    Full Text Available The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufacturing process. The article is concerned with how, in the process of producing an office chair, the chair gains an identity of an aesthetic design object and how this comes to mean the reformulation of the idea of ergonomics. The empirical analysis also provides insight into how the somewhat grand discourses of soft capitalism or aesthetic economy are not abstract, but very much grounded in everyday practices of an organization. The article establishes how the vision shared by all the relevant actors invites active, flexible, and cooperative end-users and how the vision also has potential material effects. The research is an ethnographically inspired case study that draws ideas from discursive psychology.

  15. Discussion after implementation of possible ergonomics contributions in production lines automation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Canton


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysis of the solution implemented, and the subsequent analysis of this design process. It was found that the adopted solution does not have enough leeway for dealing with variations inherent to the process, requiring constant interventions in the operation, by the operators in order to free the line to continue work. It was evident that the adopted solution did not involve the participation of important agents such as the operators and the maintenance crew, giving the project a technical vision that was concerned with eliminating the human factor. The conclusion of this study was that the Ergonomics integrated into the project development favors the collective construction of analysis of the research, and consequently, the development of more effective solutions.

  16. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies. (United States)

    Xu, Wei


    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  17. Workplace aesthetics: impact of environments upon employee health as compared to ergonomics. (United States)

    Schell, Elisabet; Theorell, Tores; Saraste, Helena


    Associations between self-reported needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements were studied to analyse a possible impact of aesthetic needs on job performance as compared to ergonomic needs in 11 occupational groups. Employees at Swedish broadcasting company were invited to participate in a cross sectional study. 74% (n=1961/2641) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Demographic data from company files and a pre-validated questionnaire were used. 'High rank' and 'low rank' aesthetic and ergonomic needs were compared. The perceived needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements showed significantly different distributions (pstress, pain and age. 16/24 factors showed significant differences between 'high and low rank' aesthetic needs, whereas 21/24 between ergonomic needs. Sick leave was stronger related to ergonomics. The study results show a relation between not only work place ergonomics but also work place aesthetics to health and well-being. Future work health promotion and prevention may benefit from the inclusion of workplace aesthetics.

  18. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry. (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña


    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  19. Human Factors in Training (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin


    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  20. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak


    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  1. My 20 years of experience in the human factors field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnino, A. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))


    My first encounter with human factors happened in early 1973: I was performing a reliability assessment of the safety injection system of the Fessenheim reactor, and I found that the operators had to switch to the recirculation phase manually and had only 6 min between the low and low-low level alarm indicating that the water tank was empty. It of course led us to replace this manual action by an automatic positioning for the recirculation phase. In July of the same year, I attended a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop in Liverpool on reliability assessment, and I met Alan Swain from the United States and Jens Rasmussen from Denmark. During the long rainy evenings of the seminar, we had time to discuss human errors and human factors, and that was the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration between us. I realized then the complexity of the problem. Quantification needs were obvious for reliability and risk assessment studies, but, at the same time, there were needs for better understanding of human behavior and the mechanisms that could lead to human errors. Knowledge of the man-machine interface also seemed very poor, although some basic ergonomic rules were available and could be applied. But a major problem was the lack of data.

  2. Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains. (United States)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa


    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

  3. Framework to Analyse Automotive Interiors with a Focus on Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Nikhil


    Full Text Available The small car market in India is increasing by leaps and bounds. The market for small cars now occupies a substantial share of around 70% of the annual car production in India of about one million. The main players in the car market like Tata Motors, Maruti Udyog and Hyundai etc. are fiercely competitive and are trying to outdo each other in terms of design and technology. However, ultimately the focus of a manufacturer is providing customer satisfaction which is driven by comfort and ease of use. Automotive ergonomics is the study of how automotive can be designed better for human use. The human factor aspect of designing automobiles is first considered at the Vehicle Packaging stage. The term Vehicle Packaging comes to use whenever a new model is in the early stage of study. It is a method to safeguard and protect space for the human user and necessary components that make up the vehicle being designed. The improvement in the vehicle ergonomics requires a basic understanding of the problems that arise due to the conventional automotive interior design.

  4. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao


    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  5. Engineering aesthetics and aesthetic ergonomics: theoretical foundations and a dual-process research methodology. (United States)

    Liu, Yili

    Although industrial and product designers are keenly aware of the importance of design aesthetics, they make aesthetic design decisions largely on the basis of their intuitive judgments and "educated guesses". Whilst ergonomics and human factors researchers have made great contributions to the safety, productivity, ease-of-use, and comfort of human-machine-environment systems, aesthetics is largely ignored as a topic of systematic scientific research in human factors and ergonomics. This article discusses the need for incorporating the aesthetics dimension in ergonomics and proposes the establishment of a new scientific and engineering discipline that we can call "engineering aesthetics". This discipline addresses two major questions: How do we use engineering and scientific methods to study aesthetics concepts in general and design aesthetics in particular? How do we incorporate engineering and scientific methods in the aesthetic design and evaluation process? This article identifies two special features that distinguish aesthetic appraisal of products and system designs from aesthetic appreciation of art, and lays out a theoretical foundation as well as a dual-process research methodology for "engineering aesthetics". Sample applications of this methodology are also described.

  6. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st annual meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Topics covered include: operator/user modeling; automation safety; manual materials handling (includes a paper on materials handling in underground coal mining); impact of human performance on system performance; transportation safety; ergonomic design; mining safety, sleep deprivation and stressors; environmental design; training evaluation and research; and design and evaluation.

  7. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement (United States)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.


    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  8. NASA Space Human Factors Program (United States)


    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  9. Human-factors engineering for smart transport: design support for car drivers and train traffic controllers. (United States)

    Lenior, Dick; Janssen, Wiel; Neerincx, Mark; Schreibers, Kirsten


    The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering human factors in the vehicle ergonomics and train traffic control domain. The examples are representative of an ongoing trend in automation and they show how the human role changes from controller to supervisor. Section 2 focuses on the car driver and systems that support, or sometimes even take over, critical parts of the driving task. Due to the diversity of driver ability, driving context and dependence between driver and context factors, there is a need for personalised, adaptive and integrated support. Systematic research is needed to establish sound systems. Section 3 focuses on the train dispatcher support systems that predict train movements, detect potential conflicts and show the dispatcher the possibilities available to solve the detected problems. Via thorough analysis of both the process to be controlled and the dispatcher's tasks and cognitive needs, support functions were developed as part of an already very complex supervision and control system. The two examples, although from a different field, both show the need for further development in cognitive modelling as well as for the value of sound ergonomics task analysis in design practice.

  10. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control. (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda


    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  11. Big data and ergonomics methods: A new paradigm for tackling strategic transport safety risks. (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Strathie, Ailsa


    Big data collected from On-Train Data Recorders (OTDR) has the potential to address the most important strategic risks currently faced by rail operators and authorities worldwide. These risk issues are increasingly orientated around human performance and have proven resistant to existing approaches. This paper presents a number of proof of concept demonstrations to show that long standing ergonomics methods can be driven from big data, and succeed in providing insight into human performance in a novel way. Over 300 ergonomics methods were reviewed and a smaller sub-set selected for proof-of-concept development using real on-train recorder data. From this are derived nine candidate Human Factors Leading Indicators which map on to all of the psychological precursors of the identified risks. This approach has the potential to make use of a significantly underused source of data, and enable rail industry stakeholders to intervene sooner to address human performance issues that, via the methods presented in this paper, are clearly manifest in on-train data recordings. The intersection of psychological knowledge, ergonomics methods and big data creates an important new framework for driving new insights.

  12. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole


    ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics...

  13. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and dental practice Part 2. Risk factors for dentistry, magnitude of the problem, prevention, and dental ergonomics. (United States)

    Yamalik, Nermin


    As a consequence of occupational stresses placed on their bodies, oral health care providers (OHP) are vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Muscular imbalance, neuromuscular inhibition, and pain and dysfunction may frequently be observed among OHP. Repeated unnatural, deviated or inadequate working postures, forceful hand movements, inadequate equipment or workplace designs and inappropriate work patterns are likely to be the particular risk factors. However, WMSDs are not an avoidable part of OHPs' professional lives. Paying the necessary attention to occupational and individual risk factors, prevalence, symptoms and consequences of WMSDs, and implementing the recommended health and safety measures can enable a long and healthy career. This review essentially aims to provide background information for OHP regarding the magnitude of the problem, particular risk factors and the available recommendations for prevention.

  14. Key Human Factors of Vehicle Interior Occupant Packaging in SAE Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; HU Ping; JIN Chun-ning; WU Xiao-jun


    Fourteen SAE standards related to accommodation and occupant packaging for vehicle interior are studied.The influencing factors,key reference accommodation points and major design dimensions and their relationships of occupant packaging and ergonomics during the vehicle interior layout design and development are analyzed.Prototypes are presented to verify the results and how to achieve the packaging is shown.Automobile designers can achieve significant practical guidance for human safety,efficiency accommodation and occupant packaging of all passengers during the vehicle design process.

  15. Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)


    textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to stren

  16. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  17. Developing measures for information ergonomics in knowledge work. (United States)

    Franssila, Heljä; Okkonen, Jussi; Savolainen, Reijo


    Information ergonomics is an evolving application domain of ergonomics focusing on the management of workload in the real-world contexts of information-intensive tasks. This study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, five key dimensions of information ergonomics were identified: contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity. In total, 24 measures focusing on the above dimensions were constructed. The measures include, for example, the number of fragmented work tasks per work day. The measures were preliminarily tested in two Finnish organisations, making use of empirical data gathered by interviews, electronic questionnaires and log data applications tracking work processes on personal computers. The measures are applicable to the evaluation of information ergonomics, even though individual measures vary with regard to the amount of work and time needed for data analysis. Practitioner Summary: The study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, 24 measures were constructed and tested empirically. The measures focus on contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity.

  18. Hands-on lessons in ergonomics for youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K


    Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a

  19. Musculoskeletal symptoms as related to ergonomic factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry and general guidelines for workstation design. (United States)

    Choobineh, Alireza; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Shahnavaz, Houshang; Jazani, Reza Khani; Hosseini, Mostafa


    Carpet weaving is a high risk occupation for developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The objectives of the present study, which was carried out in the Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, were determination of the prevalence of MSD symptoms, identification of major factors associated with MSD symptoms and development of guidelines for workstation design. 1,439 randomly selected weavers participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on MSD symptoms. The results revealed that the prevalence rates for symptoms in different body regions were high as compared to the general Iranian population (for neck, back and large joints, p loom type, working posture, daily working time and seat type. Based on the results, some general guidelines for designing weaving workstations were developed. A prototype test showed that the new workstation was acceptable for subject tests and that it improved working posture.

  20. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  1. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991 (United States)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)


    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  2. Human factors in resuscitation teaching. (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S


    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends. (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio


    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  4. Human Factors Society, Annual Meeting, 35th, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2-6, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    These proceedings discuss human factor issues related to aerospace systems, aging, communications, computer systems, consumer products, education and forensic topics, environmental design, industrial ergonomics, international technology transfer, organizational design and management, personality and individual differences in human performance, safety, system development, test and evaluation, training, and visual performance. Particular attention is given to HUDs, attitude indicators, and sensor displays; human factors of space exploration; behavior and aging; the design and evaluation of phone-based interfaces; knowledge acquisition and expert systems; handwriting, speech, and other input techniques; interface design for text, numerics, and speech; and human factor issues in medicine. Also discussed are cumulative trauma disorders, industrial safety, evaluative techniques for automation impacts on the human operators, visual issues in training, and interpreting and organizing human factor concepts and information.

  5. Developing hands-on ergonomics lessons for youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K


    By the time students are ready to enter the workforce they have been exposed to up to 20 years of ergonomics risk factors. As technology evolves, it provides more opportunities for intensive repetitive motion and with computers, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and electronic games. The average student engages in fewer active physical activities, sit stationary in mismatched furniture in schools for hours and carry heavy backpacks. While long-term effects remain to be identified, increasingly ergonomists and others concerned with musculoskeletal health and wellness, see a need for early ergonomics education. This interactive session provides a hands-on approach to introducing ergonomics to students. Although different approaches may effectively introduce ergonomics at even early stages of development, this program was designed for youth at the middle to high school age. Attendees will participate in four activities designed to introduce ergonomics at an experiential level. The modules focus on grip strength, effective breathing, optimizing your chair, and backpack safety. The workshop will include presentation and worksheets designed for use by teachers with minimal ergonomics training. Feedback from the participants will be sought for further refining the usability and safety of the training package.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaljun


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.

  7. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, A. (ed.) (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ergonomics Research Lab.)


    125 papers are presented under the session headings: industrial ergonomics - programs and applications; applied work physiology; occupational biomechanics; engineering anthropometry; work and protective clothing; hand tools; human-computer interface; theory and practice of industrial safety; human perception and performance; human strengths; industrial noise and vibration; machine guarding and industrial machine safety; manual materials handling; modelling for safety and health; occupational injuries and health problems; policies and standards; quality control and inspection; rehabilitation and designing for the disabled; work duration and fatigue; and work and work place design. Includes papers on static and dynamic back strength of underground coal miners, and slip and fall accidents during equipment maintenance in the surface mining industry.

  8. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries (United States)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur


    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  9. Colour, vision and ergonomics. (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira


    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  10. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors]. (United States)

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G


    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working.

  11. Human factors assessment mechanical compression tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    The design and use of mechanical compression tools in electrical distribution functions were examined from the point of view of effects of design and use of tools on human operators. Various alternative tools such as manual compression tools, battery operated tools, wedge pressure tools, hydraulic tools, and insulating piercing connectors were also examined for purposes of comparison. Results of the comparative assessment were summarized and a tool satisfaction ratings table was produced for Burndy MD6, Huskie-Robo (REC 258) and Ampact (small) tools, rating level of effort, fatigue experienced, tool mass, force required to crimp, ease of use, comfort while using the tool, maneuverability, and overall satisfaction. Both the battery operated tool as well as the wedge pressure tool have been found to have ergonomic advantages over the mechanical compression tool.

  12. 基于人机学的键盘和鼠标的人性化设计%Humanization design of keyboard and mouse based on ergonomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭辉; 陈牧; 李青


    Aiming at the problems and inconvenience existing in using computer keyboard and mouse, a concenrated effort to design a kind of human oriented keyboard and mouse was made for the young people of 18 to 30-year-old based on ergonomics, psychology, physiology, etc. ,expressing the concept of the humanization design. The designs of color, appearance, function were included, with much attention to their conveyed meanings. The keyboard was improved pleasurably from the perspectives of plane layout, keystroke of the central section, edit & localization section and number aided section, color design. The results indicate that the newly-designed keyboard and mouse are helpful for users' health, releasing their tiredness and pain in neck, wraist and back and convenient and efficient as well, providing a happy, healthy environment for their users at the same time.%针对使用键盘和鼠标时存在的一些问题,为了减少操作者的手、肩、颈等部位肌肉疲劳和视觉疲劳,以及提高输入效率,基于人机工程学、心理学、生理学等原理,从颜色、形态、功能、寓意等方面出发,为18~30岁的青年人设计了一种更具人性化的键盘.通过对现有产品和文献的调查,确定了将键盘和鼠标联系在一起进行设计的设计思路.通过调整键盘和鼠标的平面布局,采用曲面和斜面键盘外形,在表面增加具有中国文化元素的图案等设计方法以改善人机性和视觉效果,传达人性化设计理念.

  13. Ergonomics and sustainable development in the past two decades (1992-2011): Research trends and how ergonomics can contribute to sustainable development. (United States)

    Radjiyev, Ayubkhon; Qiu, Hai; Xiong, Shuping; Nam, KyungHyun


    The need for sustainable development has been widely recognized and sustainable development has become a hot topic of various disciplines even though the role of ergonomics in it is seldom reported or considered. This study conducts a systematic survey of research publications in the fields of ergonomics and sustainable development over the past two decades (1992-2011), in order to identify their research trends and convergent areas where ergonomics can play an important role in sustainable development. The results show that 'methods and techniques', 'human characteristics', 'work design and organization', 'health and safety' and 'workplace and equipment design' are the top five frequently researched areas in ergonomics. Ergonomics has an opportunity to contribute its knowledge especially to 'industrial and product design', 'architecture', 'health and safety' and 'HCI' (especially for energy reduction issues) categories of sustainable development. Typical methodologies and general guidance on how to contribute the expertise of ergonomist to sustainable development are also discussed.

  14. Determinants of business sustainability: an ergonomics perspective. (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D


    There is a need to integrate both macro- and micro-ergonomic approaches for the effective implementation of interventions designed to improve the root causes of problems such as work safety, quality and productivity in the enterprise system. The objective of this study was to explore from an ergonomics perspective the concept of business sustainability through optimising the worker-work environment interface. The specific aims were: (a) to assess the working conditions of a production department work process with the goal to jointly optimise work safety, quality and quantity; (b) to evaluate the enterprise-wide work process at the system level as a social entity in an attempt to trace the root causes of ergonomic issues impacting employees throughout the work process. The Work Compatibility Model was deployed to examine the experiences of workers (that is, effort, perceived risk/benefit, performance and satisfaction/dissatisfaction or psychological impact) and their associations with the complex domains of the work environment (task content, physical and non-physical work environment and conditions for learning/growth/development). This was followed by assessment of the enterprise system through detailed interviews with department managers and lead workers. A system diagnostic instrument was also constructed from information derived from the published literature to evaluate the enterprise system performance. The investigation of the production department indicated that the stress and musculoskeletal pain experienced by workers (particularly on the day shift) were derived from sources elsewhere in the work process. The enterprise system evaluation and detailed interviews allowed the research team to chart the feed-forward and feedback stress propagation loops in the work system. System improvement strategies were extracted on the basis of tacit/explicit knowledge obtained from department managers and lead workers. In certain situations concerning workplace human

  15. Positive outcomes of participatory ergonomics in terms of greater comfort and higher productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molenbroek, J.F.


    Ergonomics sometimes has a negative connotation, as it is seen to be connected to illness or guidelines that limit innovations. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment. It consists of a part that studies the literature on success factors

  16. Ergonomic assessment of selected workstations on a merchant ship. (United States)

    Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata


    This study describes some key ergonomic factors within the engine room, navigation bridge and other locations of a merchant ship. Ergonomic assessments were carried out on a crew of a merchant ship. The study examines the importance of factors such as noise, vibration, heat radiation (in machinery areas), psychological stress and ergonomics of the physical arrangement of the navigation bridge. It also addresses the effect of working in confined areas for a long duration and the need to process large amounts of data, decision-making and the influence of specific operating conditions in different areas of a ship. This study includes analysis of workstations, working methods and the burden of environmental factors as well as a discussion of specific marine environmental conditions such as confined working and leisure spaces, long-term family and sociocultural separation, frequent changes in climate and time zones, and temporary physical overload and long-term psychological burdens.

  17. Ergonomics in the office environment (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.


    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  18. Human Factors in Financial Trading (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.


    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394


    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  20. Ergonomics and design in a ischial support proposal for the Medellin metro, Colombia. (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz Mercedes; Valencia Escobar, Andrés


    This project, developed by the Design Studies Research Group at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB), presents a design proposal focused on human factors for ischial support for the stations of the Medellín Metro. An initial pilot scheme was developed on Platform 'A' of San Antonio - the most important transfer station. The methodology of the Ergonomics Research Division at UPB constituted the basis of the project. This methodology observes, analyses and draws conclusions of the conditions that optimize the User-Product-Context nexus, and in doing so defines design requirements which, in this proposal, centered on the needs of the users of the Medellín Metro. The Experimental Morphology Research Division provided technical support in the form of modelling, production and structural testing of the object. The proposal includes thematic units, themes and priority components for analysis and application in the design process. In addition, the project generates certain activities and moments that future designers can develop in a parallel manner, coherent with the vision of ergonomics. The methodology focused on the requirements of the users and took into account the existing space (the Metro System), thus establishing relationships of use that were coherent with the principles of ergonomics and design.

  1. Prioritizing ergonomic research in aging for the 21st century American workforce. (United States)

    Schwerha, Diana J; McMullin, Dianne L


    The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that by 2008 Americans aged 55 and over will represent the greatest annual growth rate and will occupy 30% of the American population. Additionally, by 2008 civilian labor force participation rates for the 55 and older group will grow to 36.8%, a 6.5% increase over the participation rates for this group for 1996, with the 55 to 64 age group expected to add 7.3 million workers. The predicted median age of the labor force for 2008 is estimated at 40.7 years, an age not approached because the median age peaked at 40.5 years in 1962. Coupled with this aging profile, employment in professional specialty occupations will increase the fastest and add the most jobs in the decade leading to 2008. Within the professional specialty professions, the majority of the employment increases are expected to occur in the service industry division. The purpose of this paper is to merge demographic data with ergonomic and human factors data and predictions to explore areas of ergonomic research that will aid in keeping the aging workforce, and those with whom they interact, healthy in their jobs and keep the companies for whom they are employed competitive. Although some ergonomics research has been conducted in all the listed areas of expected growth, the paper reexamines the job demands in each sector, with a focus on the needs of the aging workforce.

  2. Effectiveness of the C-Sharp: reducing ergonomics problems at VDTs. (United States)

    Gallimore, J J; Brown, M E


    The use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been associated with complaints of visual fatigue and body discomfort. In an effort to eliminate some of these problems, an ergonomic emphasis has been placed on the design of computer workstations. A new device, the C-Sharp, has been developed to help reduce some of the ergonomics problems related to long-term VDT usage. The C-Sharp was designed to alleviate visual strain and temporary myopia by reducing the amount of muscular work associated with accommodation and convergence to near targets. It was also designed to eliminate glare. The present study is an ergonomics evaluation to determine whether the C-Sharp meets accepted standards and guidelines. Specifically, the objectives of the research are to determine the effects of the C-Sharp on operator reading and search performance, perceived comfort, body posture, and visual acuity. The C-Sharp is compared with mesh-glare filter and no-glare filter device conditions. Subjects were blocked into three groups based on age and type of vision correction (with or without bifocals). Results indicate that the C-Sharp meets the recommendations of the Americal National Standard for human factors engineering of visual display terminal workstations. No differences in objective performance were found between the three glare device conditions. The C-Sharp allowed bifocal wearers to keep their necks in natural postures rather than tilted backwards. Post-session far visual acuity worsened regardless of the device condition.

  3. Human Factors in Space Exploration (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna


    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  4. Ergonomics, education and children: a personal view. (United States)

    Woodcock, A


    Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of ergonomics application. (United States)

    Ugbebor, J N; Adaramola, S S


    The effectiveness of ergonomics application is achieved in the course of this research by reviewing ergonomics literature, Internet searches and case studies of a number of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD's) and other ergonomic related workplace incidence rate. The results of ergonomic intervention control measures such as engineering controls, administrative controls and personnel protective equipment were also studied. The findings in this paper may help to development model for analysing and solving ergonomic problems in the workplace. It concludes on the need for management to support ergonomics intervention programme for effective cost saving, litigation avoidance and better productivity.

  6. Ergonomics in an oral pathology laboratory: Back to basics in microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sireesha Sundaragiri


    Full Text Available Ergonomics is simply a science focused on "study of work" to reduce fatigue and discomfort through product design. A comprehensive ergonomics program for the pathology laboratory has become necessary to prevent the occurrence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and accidents. Most of the literature on ergonomics involve various web links or occasional studies on the effect of laboratory work and associated MSDs. A Google search was carried out corresponding to the terms "ergonomics", "pathology laboratory", "microscope". All the relevant literature from web sources was sorted out and categorized. In this review, we intend to identify basic anthropometric factors, biomechanical risk factors, laboratory design considerations and specific microscopy-related considerations. The ultimate aim of ergonomics is to provide a safe environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work and to allow maximum flexibility for safe research use.

  7. Ergonomics, design universal and fashion. (United States)

    Martins, S B; Martins, L B


    People who lie beyond the "standard" model of users often come up against barriers when using fashion products, especially clothing, the design of which ought to give special attention to comfort, security and well-being. The principles of universal design seek to extend the design process for products manufactured in bulk so as to include people who, because of their personal characteristics or physical conditions, are at an extreme end of some dimension of performance, whether this is to do with sight, hearing, reach or manipulation. Ergonomics, a discipline anchored on scientific data, regards human beings as the central focus of its operations and, consequently, offers various forms of support to applying universal design in product development. In this context, this paper sets out a reflection on applying the seven principles of universal design to fashion products and clothing with a view to targeting such principles as recommendations that will guide the early stages of developing these products, and establish strategies for market expansion, thereby increasing the volume of production and reducing prices.

  8. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective. (United States)

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei


    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia.

  9. Ergonomía y Terapia Ocupacional = Ergonomics and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman Suárez, Olga Beatriz


    the individual, as for their occupational performance refers, which guarantees an extensive field of professional action, that permits to deepen and to investigate in diverse areas of the science, so that since their experience and results be facilitated the contribute to many projects of investigation that require of concepts that are cross streets to different disciplines and they can be constituted in new knowledge for the scientific company. With the creation of the Ergonomic`s Group in the Manuela Beltrán University, intends “to Develop projects of investigation in the country of the ergonomics, applicable in the contexts: labor, school, social and family; that permit the adaptation of different environments al human being and at the same time to improve tending conditions al achievement of an optimum performance and productivity”. In this way, projects of investigation with students of Occupational Therapy begin, whose advances have allowed to write the present article, is expected in addition the entailment to other areas for their fortification

  10. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits. (United States)

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang


    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits.

  11. The Hexagon-Spindle Model for educational ergonomics. (United States)

    Benedyk, Rachel; Woodcock, Andrée; Harder, Andrew


    Ergonomics has traditionally considered work done, in a workplace. More recently, this scope has broadened, and the concept of 'work' may now be applied to the satisfactory completion of any task. Thus, learning, being the transformation and extension of the learner's knowledge or skills, can be viewed as work, with its workplace being the educational environment in which learning tasks take place. In accomplishing the learning, the learner interacts with the teachers, other students, equipment, materials, study plans and the educational organisation; the effectiveness of these learning interactions is influenced by many factors both inside and external to the organisation. To optimize such a multi-factorial process requires the application of an ergonomic approach. This paper proposes an adaptation of the concentric rings model of ergonomics, informed by Kao's earlier model, to produce a new model for educational ergonomics, known as the Hexagon-Spindle Model. In comparison to other published models of educational ergonomics, it is holistic, multi-dimensional, task-related and transferable across a range of educational settings. It extends to characterise a time base for serial and simultaneous tasks, and space shared by multiple learners, and highlights areas where learner/system conflicts may arise. The paper illustrates analysis tools for the application of the model in evaluation and design.

  12. Computer simulation for ergonomic improvements in laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Marcos, Patricia; Seitz, T; Bubb, H; Wichert, A; Feussner, H


    It is the aim of this study to reduce the stress and strain of the medical staff during laparoscopic operations, and, simultaneously, to increase the safety and efficiency of an integrated operation room (OR) by an ergonomic redesign. This was attempted by a computer simulation approach using free modelling of the OR and 3D human models (manikins). After defining ergonomically "ideal" postures, optimal solutions for key elements of an ergonomic design of the OR (position and height of the image displays, height of the OR table and the Mayo stand) could be evaluated with special regard to the different individual body size of each member of the team. These data should be useful for the development of team adapted, user friendly integrated OR suites of the future.

  13. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;;;;;


    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  14. Global ergonomics strategy in Volkswagen: from the product construction, over the planning until the serial process. (United States)

    Toledo, Begoña


    The Volkswagen Group operates and coordinates the activities of ergonomics from Wolfsburg in Germany and works with its contact persons of every plant and brand of the group towards an integrated proceeding relating to ergonomics. For the ergonomic process it is very important to consider the ergonomics in the whole production process, still from the beginning the conception and construction of the vehicle in the early phases. In these phases there is a big potential to work in the preventive ergonomics and avoid correcting the workstations after start of production. Therefore, it is important to have fluently information in all this phases and identify the potential in each of them. In order to attend these items, Volkswagen has defined different activity fields: coordination of ergonomic standards and the roll-out into all the plants, introducing the ergonomic items in the product development process (PEP), considering the constant improvement of the workplaces in the Volkswagen-Way (KVP and 3P Workshops), taking care of an adequate qualification concept in ergonomics and the intern and extern information exchange within the committees. This topic is established in the industrial engineering of the production area of the group. We are working interdisciplinary with the medical services, human resources, work council and the protection of labor.

  15. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei


    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  16. Ergonomic assessment for the task of repairing computers in a manufacturing company: A case study. (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge


    Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.

  17. Ergonomics: Injury Protection You Can Afford. (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie


    Examines the physical health risks attributed to poor furniture and equipment ergonomics and looks at ways to help assure that furniture and equipment purchases and practices are ergonomically sound. Cautions to be wary wary of marketing hype that a company's furniture is ergonomically set, and acquire adjustable furniture and encourage students…

  18. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christman, Marissa St John [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  19. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christman, Marissa St [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Land, Whitney Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  20. Multilevel Comprehensive Evaluation and Decision Making of Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang


    Full Text Available Due to the improvement of living standards, higher level of ergonomic performance is required for the products. As a result, the ergonomic evaluation has become one of the key points in the decisions making of modern products, especially the complex products. Aiming at improving the situation that the methods for ergonomic evaluation and decision making are one-sided and discrete, this paper proposed several methods for measuring multiply factors and data format of products and built a comprehensive evaluation and decision making system. In this system, the data supplied by soft hardware and specialists were calculated separately to gain the preliminary scores, and the preliminary scores were processed to get the final results for the decision making using the AHP-GRA analytic hierarchy process-gray relational analysis method proposed in this paper.

  1. Accounting for effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen


    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However......, in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  2. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A


    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  3. Ergonomics: A bridge between fundamentals and applied research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Ghosh


    Full Text Available Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation-all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such paradigms that truly set an example of such harmony between two apparently never-ending straight lines. If the spirit of Science is true human welfare, be it in the form of environmental development, machine development, technological advancement, human resource development, or development of consecutive interfaces between these components, Participatory Ergonomics is one of the vivid examples of such conglomeration. Although fundamental science may appear to be of very little practical significance, it turns out that eventually it has far greater impact on human society than much of the so-called "applied research."

  4. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen


    , in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  5. Affluence, occupational safety and ergonomics: are they interdependent? (United States)

    Broszkiewicz, Roman


    The number of fatal occupational injuries (FOI), the number of scientific publications in ergonomics (SP) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of 30 countries were investigated for their mutual dependence. This article shows that, although the ratio of FOI/SP decreases exponentially with a linear increase in the GDP, GDP may be only one of the major influencing factors.

  6. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas


    This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were physical ergonomic, 24% were organisational and 7% were psychosocial risk factors. Most solutions were organisational (55%), followed by physical (43%) and psychosocial solutions (2%). Internal factors (e.g. team or management) constituted 47% of the barriers and 75% of the facilitators. External factors (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers, workplaces, health and safety professionals, and researchers to improve future participatory ergonomics programs.

  7. Ergonomics in total quality management: how can we sell ergonomics to management? (United States)

    Lee, K S


    The objective of this paper is to describe how and why ergonomics should be promoted in total quality management (TQM). Ergonomics and TQM activities are compared. An approach is proposed to apply ergonomics in TQM using ergonomics circles. An eight-step approach is introduced for applying ergonomics using ergonomics circles and a study that employed this approach in Korea is discussed. In applying this approach, all processes were first evaluated by workers. Processes that were identified as problematic were analysed by a company-wide committee to set priorities for improvement. An ergonomics improvement team consisting of safety and health personnel, process engineers and management innovation personnel then worked on the processes using a low-cost approach. It was found that applying ergonomics using ergonomics circles as quality circles in TQM was effective in improving workplaces and resulted in increasing productivity, cost saving and improved safety.

  8. Training in practical ergonomics improvements. (United States)

    Kogi, K


    Recent ILO experiences show that concrete ergonomics improvements can result from learning-by-doing training in real settings. Particularly important is to build on local practice focusing on good examples already available. Checklist exercise, demonstrating low-cost solutions and group work are effective training tools. Opportunities can be widely created by such enabling training.

  9. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.


    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipkumar. Parekh


    Full Text Available Background: In most countries, agriculture is recognized as one of the most hazardous industries. There is a host of injuries and illnesses in agriculture that have been consistently identified through epidemiological and community-based studies as in need for controlling due to their high reporting rates among agricultural workers. Low-back pain is a common and important clinical and public health problem. Low back problems affect the spines flexibility, stability, and strength, which can cause pain discomfort and stiffness. The prevalence of occupational low-back pain varies between industries and occupations and there is an association with heavy physical work, static work postures such as prolonged sitting, vibration and psychosocial factors such as work dissatisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such an ergonomic and ergonomic plus physiotherapy treatment on functional and symptomatic parameters of moderately disabled farmers with chronic low back pain. Study Design: Experimental design. Methods: 30 patients (farmers were selected randomly from the population using simple random sampling procedure (Lottery Method and were divided into two equal groups. Both Group A &B were given ergonomic intervention for 4 weeks. And Group B was given Physiotherapy intervention for 2session/week, up to 4 weeks. Outcome measures: VAS(Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry low back pain disability. Results: In Group-A (Ergonomic and Group-B (Physiotherapy plus ergonomic, all data was expressed as mean ± , SDand was statistically analysed using paired ‘t’ test and independent ‘t’ test to determine the statistical difference among the parameters at 0.5% level of significance. Statistical data of SPADI showed that, Group-B is significantly different from Group-A with p<0.05; i.e 95% of significance. Conclusion: In this study conclude that Physiotherapy plus ergonomic intervention to give greater improvement in pain, and functional

  11. Ergonomics: A Commonsense Activity That Can Save Schools Money. (United States)

    Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin


    Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees…

  12. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.


    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  13. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice. (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David


    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  14. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system? (United States)

    Lenior, O N M


    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  15. Job stress management protocol using a merge between cognitive-behavioral techniques and ergonomic tools. (United States)

    Viola, Elaine; Vidal, Mario Cesar


    This paper presents a protocol for work distress assessment. Work distress is defined as a merge between nonergonomic related aspects, in tasks or environment, and adversely conditions perceived for a worker, in a certain work situation. This frame requires an approach that can treat individuals and organizational factors in the same way, at the same time. For this, we elaborate a psycho-ergonomics method, associating concepts and practices from cognitive-behavioral techniques and work ergonomic analysis, which we named CEWAT - Cognitive-Behavioral Work Analysis Technique. This paper presents CEWAT's foundations and structure, in steps. An application to a complex and dangerous system illustrates its benefits in the ergonomics action.

  16. Physical and psychosocial stress exposures in US dental schools: the need for expanded ergonomics training. (United States)

    Thornton, Linda J; Stuart-Buttle, Carol; Wyszynski, Theresa C; Wilson, Earlena R


    Dental students train in an environment similar to dentists in private practice. The literature reveals that physical and psychosocial stressors in dental schools are associated with adverse health outcomes. While dental educators have provided resources to address psychosocial factors and ergonomics training at the didactic level, the reinforcement of biomechanics at the clinic level has been overlooked. In this article the authors introduce a descriptive analysis of an ergonomics awareness program that expands the ergonomic training by including an assessment of the physical work performed by dental students in the clinic environment.

  17. Ergonomic considerations in school environments - the need for widening the scope. (United States)

    Jayaratne, Kapila


    Behaviour patterns specific to children pose them at greater risk of environmental hazards than adults. Ergonomics is the science of matching human interaction with the proximate environment. Conventionally ergonomic principles were applied on adult work places to ensure safety of the working environment. With emerging scientific evidence, school environments are being a focus to apply ergonomic principles. Children spend more time within schools during critical developmental stages of their life. Everybody feels that the schools are safe places, but they are not. A multitude of ergonomic hazards have been identified in school settings. Widespread mismatches between anthropometry and school furniture, heavy schoolbag carriage and unhealthy bag behaviour are significant. Negative effects range from general tiredness, musculoskeletal pains, spinal deviations, shoulder level shifts, injuries and psychological disturbances. There are fragmented efforts to widen ergonomic concepts to health care professionals and other stakeholders of child health. Addressing ergonomic issues will ensure that children, the future productive generation contributing to economic growth and development of a country, are provided with opportunities in a healthy environment. This paper emphasizes the need for a concerted effort on widening the scope of ergonomics to cater for the evolving demand.

  18. Analysis of the implementation of ergonomic design at the new units of an oil refinery. (United States)

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar


    Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.

  19. The FITS model office ergonomics program: a model for best practice. (United States)

    Chim, Justine M Y


    An effective office ergonomics program can predict positive results in reducing musculoskeletal injury rates, enhancing productivity, and improving staff well-being and job satisfaction. Its objective is to provide a systematic solution to manage the potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users in an office setting. A FITS Model office ergonomics program is developed. The FITS Model Office Ergonomics Program has been developed which draws on the legislative requirements for promoting the health and safety of workers using computers for extended periods as well as previous research findings. The Model is developed according to the practical industrial knowledge in ergonomics, occupational health and safety management, and human resources management in Hong Kong and overseas. This paper proposes a comprehensive office ergonomics program, the FITS Model, which considers (1) Furniture Evaluation and Selection; (2) Individual Workstation Assessment; (3) Training and Education; (4) Stretching Exercises and Rest Break as elements of an effective program. An experienced ergonomics practitioner should be included in the program design and implementation. Through the FITS Model Office Ergonomics Program, the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users can be eliminated or minimized, and workplace health and safety and employees' wellness enhanced.

  20. Ergonomic analysis for a regional aircraft interior design.


    Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva


    The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary interior design of a regional aircraft considering ergonomic and cost aspects. The use of virtual humans provides a better interpretation of the aircraft interior environment, making possible to simulate movements and passenger comfort aspects. The importance of this study becomes evident through the necessity of the aircraft manufacturer of predicting human behavior during all the flight phases. This text also aims to present the difficult...

  1. Research and application of ergonomics to optical microscope (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-kun; Xiao, Ze-xin; Zhang, Jie


    The characteristics of the human and the microscope, and their integrated characteristic have been studied respectively in this paper. Our results indicated that the correspondence of (i) focusing installment with human body arm, (ii) the height of ocular with eyes, (iii) visual characteristic with illuminative condition of the optical microscope, should obey the theory of the ergonomics. This was reflected in the structural design and the produce of the product, and therefore, improved the property of the amenity of the machine.

  2. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers. (United States)

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J


    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design.

  3. Cognitive and organizational ergonomics in the transition of the new integrated center of control of an oil refinery: human reliability and administration of changes. (United States)

    Bau, Lucy M S; Puquirre, Magda S E S; Buso, Sandro A; Ogasawara, Érika L; Marcon Passero, Carolina R; Bianchi, Marcos C


    area and training for the changes). As a result of the findings handed to the management and returned to the workers, several actions were implemented on ergonomic non-conformities found in the analysis. It is possible to prove the importance of the insertion of cognitive and organizational ergonomics in the building projects of new facilities for high-complexity activities in petrochemical plants.

  4. Ergonomic Factor and Safety Design in Beverage Packaging%基于人机因素的饮料包装安全性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎英; 王建民


    针对饮料包装使用过程中的安全隐患,分析了饮料包装设计中的人体尺寸因素、动作因素和感知因素等,探讨了饮料包装视觉和触觉的导向安全设计、使用过程中的动作安全设计和可重复使用的安全设计方式,即在设计时应充分把握人机因素中的视触觉感知作用,明确地将操作信息在包装开启使用前传递给消费者,并保证在整个使用过程中消费者操作动作的便利性及安全性,同时还应考虑饮料在保质期内能安全存放,在开封后可再次密封及再次安全开启使用,以满足消费者再次使用的要求。%Aimed at the security problems, some factors in the handling process of beverage packaging are analyzed such as human body size factors, action factors and perception factors, which are useful in exploring the visual and tactile oriented security design of beverage packaging. Actions in the process of using and re-using security are also studied. The design should ensure the convenience and safety for consumers in the entire process. The operating information should be acknowledged before opening the package, drinks should be safely stored within the warranty period, the opened package can be sealed and opened again, in order to meet the requirements of consumers' need.

  5. Physical Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders: What's hot? What's cool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.J. van der; IJmker, S.


    This chapter discusses the physical ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders and summarizes the Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) World Congress 2006-IEA2006-highlights on physical ergonomics and work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs). Two general trends are observed.

  6. A proposal for an ergonomic redesign for a mixer Mondial B-02. (United States)

    Silva Junior, Adilson J; Barros, Bruno


    This research aimed to redesign an appliance based on the biomechanical aspects in applied ergonomics. The product chosen for analysis was the household mixer, it is readily found in most homes of several families. The study enabled the identification of several potential risks and proposed biomechanical ergonomic solutions for each. Finally, it was possible to redesign the handle of the mixer, making it suitable form and human use.

  7. An integrated experiment for identification of best decision styles and teamworks with respect to HSE and ergonomics program: The case of a large oil refinery. (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Mokhtari, Z; Sharahi, Z Jiryaei; Zarrin, M


    Decision making failure is a predominant human error in emergency situations. To demonstrate the subject model, operators of an oil refinery were asked to answer a health, safety and environment HSE-decision styles (DS) questionnaire. In order to achieve this purpose, qualitative indicators in HSE and ergonomics domain have been collected. Decision styles, related to the questions, have been selected based on Driver taxonomy of human decision making approach. Teamwork efficiency has been assessed based on different decision style combinations. The efficiency has been ranked based on HSE performance. Results revealed that efficient decision styles resulted from data envelopment analysis (DEA) optimization model is consistent with the plant's dominant styles. Therefore, improvement in system performance could be achieved using the best operator for critical posts or in team arrangements. This is the first study that identifies the best decision styles with respect to HSE and ergonomics factors.

  8. Good ergonomic practices in a terminal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Luciana Mattos dos; Curty, Adriana Favacho [CHEMTECH, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Guilherme Foerster do Monte; Jardino, Alessandro Neto [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Ergonomics is the technological design of the interplay between men, machines and environment in order to make labor activities more pleasant, profitable and functional. This article analyses the importance of ergonomic issues in process terminal plants and facilities, since the conceptual design stage until the detail engineering design. The ergonomic solutions are compared with practices that are current in engineering design plants nowadays. It will be shown how an inadequate ergonomic design often leads to accessibility problems and non-effectiveness during plant operation and dangers in emergency situations. The way perform an ergonomic design is to integrate the various disciplines that are involved in all stages of the design plant. The earlier the ergonomic design is implemented the better are the results in cost reduction, since later design modifications are more time-consuming and expensive. (author)

  9. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.


    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  10. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole


    key actors. Design and production engineers have a great influence on ergonomics in manufacturing departments. Ergonomics considerations are partly taken into account by production engineers but not as a part of standard operating procedures. There is a number of differences between design...... and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering...

  11. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.


    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  12. Visual ergonomics in the workplace. (United States)

    Anshel, Jeffrey R


    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.

  13. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety (United States)


    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  14. Ergonomic evaluation of technology change at work and its effect on health


    Chaikumarn, Montakarn


    The change at work in the context of technology change has affected human’s health in relation to their working condition, attitude, and MSDs risk factors. These changes were included: adopting new tools, work concept work environments, and work system. Ergonomic methods, can be applied as tools for identify, evaluate these effects of the changes whether they give better health and work condition to workers. The purpose of this thesis is to apply the ergonomic methods to evaluate/identify the...

  15. NASA information sciences and human factors program (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David


    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  16. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics. (United States)

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric


    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  17. Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine (United States)

    Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.


    The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.

  18. Ergonomic design criteria for a novel laparoscopic tool handle with tactile feedback. (United States)

    Mårvik, R; Nesbakken, R; Langø, T; Yavuz, Y; Vanhauwaert Bjelland, H; Ottermo, M V; Stavdahl, O


    Laparoscopic surgery has many ergonomic disadvantages often not considered in the design of instruments. The poorly designed surgical tools produce inconveniences in both functional and cognitive aspects; including tactile sensation and visual-motor space coordination. The aim of this article is to find out how laparoscopic handle design can be improved by combining classical ergonomic guidelines with tactile feedback related to handle design. The article briefly discusses how the human hand and hand-held tools are used to perform tasks. An ergonomic handle for laparoscopic grasping, with a built-in tactile sensation display, is presented. Our review of laparoscopic instruments reveals important aspects for handle design. It is concluded that there is a need for greater awareness of ergonomic guidelines for users' sensory requirements when designing and manufacturing laparoscopic instruments.

  19. Cultural ergonomics in interactional and experiential design: conceptual framework and case study of the Taiwanese twin cup. (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai


    Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process.

  20. Problems of ergonomics in Bali, Indonesia. (United States)

    Manuaba, A


    Development in Indonesia, particularly in Bali, has been planned and done through several stages of the Five-Year Development Programs, which started in 1969, and emphasized intensification of agriculture and extensification of industries related to potential resources available in the region. In the process, industrialization, being regarded as a prerequisite to higher living standards, brought with it problems concerning safety, health, and work conditions, especially with respect to transfer of technology. As examples, experiences and data, related particularly to ergonomics in the sectors of agriculture, hotel business, textile mills, transportation, and others in Bali, Indonesia, are reported. In dealing with such possible consequences of development, efforts to find fundamental solutions should be given the highest priority. It is necessary to make use of all the existing institutions having potential functions and roles in the policy of development planning, and to take into consideration the factors of safety, health, and work conditions in specifying technical and financial development projects for industrialization.

  1. Computer-Aided Design Models to Support Ergonomics (United States)


    LABORATORY 4 WILLIAM B. ASKREN AIR FORCE HUMAN RESOURCES LABORA7IJRY LEC OCT 2 2 DECEMBER 1985 Apprw. edfor public release, distributionz is...SUPPORT ERGONOMICS (U) .__ _ _ _ _ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) McDaniel, Joe W. and Askren, William B.* ". k % 13.. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...technician which the designer can effectively use for maintainability analyses. ,% 4,1’ 12.. 6- - p *. **, . k % ... APPROACH v There are three elements to

  2. Use of the virtual instrumentation laboratory for the assessment of human factors in surgery and anesthesia. (United States)

    Berguer, R; Loeb, R G; Smith, W D


    There is a growing consensus that human factors issues for anesthesiologists, surgeons, and other operating room personnel require serious attention. We have established a program of collaboration between the University of California Davis Medical Center Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery and the California State University Sacramento Biomedical Engineering Program to address ergonomic problems in anesthesiology and surgery using a Virtual Instrumentation Laboratory. A 17-workstation Virtual Instrument Laboratory using LabVIEW software on Power Macintosh platforms permits rapid prototyping of medical monitor displays as well as rapid development of data acquisition and processing circuits for physiologic data collection. The Virtual Instrument Lab has been used for three Master's thesis projects and a BME course titled Human Factors in the Design of Medical and Assistive Technology. Course projects have included: 1) The design of novel physiologic data displays for potential use in anesthesia workstations, and 2) The measurement of surface electromyographic signals and heart rate variability to investigate the physical and mental workload of performing laparoscopic surgery. The Virtual Instrument Lab allows BME students to investigate relatively complex human factors issues in anesthesiology and surgery in a short time span.

  3. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety. (United States)

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  4. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.


    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  5. Human factors in healthcare level one

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie


    The majority of errors, litigation, and complaints in the health service are due to 'human factors', yet the term is still not widely understood and is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to team training or communication skills. Although including these, the subject of 'human factors' goes far beyond this to look at systems, environmental influences, and interactions with equipment, in addition to self-awareness and human interaction. All of these aspects are captured inHuman Factors in Healthcare and are built into a new framework: the SHEEP model, which breaks down into five key areas:

  6. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. ... of ergonomics to medical practice has been extensively described in a ... Inclusion criteria included having at least 1 year post‑qualification experience and .... training policy by the employee of medical laboratory scientists in both public ...

  7. Implementing human factors in clinical practice (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon


    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  8. Case studies--ergonomics in projects. (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N


    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  9. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura


    Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.

  10. Jan 20, 1995 to the editorial board of the new official Journal of The Chinese Ergonomics Society, The 《Chinese Ergonomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Recently The Chinese Ergonomics Society (CES) joined The International Ergonomics Association (IEA). As far as the most important ergonomic task. namely applying Ergonomics to our real life situations and conditions, is concerned.

  11. Steps towards an organizational study on human communication and relations: contributions to the ergonomic research on human well-being; Per uno studio della comunicazione e delle relazioni in un sistema organizzato: Contributo alla ricerca ergonomica del benessere dell`individuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, Silvana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Guglielmino, Sabrina [Comune di Roma, Rome (Italy); Valerio, Camillo; Valitutti, Carlo [Centro Studi Sistemi e Relazioni, Rome (Italy)


    Human relations and communication have always been studied by bio-disciplines interested in family pathology. Organized work has tied relations with family environment that is the reason why it is possible to project new work environment taking into account the theory of organizational action and the theory of human communication. This preliminary study underlines the theory linkage and show how it is possible the application of techniques used in family relations and communication to work environment. The analysis of human communication, the application of the map of the structure, the test of cohesion and adaptability examples in this direction. The results are really interesting and open new panorama on ergonomic of the human well-being in all organized context.

  12. Multi-touch pinch gestures: performance and ergonomics


    Hoggan, Eve; Nacenta, Miguel; Kristensson, Per Ola; Williamson, John; Oulasvirta, Antti; Lehtiö, Anu


    Multi-touch gestures are prevalent interaction techniques for many different types of devices and applications. One of the most common gestures is the pinch gesture, which involves the expansion or contraction of a finger spread. There are multiple uses for this gesture—zooming and scaling being the most common—but little is known about the factors affecting performance and ergonomics of the gesture motion itself. In this note, we present the results from a study where we manipulated angle, d...

  13. Reconstruction, Enhancement, Visualization, and Ergonomic Assessment for Laparoscopic Surgery (United States)


    drape and stand rearrangement and time consumption. Given such difficulties, ergonomic factors warrant further analysis to determine if a standard...3. The laparoscope used in this installation is a Stryker 888, a 3- chip CCD camera which only has analog NTSC video outputs. The calibration camera is...analog signal must be digitized, applied to the DLP chip and then displayed) the time difference between the two clocks shown should give the latency of

  14. Application of participatory ergonomics to the redesign of the family-centred rounds process. (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Kelly, Michelle M


    Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centred rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g. patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g. shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g. top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g. formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g. family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g. patient satisfaction).

  15. Information Ergonomics A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Sandl, Peter


    The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...

  16. Human factors in safety and business management. (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan


    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  17. Human factors and simulation in emergency medicine. (United States)

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W


    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida on May 16, 2017 focused on the use of human factors and simulation in the field of emergency medicine. The human factors discipline is often underutilized within emergency medicine but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of human factors, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for human factors work in emergency medicine, and how emergency medicine can collaborate with human factors professionals to affect change. Implementing human factors in emergency medicine through healthcare simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between human factors professionals and emergency medicine, such as in this breakout group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Human factors in general practice - early thoughts on the educational focus for specialty training and beyond. (United States)

    McKay, John; Pickup, Laura; Atkinson, Sarah; McNab, Duncan; Bowie, Paul


    In the third article in the series, we describe the outputs from a series of roundtable discussions by Human Factors experts and General Practice (GP) Educational Supervisors tasked with examining the GP (family medicine) training and work environments through the lens of the systems and designed-centred discipline of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). A prominent issue agreed upon proposes that the GP setting should be viewed as a complex sociotechnical system from a care service and specialty training perspective. Additionally, while the existing GP specialty training curriculum in the United Kingdom (UK) touches on some important HFE concepts, we argue that there are also significant educational gaps that could be addressed (e.g. physical workplace design, work organisation, the design of procedures, decision-making and human reliability) to increase knowledge and skills that are key to understanding workplace complexity and interactions, and supporting everyday efforts to improve the performance and wellbeing of people and organisations. Altogether we propose and illustrate how future HFE content could be enhanced, contexualised and integrated within existing training arrangements, which also serves as a tentative guide in this area for continuing professional development for the wider GP and primary care teams.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma LÓGÓ


    Full Text Available Nowadays the most competitive companies are always innovative, renewable and able to be ‘the best’ in something. But what does one of the most important resources – the human resource – need to achieve a high level of success in his or her workplace? He needs a creative workplace environment where he feels himself in safe, has inspiration and meets challenges. Ergonomics is a human centred science. The ergonomists are focused on the interfaces of the individual person and his or her narrow or wide work environment. Ergonomists typically have not been trained in management or business administration. The business-oriented topics such as cost justification and cost–benefit analysis have not been a part of their curricula. Not surprisingly, instead of presenting the projects to the management in the language of business, they make a great effort to improve engineering design, health and safety, and the quality of work life on. Regardless of the benefits that may be realized from ergonomic improvements, managers are usually willing to provide funds for the intervention unless there is a clear economic benefit to be derived. The ergonomics projects do result in significant economic benefits if they are properly planned and implemented.

  20. Integrating community ergonomics with educational ergonomics--designing community systems to support classroom learning. (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J


    This paper offers a conceptual framework, bolstered by empirical evidence, for two conclusions: (1) that variability in student learning is prominently influenced by ergonomic design features, not only of classrooms and school systems, but also of surrounding communities; and (2) a systems concept of learning environments therefore is required to support student learning, based on integrating educational with community ergonomics. Educational system design factors known to strongly influence student learning first are reviewed. One of the most prominent of these is the socioeconomic status of communities in which schools are housed. Independent lines of evidence then are introduced that may account for how and why community design affects learning. The paper closes with recommendations for persuading policymakers and educators that closer integration of school system operations and functions with those of the surrounding community, with a central goal of upgrading community design conditions, represents a highly promising opportunity for improving student learning performance. One major challenge is to heighten awareness that learning environments outside the classroom are as or more important as those inside, in terms of influencing not only test but broader educational and societal trajectories of children.

  1. 汽车制造业工人肌肉骨骼疾患工效学因素分析%Ergonomic factors of musculoskeletal disorders in automotive manufacturing workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琳; 肖吕武; 周浩; 刘移民; 杜伟佳; 黄灿东; 周静东


    Objective To study workplace ergonomic risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among workers in automotive industry. Methods With stratified cluster sampling, 1 065 workers engaged in stamping,welding,painting,and assembling in three automotive manufacturing enterprises were selected and investigated on general personal infomation, specific physical risk factors in workplace,and musculoskeietal pain with a questionnaire survey. Results Neck (38. 87% )and back (31.83%) wide-angle bend, high repetitive motion, wide-angle bending, and high forceful exertion with hand (39. 34% ) were the most prominent activity or posture in operation process,with different exposures and illness during the workings of different work types. The results of multivariate logistic analyses showed that the musculoskeletal pain was related to incorrect posture or repeated tasks. The pain in neck related to the duration of working (odds ratio = 1. 238) ,and kness pain was related to body weight (odds ratio = 1.644). Conclusion The work-related musculoskeletal disorders in automobile manufacturing workers are related to incorrect posture or repeated tasks during working. Measures should be taken to improve and control ergonomic risk factors at workplace for the prevention of museuloskeletal disorders.%目的 研究汽车制造行业工人患肌肉骨骼疾患( MSDs)的工效学危险因素.方法 采取分层整群抽样的方式,从广东省3家汽车生产企业随机抽取冲压、焊装、涂装及总装工人共1 065名,对其进行问卷调查,内容包括个人一般情况、工效学危险作业活动及肌肉骨骼疾患症状.结果 颈部(38.87%)与背部(31.83%)的大角度弯曲及高度重复性伴手部大角度高度用力活动(39.34%)是汽车企业作业过程最为突出的工效学危险姿势或动作,各工种的暴露与患病情况各有不同;在MSDs的多因素Logistic分析中,各部位的危险姿势或动作与相应部位的肌肉骨骼疾患有关,此

  2. [Participatory ergonomics: a model for the prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders]. (United States)

    García, Ana M; Gadea, Rafael; Sevilla, Maria José; Genís, Susana; Ronda, Elena


    Participatory ergonomics is an intervention strategy acting on physical load exposures occurring in occupational settings, scarcely known in Spain but with a number of experiences and evidences coming from other countries. There are several reasons justifying the interest of this approach. First, participatory ergonomics focuses on one of the categories of occupational exposures with the largest impact on workers' health in a majority of countries all over the world, in terms of incidence, prevalence and disability. Secondly, basic principle in participatory ergonomics is empowerment of workers for them to participate identifying risks and injuries caused by physical exposures at work as well as proposing and evaluating proper control measures for each situation. Thirdly, it allows dealing and solving a number of problems without the use of complex technical protocols. From a public health perspective, participatory ergonomics is a largely tried model of community empowerment for the control of (occupational) factors affecting health and wellbeing. In this paper we revise some basic principles of participatory ergonomics, we comment on the keys leading to success or failing of the interventions and we present some main results coming from participatory ergonomics experiences developed for a long time in countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands or Finland.

  3. Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L


    The Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design covers basic human factors issues relating to screen design, input devices, and information organization and processing, as well as addresses newer features which will become prominent in the next generation of Web technologies. These include multimodal interfaces, wireless capabilities, and agents that can improve convenience and usability. Written by leading researchers and/or practitioners in the field, this volume reflects the varied backgrounds and interests of individuals involved in all aspects of human factors and Web design and includes chap

  4. Selecting measures for human factors research. (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H


    Selecting measures is a necessary component of human factors research. Proper selection must take into account the representation problem (how is the assignment of numbers to objects or phenomena justified?) and the uniqueness problem (to what degree is this assignment unique?). Other key human factors measurement issues include subject representativeness, variable representativeness, and setting representativeness. It is difficult to create a single measure that captures essential characteristics of complex systems. Several examples illustrate how theory can guide measurement selection in such diverse human factors research as vigilance, turning off warning alarms, information requirements for military command centers, subjective workload, heart-rate signal analysis, and heat stress in nuclear power plants.

  5. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  6. Human factors and information transfer (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.


    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  7. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho


    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  8. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.


    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  9. Prospective ergonomics: origin, goal, and prospects. (United States)

    Robert, Jean-Marc; Brangier, Eric


    So far ergonomics has been concerned with two categories of activities: correction and design. We propose to add a third category: prospection, and by so doing, we introduce a new series of activities that opens up the future of ergonomics. Corrective ergonomics relates to the past and comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the correction of existing situations and aims to reduce or eliminate problems. Here, after delimiting and defining the problem, the challenge is to find the best solution. Ergonomics for design relates to the present and also comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the design of new artefacts that have already been identified by a client, and that will allow users to do some activity and attain their goals. Here, after defining the scope of the project and the functional requirements, the challenge is to do the best design. Finally, prospective ergonomics relates to the future and does not come with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the creation of future things that have not been identified yet. Here the challenge is to detect existing user needs or anticipate future ones, and imagine solutions. These three categories of activities overlap and are not exclusive of each other. In this paper we define prospective ergonomics and compare it with corrective ergonomics and ergonomics for design. We describe its origin, goal, and prospects, we analyze its impacts on education and practice, and we emphasize the need of new collaboration between ergonomics and other disciplines.

  10. Ergonomics evaluation method of fighter cockpit%战斗机座舱人机工效评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文; 余隋怀; 刘国昌; 王文军


    提出了一种基于灰色系统理论多属性群决策方法的战斗机座舱人机工效评价方法,通过建立战斗机驾驶座舱人机工效评价体系,研究了人的因素和机的因素,在对战斗机座舱人机工效分析的基础上,确定了评价因素,建立合适的评价指标体系,结合上述方法确定了合理的评价步骤,并进行了推理和验证。%This paper proposes a fighter cockpit ergonomics evaluation based on gray system theory of multi-attribute group decision making, through studying the factors of mechanisms and human, in order to establish an ergonomics evalu-ation system of the fighter cockpit. Based on the analysis of the fighter cockpit ergonomics, it determines the evaluation factors, then establishes an evaluation system and puts forward reasonable evaluation steps. An illustrative example is given.

  11. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems (United States)


    user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality ...00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the basis for situation awareness or—in combina- tion with visual cues—a navigation task. Tactile tasks. Via haptic devices, we can apply vir- tual

  12. Ergonomic redesign of the electric guitar. (United States)

    Marmaras, N; Zarboutis, N


    The present study deals with the redesign of the electric guitar, considering ergonomic criteria. Difficulties met by novice musicians, neuro-muscular fatigue caused by guitar playing and occupational diseases occurring to professional guitarists, justify this study. Characteristics of existing electric guitar models which add to musician's fatigue or difficulty, were identified. A number of ergonomic requirements were then derived. The redesign process tried to satisfy these requirements, considering at the same time musical requirements and technical constraints. A comparative evaluation of the designed ergonomic guitar with three existing electric guitar models, showed that although the designed electric guitar preserves the main features of the instrument, it achieves better user fit.

  13. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Effects of Epinephrine Auto-Injector Shape and Size on Human Factors Influencing Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Barbir, Ana; Janelli, Mark V; Lin, Michael Y; Dennerlein, Jack T


    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of (a) auto-injector form factor on maximum applied force capability and (b) auto-injector design and instructions on force production and orientation. Effective delivery of epinephrine through an auto-injector is the result of a multitude of design factors. At minimum, the design needs to allow the user to apply sufficient force for the needle to penetrate clothing and tissue. Trainer devices for three commercially available epinephrine auto-injectors with different form factors (cylindrical, elliptical, prismatic) were tested in a laboratory-based repeated-measures experiment with 20 adults. Participants applied their maximum force onto a force plate positioned over their thigh and practiced an injection using the trainer device after viewing training videos. Participants also rated force confidence and preference. The maximum force varied significantly across devices. The greatest force observed was 64 newtons with the elliptical device, and the lowest force was 61 newtons with the cylindrical device. Participants reported the highest force confidence when using the elliptical and cylindrical devices, ranking the elliptical as their preferred device. Force capability results for the elliptical device suggest that it may be more successful in achieving the necessary force for drug delivery in a larger set of adult users. Results suggest that the auto-injector with the elliptical form may enable more successful drug delivery among a larger set of users. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Space Human Factors: Research to Application (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara


    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  16. Anthropometry and it application in ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romelio Rodriguez-Añez


    Full Text Available Anthropometry, is the branch of the human science that studies the physical measurement of the human body, particularly size and shape. Ergonomics is the science of work: of the people who do it and the way it is done; the tools and equipment they use, the places they work in, and the psychological aspects of the working environment. In a simplifi ed way can be understood as the adaptation of work to man. One characteristic of the ergonomic is its interdisciplinarity; since it is based on many different areas of knowledge. Anthropometry has a special importance because of the emergence of complex work systems where knowledge of the physicaldimensions of man with accuracy is important. One application of anthropometrical measurement in ergonomics is the design of working space and the development of industrialized products such as furnishing, cars, tools, etc. With advances in technology, the precision and automation of measurement techniques will increase, improving definition of human size, and the mechanics of workspaces, clothing and equipment. A well-developed tool will perform better in a worker’s hand without injuring his bodily structures. On the other hand, anthropometric data is only meaningful if the workers’ activities are also analyzed. RESUMO A antropometria é o ramo das ciências humanas que estuda as medidas do corpo, particularmente o tamanho e a forma. A ergonomia é a ciência do trabalho e envolve: as pessoas que o fazem, a forma como é feito, as ferramentas e equipamentos que elas usam, os lugares em que elas trabalham e os aspectos psicossociais nas situações de trabalho. De forma bastante simplifi cada, pode ser entendida como a adaptação do trabalho ao homem. Uma característica da ergonomia é a sua interdisciplinaridade, pois diversas áreas do conhecimento lhe dão sustentação. A antropometria assumiu uma importância especial com o surgimento dos sistemas complexos de trabalho onde o conhecimento das

  17. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm. (United States)

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole


    This paper reports on a case study within an engineering consultancy firm, where engineering designers and ergonomists were working together on the design of a new hospital sterile processing plant. The objective of the paper is to gain a better understanding of the premises for integrating ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics into design processes is presented along with the model.

  18. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot. (United States)

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H


    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  19. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.


    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  20. Ergonomic Study and Design of the Pulpit of a Wire Rod Mill at an Integrated Steel Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Dewangan


    Full Text Available This paper presents ergonomic study and design of the pulpit in a wire rod mill at an integrated steel plant. The mill was facing problem of less productivity of workers due to lack of proper work posture and working conditions. The study data were collected from the interview of seven operators involved with the pulpit. Relevant ergonomic tools were used for assessing the survey data for identifying the risk factors involved with these operators. Ergonomically improved pulpit was proposed for reducing the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs thereby increasing the productivity of the plant.

  1. Ergodesk-desktop Ergonomics Using the New Quadratic Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baskar


    Full Text Available Ergonomics is nothing but the rules governing the workplace. ErgoDesk is the ultimate drug-free way to look after your spine and health. This research provides an interesting and realistic solution towards achieving the goal maintaining good health. Physical stress at the work environment can reduce efficiency of the individuals at work. Ergonomics is described as the rules to be adapted by one, at work environment. The main focus of ergonomics is to reduce the physical stress caused by factors like improper body mechanics, repetitive motor movements, static positions, vibrations, lighting and impact or contact with objects. Henceforth, through this paper, we present a distinct tool called the “ERGODESK”, which could be useful for monitoring a computer user’s posture and activities. In this study, we present a real time feedback system for detecting people and their postures and generating summaries of postures and activities over a specified period of time. The system runs reliably on different people and under any lighting. The fundamental challenge, to detect the change in user’s posture most accurately in the least time, has been analysed and a solution in form of new Quadratic Search Algorithm has been proposed. The system captures an image of the user at regular intervals of time, carries out certain pre-processing steps and then checks for a change in user’s posture by comparing it with a reference image acquired previously in series of steps as per the New Quadratic Search algorithm. Then the user is notified about the change of his ergonomic posture.

  2. Ergonomics (United States)

    ... illness recording. Early identification and treatment of injured employees. "Light duty" or "no lifting" work restrictions during recovery periods. Systematic monitoring of injured employees to identify when they are ready to return ... duty. Training: A training program, designed and implemented by ...

  3. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses. (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G


    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  4. Cognitive ergonomics of operational tools (United States)

    Lüdeke, A.


    Control systems have become increasingly more powerful over the past decades. The availability of high data throughput and sophisticated graphical interactions has opened a variety of new possibilities. But has this helped to provide intuitive, easy to use applications to simplify the operation of modern large scale accelerator facilities? We will discuss what makes an application useful to operation and what is necessary to make a tool easy to use. We will show that even the implementation of a small number of simple application design rules can help to create ergonomic operational tools. The author is convinced that such tools do indeed help to achieve higher beam availability and better beam performance at accelerator facilities.

  5. Ergonomic microscope comfort and control. (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth Anne


    Microscope use in the inspection phase of computer chip manufacturing is a major cause of worker discomfort and injury. A two-phase ergonomics project to reduce employee fatigue and discomfort was planned, implemented, and evaluated in a microscope user environment within a high-technology manufacturing environment. Total Quality Management methodology and tools were employed by a multidisciplinary team led by an occupational health nurse practitioner to accomplish the project goals. A multifaceted approach including equipment changes, administrative changes, and focused training for behavior changes achieved the desired reduction in reports of fatigue and discomfort among microscope users. Occupational health nurses are ideal candidates to lead teams to accomplish meaningful health and safety goals consistent with corporate quality initiatives and strategic objectives. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design (United States)

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel


    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  7. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.


    literature review, we advocate a new perspective on SA in terms of sensemaking, also called situated or ecological decision making, where the focus of the investigation is to understand why the decision maker(s) experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time. This perspective is distinct from the traditional branch of human factors research in the field which focuses more on ergonomics and the transactional relationship between the human operator and the systems. Consistent with our findings from the literature review, we recognized an over-arching need to focus SA research on issues surrounding the concept of shared knowledge; e.g., awareness of what is happening in adjacent areas as well as one’s own area of responsibility. Major findings were: a) Inadequate communication/information sharing is pervasive, b) Information is available, but not used. Many tools and mechanisms exist for operators to build awareness of the physical grid system, yet the transcripts reveal that they still need to call and exchange information with operators of neighboring areas to improve or validate their SA. The specific types of information that they request are quite predictable and, in most cases, cover information that could be available to both operators and reliability coordinators through readily available displays or other data sources, c) Shared Knowledge is Required on Operations/Actions as Well as Physical Status. In an ideal, technologically and organizationally perfect world, every control room and every reliability coordinator may have access to complete data across all regional control areas and yet, there would still be reason for the operators to call each other to gain and improve their SA of power grid operations, and d) Situation Awareness as sensemaking and shared knowledge.

  8. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes....... This PhD dissertation takes its point of departure in a recent development in Denmark in which many larger engineering consultancies chose to established ergonomic departments in house. In the ergonomic profession, this development was seen as a major opportunity to gain access to early design phases....... Present study contributes new perspectives on possibilities and barriers for integrating ergonomic knowledge in design by exploring the integration activities under new conditions. A case study in an engineering consultancy in Denmark was carried out. A total of 23 persons were interviewed...

  9. Disparities between industrial and surgical ergonomics. (United States)

    Seagull, F Jacob


    A surgeon's work environment and working conditions are often harsher than those of an industrial worker. Accepted principles and regulations of ergonomics in manufacturing are largely ignored or absent in the medical/surgical domain. Examples include poor surgical tool handle design, awkward and stressful surgical postures, and prolonged standing without breaks and without a foot mat. In these and other areas, there are documented "best practices" for industrial hygiene and ergonomics that are not yet widely accepted for surgery. There is support in the literature for innovations in surgical ergonomics, yet adoption is not widespread. In the absence of these ergonomic principles, surgical repetitive strain injuries in minimally invasive surgery are reaching epidemic levels. As ergonomists, it falls upon us to understand why current solutions have not been widely adopted within this domain, and to derive solutions to the unique challenges of surgery.

  10. Ergonomic Strategies for Using a Purse (United States)

    Ergonomic Strategies for Using a Purse Effects of Wearing a Heavy Purse • Heavy purses worn over one ... Selecting the Right Purse • For purses with short handles • Switch positions frequently to avoid fatigue from muscle ...

  11. An Assessment of Student Computer Ergonomic Knowledge. (United States)

    Alexander, Melody W.


    Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)

  12. [Ergonomic characteristics of professional work among violinists]. (United States)

    Ryzhov, A Ia; Sursimova, O Iu


    Complex hygienic, ergonomic, mechanographic studies and video timing revealed that violinist occupational activities are characterized by high physical intensity simultaneously with extreme nervous strain--that is assigned to the second degree of the third class, according present hygienic classification.

  13. Introducing Ergonomics in Two US Elementary Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C L; Tien, D


    The increasing presence of computers and other forms of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools has raised concerns in the United States (US) and elsewhere. Children are using computers more than any other age group in the US. It is not known whether early intensive use of ICT predisposes children to future injury. Ergonomics is not included in state curriculum standards or requirements but can be supported by some of the existing standards. Some who believe that children are better off being educated early about ergonomics are taking action to bring ergonomics into elementary and secondary schools. This paper describes the process used to introduce ergonomics into two elementary schools in two different states by initiators with two different roles.

  14. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.


    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  15. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students


    Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; UNAERP; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa Silva; UNAERP; Moura, Guilherme César Batista; UNINOVAFAPI; Matos,Francisca Tereza Coelho; Falcão,Carlos Alberto Monteiro; Monte, Thiago LIma


    Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating in...

  16. Ergonomic assessment of porridge roaming sale system. (United States)

    Braga, J; Cardoso, V; Abreu, A; Didoné, L; Evangelista, M; Serra, F


    This paper makes suggestions for the realization of an ergonomic intervention, guided by the method of Moraes and Mont'Alvão (2009), in the system of street vending of porridge, to improve the working conditions of this sales segment. Specifics are given about this practice and its problems, from ergonomic analysis comes to suggestions for improvements to be applied to a new system.

  17. Ergonomic Analysis of Tricycle Sidecar Seats: Basis for Proposed Standard Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Godoy


    Full Text Available Ergonomics (also called human factors engineering is the study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of the living and work environment. It is applied in various industrial areas which includes transportation.Tricycle being one of the most common means of public transportation in Lipa City has various adaptations to suit the culture, and environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variability in design of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines and propose a standard ergonomically designed tricycle sidecar seat for a greater population. The study was conducted at 26 tricycle terminals with 232 tricycle samples within Lipa City proper including the public market area where 400 commuters were given questionnaires to determine the risk factors associated with the existing tricycle sidecar seat design. Anthropometric measurements of 100 males and 100 female commuters were obtained together with the sidecar dimensions of 232 tricycles to substantiate the observed variations in design. Using the design for the average and design for the extremes, it was found out that most of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines have inappropriate inclined seat and lowered sidecar seat pan height which can result to leg and abdominal pain; narrowed seat pan depth which caused pressure on buttocks and legs; narrowed backrest width which can cause upper and low back pain; low backrest height that can pose upper back pain; which can also result to abdominal pain; inclined backrest and limited vertical clearance which can cause upper back pain and neck pain. The researcher proposed a sidecar seat design standard which can be used by the Land Transportation Office, and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board to provide ease, comfort, and convenience to the passengers.

  18. Managing ergonomics in the development of rotation between workstations in the automotive industry. A balance between health and traceability of tasks. (United States)

    Filus, Rodrigo; Partel, Luciana


    Abstract When the subject rotation between workstations (job rotation) is inside the organizations it's seemed that technically there are lots of restrictions to the development of an adequate system of rotation. We went from the need for an advanced ergonomic study and even possible restrictions of versatility and training of employees. The implementation of the ideal system of rotation passes through stages of development and research ergonomic study of the level of employee versatility, awareness and discussion with employees, implementation of the proposed system, feedback and audits for maintenance of the ideal sequence and time of rotation. For the success of the project there is a need for multidisciplinary involvement in the areas of manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering, human resources, medical services and manufacturing. Rotation between the tasks may mean that a worker should conduct two or more different activities in different parts of the day (ie. change between activity A and activity B "between 1 hours and 2 hours interval). An important consideration is to ensure that different activities do not present the same ergonomic risk for the same body part. The tracing of the execution of the activity is an important factor for production processes. Thus it is possible to conduct appropriate levels of training for employees and ensure safe and sustainable processes in terms of workers' health, productivity and quality.

  19. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Ergonomics Committee FY 94 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the Committee`s accomplishments for fiscal year 1994. Ergonomic issues are getting increased attention nationwide. This is a result of ergonomic hazards impacting the safety and health of employees, and companies ``bottom line`` via an increase in medical and workers` compensation costs. The Committee reviews injury and illness data, advises management of ergonomic trends at LBL, initiates corrective action to mitigate ergonomic hazards, and sponsors ergonomic awareness activities. Documented evidence supports the claim that implementing cost-effective ergonomic solutions are a good investment.

  20. Human Factors and IT Competitive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the system of relationships that may explain the impact of information technology (IT on competitive advantage. In this social and economic system, the study focuses on the human factors that play a key role in IT effectiveness. This is a first step to empirically specifying which human resources can complement the effect of IT on organizations. The paper revisits the main theoretical frameworks that can explain the research issue and proposes an empirical model to test the hypotheses. The results, obtained from a Data Envelopment Analysis, show that there are some human factors that positively affect the influence of IT utilization on competitive advantage. Nevertheless, other structural, industrial and internal factors may play an important role in the relationship.

  1. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.


    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  2. Information sciences and human factors overview (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.


    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  3. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.


    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  4. Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture. (United States)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Lundberg, Jan


    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

  5. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg


    This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors wer...

  6. Participatory ergonomics and design of technical assistance. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Claudia Isabel Rojas


    This work describes the experience of application of a procedural initiative, which aimed to identify and address technical assistance needs progressively in therapy and rehabilitation activities. The proposal theoretical axes are the basics of participatory ergonomics and interdisciplinary work, was raised with the intention of addressing important issues for the entire design process including: perception, attention, memory and human being comfort, and the interrelationships that create objects in the context in which they are used. This project was done in collaboration with leading institutes for the rehabilitation of Colombia: Cirec and Roosevelt, through two investigative stages: a first ethnographic stage, during which were observed one hundred forty four (144) procedures of rehabilitation and therapy to build a bank of assistive technology needs, justified on the project observation variables. And a second stage of action research in which they were designed elements that facilitate the implementation of rehabilitation procedures efficiently. Currently being developed experiential situations in different hospitals to examine the reliability of the proposed solutions.

  7. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles (United States)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro


    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  8. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update. (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fatores ergonômicos de risco e de proteção contra acidentes de trabalho: um estudo caso-controle Ergonomic risk and protection factors from health accidents: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonça Guimarães


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a relação entre os acidentes ocupacionais e os riscos ergonômicos no âmbito da organização do processo de trabalho de Enfermagem. Foi utilizado o método epidemiológico e um desenho de estudos caso-controle. O universo de estudo foram enfermarias do serviço de enfermagem clínica do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE, localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram analisados com o programa Epi-Info 2004®, onde foram comparados, através de uma análise de odds ratio, os fatores estudados em um grupo controle de não acidentados e um grupo de estudo de acidentados. Obtivemos, como resultado, variáveis que foram classificadas por grupos de risco e proteção, de acordo com os valores de medidas encontrados. Foram considerados fatores de risco: divisão de tarefas insatisfatórias, concentração de atividades excessiva, acúmulo de divisão de tarefas, atividades de crescimento profissional, ocupação total da carga horária durante a jornada de trabalho. Como fatores de proteção: pausas durante o trabalho, disponibilidade de EPI, utilização de EPI, compatibilidade entre o cargo e o maior nível de formação, retorno da chefia quanto ao desempenho exercido e realização profissional.The research aimed to study the relationship between occupational accidents and ergonomic risks in the nursing work process. The epidemiological method was used with a case-control design. The research site was the clinical ward of Pedro Ernesto Academic Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyzed with Epi-Info 2004®. Factors in the case group of workers who had an accident and the control group of workers who did not have an accident were compared through odds ratio. As results, we attained variables classified into risk groups and protection groups, according to the measurements found.

  10. Evaluating a digital ship design tool prototype: Designers' perceptions of novel ergonomics software. (United States)

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica; MacKinnon, Scott N


    Computer-aided solutions are essential for naval architects to manage and optimize technical complexities when developing a ship's design. Although there are an array of software solutions aimed to optimize the human element in design, practical ergonomics methodologies and technological solutions have struggled to gain widespread application in ship design processes. This paper explores how a new ergonomics technology is perceived by naval architecture students using a mixed-methods framework. Thirteen Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Masters students participated in the study. Overall, results found participants perceived the software and its embedded ergonomics tools to benefit their design work, increasing their empathy and ability to understand the work environment and work demands end-users face. However, participant's questioned if ergonomics could be practically and efficiently implemented under real-world project constraints. This revealed underlying social biases and a fundamental lack of understanding in engineering postgraduate students regarding applied ergonomics in naval architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ergonomic Design Measures on Work Process and Workplace Layout in the Selected Structural and Fabrication Shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette M. Mercado


    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the process and workplace layout in the selected structural and fabrication shops located in Batangas, Philippines thus provide improvements using the results of Ergonomic Design Measures. These shops generally focused on preparation, cutting, welding, grinding and assembly using multi-functioning machines and many aspects of human work. Using different Ergonomic Assessment Checklist, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Ovako Working Posture Assessment System (OWAS, and with direct observations, it was found out that existing design of the work processes and workplace layout does not match the ergonomic requirements. The study exposed the presence of Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD risks due to awkward posture, forceful exertion and fatigue; position of workers is dangerous to themselves due to inappropriate measurement of facilities which is in need of change. The researcher recommended ergonomically based actions to address the health, comfort, and well-being of employees such as changing the workstation surface height, integration of safeguarding; application of Group Technology to reduce the production lead time and material handling and offered smooth workflow in production line. Furthermore, the researcher developed a proposed workstation and workplace design as part of the ergonomic-based actions. The effectiveness of the proposed design alternatives were measured with the use of Trade-off Analysis technique, such as, Standard Weighted Sum Method, MAXIMIN decision and Analytic Hierarchy Process.

  12. Ergonomics and safety in societies in transfer. (United States)

    Koradecka, D


    In Central Europe, the influence of transformation on science and practice in both ergonomics and occupational safety has been positive. The opening of markets has automatically resulted in the quality of products of various countries being compared. The comparison of the state of science has been equally revealing. The spontaneous willingness of leading world centres to co-operate in both occupational safety and ergonomics has resulted in positive changes, e.g. intensive work on creating the instruments for: implementing ILO conventions and EU directives into national laws; implementing international and European standards into national standards; accrediting testing laboratories in the field of occupational safety and ergonomics; accrediting centres for product certification for the safety mark (obligatory) and for conformity with ergonomic parameters (voluntary); and computer-aided designing and creating databases in occupational safety and ergonomics conforming to international standards. These are the laws of the emerging common market for products and services. There is still a much more difficult area of necessary changes in the approach to: the value of life and health; the belief in the possibilities and the effectiveness of initiatives towards changing the working and life environment; and the form and content of the information in occupational safety and ergonomics taught from school to adult education. Transformation has led to a renaissance in which man has become the subject of all aspects of life and activity. There is also a renaissance of occupational safety and ergonomics. The fields of research that have gained importance in this new approach in Central Europe are discussed.

  13. Simulação humana digital na concepção de postos de trabalho: estudo comparativo de casos Digital human simulation for ergonomic workplace design: comparative study of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braatz


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta como a ferramenta computacional de Modelagem e Simulação Humana contextualizada pela Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET e pela análise da Atividade Futura Possível pode auxiliar nos processos de projeto de postos de trabalho. São analisados dois estudos de caso nos quais a Simulação Humana foi empregada com auxílio do software Jack. O primeiro estudo aborda a concepção de um balcão de atendimento em uma empresa pública de serviços postais. O segundo apresenta o desenvolvimento de uma estação de trabalho de abastecimento de agulhas cirúrgicas em uma empresa de manufatura de produtos relacionados às áreas de saúde e higiene. A partir dos resultados dos estudos de caso, são explicitadas as contribuições e desafios da utilização dessa tecnologia em projetos visando equacionar as questões de saúde e produtividade. O uso da simulação integrada ao processo de intervenção da AET permitiu melhorar a antecipação das futuras atividades prováveis das novas situações de trabalho e auxiliou a integração e comunicação dos atores envolvidos nesses processos sociais.This paper investigates a computational tool for Human Modeling and Simulation contextualized by Ergonomic Analysis of Work (EAW and future work activity forecasting that can assist in the design processes of workplaces. Two case studies using Human Simulation was employed and the software Jack were analyzed. The first study presents the design of a counter in a public post office. The second shows the development of a workstation for the supply of surgical needles in a company that manufactures hygiene and healthcare products. The results of the case studies show the contributions and challenges of using this design technology aiming to solve problems related to health and productivity. The use of simulation combined with EAW helped to improve future work activity forecasting of new work situations and helped the integration and

  14. Runway Incursion: Human Factors In Runway Incursions (United States)


    R. S., & Harbeson, M. M. (1981). Effects of Extended Practice on Dual-Task Tracking Performance. Human Factors, 23(5), 627- 631. David , H. (1997...investigated, and test results obtained from the installation at Long Beach airport. Edwards, V., Daskalakis, A. C., Oswald, L. J., Brading , J

  15. Ergonomics-inspired Reshaping and Exploration of Collections of Models

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi


    This paper examines the following question: given a collection of man-made shapes, e.g., chairs, can we effectively explore and rank the shapes with respect to a given human body – in terms of how well a candidate shape fits the specified human body? Answering this question requires identifying which shapes are more suitable for a prescribed body, and how to alter the input geometry to better fit the shapes to a given human body. The problem links physical proportions of the human body and its interaction with object geometry, which is often expressed as ergonomics guidelines. We present an interactive system that allows users to explore shapes using different avatar poses, while, at the same time providing interactive previews of how to alter the shapes to fit the user-specified body and pose. We achieve this by first constructing a fuzzy shape-to-body map from the ergonomic guidelines to multi-contacts geometric constraints; and then, proposing a novel contact-preserving deformation paradigm to realize a reshaping to adapt the input shape. We evaluate our method on collections of models from different categories and validate the results through a user study.

  16. A review of ISO and CEN standards on ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dul, J.; Vlaming, P.M. de; Munnik, M.J.


    In recent years an increasing number of official ergonomic standards has become available world-wide. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the European standardization organization Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) have published 28 ergonomic standards, whereas 69 standards

  17. A review of ISO and CEN standards on ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dul, J.; Vlaming, P.M. de; Munnik, M.J.


    In recent years an increasing number of official ergonomic standards has become available world-wide. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the European standardization organization Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) have published 28 ergonomic standards, whereas 69 standards

  18. Ergonomic interventions for improving working postures associated with manual materials handling (case study: a mineral processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Dehghani


    Full Text Available Introduction: A high percentage of musculoskeletal disorders in workplaces occur due to awkward posture and non-ergonomic design of the work stations for lifting and carrying of materials. To avoid these injuries, jobs should be designed in a way that ergonomics risk factors are controlled properly. The aim of this study was to utilize ergonomics interventions to minimize ergonomics risk factors in bag packing unit in a mineral processing plant. Material and Method: This cross sectional study was carried out among 20 workers of bag packing unit. Camera recording of working postures, evaluation of medical records, interview, and REBA technique were used to identify the ergonomic risk factors. Interventions included changing the conveyor belt height and the use of spring pallets (spring table. Data were analyzed using Paired T-Test by SPSS software version 18. Result: Before implementing ergonomics intervention, a total of 75% of evaluated postures by REBA technique obtained score of 8-10 (very high risk level and 25% had score of 11-15 (very high risk level that correspond to the action level 3 and 4, respectively. Following the implementation of ergonomics interventions, a total of 90% of the analyzed postures showed action level 2 (moderate risk level and the remainder 10 percent of evaluated postures showed high risk level. Comparison of REBA technique scores before and after implementing interventions showed a significant difference (P-value < 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the implementation of ergonomics interventions has remarkably decreased the required action level and it may be able to improve work-related postures.

  19. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme (United States)

    Stone, Robert J.


    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  20. Maintenance of submersible pumps in the septic tanks: ergonomic and biological risks to the worker. (United States)

    Mariño, Suzi; Figueiredo, Alex


    In this study was observed the maintenance task of submersible pumps septic tanks installed in industrial bathrooms. This maintenance activity operators are exposed to various biological and ergonomic risks. This type of activity requires its great physical performers who are also subject to contact with human waste in the form of liquids, gases and solids. Besides the problems mentioned, are still exposed to high temperatures that can cause diseases such as hyperthermia or heatstroke. These aspects were observed using the ergonomic assessment methodology in order to suggest improvements that are reflected in productivity and employee satisfaction.

  1. The Influence of Ergonomic Training on Low Back and Neck Pains in Female Hospital Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Prevalence of low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP in workers, especially in nurses is high, but their knowledge of ergonomics is not enough. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ergonomic training on low back pain and neck pain, posture, and function in female hospital personnel of Najaf-Abad, Iran. Patients and Methods In this queasy experimental study, 47 female staffs with LBP or NP were selected through a simple consecutive sampling method. The subjects completed a questionnaire on LBP and NP and were evaluated for posture, back tests, and cost of related treatments. Afterward, they participated in an ergonomic training program, including face to face and group education sessions on ergonomic risk factors for LBP and NP, in the work place. After six months of follow up, all the tests and data collection were repeated and data was analyzed using paired t-test and regression analysis. Results Prevalence of LBP and NP were 87% and 45.7%, respectively. Repetitive motions were the most frequent cause of pain (67%. Pain intensity, posture, risk of musculoskeletal disorders, weight, waist circumference, sick leaves, and the costs of treatments reduced significantly after intervention (P < 0.05. Conclusions With regards to the influence of ergonomic training on improving LBP and NP and decreasing the treatment costs, this intervention beside others can be useful for controlling musculoskeletal disorders in hospital personnel.

  2. Nutra-ergonomics: influence of nutrition on physical employment standards and the health of workers. (United States)

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E; Skinner, Tina L


    The importance of ergonomics across several scientific domains, including biomechanics, psychology, sociology, and physiology, have been extensively explored. However, the role of other factors that may influence the health and productivity of workers, such as nutrition, is generally overlooked. Nutra-ergonomics describes the interface between workers, their work environment, and performance in relation to their nutritional status. It considers nutrition to be an integral part of a safe and productive workplace that encompasses physical and mental health as well as the long-term wellbeing of workers. This review explores the knowledge, awareness, and common practices of nutrition, hydration, stimulants, and fortified product use employed prior to physical employment standards testing and within the workplace. The influence of these nutra-ergonomic strategies on physical employment standards, worker safety, and performance will be examined. Further, the roles, responsibilities, and implications for the applicant, worker, and the employer will be discussed within the context of nutra-ergonomics, with reference to the provision and sustainability of an environment conducive to optimize worker health and wellbeing. Beyond physical employment standards, workplace productivity, and performance, the influence of extended or chronic desynchronization (irregular or shift work) in the work schedule on metabolism and long-term health, including risk of developing chronic and complex diseases, is discussed. Finally, practical nutra-ergonomic strategies and recommendations for the applicant, worker, and employer alike will be provided to enhance the short- and long-term safety, performance, health, and wellbeing of workers.

  3. Postural Assessment of Students Evaluating the Need of Ergonomic Seat and Magnification in Dentistry. (United States)

    Dable, Rajani A; Wasnik, Pradnya B; Yeshwante, Babita J; Musani, Smita I; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Nagmode, Sunilkumar N


    Dental students using conventional chairs need immediate change in their posture. Implementing an ergonomic posture is necessary as they are at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. This study recommends the use of an ergonomic seat and magnification system to enhance the visibility and the posture of an operator. The aim of this study is to make a foray into the hazards caused by inappropriate posture of dental students while working. It also aims at creating a cognizance about the related health implications among the dental fraternity at large, and to understand the significance of adopting an ergonomic posture since the beginning of the professional course. In the present study, postures have been assessed by using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). This method uses diagrams of body postures and three scoring tables to evaluate ones exposure to risk factors. Ninety students from II BDS (preclinical students in the second year of dental school) were assessed in three groups using three different seats with and without magnification system. The results recorded significantly higher RULA scores for the conventional seats without using the magnification system compared to the SSC (Salli Saddle Chair-an ergonomic seat) with the use of magnification system. A poor ergonomic posture can make the dental students get habituated to the wrong working style which might lead to MSDs (Musculoskeletal diseases). It is advisable to acclimatize to good habits at the inception of the course, to prevent MSDs later in life.

  4. Understanding knowledge transfer in an ergonomics intervention at a poultry processing plant. (United States)

    Antle, David M; MacKinnon, Scott N; Molgaard, John; Vézina, Nicole; Parent, Robert; Bornstein, Stephen; Leclerc, Louise


    This case study reviews the knowledge transfer (KT) process of implementing a knife sharpening and steeling program into a poultry processing plant via a participatory ergonomics intervention. This ergonomics intervention required stakeholder participation at the company level to move a 'train-the-trainer' program, developed in Québec, Canada, into action on the plant's deboning line. Communications and exchanges with key stakeholders, as well as changes in steeling and production behaviours were recorded. The intervention was assumed to be at least partially successful because positive changes in work operations occurred. Ergonomic-related changes such as those documented have been cited in the academic literature as beneficial to worker health. However, several components cited in literature that are associated with a successful participatory ergonomics intervention were not attained during the project. A Dynamic Knowledge Transfer Model was used to identify KT issues that impacted on the success of train-the-trainer program. A debriefing analysis reveals that a failure to consider key participatory ergonomics factors necessary for success were related to capacity deficits in the knowledge dissemination strategy.

  5. Revision of theoretical and metodolycal aspects of the use maps cognitives in the ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Regina Poletto


    Full Text Available This study aims to review theoretical and methodological aspects of research carried out on the use of cognitive maps as an investigative resource in ergonomics. With the purpose of establishing the foundation of exploratory research, as well as selecting and identifying it in the specialized literature, the Portal Capes was the search engine used through Scopus, Scielo, Medline and Elsevier. Cognitive maps are an important instrument in the observation of human behavior under particular conditions. Their state of the art enhances their role in assisting ergonomics with activity analysis. The maps aid the processing of selective information and point to goals with regard to decision-making in work-related activities. Keywords: cognitive maps, observation instrument, work-related activities, ergonomics.

  6. The development of human factors experimental evaluation technology - 3-dimensional measurement system for motion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Soo; Pan, Young Hwan; Lee, Ahn Jae; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lim, Chi Hwan; Chang, Pil Sik; Lee, Seok Woo; Han, Sung Wook; Park, Chul Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Measurement of human motion is important in the application of ergonomics. We developed a system which can measure body movement, especially= hand movement using advanced direct video measurement technology. This system has as dynamic accuracy with 1% error and the sampling rate to 6 - 10 Hz, and can analyse the trajectory and speed of the marker. The use of passive marker obviates the need for a marker telemetry system and minimize motion disruption. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (author)

  7. Conceptual design pattern for ergonomic workplaces. (United States)

    Fonseca, Bernardo Bastos; Aguilera, Maria Victoria Cabrera; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodríguez


    In this paper, we analyzed two laboratories of liquid chromatography (LC), separation technique of mixtures and identification of its components, in order to identify projectual gaps relating to the environment and the working station. The methodology used was the ergonomic analysis with interactional and participatory techniques applied during the activity performance. This work incorporated and adapted the concept developed by Alexander (1979)--pattern languages--passing from architectural projects to workstations project and physical arrangement of the work environment. The adaptation of the concept resulted in a list of recommendations, requirements and concepts that have brought design solutions for the problematic aspects observed in the ergonomic analysis. The employed methodology, strongly supported in ergonomics principles, and in interactional and participatory techniques, contributed to achieve our gold that is what we now call Conceptual Standards. The patterns go beyond of a usual model of book a of ergonomics specification, once incorporating the viewpoint of the end user, it is also a set of best project practices and of project management in conception ergonomics.

  8. Ergonomic Factors during Laparoscopic Surgery Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.J.


    With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the patient experiences the benefits of less pain, a more rapid recovery and a shorter stay in hospital. However, MIS provides many challenges to surgeons and they need extensive training to acquire this new technique. This training consist

  9. Ergonomic Factors during Laparoscopic Surgery Training


    Xiao, D.J.


    With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the patient experiences the benefits of less pain, a more rapid recovery and a shorter stay in hospital. However, MIS provides many challenges to surgeons and they need extensive training to acquire this new technique. This training consists of developing cognitive, clinical, and technical skills. However, acquiring full training ‘‘on the job’’ is not always possible because of patient safety and restrictions of residents’ working hou...

  10. Service quality as goal and outcome of ergonomics research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning


    Ergonomics research needs to design organizational level, occupational health interventions that contribute to improving organizational performance so as to become of practical relevance for management. This paper analyses a study evaluating the impact of such interventions on user satisfaction...... ergonomic outcomes and organizational performance. Consequently, ergonomics research may benefit from including measures of organizational performance....

  11. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy. (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie


    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  12. Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case. (United States)

    Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira


    This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain.

  13. Ergonomics in Design Processes: The journey from Ergonomist toward Workspace Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke


    The aim of this article is to study the learning processes that take place in an interactive research project, which involved university researchers as well as ergonomic practitioners. The project simultaneously developed and tested a new framework—designated Workspace Design—for intervention...... the ergonomic practitioners had learned to practice the new concept by themselves. The results confirm that learning to some extent took place with help from two different mechanisms: learning by interacting and learning by practicing. Three factors are of crucial importance to the successful transfer of a new...... framework to ergonomic practitioners: 1) the practitioners must take part in developing and testing the framework and the subsequent interpretation of results, 2) they must have the opportunity to practice the framework in the daily consultancy setting and then reflect on their experiences, and 3...

  14. Importance and effects of altered workplace ergonomics in modern radiology suites. (United States)

    Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Blake, Michael A; Saksena, Mansi; Hahn, Peter F; Gervais, Debra; Zalis, Michael; da Silva Dias Fernandes, Leonor; Mueller, Peter R


    The transition from a film-based to a filmless soft-copy picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based environment has resulted in improved work flow as well as increased productivity, diagnostic accuracy, and job satisfaction. Adapting to this filmless environment in an efficient manner requires seamless integration of various components such as PACS workstations, the Internet and hospital intranet, speech recognition software, paperless electronic hospital medical records, e-mail, office software, and telecommunications. However, the importance of optimizing workplace ergonomics has received little attention. Factors such as the position of the work chair, workstation table, keyboard, mouse, and monitors, along with monitor refresh rates and ambient room lighting, have become secondary considerations. Paying close attention to the basics of workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity and reducing fatigue, thus allowing full realization of the potential benefits of a PACS. Optimization of workplace ergonomics should be considered in the basic design of any modern radiology suite.

  15. How can ergonomic practitioners learn to practice a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Seim, Rikke; Andersen, Vibeke


    How can a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia be “transferred” to ergonomic practitioners and become a new work practice? The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon experiences from an interactive research program in which this transferral was tested by two consecutive approaches......” with the researchers and other practitioners; 3) paying attention to the organizational settings of the ergonomic practitioner to make sure that a new work practice is implemented in the organization and not only by a single practitioner....

  16. Participatory ergonomics: past, present and future.. (United States)

    Imada, Andrew S


    This article traces the origins and development of Participatory Ergonomics as a macroergonomic approach to Japan in the 1980s. Since that time participatory approaches have evolved to make it a powerful means for ergonomists around the world. Future generations and ergonomic trends are projected using one set of conceptualization. Based on this model four generations can be identified: physical, cognitive, neural and biological. Four trends are projected to become important; one of which will be the need to engage users in other participatory means. This will result in finding an increasing number of new applications based on a finite set of ergonomic principles. This model is consistent with trends in the digital age.

  17. SEIPS 2.0: a human factors framework for studying and improving the work of healthcare professionals and patients. (United States)

    Holden, Richard J; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse P; Hoonakker, Peter; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Ozok, A Ant; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy


    Healthcare practitioners, patient safety leaders, educators and researchers increasingly recognise the value of human factors/ergonomics and make use of the discipline's person-centred models of sociotechnical systems. This paper first reviews one of the most widely used healthcare human factors systems models, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, and then introduces an extended model, 'SEIPS 2.0'. SEIPS 2.0 incorporates three novel concepts into the original model: configuration, engagement and adaptation. The concept of configuration highlights the dynamic, hierarchical and interactive properties of sociotechnical systems, making it possible to depict how health-related performance is shaped at 'a moment in time'. Engagement conveys that various individuals and teams can perform health-related activities separately and collaboratively. Engaged individuals often include patients, family caregivers and other non-professionals. Adaptation is introduced as a feedback mechanism that explains how dynamic systems evolve in planned and unplanned ways. Key implications and future directions for human factors research in healthcare are discussed.

  18. Tactile Cuing to Augment Multisensory Human-Machine Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Lawson, B.; Cholewiak, R.; Elliott, L.R.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Mortimer, B.J.P.; Rupert, A.; Redden, E.S.


    Tactile displays promise to improve the information-processing capacity of operators, especially when used in conjunction with visual and auditory displays. In this article, we describe current applications and future directions in tactile cuing. © 2015 by Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. All r

  19. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović


    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  1. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection (United States)

    Shepherd, William T.


    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  2. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation (United States)


    nation building through programs such as the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR )6. Other tasks of the CR include providing local expertise, guidance, and...Requirements FN Fabrique Nationale HF Human Factors HSI Humansystems® Incorporated JCR Junior Canadian Rangers MOTS Military off the Shelf the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR ) Program, which helps to achieve national and territorial goals through nation building. DEFICIENCY

  3. HSE management excellence: a Human Factors approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Theobald


    Full Text Available Present work discusses the integration of Human Factors in Health, Safety and Enviroment(HSE Management System allowing it as a way of checking the progress obtained, therebyminimizing the efforts and maximizing the result. A bibliographical research was carried outon the theoretical elements of the theme. As a result of this work, a proposal “conceptualstructure” for the integration of “Humais Factors” with the HSE management system ofAssociation of Oil & Gas Produces was presented.

  4. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (United States)


    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  5. Human factors by descent energy management (United States)

    Curry, R. E.


    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  6. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense (United States)


    network attack graphs. Paper presented at the IEEE Workshop on Visualization for Computer Security , Minneapolis, MN. Roberts, J.C. (2007). State of...Cyber security is a high-ranking national priority that is only likely to grow as we become more dependent on cyber systems. From a research perspective...Cyber security , cyber operations, human factors 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 5 19a

  7. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance. (United States)

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald


    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  8. Ergonomics as a missing part of sustainability. (United States)

    Pavlovic-Veselinovic, Sonja


    In the last twenty years, terms such as sustainable development, environmental protection, and sustainable design have been widely exploited, often without justification. Does ergonomics have a legitimate need or right to use these terms and to be the part of the process to which they refer? This paper discusses the relationship between ergonomics and the concept of sustainable development and its three elements of sustainability (environmental, social and economic), as the steps ergonomists need to take to secure and strengthen the influence in sustainability topics.

  9. Avoid Workplace Injury through Ergonomics | Poster (United States)

    Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases productivity, and decreases the number and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs affect the muscles, nerves, and tendons, and are a leading cause of lost workdays due to injury or illness.

  10. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.


    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  11. Human epidermal growth factor and the proliferation of human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Carpenter, G; Cohen, S


    The effect of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), a 5,400 molecular weight polypeptide isolated from human urine, on the growth of human foreskin fibroblasts (HF cells) was studied by measuring cell numbers and the incorporation of labeled thymidine. The addition of hEGF to HF cells growing in a medium containing 10% calf serum resulted in a 4-fold increase in the final density. The presence of hEGF also promoted the growth of HF cells in media containing either 1% calf serum or 10% gamma globulin-free serum. The addition of hEGF to quiescent confluent monolayers of HF cells, maintained in a medium with 1% calf serum for 48 hours, resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in the amount of 3H-thymidine incorporation after 20-24 hours. The stimulation of thymidine incorporation was maximal at an hEGF concentration of 2 ng/ml, was dependent on the presence of serum, and was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid. In confluent cultures of HF cells, subject to density dependent inhibition of growth, hEGF was able to stimulate DNA synthesis more effectively than fresh calf serum. Human EGF stimulated DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures, however, regardless of cell density. The addition of rabbit anti-hEGF inhibited all effects of this growth factor on HF cells.

  12. Perceived competence in computer use as a moderator of musculoskeletal strain in VDU work: an ergonomics intervention case. (United States)

    Tuomivaara, S; Ketola, R; Huuhtanen, P; Toivonen, R


    Musculoskeletal strain and other symptoms are common in visual display unit (VDU) work. Psychosocial factors are closely related to the outcome and experience of musculoskeletal strain. The user-computer relationship from the viewpoint of the quality of perceived competence in computer use was assessed as a psychosocial stress indicator. It was assumed that the perceived competence in computer use moderates the experience of musculoskeletal strain and the success of the ergonomics intervention. The participants (n = 124, female 58%, male 42%) worked with VDU for more than 4 h per week. They took part in an ergonomics intervention and were allocated into three groups: intensive; education; and reference group. Musculoskeletal strain, the level of ergonomics of the workstation assessed by the experts in ergonomics and amount of VDU work were estimated at the baseline and at the 10-month follow-up. Age, gender and the perceived competence in computer use were assessed at the baseline. The perceived competence in computer use predicted strain in the upper and the lower part of the body at the follow-up. The interaction effect shows that the intensive ergonomics intervention procedure was the most effective among participants with high perceived competence. The interpretation of the results was that an anxiety-provoking and stressful user-computer relationship prevented the participants from being motivated and from learning in the ergonomics intervention. In the intervention it is important to increase the computer competence along with the improvements of physical workstation and work organization.

  13. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M


    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  14. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation. (United States)

    Lynch, Mallory


    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  15. Human reliability, error, and human factors in power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S


    Human reliability, error, and human factors in the area of power generation have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Each year billions of dollars are spent in the area of power generation to design, construct/manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of power systems around the globe, and such systems often fail due to human error. This book compiles various recent results and data into one volume, and eliminates the need to consult many diverse sources to obtain vital information.  It enables potential readers to delve deeper into a specific area, providing the source of most of the material presented in references at the end of each chapter. Examples along with solutions are also provided at appropriate places, and there are numerous problems for testing the reader’s comprehension.  Chapters cover a broad range of topics, including general methods for performing human reliability and error analysis in power plants, specific human reliability analysis methods for nuclear power pl...

  16. Évaluation des facteurs de pénibilité du travail et évolutions technico-organisationnelles : un défi pour l’ergonomie Evaluation of work difficultly factors and technical-organizational evolution: a challenge for ergonomics - the case of rotary press operators in daily newspapers thirty years apart Evaluación de los factores de dificultad del trabajo y evoluciones técnico-organizacionales : un desafío para la ergonomía- el caso de los impresores-rotativistas de la prensa cotidiana a treinta años de distancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Garrigou


    the method and main results of two studies led respectively in 1976/1978 and 2007/2009, underlining the interest of a multi-disciplinary approach (ergonomics, ergo-toxicology, socio-epidemiology and statistics that integrated diverse methods for tackling such a complex issue. The goal of the present study was to identify and assess physical and mental demand factors associated with the technical and organizational changes that have occurred since the early 1980s. These results should, on the one hand, support the collective bargaining process concerning retirement age and, more specifically, compensation measures; and, on the other hand, should help to find better technical and organizational arrangements, in particular, prevention measures, likely to reduce the impact of work on the workers’ health. Regarding the short-, middle-, and long-term impact of ergonomic interventions, these studies question the potential of ergonomics to better address issues that are so crucial from an individual as well as social standpoint. They also question whether the body of knowledge produced by ergonomics can be used to steer public policies on occupational health.A treinta años de distancia, una misma pregunta es formulada a los ergónomos por iniciativa sindical (sindicatos obreros y sindicatos de empleadores : evaluar los riesgos del trabajo y su impacto sobre la salud y esperanza de vida de los « obreros del libro », más específicamente de los impresores-rotativistas. Este articulo aspira a presentar el proceso adoptado y los principales resultados de los estudios dirigidos en 1976-78 luego en 2007-2009, subrayando el interés de un enfoque interdisciplinario (ergonomía y ergo - toxicología, socio - epidemiología y estadísticas y de la integración de métodos diversificados para abordar una cuestión tan compleja. El objetivo del estudio actual es identificar y evaluar los factores de dificultad en relación con las principales evoluciones t

  17. Ergonomic Optimization of a Manufacturing System Work Cell in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caputo


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of a methodology for studying, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of a work cell in an automotive manufacturing system. The methodology is based on the use of digital human models and virtual reality techniques in order to simulate, in a virtual environment, human performances during the execution of assembly operations. The objective is to define the optimum combination of those geometry features that influence human postures during assembly operation in a work cell. In the demanding global marketplace, ensuring that human factors are comprehensively addressed is becoming an increasingly important aspect of design. Manufacturers have to design work cells that conform to all relevant Health and Safety standards. The proposed methodology can assist the designer to evaluate the performance of workers in a workplace before it has been realized. The paper presents an analysis of a case study proposed by COMAU, a global supplier of industrial automation systems for the automotive manufacturing sector and a global provider of full maintenance services. The study and all the virtual simulations have been carried out in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Competence Regional Center for the qualification of transportation systems (CRdC “Trasporti” - www.centrodicompetenzatrasporti.unina. it, which was founded by the Campania region with the aim of delivering advanced services and introducing new technologies into local companies operating in the field of transport. 

  18. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  19. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3. (United States)

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M; Smith, M Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie H D; Nogales, Eva


    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans.

  20. Kaizen and ergonomics: the perfect marriage. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando


    This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).

  1. Ergonomic handle for an arthroscopic cutter. (United States)

    Tuijthof; van Engelen; Herder; Goossens; Snijders; van Dijk


    From an analysis of the routinely performed meniscectomy procedures, it was concluded that a punch with a side-ways steerable tip would improve the reachability of meniscal tissue. This potentially leads to a safer and more efficient meniscectomy. Furthermore, the current scissors handles of arthroscopic punches are ergonomically not sufficient. An ergonomic handle is designed with one lever that enables opening and closing of the instrument tip, and side-ways steering of the instrument tip. The design of the handle complies with ergonomic guidelines that were found in the literature. A model of the instrument tip was added to the new handle for comparison with conventional handles. Experiments were performed with a knee joint model, using objective and subjective criteria. The results show that the concept of a side-ways steerable punch is promising, since faster task times are achieved without increasing the risk of damaging healthy tissue. The current design of the ergonomic handle incorporates two degrees of freedom in an intuitive way, the handle is more comfortable to hold, and easy to control. The external memory capabilities of the new handle could be improved. Further development of this handle and the addition of a sufficient instrument tip and force transmission are recommended.

  2. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazet, A.; Walraven, P.L.


    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficie

  3. Ergonomics of tactile and haptic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, J.; Erp, J.B.F. van


    The area of tactile and haptic interactions has produced a number of exemplar systems and an even greater number of research papers. The time has come to systematize the knowledge that has been gained in order to produce guidance. The Ergonomics of Tactile and Haptic Interactions symposium provides

  4. Design of an ergonomic electric guitar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genani, G.; Dekker, M.C.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.


    An investigation of existing literature reveals that guitar players are most prone to musculoskeletal injuries amongst all musicians. In the light of recent injuries to prominent guitar players such as Eddie Van Halen, this article explores ergonomics of electric guitars. By means of surveys, user o

  5. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedzadeh


    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  6. Implantation of an ergonomics administration system in a company: report of an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics. (United States)

    Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa


    This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.

  7. Epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) in human tissues. (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Orth, D N


    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), which stimulates the growth of a variety of tissues, was first isolated from mouse submandibular glands, but is also excreted in large amounts (about 50 micrograms/day) in human urine and is probably identical to human beta-urogastrone (hUG), a potent inhibitor of stimulated gastric acid secretion. However, the primary tissue source of hEGF/hUG is as yet unknown. The hEGF/hUG in homogenates of human salivary glands and a wide variety of other endocrine and nonendocrine tissues was extracted by Amberlite CG-50 cation exchange chromatography and immune affinity chromatography using the immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit anti-hEGF serum covalently bound to agarose. The extracts were subjected to homologous hEGF RIA. Immunoreactive hEGF was found in extracts of adult submandibular gland, thyroid gland, duodenum, jejunum, and kidney, but not in several fetal tissues. The tissue immunoreactive hEGF was similar to standard hEGF in terms of immunoreactivity and elution from Sephadex G-50 Fine resin, but its concentrations were very low (1.3-5.5 ng/g wet tissue). Thus, it is not certain that these tissues represent the only source of the large amounts of hEGF/hUG that appear to be filtered by the kidneys each day.

  8. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E


    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  10. Quantitative modelling in cognitive ergonomics: predicting signals passed at danger. (United States)

    Moray, Neville; Groeger, John; Stanton, Neville


    This paper shows how to combine field observations, experimental data and mathematical modelling to produce quantitative explanations and predictions of complex events in human-machine interaction. As an example, we consider a major railway accident. In 1999, a commuter train passed a red signal near Ladbroke Grove, UK, into the path of an express. We use the Public Inquiry Report, 'black box' data, and accident and engineering reports to construct a case history of the accident. We show how to combine field data with mathematical modelling to estimate the probability that the driver observed and identified the state of the signals, and checked their status. Our methodology can explain the SPAD ('Signal Passed At Danger'), generate recommendations about signal design and placement and provide quantitative guidance for the design of safer railway systems' speed limits and the location of signals. Practitioner Summary: Detailed ergonomic analysis of railway signals and rail infrastructure reveals problems of signal identification at this location. A record of driver eye movements measures attention, from which a quantitative model for out signal placement and permitted speeds can be derived. The paper is an example of how to combine field data, basic research and mathematical modelling to solve ergonomic design problems.

  11. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration - Presentation (United States)

    Hamilton, George; Adams, Chris


    This viewgraph presentation addresses the following considerations for human factors engineering during long duration human space flight: gravitational adaptation, 2-D to 3-D adaptation, handles, exercise posture, and space ergonomics. The presentation argues that there is an urgent need to advance research is these areas in preparation for future manned missions.

  12. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng


    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  13. Productivity and ergonomic investigation of bent-handle pliers. (United States)

    Duke, Kelly; Mirka, Gary A; Sommerich, Carolyn M


    Awkward wrist posture is generally considered an occupational risk factor for hand/wrist disorders, leading to the ergonomic design principle of "bend the tool, not the wrist." Sixteen participants performed a computer jumper installation task and a simple assembly task while productivity, wrist posture, and shoulder posture were measured. The work surface orientation (vertical and 45 degrees) and the level of constraint placed on the user (constrained grip and unconstrained grip) were also varied. The results indicate that the beneficial effects of the bent-handle pliers are task dependent. In the computer jumper task the bent-handle pliers resulted in 5.3% faster task performance, whereas in the assembly task performance was 4.9% faster with the straight-handle pliers. The bent-handle pliers reduced shoulder deviations by 50% in the jumper installation task, and ulnar deviation was reduced by 12% and 22% for the jumper installation task and the assembly task, respectively (all significant at p ergonomic utility of bent-handle pliers can be considerable but that the 3-D kinematics characteristics of the task must be considered.

  14. El color y la ergonomía en nuestro entorno


    Gregori Galindo, María Dolores; Genís Domenech, Mª. Susana


    [EN] Colour and ergonomics are united in the design of the work posts. Colour sorrounds us in such a way that it stimulates our senses and makes our lives more interesting and different. Emotion and intuition predomitate in human being, whereas racionality is less important than we think. Colour has direct influence on blood pressure, muscles and nerves and provokes important associations in human brain. So, it can have stimulating or relaxing effects. Experts agree that colour, perha...

  15. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri


    actively control the orientation and image magnification of the video cameras. The passengers themselves are considered as physically part of the cockpit, and therefore specifically developed biomedical apparels worn by the passengers and provide biomedical data of the passengers are connected to the onboard and ground computers to provide maximum comfort and safety to the passengers. The safety principles and understanding that the passengers are actually part of the cockpit becomes the basis for the design of the cockpit. In general, the ergonomics of the cockpit is to be practically and psychologically provide comfort, entertainment, safety and satisfaction to the passengers. This paper discusses the human factors engineering and safety principles applied in designing the ergonomic cockpit of the Malaysian commercial suborbital spaceplane. It describes particularly the design of the dashboard with personalized gauges and LCDs, and biomedical products, which not only enable the passengers to be effectively part of the cockpit, but also becomes stylish apparels worn by the passengers.

  16. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges


    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  17. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges


    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  18. Research advances in coupling bionic optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao LIU


    Full Text Available Currently, most Chinese CNC machine tools' dynamic and static performances have large gap comparing with the similar foreign products, and the CNC machine tools users' human-centered design demand are ignored, which results in that the domestic CNC machine tools' overall competitiveness is relatively low. In order to solve the above problem, the ergonomics and coupling bionics are adopted to study collaborative optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on the domestic and foreign machine tool design method research achievement. The CNC machine tools' "man-machine-environment" interaction mechanism can be built by combining with ergonomic, and then the CNC ergonomic design criteria is obtained. Taking the coupling bionics as theoretical basis, the biological structures "morphology-structure-function-adaptive growth" multiple coupling mechanism can be studied, and the mechanical performance benefits structure can be extracted, then the CNC machine tools structural coupling bionic design technology is obtained by combining with the similarity principle. Combination of CNC machine tools' ergonomic design criteria and coupling bionic design technology, and considering the CNC machine tool performance's interaction and coupling mechanisms, a new multi-objective optimization design method can be obtained, which is verified through CNC machine tools' prototype experiments. The new optimization design method for CNC machine tools can not only help improve the whole machine's dynamic and static performance, but also has a bright prospect because of the "man-oriented" design concept.

  19. Ergonomic analysis of work activity for the purpose of developing training programs: the contribution of ergonomics to vocational didactics. (United States)

    Ouellet, Sylvie


    Questions related to job skills and the teaching situations that best promote skill development are investigated by specialists in various fields, notably among them, ergonomists. This paper presents the findings of an ergonomic intervention study whose aim was to develop a meat-deboning training program by taking into account both the training content to be constructed and the working conditions that might facilitate or hinder skill development. One-on-one interviews and group discussions, on-the-job and videotape playback observations, as well as self-confrontation interviews were carried out. Activity analysis revealed major variability in work methods. The reasoning behind the experienced workers' actions and the experiential job knowledge they had developed were brought to light and served to develop the training content. The determining factors in the choice of work methods were identified, allowing adjustments to be made to the working conditions that might hinder skill development. The ergonomic process that implied taking working conditions into account in our study may make a significant contribution to vocational didactics, which is based on the cognitive analysis of work for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of job-skills training.

  20. Effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in improving communication and psychosocial exposures. (United States)

    Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B


    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.

  1. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles. (United States)

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G


    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made.

  2. Organizational crisis management: the human factor. (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald


    While many professionals are quite competent when dealing with operational aspects of organizational continuity, often the "human factor" does not receive adequate attention. This article provides a brief overview of a soon to be published book by the same title. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the ubiquitous yet complex reactions of the workforce to a wide array of organizational disruptions. It goes beyond the short term intervention of debriefings to describe the more extensive pre and post incident strategies required to mitigate the impact of crises on the workforce. It is important to remember: "An organization can get its phone lines back up and have its computers backed up...but its workers may still be messed up."

  3. A brief essay on ergonomics in graphic design. (United States)

    Mendonça, André N F; van der Linden, Júlio C S; Fonseca, Tania M G


    Through Brazilian publication revision on the relations amongst Ergonomics and Design, we observed the tendency towards an approach focusing on product design. However, it is our duty to question which would be the influences of ergonomics in the graphic design. As a methodology, we considered the identification that the practices derived from ergonomics as epistemic system found in the main bibliography related to graphic design.

  4. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles. (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong


    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design.

  5. Motivating Ergonomic Computer Workstation Setup: Sometimes Training Is Not Enough


    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth


    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics...

  6. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia


    Kaļķis, Henrijs


    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  7. Ergonomics, Engineering, and Business: Repairing a Tricky Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa; Broberg, Ole; Møller, Niels


    This paper discusses how the ergonomics community can contribute to make ergonomics a strategic element in business decisions on strategy and implementation of strategy. The ergonomics community is seen as a heterogeneous entity made up of educational and research activities in universities, ergo...... that desired influential effects on companies are dependent on a concurrent change within the community’s different parts and their interaction with organizations and their surroundings....

  8. Evaluation of selected ergonomic assessment tools for use in providing job accommodation for people with inflammatory arthritis. (United States)

    Village, Judy; Backman, Catherine L; Lacaille, Diane


    Inflammatory arthritis (IA) is a leading cause of work disability, especially for those with jobs involving repetitive, hand-intensive or manual work. Ergonomic interventions may mediate against job loss. Our objective was to identify desirable features of an ergonomic tool for use in providing job accommodation for people with IA, and to evaluate a selection of ergonomic and rehabilitation tools against these features. Eight desirable features were compared across 16 assessment tools. None of the tools met all the pre-determined features. Ergonomic assessment tools should incorporate objective assessment of risk factors together with subjective perceptions of symptom aggravation, and identify risk factors that may not currently be causing problems, but may increase risk of aggravation or injury in the future. To accommodate the needs of people with IA, the tool should allow for evaluation of risks and generation of solutions without a worksite visit in situations where the client does not want to disclose their illness. Finally, an assessment tool needs to be applicable to a wide range of worksites, easy to use, valid, and reliable. Against these criteria, it appears that there is a lack of appropriate ergonomic assessment tools for use in people with IA.

  9. Casting an ergonomic eye on university libraries. (United States)

    Ferrer, Nicole; Villarouco, Vilma


    Research in the field of Ergonomics of the Built Environment has been developed with a view to consolidating studies in this area, the objective of which is to provide evidence that the joint participation of users and designers on drawing up projects is important. In this context, the theme of this study is to investigate the interactions between users and the environment in a university library. To do so, well-established techniques from Ergonomics, Architecture and Environmental Psychology were used to make a functional and behavioral evaluation to identify the level of user satisfaction in six libraries in the various study centers of the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, northeast Brazil, so as to identify the strengths and also weaknesses in these spatial structures.

  10. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges. (United States)

    Lazet, A; Walraven, P L


    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficient, good ergonomic design is essential. A series of designs of navigation bridges is used to illustrate typical problems and situations. The building of full scale mock-ups of complete bridges is essential in order to handle the design as an integrated problem and to simulate the work situation. Such static mock-ups have been shown to be extremely useful in the discussion between builder, future user and adviser. An extension to dynamic simulation is necessary in order to study the actual work conditions in a new design.

  11. The concept of contradiction in ergonomics practice. (United States)

    Nathanael, Dimitris; Zarboutis, Nikos; Marmaras, Nicolas


    The present communication deals with the methodology of the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes an operationalized version of work analysis in terms of contradictions. The aim is to demonstrate that such a dialectic tool and method of representation may assist the ergonomist to frame the essence of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs (i) contradiction as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory and (ii) regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented and a discussion is made on further developments and possible pitfalls.

  12. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method


    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen


    Introduction:Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effects may thus be due to other factors in addition to the investigated intervention – i.e. due to effect modifiers. Such effect modifiers need to be identified and assessed in terms of potential impact o...

  13. Ergonomics in Colombian Floriculture: Results and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope H. Barrero


    Full Text Available Introduction: The flower industry has been affected for years by the high occurrence of muscu¬loskeletal disorders among workers. Various efforts have been done to understand the magnitude of the problem, its causes and possible solutions. This manuscript presents from the academic perspective the lessons and achievements of an industry-academics model of action to improve the ergonomic conditions of the working population of this important industry. Materials and methods: I conducted a review of minutes, communications, reports and scientific publications related to the ergonomics work done since year 2007 with the participation of the Center for Ergonomics Studies (cee of the Department of Industrial Engineering at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. A retrospective analysis of the information sought to answer questions about the origin of the work, objectives, results, lessons learned and benefits gained. Results: The working model was participatory. Flower producers were the starters of the work. They made explicit their needs to workers’ insurance companies. The overall study design was not just given but built with academics, and subsequently refined with the association of producers. Although the overall objective of the work was the prevention of musculoskeletal disease among workers, the work was carried out in time as funds were secured through studies with specific objectives related to: Workplace ergonomics evaluations, characterization of the working population, and the development, implementation and testing of solutions. Discussion: The presented industry-academics collaboration model resulted in important improvements to working conditions and academic results. Although it is necessary to validate the view of the industry regarding this type of collaborative models, it is considered that this case was successful and therefore should be replicated in other industries.

  14. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility. (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne


    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  15. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau


    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  16. Medical Device Development: the challenge for ergonomics


    Martin, Jennifer L; Norris, Beverley J.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Crowe, John A.


    High quality, well designed medical devices are necessary to provide safe and effective clinical care for patients as well as to ensure the health and safety of professional and lay device users. Capturing the user requirements of users and incorporating these into design is an essential component of this. The field of ergonomics has an opportunity to assist, not only with this area, but also to encourage a more general consideration of the user during medical device development. A review ...

  17. Design of an ergonomic electric guitar


    Genani, G.; Dekker, M.C.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.


    An investigation of existing literature reveals that guitar players are most prone to musculoskeletal injuries amongst all musicians. In the light of recent injuries to prominent guitar players such as Eddie Van Halen, this article explores ergonomics of electric guitars. By means of surveys, user observations, biomechanical analysis and laboratory measurement, the root of the problem has been determined. Bad posture while playing and high wrist flexion seem to be the two prominent issues tha...

  18. Standupable Desks - Ergonomic furniture for Primary Schools


    Walsh, John; Ennis, Mark


    Numerous studies have shown how prolonged sitting at school can have a negative effect on the physical health and is linked with obesity in primary school students. More physically active approaches to learning have been shown to not only improve physical wellbeing but increase attention and improve learning outcomes. There is also an increasing movement to sit/ stand desking for office worker for ergonomic reasons. This project is concerned with developing a sit/ stand school desk that wo...

  19. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten


    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  20. Dental Hygiene Students' Self-Assessment of Ergonomics Utilizing Photography. (United States)

    Partido, Brian B


    Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, phygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.