WorldWideScience

Sample records for human factors developpement

  1. Development of emergency response training program based on human factors; Developpement d'un programme de formation pour la reaction aux situations d'urgences base sur les facteurs humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A training program has been developed at Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. to improve personal response to emergency situations by enabling plant shift chiefs to understand the unique human behavioral patterns that appear during emergencies. The program provides comprehensive and systematic training consisting of lectures and seminars based on a Human Factor Handbook, simulation training, and feedback training. The program can also be applied to all areas of the process industry. (author)

  2. IVI human factors strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This document focuses on human factors research that supports the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The status of the problem areas within categories used often by the human factors community to organize human factors process is discussed. A simi...

  3. Human Factors Job Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  4. Human Factors Planning Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To ensure human factors considerations are fully incorporated in the system : development, the Integrated Product Team (IPT) or Program Manager initiates a : Human Factors Program (HFP) that addresses the human performance and human : resource parame...

  5. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  6. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  7. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  8. Aerospace Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  9. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  10. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  11. Developpement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok Michel

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution souligne le fait que la plupart des innovations techniques ont bénéficié d’arrangements institutionnels adaptés qui ont favorisé l’adoption de pratiques techniques nouvelles. Elle met en exergue la nécessité de considérer conjointement les innovations techniques et institutionnelles pour aider à réaliser un gain de productivité qui permettrait de renforcer la place des pays cotonniers de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre dans le monde. Malgré leur intérêt, les nouvelles technologies ne constituent pas la réponse unique, comme ce serait le cas dans les pays économiquement développés, dans la conception de nouvelles techniques culturales pour ces pays africains. Ces techniques doivent d’abord être conformes aux contraintes des paysans, par exemple, en termes de limitation de main-d’œuvre ou de finance. Le comportement des petits paysans face à l’incertitude et la limitation de leurs moyens est brièvement étudié. Cette analyse permet de mettre en évidence les éléments de cahier des charges des nouvelles techniques destinées à soulager les contraintes des paysans. Des exemples de techniques possibles sont présentés. Des cas spécifiques d’interaction entre innovation technique et innovation institutionnelle sont examinés. La mise au point de techniques efficaces et adaptées exige un changement dans le financement et dans la réalisation de la recherche.

  12. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  13. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  14. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  15. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  16. developpement des systemes de production innovants d'association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    égumineuses. DEVELOPPEMENT DES ... et l'alimentation animale. Elles représentent une alternative dans la gestion des risques et des incertitudes pour les agro-éleveurs, ... Projet d'Appui à l'Enseignement Supérieur. (PAES) dans les pays de ...

  17. developpement des systemes de production innovants d'association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    égumineuses. DEVELOPPEMENT DES SYSTEMES DE .... sols, à la sécurité alimentaire et à l'augmentation des revenus des agriculteurs (UNECA ,1995 ; ..... tière et commercialisation du lait en zone péri-urbaine de Sikasso, Mali. Doctorat Zoo-.

  18. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  19. Human factors in automotive innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terken, J.; Ham, J.; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    Many automotive innovations affect the driver's task and/or the driving experience. In this paper we argue that successful innovation in these cases requires that due attention is given to Human Factors issues in the course of the innovation process. We support this claim by examples from several

  20. Human factors in software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  1. Human factors and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haerkens, M.H.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite modern equipment, increasing emphasis on patient safety, and excellent training facilities medical care frequently results in unintentional harm to patients. Human Factors (HF) appear to play an important role in adverse events, especially in high risk clinical departments. A sound safety

  2. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  3. Human factors and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Haerkens, M.H.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite modern equipment, increasing emphasis on patient safety, and excellent training facilities medical care frequently results in unintentional harm to patients. Human Factors (HF) appear to play an important role in adverse events, especially in high risk clinical departments. A sound safety climate is considered essential, as it is positively related to safety outcomes. This thesis focused on HF and critical team performance in clinical medicine. First, an overview of existing literatur...

  4. Human factors in waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moray, N. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors.

  5. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's ability...

  6. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  7. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  8. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  9. Human Factors Checklist: Think Human Factors - Focus on the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darcy; Stelges, Katrine; Barth, Timothy; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Dischinger, Charles; Kanki, Barbara; Kramer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A quick-look Human Factors (HF) Checklist condenses industry and NASA Agency standards consisting of thousands of requirements into 14 main categories. With support from contractor HF and Safety Practitioners, NASA developed a means to share key HF messages with Design, Engineering, Safety, Project Management, and others. It is often difficult to complete timely assessments due to the large volume of HF information. The HF Checklist evolved over time into a simple way to consider the most important concepts. A wide audience can apply the checklist early in design or through planning phases, even before hardware or processes are finalized or implemented. The checklist is a good place to start to supplement formal HF evaluation. The HF Checklist was based on many Space Shuttle processing experiences and lessons learned. It is now being applied to ground processing of new space vehicles and adjusted for new facilities and systems.

  10. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  11. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariuki, S.G. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Process and Plant Technology, Sekr. TK0-1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Loewe, K. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Process and Plant Technology, Sekr. TK0-1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: katharina.loewe@tu-berlin.de

    2007-12-15

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors.

  12. Transformations de l'industrie maritime: portrait international de developpement durable applique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comtois, C; Slack, B

    2005-01-01

    ...? Quelles sont les meilleures pratiques des ports et des transporteurs maritimes? La communaute maritime du Saint-Laurent devrait-elle adopter certaines de ces pratiques pour developper davantage un transport maritime durable...

  13. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  14. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  15. Human Factors in Aeronautics at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a briefing to a regularly meeting DoD group called the Human Systems Community of Interest: Mission Effectiveness. I was asked to address human factors in aeronautics at NASA. (Exploration (space) human factors has apparently already been covered.) The briefing describes human factors organizations at NASA Ames and Langley. It then summarizes some aeronautics tasks that involve the application of human factors in the development of specific tools and capabilities. The tasks covered include aircrew checklists, dispatch operations, Playbook, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. I mention that most of our aeronautics work involves human factors as embedded in development tasks rather than basic research.

  16. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  17. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  18. Cyber Vigilance: The Human Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    also suggest vulnerability to denial & deception (D&D) tactics which would effectively hack the human rather than the machine. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...deception (D&D) tactics which would effectively hack the human rather than the machine. INTRODUCTION ]Jn a world of asymmetric conflict in which the...arcsines of the percentage of correct detections. This analysis indicated statistically significant main effects for signal probability, F( I, 20) = 4.26

  19. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  20. Human factors in healthcare level one

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    The majority of errors, litigation, and complaints in the health service are due to 'human factors', yet the term is still not widely understood and is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to team training or communication skills. Although including these, the subject of 'human factors' goes far beyond this to look at systems, environmental influences, and interactions with equipment, in addition to self-awareness and human interaction. All of these aspects are captured inHuman Factors in Healthcare and are built into a new framework: the SHEEP model, which breaks down into five key areas:

  1. Coding Human Factors Observations in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tara N; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Reeves, Scott T; Boquet, Albert J; Shappell, Scott A

    The reliability of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) for classifying retrospective observational human factors data in the cardiovascular operating room is examined. Three trained analysts independently used HFACS to categorize observational human factors data collected at a teaching and nonteaching hospital system. Results revealed that the framework was substantially reliable overall (Study I: k = 0.635; Study II: k = 0.642). Reliability increased when only preconditions for unsafe acts were investigated (Study I: k =0.660; Study II: k = 0.726). Preconditions for unsafe acts were the most commonly identified issues, with HFACS categories being similarly populated across both hospitals. HFACS is a reliable tool for systematically categorizing observational data of human factors issues in the operating room. Findings have implications for the development of a HFACS tool for proactively collecting observational human factors data, eliminating the necessity for classification post hoc.

  2. Accounting for the human factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty about future climate change is the path greenhouse gas emissions will take. Now research using a coupled model of human behaviour and climate finds that individual behaviour can significantly alter emissions trajectories and global temperature.

  3. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  4. Human Factors Directions for Civil Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding human capabilities and limitations, incorporating human factors into aircraft design, operation, and certification, and the emergence of new technologies designed to reduce workload and enhance human performance in the system, most aviation accidents still involve human errors. Such errors occur as a direct or indirect result of untimely, inappropriate, or erroneous actions (or inactions) by apparently well-trained and experienced pilots, controllers, and maintainers. The field of human factors has solved many of the more tractable problems related to simple ergonomics, cockpit layout, symbology, and so on. We have learned much about the relationships between people and machines, but know less about how to form successful partnerships between humans and the information technologies that are beginning to play a central role in aviation. Significant changes envisioned in the structure of the airspace, pilots and controllers' roles and responsibilities, and air/ground technologies will require a similarly significant investment in human factors during the next few decades to ensure the effective integration of pilots, controllers, dispatchers, and maintainers into the new system. Many of the topics that will be addressed are not new because progress in crucial areas, such as eliminating human error, has been slow. A multidisciplinary approach that capitalizes upon human studies and new classes of information, computational models, intelligent analytical tools, and close collaborations with organizations that build, operate, and regulate aviation technology will ensure that the field of human factors meets the challenge.

  5. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  7. Quebec energy development in a sustainable development context; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.

    2010-09-15

    Quebec is a net importer of oil and it is clear that the reduction of its dependence with regards to hydrocarbons must be a main preoccupation. Moreover, the energy consumption per habitant of Quebec is higher than that of the majority of the other developed countries. This analysis looks at the choice on offer to the society of the province of Quebec, in terms of energy resources and technologies of today and tomorrow, in a context of sustainable development. [French] Le Quebec est un importateur net de petrole et il est clair que la reduction de sa dependance a l'egard des hydrocarbures doit etre une preoccupation de premier plan. De plus, la consommation energetique par habitant du Quebec est plus elevee que celle de la majorite des autres pays developpes. La presente analyse adresse les choix qui s'offrent a la societe quebecoise, en matiere de ressources et de technologies de l'energie d'aujourd'hui et de demain, dans un contexte de developpement durable.

  8. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  9. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  10. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and the probable mechanism. Methods: After ... Keywords: Mitochondrial transcription factor A, NF-κB, Hypoxia, Human retinal endothelial cell,. Diabetic retinopathy ..... choice for diabetic retinopathy therapy, as TFAM activity clearly affects the ...

  11. Human Factors in Railroad Operations : Initial Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of a year's work in providing support in human factors to the Federal Railroad Administration. The principal topics include: (a) a description of the locomotive engineer's job, particularly with regard to its inher...

  12. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have rece...

  13. Antimicrobial factors in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V; Bhaskaram, C; Raghuramulu, N; Jagadeesan, V

    1977-03-01

    Levels of immunoglobulins, lactoferrin and lysozyme were determined in milk samples obtained from well-nourished and under-nourished Indian women at different stages of lactation. The concentration of immunoglobulins and lactoferrin was higher in colostrum than in mature milk while the lysozyme levels showed a progressive increase with the period of lactation. There were no significant differences in the levels between the two groups of women. Administration of iron did not alter either the total or percentage saturation of lactoferrin in milk. These results indicate that antibacterial factors in milk are not influenced by the nutritional status of the mother and that iron supplementation does not interfere with the bacteriostatic function of lactoferrin.

  14. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  16. Des Regles et du Jeu. Complementarite des facteurs genetiques et epigenetiques dans le developpement cerebral (Of Rules and of Play. The Complementary Nature of Genetic and Epigenetic Factors in Brain Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jean-Francois

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the nervous system and the performances it conditions. From the perspective of rules, play, and relaxation of rules, learning and education are not considered as a kind of conditioning but as providing a content in which the cumulative expression of potential can take…

  17. Learning Latent Factor Models of Human Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Guerzhoy, Michael; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    NIPS Workshop on Social Network and Social Media Analysis; International audience; This paper describes probability models for human travel, using latent factors learned from data. The latent factors represent interpretable properties: travel distance cost, desirability of destinations, and affinity between locations. Individuals are clustered into distinct styles of travel. The latent factors combine in a multiplicative manner, and are learned using Maximum Likelihood. The resulting models e...

  18. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  19. Developing Human-Machine Interfaces to Support Appropriate Trust and Reliance on Automated Combat Identification Systems (Developpement d’Interfaces Homme-Machine Pour Appuyer la Confiance dans les Systemes Automatises d’Identification au Combat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of...laquelle ils se fient à la réponse ne sont pas aussi clairement corrélées, ce qui indique que la confiance est une valeur intermédiaire entre les...information management practices. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 13 (1), 5–24. Mosier, K. L., & Skitka, L. J. (1996). Human decision makers and

  20. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  1. Space operations and the human factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  2. Human Factors Plan for the Aeronautical Information Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This human factors plan covers the human factors effort for the development of the Aeronautical Information Subsystem (AIS) of the Operational Data Management System (ODMS). Broadly the goals of the human factors effort are to provide a user interfac...

  3. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  4. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  5. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genre, migration internationale et developpement local : Quelques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marked by a strong immigration until the years 1960s, the western side of the Plateau Region of Togo is passing through an experience of human drive linked to the crisis in the plantation economy that started since the late 1970s. In this area of Togo, international migration is a striking phenomenon which issues are various ...

  7. Development in Belgium of pinhole tomo-scintigraphy and of its applications to human and to small animals; Developpement en Belgique de la tomoscintigraphie stenopeique et de ses applications a l'homme et au petit animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seret, A. [Liege Univ., Institut de Physique, Imagerie Medicale Experimentale (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    In Belgium, several researchers have been highly active in developing pinhole tomo-scintigraphy and have sometimes made a pioneer work. Their contributions concern as well the methodology of the technique as its applications to human and small animals. Reconstruction algorithms, of analytic and iterative type, have been developed and validated. They can reconstruct data obtained along circular, half-circular and non-circular acquisition orbits, the camera head being eventually tilted. A very performing method has been elaborated to determine the seven geometric parameters of the acquisition that are needed for an optimal reconstruction. The use of pinhole tomo-scintigraphy for thyroid exploration seems to be born in Belgium and a few validation studies were conducted in the country. Potentials of pinhole tomography application to parathyroid or bone scintigraphy have also been considered. Finally, some research groups are using pinhole tomo-scintigraphy for small animal studies. (author)

  8. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  9. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as a modulator of NF-κB, on proliferation of hypoxia-induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC), and the probable mechanism. Methods: After exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2) for 5 days, cell proliferation and cell cycle of HREC were ...

  10. Human and Mechanical Factors in Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M. J.; Hubbard, R. P.

    Analysis of the human and mechanical factors inherent in ergometry suggest many strategies for the improvement of experiments related to exertion. The resistive principles of gravitation, friction, elasticity, viscosity, magnetism, and inertia used in ergometers impose different restraints on experiments. The suitability of different resistive…

  11. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  12. The sustainable development; Le developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  13. Human Factors in the Management of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The ‘Human factor’ is a major issue when optimizing manufacturing systems. The development in recommendations on how to handle this factor in the management of production reflects the change in dominating challenges faced by production in society. Presently, industrial societies are meeting new...... challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ‘human factor’ in the curriculum on production management has to reflect these changes. This paper concludes...

  14. Tumor angiogenic factor and human skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J E; Hubler, W R

    1975-03-01

    A transparent acrylic hamster cheek-pouch chamber was used to investigate the elaboration of a tumor angiogenic factor (TAF) by human cutaneous neoplasms; direct tumor implantations, transfilter diffusion, and soluble tumor extracts were used in the study. A diffusible and filterable TAF was extracted from cutaneous tumors and produced distinctive patterns of sequential vasodilatation, tortuosity, and neovascular proliferation in the cheek-pouch membrane. Malignant human neoplasms (eg, melanoma, basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma) produced striking neovascularization; vascular tumors (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, vascular histiocytoma) stimulated dramatic hyperemia and ectasia. Angiogenesis was conspicuously absent after implantation of control materials and nevoid or normal cutaneous components (with the exception of epidermis). Tumor angiogenic factor appears to induce direct stimulation of endothelial cell mitosis and may be essential for survival of nutritionally ravenous neoplastic tissues. The interference with TAF has therapeutic implications.

  15. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  16. Use of Computers in Human Factors Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    CODING OF UPDATES); (3) DISPLAY MODES AND SENSORY MODALITIES (GRCUP VS INIVIDUAL DISPLAYS, MULTISENSORY DISPLAYS); AND (4) COMPUTER AIDS TO THE DECISION...OF HUMAN FACTORS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (HF-BIO) ORGANIZATIONS; GROWTH OF THE PROFESSION, TURNOVER RATES, REPORTING LEVELS, GROUP COMPOSITION...PROJECTED GROWTH OF FIELD, HF-810 EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS, DEGREES OFFERED, APPRENTICESHIPS* NUMBER OF STUDENTS TRAINED, PROBLEMS ’ ASbOCIATED WITH THE MF-BIO

  17. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    operations in remote, isolated, and coastal communities of Canada2 3. CR are comprised of approximately 4111 Inuit , First Nations, Métis, and non...was varied in gender, rank, age, years as a CR, patrol, and culture . Furthermore the operating environments of the CR varied from the arctic, to...while differences were observed in the culture between CRPGs. Page 32 CRR: Human Factors Requirements Validation Humansystems® 5.3 Technical

  18. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  20. Human reliability, error, and human factors in power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S

    2014-01-01

    Human reliability, error, and human factors in the area of power generation have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Each year billions of dollars are spent in the area of power generation to design, construct/manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of power systems around the globe, and such systems often fail due to human error. This book compiles various recent results and data into one volume, and eliminates the need to consult many diverse sources to obtain vital information.  It enables potential readers to delve deeper into a specific area, providing the source of most of the material presented in references at the end of each chapter. Examples along with solutions are also provided at appropriate places, and there are numerous problems for testing the reader’s comprehension.  Chapters cover a broad range of topics, including general methods for performing human reliability and error analysis in power plants, specific human reliability analysis methods for nuclear power pl...

  1. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  2. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  3. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  4. FACTORS THAT AFFECTING HUMAN ISLET ISOLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yasunaru; Ricordi, Camillo; Miki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Pileggi, Antonello; Khan, Aisha; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Inverardi, Luca; Ichii, Hirohito

    2008-01-01

    More than 10,000 IEQ/kg recipient weight islets are often necessary to achieve insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes. Several studies have identified high BMI donor and pancreas size are important factors for the success of human islet isolation. However, donor shortage underscores the need to improve isolation outcomes from lower BMI pancreas donors and/or small pancreata. Aim of this study was to identify the critical factors affecting isolation outcome. The data from 207 isolations performed from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with respect to donor characteristics, pancreas condition and processing variables. More than 3,000 IEQ/g pancreas weight were considered as an acceptable isolation outcome (AIO). AIO were obtained from donors with a BMI>30kg/m2 (p=0.002). The pancreatic surface integrity was also a significant factor towards AIO (p=0.02). Moreover, a longer digestion time (p=0.04) and the proportion of trapped islet negatively affected AIO rates (p=0.004). As previously reported, pancreata from high BMI donors were suitable for islet isolation and transplantation, as they yielded higher total islet particle numbers and higher IEQ/g. Although BMI and pancreas size are not controllable due to organ donor shortage, factors such as pancreatic surface integrity, shorter digestion and lower proportions of trapped islet were found to be significant factors to obtain higher rates of AIO. The development of better protocol and systematic training of processing and procurement teams will be of assistance in increasing the number of successful human islet isolations. PMID:18374062

  5. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M.; Smith, Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie; Nogales, Eva

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23623729

  6. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the late 60’s and has been installed in a variety of Theta angle (angle of fan bea when onedo hle intersecting Tea angle)_. Surveyin Fingure 2...7-11 24. Sutter, E.E., "The Visual Evoked Response as a Communication Channel", in "Proceedings: IEEE Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100...interactive communication", IBM Hursley Human Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100. Factors Laboratory Report, 1983. Taheri, B., Smith, R.L

  7. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  8. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  9. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  10. Multi-function displays : a guide for human factors evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This guide is designed to assist aircraft certification personnel and avionics : manufacturers in evaluating the human factors aspects of Multi-function Displays : (MFDs) for FAA certification. The guide focuses specifically on human factors and : do...

  11. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  12. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young Su [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il Moon [Dongmyung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Byung Chang [Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Hyo Yean [Suwon Science Collage, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  13. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  14. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  15. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  16. Human Factors and Simulation in Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W

    2017-09-19

    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida, on May 16, 2017, focused on the use of human factors (HF) and simulation in the field of emergency medicine (EM). The HF discipline is often underutilized within EM but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of HF, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for HF work in EM, and how EM can collaborate with HF professionals to effect change. Implementing HF in EM through health care simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between HF professionals and EM, such as in this breakout group. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. The science of human factors: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Militello, Laura G; Saleem, Jason J; Wears, Robert L

    2013-10-01

    Interest in human factors has increased across healthcare communities and institutions as the value of human centred design in healthcare becomes increasingly clear. However, as human factors is becoming more prominent, there is growing evidence of confusion about human factors science, both anecdotally and in scientific literature. Some of the misconceptions about human factors may inadvertently create missed opportunities for healthcare improvement. The objective of this article is to describe the scientific discipline of human factors and provide common ground for partnerships between healthcare and human factors communities. The primary goal of human factors science is to promote efficiency, safety and effectiveness by improving the design of technologies, processes and work systems. As described in this article, human factors also provides insight on when training is likely (or unlikely) to be effective for improving patient safety. Finally, we outline human factors specialty areas that may be particularly relevant for improving healthcare delivery and provide examples to demonstrate their value. The human factors concepts presented in this article may foster interdisciplinary collaborations to yield new, sustainable solutions for healthcare quality and patient safety.

  18. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  19. Human Factors of CC-130 Operations. Volume 5: Human Factors in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    ATG study team describes the development of a proposed new training programme devoted to Human Factors in Decision Making ( HFDM ). It is envisaged that...the HFDM training syllabus would replace existing Aircrew Co- ordination Training (ACT) within the CC-130 community. The proposed training can be...processing. The differences lie less in the content than in the way the material is organised and shaped by theory. The proposed HFDM training is based

  20. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R. (BNL); Xing, J.; DAgostino, A. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  1. Draft revision of human factors guideline HF-010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    The Application of Human Factors to the design of Man-Machine Interfaces System(MMIS) in the nuclear power plant is essential to the safety and productivity of the nuclear power plants, human factors standards and guidelines as well as human factors analysis methods and experiments are weightily used to the design application. A Korean engineering company has developed a human factors engineering guideline, so-call HF-010, and has used it for human factors design, however the revision of HF-010 is necessary owing to lack of the contents related to the advanced MMI(Man-Machine Interfaces). As the results of the reviews of HF-010, it is found out that the revision of Section 9. Computer Displays of HF-010 is urgent, thus the revision was drafted on the basis of integrated human factors design guidelines for VDT, human factors design guidelines for PMAS SPADES display, human factors design guidelines for PMAS alarm display, and human factors design guidelines for electronic displays developed by the surveillance and operation support project of KOICS. The draft revision of HF-010 Section 9 proposed in this report can be utilized for the human factors design of the advanced MMI, and the high practical usability of the draft can be kept up through the continuous revision according to the advancement of digital technology.

  2. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  3. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-01-01

    The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  4. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human factors in aviation maintenance, phase five : progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The fifth phase of research on human factors in aviation maintenance continued to look at the human's role in the aviation maintenance system via investigations, demonstrations, and evaluations of the research program outputs. This report describes t...

  6. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-01-01

    Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms...

  7. Human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents using the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework : originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human : causes of aviation accidents. Based upon ...

  8. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

  9. Discussing the Effective Factors on Maintenance of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bahare Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the author has elaborated on detection of effective factors on maintenance and retention of human resources. Since human resources are the most resources for obtaining competitive advantage, it is essential to pay attention to different dimensions of human resources management. One of these dimensions is retention of human resources. Factors such as providing correct and valid information at the time of recruitment, assigning tasks based on competence, existence of a clear c...

  10. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer, Defence and...qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping ’ of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...8217 without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with

  11. Development of a Human Factors Management Guideline for the MMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Woo Chang; Kang, Young Ju; Jung, Seong Hae [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ha [The University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Tae [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The objective of this project is to develop human factors guidelines of MMI devices, maintenance tasks, and operating procedures. The scope of guidelines covers interface components between the operation or maintenance personnel and a system. It also includes human factor consideration items for emergency operating procedures. Various design guidelines and technical papers related to evaluation of MMI devices and information displays were collected and reviewed to identify the appropriate human factors issues for human interface devices. From the collected issues, the evaluation issues and items to be used in the guidelines for a nuclear power plant have been developed through the consensus of the design review expertise. For developing human factor guidelines of the emergency operating procedures, we have researched on human errors of emergency operations in the nuclear power plant in the 1st year, on the deficiencies of the human factor aspects in the writing guidelines of emergency operating procedures in the 2nd year. A new writing and management guideline for emergency operating procedures were developed in the 3rd year. This report consists of three parts ; (1) human factors guidelines for MMI devices, (2) human factors guidelines for the maintenance tasks of NPP devices, (3) human factors guidelines for the management of operating procedures

  12. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  13. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  14. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  15. Human Factors for Flight Deck Certification Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This document is a compilation of proceedings and lecture material on human : performance capabilities that was presented to FAA flight deck certification : personnel. A five-day series of lectures was developed to provide certification : specialists...

  16. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER 2)/neu expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... 3Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430060, China. 4Department of ... To investigate the relationship between the expression/amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor ... epidermal growth factor receptor family; HER 2, human epidermal ...

  17. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  18. Human factors in preventing complications in anaesthesia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C P L; Fawker-Corbett, J; Groom, P; Morton, B; Lister, C; Mercer, S J

    2018-01-01

    Human factors in anaesthesia were first highlighted by the publication of the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills Framework, and since then an awareness of their importance has gradually resulted in changes in routine clinical practice. This review examines recent literature around human factors in anaesthesia, and highlights recent national reports and guidelines with a focus on team working, communication, situation awareness and human error. We highlight the importance of human factors in modern anaesthetic practice, using the example of complex trauma. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  20. Information Technology: A challenge to the Human Factors Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...... the methodological capability of the human factors profession. In the following sections, I will briefly review this development, as I see it, and outline the approach to human factors problems needed in advanced technological systems....

  1. Human Factors and Computer Interfaces--Implications for Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    This second in a series of articles on artificial intelligence emphasizes human factors. The design of video display units and keyboards is discussed, the organizational structure of human memory is described, humans are examined as information processors using inductive and deductive reasoning, and educational implications are explored. (LRW)

  2. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  4. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis.

  5. The Human Factors of Sensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    be a tank, so humans typically would not deductively identify a moving object as a tank versus a cow versus a cloud versus a tuning fork, but they...figure 8 and is called the Mackworth (1948) vigilance curve. This curve involved the results of detecting changes in the ticking of a clock over

  6. Human Factors Standards and implementation plan for waste management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is dedicated to assuring safety and public confidence by conducting a thorough assessment and upgrade of its nuclear policies and procedures. To ensure that DOE field operations protect the health and safety of employees, the general public and the environment, new operational procedures, standards, and implementation plans are both required and forthcoming from DOE Headquarters, NE-74. Part of this effort requires the establishment and integration of human factors engineering design standards and implementation methods to reduce the probability of human error, human injury and radiological exposure. Human Factors professionals work to assure that technology is designed and utilized safely and efficiently to serve the needs and capabilities of the people who must use this technology. The primary goal of human factors engineering is to ensure compatibility and congruence between the people, equipment, tasks, procedures and training so as to minimize human error and assure that ``total systems performance and reliability`` are achieved.

  7. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention.

  8. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  9. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    are attributed to pilot error, Wciger factors can affect hardware design and manufacture; the and Rosman (1989) have data which indicates that about...I-P. aircrafrt SPONSOR USAF DEVELOPER Rockwell International Corporation, Los Angeles, California. LIFE 1981 DESCRIPTION The b,-B Central Integrated

  10. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  11. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  12. Human factors in aviation maintenance, phase two : progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    In this second phase of research on Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance, the emphasis has evolved from problem definition to development of demonstrations and prototypes. These demonstrations include a computer-based training simulation for trouble...

  13. Human Factors Guidelines for the Evaluation of the Locomotive Cab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document presents human factors guidelines for the evaluation of the locomotive cab. These guidelines are part of : an effort to evaluate working conditions and safety in the locomotive cab. The guidelines will serve as a decision : making tool ...

  14. Human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration sponsored a two-day meeting in October 1988 to address issues of human factors and inspection. Presentations were given by some 13 individuals representing the full spectrum of interests in commercial aviation. Pre...

  15. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  16. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  18. Inhibition of inflammatory factors by parthenolide in human renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    inflammatory effects of parthenolide (PTN) in human ... Hence, PTN may be considered a promising drug with potent anti-inflammatory effect in addition to its ..... Anti-inflammatory effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor in diabetic ...

  19. Cognitive human factors for telemedicine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Matteo; Giorgino, Toni; Azzini, Ivano; Stefanelli, Mario; Luo, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The recent integration of telephony systems with information and communication technology (ICT) enables the development of innovative tools for telemedicine. The dissemination and widespread acceptance of telephone-based care monitoring systems challenge the researcher to deal with the cognitive factors involved in the patient-physician interaction, and the way they should be to shape up the technological solutions. This paper proposes a model that describes the impact of socio-cognitive factors in the complex process of health care management. The model has been used to design and develop a telephone system for the management of hypertensive patient within the EU funded Homey project. The knowledge existed in a widely accepted guideline for the care of hypertension has been represented and augmented through the proposed cognitive model. The final product is an intelligent system able to manage an adaptive dialogue. It monitors patients' adherence and increases their involvement by promoting self-care through frequent virtual visits, which is complementary to the traditional face-to-face encounters with their primary care physicians.

  20. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak; Martin Catlow

    2014-01-01

    The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain) and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear p...

  1. Human factors and medication errors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Morrison, Paul

    2014-12-15

    Human beings are error prone. A significant component of human error is flaws inherent in human cognitive processes, which are exacerbated by situations in which the individual making the error is distracted, stressed or overloaded, or does not have sufficient knowledge to undertake an action correctly. The scientific discipline of human factors deals with environmental, organisational and job factors, as well as human and individual characteristics, which influence behaviour at work in a way that potentially gives rise to human error. This article discusses how cognitive processing is related to medication errors. The case of a coronial inquest into the death of a nursing home resident is used to highlight the way people think and process information, and how such thinking and processing may lead to medication errors.

  2. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Human factors in industrial systems: 40 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Colin G

    2008-06-01

    I evaluate the contribution of a pioneering Human Factors special issue on human factors in industrial systems. Papers on the content of the journal's first 10 years showed that industrial human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) in 1969 was quite a rarity in the journal and the society. The 12 papers in the special issue are reviewed briefly and show a wide range of topics, including traditional industrial engineering, physical HF/E, and more mainstream applications of HF/E in this domain similar to those in military and aerospace domains. The evaluation is through citations, later journal content, society technical group membership, and specific influences of Harris's own paper in the issue. The expected direct citation influence of this special issue was not found: Citation counts were in line with all papers in Human Factors. However, other journals have been founded in North America that serve industrial HF/E and provide an outlet for more papers per year than Human Factors. In addition, the industrial domain is well represented in the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Finally, Harris's paper has been influential in the specific area of HF/E in inspection. Industrial HF/E is now more accepted within the HF/E community, although largely in the physical ergonomics subspecialty. There is now evidence of use of HF/E techniques more broadly in industry, including service as well manufacturing enterprises.

  4. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  6. Human Factor Assessment in Support of Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    witnessed such abuse first-hand and observes, “In the U.S. Navy we find that commanders using (aviation) human factors councils as a ‘ witch hunt’ to...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976. Coffman, David W. Operational Art and the Human Dimension of Warfare in the 21 st

  7. Bringing organizational factors to the fore of human error management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embrey, D. (Human Reliability Associates Ltd., Parbold (United Kingdom))

    1991-10-01

    Human performance problems account for more than half of all significant events at nuclear power plants, even when these did not necessarily lead to severe accidents. In dealing with the management of human error, both technical and organizational factors need to be taken into account. Most important, a long-term commitment from senior management is needed. (author).

  8. Prevalence of malaria and human blood factors among patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria has been and is still a major protozoan disease affecting the human population. Erythrocyte polymorphisms (mainly in blood groups and genotypes) influence the susceptibility to severe malaria. Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence malaria in relation to human blood factor and to ...

  9. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses the effects of traditional values (collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a given society) and socio-cultural factors (these are models of life, human rights, value systems, customs, beliefs and arts) on human resource management ...

  10. THE ROLE OF HUMAN FACTOR IN INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana DEMYEN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a concept that has attracted the attention of researchers increasingly intensely over the past ten years. We speak of innovation as a concept found in a great variety of research, both economic and social, or engineering. At present, Romania is one of the modest innovators with an innovation performance below 50% of the EU average. It is therefore an improvement in the overall situation, but a starting point would be to understand the link between innovation and human resource, that is, the role of the latest in the innovation process. We speak of innovation both at the organization level and at the national level, and it is a lasting process that can not be achieved in a short time. It presupposes dedication, resources and knowledge, many of which lead to the need for specialized centers. Research in Romania is mainly conducted in the university environment, but although the number of doctoral graduates is high, a major challenge at the general level remains the underfinancing of this sector.

  11. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  12. Induction of human neuronal cells by defined transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiping P.; Yang, Nan; Vierbuchen, Thomas; Ostermeier, Austin; Fuentes, Daniel R.; Yang, Troy Q.; Citri, Ami; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Marro, Samuele; Südhof, Thomas C.; Wernig, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Summary Somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, or expression of lineage-specific factors have been shown to induce cell-fate changes in diverse somatic cell types1–12. We recently observed that forced expression of a combination of three transcription factors, Brn2 (also known as Pou3f2), Ascl1, and Myt1l can efficiently convert mouse fibroblasts into functional induced neuronal (iN) cells13. Here, we show that the same three factors can generate functional neurons from human pluripotent stem cells as early as 6 days after transgene activation. When combined with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1, these factors could also convert fetal and postnatal human fibroblasts into iN cells displaying typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers, even after downregulation of the exogenous transcription factors. Importantly, the vast majority of human iN cells were able to generate action potentials and many matured to receive synaptic contacts when co-cultured with primary mouse cortical neurons. Our data demonstrate that non-neural human somatic cells, as well as pluripotent stem cells, can be directly converted into neurons by lineage-determining transcription factors. These methods may facilitate robust generation of patient-specific human neurons for in vitro disease modeling or future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:21617644

  13. The productivity from a human perspective: Dimensions and factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Marvel Cequea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, for both theoretical foundations and empirical research, in order to establish relationships between the variables related to human factors and their impact on productivity.Design/methodology/approach: The strategy employed corresponds to a descriptive non-experimental design, which is the establishment of three criteria for the literature review, in order to narrow down the topic to research works relating productivity with the human factor. This was investigated in databases and journals dealing with related topics, in addition to consulting doctoral theses and published books concerning the influence of human factors on productivity. About 250 papers which were considered the most relevant for the research were selected.Findings:  As a result of this exploration the classification of the factors in two dimensions that are manifested in people when they act in organizations was highlighted: the psychological and the psychosocial dimension. Human factors included in these dimensions are: individual factors (motivation, skills, job satisfaction, identification, commitment and involvement with the organization, group factors (participation, cohesion and management conflict and organizational factors (organizational culture, organizational climate and leadership. All these factors have an impact on the productivity of the organization and are addressed in this research.Originality/value: The selected variables were used to formulate a model that incorporates the human factors identified and considers the phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. It will be addressed through multivariate analysis, with the possible application of structural equations in order to assess the causal relationships that may exist between factors and productivity.

  14. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cervical cancer and identified other risk factors. Molecular epidemiologic evidence clearly indicates that certain types of. HPV are the principal cause of invasive cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.[3]. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus. Infection in Cervical Smears. Ojiyi EC, Dike IE, Okeudo C, ...

  15. Effects of recombinant human nerve growth factor on cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in the life of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. However, the roles of NGF to cervical cancer remain deeply unknown. This study investigated the effect of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) on cervical cancer. It was found that the proliferation of hela ...

  16. Factors Sustaining Human Trafficking In The Contemporary Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors sustaining human trafficking in the contemporary society were investigated. One hundred and forty participants were used in generating the items that formed the questionnaire. While four hundred participants were used for the main study, seven leading factors were endorsed by majority of the participants as ...

  17. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  18. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  19. Human factors in waste management - potential and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.S. [Benchmarking Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is enormous potential for human factors contributions in the realm of waste management. The reality, however, is very different from the potential. This is particularly true for low-level and low-level mixed-waste management. The hazards are less severe; therefore, health and safety requirements (including human factors) are not as rigorous as for high-level waste. High-level waste management presents its own unique challenges and opportunities. Waste management is strongly driven by regulatory compliance. When regulations are flexible and open to interpretation and the environment is driven so strongly by regulatory compliance, standard practice is to drop {open_quotes}nice to have{close_quotes} features, like a human factors program, to save money for complying with other requirements. The challenge is to convince decision makers that human factors can help make operations efficient and cost-effective, as well as improving safety and complying with regulations. A human factors program should not be viewed as competing with compliance efforts; in fact, it should complement them and provide additional cost-effective means of achieving compliance with other regulations. Achieving this synergy of human factors with ongoing waste management operations requires educating program and facility managers and other technical specialists about human factors and demonstrating its value {open_quotes}through the back door{close_quotes} on existing efforts. This paper describes ongoing projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of their waste management groups. It includes lessons learned from hazard and risk analyses, safety analysis reports, job and task analyses, operating procedure development, personnel qualification/certification program development, and facility- and job-specific training program and course development.

  20. Development of an electronic Human Factor Management Program (e HFMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chan Ho; Kim, Young Gab; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Human error is one of main contributors of reactor trip in nuclear power plants. Therefore, HFE application is essential in every field of nuclear power plants such as operating, maintenance, and plant design. However, HFE is an unfamiliar term and field for plant staffs. Lots of activities has been carried out to reduce human error and to enhance human performance. During these efforts, it is frequently asked where human factor guidelines are, and how the guidelines are applied to their usual activities. This paper explains e HFMP for this purpose.

  1. Effectiveness of human factors simulator; Eficiencia del simulador de factores humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-07-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  2. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail Equipment...

  3. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  4. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities. Historically, engineering-dominated organizations have tended to view good Human Factors (HF) as a desire rather than a requirement in system design and development. Our field has made significant gains in the past decade, however; the Department of Defense, for example, now recognizes Human-System Integration (HSI), of which HF is a component, as an integral part of their divisions hardware acquisition processes. And our own agency was far more accepting of HF/HSI requirements during the most recent vehicle systems definition than in any prior cycle. Nonetheless, HF subject matter experts at NASA often find themselves in catch up mode... coping with legacy systems (hardware and software) and procedures that were designed with little regard for the human element, and too often with an attitude of we can deal with any operator issues during training. Our challenge, then, is to segregate the true knowledge gaps in Space Human Factors from the prior failures to incorporate best (or even good) HF design principles. Further, we strive to extract the overarching core HF issues from the point-design-specific concerns that capture the operators (and managers) attention. Generally, our approach embraces a 3M approach to Human Factors: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation. Our first step is to measure human performance, to move from subjective anecdotes to objective, quantified data. Next we model the phenomenon, using appropriate methods in

  5. UPDATING THE NRC GUIDANCE FOR HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING REVIEWS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O HARA,J.M.; BROWN,W.S.; HIGGINS,J.C.; PERSENSKY,J.J.; LEWIS,P.M.; BONGARRA,J.

    2002-09-15

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear plants. NUREG-0800 (Standard Review Plan), Chapter 18, ''Human Factors Engineering,'' is the principal NRC staff guidance document. Two main documents provide the review criteria to support the evaluations. The HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711) addresses the design process from planning to verification and validation to design implementation. The Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700) provides the guidelines for the review of the HFE aspects of human-system interface technology, such as alarms, information systems, controls, and control room design. Since these documents were published in 1994 and 1996 respectively, they have been used by NRC staff, contractors, nuclear industry organizations, as well as by numerous organizations outside the nuclear industry. Using feedback from users and NRC research conducted in recent years, both documents have been revised and updated. This was done to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art evaluation tools for changing nuclear industry issues and emerging technologies. This paper describes the methodology used to revise and update the documents and summarizes the changes made to each and their current contents. Index Terms for this report are: Control system human factors, Ergonomics, Human factors, Nuclear power generation safety.

  6. Factors determining human-to-human transmissibility of zoonotic pathogens via contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Mathilde; Knauf, Sascha; Lawrence, Philip; Mather, Alison E; Munster, Vincent J; Müller, Marcel A; Smith, Derek; Kuiken, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    The pandemic potential of zoonotic pathogens lies in their ability to become efficiently transmissible amongst humans. Here, we focus on contact-transmitted pathogens and discuss the factors, at the pathogen, host and environmental levels that promote or hinder their human-to-human transmissibility via the following modes of contact transmission: skin contact, sexual contact, respiratory contact and multiple route contact. Factors common to several modes of transmission were immune evasion, high viral load, low infectious dose, crowding, promiscuity, and co-infections; other factors were specific for a pathogen or mode of contact transmission. The identification of such factors will lead to a better understanding of the requirements for human-to-human spread of pathogens, as well as improving risk assessment of newly emerging pathogens. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Infrastructural and Human Factors Affecting Safety Outcomes of Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviours and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.

  8. Human factors dealing with the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human factors encompass many concerns in the 2.83 year International Asteroid Mission (IAM) mission from the initial crew selection to the final readaptation to Earth environment. These factors include radiation, physical deconditioning, crew selection and interaction, psychosocial issues, and health maintenance. The main theme that runs throughout the group's work is the lack of current available research into the problem areas. This stems from the relatively short mission durations in the last 30 years of spaceflight and thus no heavy emphasis in the human factors area. In short, no one has been in space for 3 years and thus we do not know what the effects of a three year flight are. It will be one of the goals in the IAM mission to do some research that may contribute to the fundamental knowledge of preparing for how humans can live in space.

  9. Human factors issues in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Kathleen A; Marc, David

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an aging population, more critically ill patients, and a change in intensive care unit (ICU) services stemming from advances in technology, prevalent medical errors and staff burnout in the ICU are not surprising. The ICU provides ample opportunity for human factors experts to apply their knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of human capabilities to design more effective care delivery. Human factors experts design work processes, technology, and environmental factors to effectively and constructively channel the attention and behavior of those providing care; a few areas of focus can have marked impacts on care delivery and patient outcomes. In this review, we focus on these 3 areas and investigate the solutions and problems addressed by previous research.

  10. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  11. Quality management in the nuclear industry: the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    In the nuclear industry it is vital to understand the 'human factor' with regard to plant performance and plant safety. A proper management system ensures that personnel perform their duties correctly. 'Quality Management in the Nuclear Industry: the Human Factor', was a conference organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in October 1990. The conference covered a wide range of topics on an international level including: standards, licensing and regulatory procedures; selection assessment and training of personnel; feedback from experience of good practice and of deviations; management and support of personnel performance; modelling and evaluation of human factors. The papers presented at the conference are contained in this volume. All twenty papers are indexed separately. (author).

  12. A human factors design of a nuclear plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Seung Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Chan Woo [Kyounghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA.

  13. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  14. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  15. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  16. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate...... the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF......-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly...

  17. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  18. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  19. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Safety within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and/or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error. This research provides a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  20. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  1. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps/incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Safety within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and/or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error. This research provides a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  2. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  3. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  4. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  5. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  6. Development of Human Factors Ontology for Business Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Philippart; Waldemar Karwowski

    2011-01-01

    Employee knowledge and cognitive skills are key assets to achieving business success, yet are often mismanaged. By promoting the human-centered design approach, the discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) can significantly contribute to optimizing business processes through effective management of employee knowledge. However, a comprehensive methodology is needed to help organizations integrate the HF/E principles across various business processes. This paper introduces a novel meth...

  7. Crowds, not Drones: Modeling Human Factors in Interactive Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Basu Roy, Senjuti; Lykourentzou, Ioanna; Thirumuruganathan, Saravanan; Amer-Yahia, Sihem; Das, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this vision paper, we propose SmartCrowd, an intelligent and adaptive crowdsourcing framework. Contrary to existing crowdsourcing systems, where the process of hiring workers (crowd), learning their skills, and evaluating the accuracy of tasks they perform are fragmented, siloed, and often ad-hoc, SmartCrowd foresees a paradigm shift in that process, considering unpredictability of human nature, namely human factors. SmartCrowd offers opportunities in making crowdso...

  8. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  9. A Human Factors Framework for Payload Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1998-01-01

    During missions to space, one charge of the astronaut crew is to conduct research experiments. These experiments, referred to as payloads, typically are controlled by computers. Crewmembers interact with payload computers by using visual interfaces or displays. To enhance the safety, productivity, and efficiency of crewmember interaction with payload displays, particular attention must be paid to the usability of these displays. Enhancing display usability requires adoption of a design process that incorporates human factors engineering principles at each stage. This paper presents a proposed framework for incorporating human factors engineering principles into the payload display design process.

  10. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  11. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  12. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  13. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida

    2007-01-01

    pattern of the three trefoil factors analyzing mRNA from a panel of 20 human tissues by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and, in addition, by real-time PCR. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tissues using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised......Trefoil factors (TTFs) are small, compact proteins coexpressed with mucins in the gastrointestinal tract. Three trefoil factors are known in mammals: TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3. They are implicated to play diverse roles in maintenance and repair of the gastrointestinal channel. We compared the expression...... against these factors. TFF1 showed highest expression in the stomach and colon, whereas TFF2 and TFF3 showed highest expression in stomach and colon, respectively. All three TFFs were found in the ducts of pancreas. Whereas TFF2 was found to be restricted to these two tissues, the structurally more...

  14. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  15. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this review has been to discuss human and environmental factors which may influence the acute irritative and neurotoxic effects of organic solvents. The review is based on a field study and on four human experimental studies. Several studies have shown that printers and other workers...... exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed...

  16. Human factors issues in the use of night vision devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Foyle, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the critical human factors that arise in field data on the differences between night vision displays and unaided day vision. Attention is given to the findings of empirical studies of performance on rotorcraft-flight-relevant perceptual tasks in which depth and distance perception are critical factors. Suggestions are made for man-machine-critical component design modifications in current night vision systems.

  17. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  18. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  19. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  20. Human factors issues of tactice displays for military environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Self, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this chapter is to give the reader insights into the human factors issues related to the use of tactile displays. Torso-mounted displays, which are particularly suited for direction and orientation cues, are emphasized. First, perceptual issues relevant to tactile stimulation are

  1. Biodiversity loss in Ghana: The human factor | Bennett-Lartey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of biodiversity in Ghana is due to human activities and other environmental factors. The country loses a great proportion of its biodiversity, due mainly to unacceptable practices like slash and burn agriculture, surface mining, construction activities and bushfires. Various conservation measures practiced in Ghana have ...

  2. Investigation of Multiple Human Factors in Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Huang, Pei-Ren; Shih, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of personalized learning systems have been developed and they mainly focus on learners' prior knowledge. On the other hand, previous research suggested that gender differences and cognitive styles have great effects on student learning. To this end, this study examines how human factors, especially gender differences…

  3. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  4. Factors affecting the transmission of human onchocerciasis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the transmission of human onchocerciasis by Simulium damnosum sensu lato were the focus of a study carried out in River Lewa, Etikpe, a fringe savanna village in Ikom LGA in Cross River State, Nigeria. The duration of the study was six months (August 1999 to January 2000). The thrust of the study was ...

  5. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participan...

  6. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  7. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  8. Risk factors and distribution of oncogenic strains of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors and distribution of oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus in women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Results were presented in tables, test of significance and association done using student's t-test and Odds ratio, with P value < 0.05 as significant. Results: The age range ...

  9. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  10. The influence of marital factors on genital human papilloma virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...

  11. Sexual orientation and risk factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.

  12. Preliminary report of Goddard/University Human Factors Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The three major concerns which greatly influence the initial efforts and priorities in the human factors arena are outlined. These concerns are an increased awareness of the: (1) over riding data driven aspects of current command/control systems; (2) complexity of existing man/system interface mechanisms; and (3) great extent of the manual intervention required in present systems.

  13. SafetyNet. Human factors safety training on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Pedrali, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes user requirements to an Internet based distance learning system of human factors training, i.e. the SafetyNet prototype, within the aviation (pilots and air traffic control), maritime and medical domains. User requirements totraining have been elicited through 19 semi...

  14. Human Factors Research in Aircrew Performance and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    WORKLOAD PREDICTION MODEL Dr. David B. Hamilton and Dr. Sandra M. Szabo, Project Directors The Army’s Air/Land Battle 2000 scenario presents a high-threat...measurement to workload scale development. In R. C. Sugarman (Ed.), Proceedings of the 25th annual meeting of the Human Factors Society (pp. 522-526). Santa

  15. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...

  16. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  18. Recombinant production of the human complement factor 5a in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to now, the human complement factor 5a (C5a) has only been produced in small quantities in Escherichia coli in a soluble, bioactive conformation, which is not suitable for commercial production systems. This stems from the extremely high instability of C5a, as well as its aggregation-prone nature. Therefore, we ...

  19. High level expression of human basic fibroblast growth factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... High-level expression of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor in Escherichia coli presents research opportunities such as analysis ... The general agreement from the published data on heterologous gene ..... for protein expression (Casimiro et al., 1997; Gold et al.,. 1981; Hamdan et al., 2002; ...

  20. Telematics applications and their influence on the human factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety is the exemption from accidents and losses on human lives. It also deals with property protection, regulation, management and transport technology development. Human factor often caused a lot of accident because of his/her failure. One of the most frequent faults of drivers is a wrong decision in a critical situation. The decision process is very complicated since the driver has to evaluate the arisen situation correctly within fractions of a second. The implementation of telematics systems into vehicle equipment reduces its energy consumption, bad environmental impacts, increases safety etc. Total operating costs reduction of road vehicles, simplification of vehicle control and reduction of driver’s overload by information is largely stressed. Our article deals with the analysis of human factor and exploration of its demonstrations in the context of telematic applications.

  1. A Keyword Analysis for Human Resource Management Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad ÖZLEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the constant increasing in technology and education, with development of multinational corporations and frequent changes in economic status and structures, Human Resources become the most crucial, the most reliable and necessary department. Moreover, in many companies, Human Resource Department is the most important department. The main purpose of this research is to mark off top rated factors related with Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers of a Human Resource Management journal for the period between the first issue of 2005 and the first issue of 2013. We identified the most frequent categories of the articles during this analyzed period. The literature is reviewed according to the identified factors related to Human Resource Management. If the keywords about Human Resources (35,7 % is not considered, it is observed that the researches, for the selected period, have organizational approach (39,2 % (Management, organizational strategy, organizational performance, organizational culture, contextual issues, technical issues and location and from the individual approach (24,4 % (Individual performance, training and education, employee rights, and behavioral issues. Furthermore, it is also observed that the researchers (a mainly give importance to the practice more than the theory and (b consider the organization more than the individual.

  2. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  3. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  5. Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2007-08-01

    Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

  6. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  7. Human and organizational factors in nuclear safety; Factores humanos y organizativos en la seguridad nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Barrientos, M.; Gil, B.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear installations are socio technical systems where human and organizational factors, in both utilities and regulators, have a significant impact on safety. Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, original of several initiatives in the human factors field, nevertheless became a lost opportunity to timely acquire lessons related to the upper tiers of the system. Nowadays, Spanish nuclear installations have integrated in their processes specialists and activities in human and organizational factors, promoted by the licensees After many years of hard work, Spanish installations have achieved a better position to face new challenges, such as those posed by Fukushima. With this experience, only technology-centered action plan would not be acceptable, turning this accident in yet another lost opportunity. (Author)

  8. Human Factors Guidelines for UAS in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Shively, R. Jay

    2013-01-01

    The ground control stations (GCS) of some UAS have been characterized by less-than-adequate human-system interfaces. In some cases this may reflect a failure to apply an existing regulation or human factors standard. In other cases, the problem may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material. NASA is leading a community effort to develop recommendations for human factors guidelines for GCS to support routine beyond-line-of-sight UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). In contrast to regulations, guidelines are not mandatory requirements. However, by encapsulating solutions to identified problems or areas of risk, guidelines can provide assistance to system developers, users and regulatory agencies. To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. By assuming that a pilot will be responsible for each UAS operating in the NAS, and that the aircraft will be required to operate in a manner comparable to conventionally piloted aircraft, it is possible to identify a generic set of pilot tasks and the information, control and communication requirements needed to support these tasks. Areas where guidelines will be useful can then be identified, utilizing information from simulations, operational experience and the human factors literature. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material will, at times, provide adequate coverage of an area. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  9. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  10. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  11. Human factors and ergonomics as a patient safety practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Xie, Anping; Kianfar, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches to patient safety have addressed five different domains: usability of technology; human error and its role in patient safety; the role of healthcare worker performance in patient safety; system resilience; and HFE systems approaches to patient safety. Methods A review of various HFE approaches to patient safety and studies on HFE interventions was conducted. Results This paper describes specific examples of HFE-based interventions for patient safety. Studies show that HFE can be used in a variety of domains. Conclusions HFE is a core element of patient safety improvement. Therefore, every effort should be made to support HFE applications in patient safety. PMID:23813211

  12. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  13. Humanized birth in high risk pregnancy: barriers and facilitating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru

    2010-02-01

    The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress

  14. Territorial development and wind energy; Developpement territorial et filiere eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, C.; Cote, G. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the development of wind energy projects, with reference to social repercussions. Strategic planning tools used by project developers in Quebec were presented in terms of how project managers strive to balance many objectives such as socio-economic development and sustainable resource use. Some of the basic techniques used in conflict analysis and human impact evaluation were also discussed, such as environmental assessments, strategic environmental assessments, and direct measure of human impacts. The advantages, challenges, opportunities and risks in any given project must be evaluated prior to development. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

  16. Human Factors Evaluations of Two-Dimensional Spacecraft Conceptual Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry D.; Rudisill, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Much of the human factors work done in support of the NASA Constellation lunar program has been with low fidelity mockups. These volumetric replicas of the future lunar spacecraft allow researchers to insert test subjects from the engineering and astronaut population and evaluate the vehicle design as the test subjects perform simulations of various operational tasks. However, lunar outpost designs must be evaluated without the use of mockups, creating a need for evaluation tools that can be performed on two-dimension conceptual spacecraft layouts, such as floor plans. A tool based on the Cooper- Harper scale was developed and applied to one lunar scenario, enabling engineers to select between two competing floor plan layouts. Keywords: Constellation, human factors, tools, processes, habitat, outpost, Net Habitable Volume, Cooper-Harper.

  17. Quinones are growth factors for the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kathrin; Strandwitz, Philip; Stewart, Eric J; Dimise, Eric; Rubin, Sarah; Gurubacharya, Shreya; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

    2017-12-20

    The human gut microbiome has been linked to numerous components of health and disease. However, approximately 25% of the bacterial species in the gut remain uncultured, which limits our ability to properly understand, and exploit, the human microbiome. Previously, we found that growing environmental bacteria in situ in a diffusion chamber enables growth of uncultured species, suggesting the existence of growth factors in the natural environment not found in traditional cultivation media. One source of growth factors proved to be neighboring bacteria, and by using co-culture, we isolated previously uncultured organisms from the marine environment and identified siderophores as a major class of bacterial growth factors. Here, we employ similar co-culture techniques to grow bacteria from the human gut microbiome and identify novel growth factors. By testing dependence of slow-growing colonies on faster-growing neighboring bacteria in a co-culture assay, eight taxonomically diverse pairs of bacteria were identified, in which an "induced" isolate formed a gradient of growth around a cultivatable "helper." This set included two novel species Faecalibacterium sp. KLE1255-belonging to the anti-inflammatory Faecalibacterium genus-and Sutterella sp. KLE1607. While multiple helper strains were identified, Escherichia coli was also capable of promoting growth of all induced isolates. Screening a knockout library of E. coli showed that a menaquinone biosynthesis pathway was required for growth induction of Faecalibacterium sp. KLE1255 and other induced isolates. Purified menaquinones induced growth of 7/8 of the isolated strains, quinone specificity profiles for individual bacteria were identified, and genome analysis suggests an incomplete menaquinone biosynthetic capability yet the presence of anaerobic terminal reductases in the induced strains, indicating an ability to respire anaerobically. Our data show that menaquinones are a major class of growth factors for bacteria

  18. SARDA HITL Preliminary Human Factors Measures and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Human factors data collected during the SARDA HITL Simulation Experiment include a variety of subjective measures, including the NASA TLX, questionnaire questions regarding situational awareness, advisory usefulness, UI usability, and controller trust. Preliminary analysis of the TLX data indicate that workload may not be adversely affected by use of the advisories, additionally, the controller's subjective ratings of the advisories may suggest acceptance of the tool.

  19. The development of human factors research objectives for civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, T. J.

    1970-01-01

    Human factors research programs which would support civil aviation and be suitable for accomplishment by NASA research centers are identified. Aviation problems formed the basis for the research program recommendations and, accordingly, problems were identified, ranked and briefly defined in an informal report to the project monitor and other cognizant NASA personnel. The sources for this problem foundation were literature reviews and extensive interviews with NASA and non-NASA personnel. An overview of these findings is presented.

  20. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generall...

  1. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challeng...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed....

  2. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay.

  3. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  4. Human health and social factors in winter climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressman, N. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). School of Urban and Regional Planning)

    1991-01-01

    This presentation examines the broad theme of human needs with specific reference to a range of winter-induced problems. Both physiological and psychological aspects are analyzed vis-a-vis thermal comfort and human behavioural response. The use of public space suggets that social activity is very different in winter when compared with summer. However, such activity can be increased through employing planning and design strategies. For example, the outdoor season can be extended by up to six weeks by applying microclimate principles. If more intense levels of social interaction are desired - when people tend to be confined indoors - proximity and density will be important factors influencing such contact, thereby contributing to a reduction of stress and isolation. Since winter conditions spawn unique problems, special solutions will be required to combat them. It is essential to create a better 'fit' between human requirements and the corresponding built environment. (orig.).

  5. Activated macrophages control human adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics via secreted factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Michaela; Sachs, Stephan; Walheim, Ellen; Berti, Lucia; Raedle, Bernhard; Tews, Daniel; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m 2 ). Guided by these results, the impact of secreted factors of LPS/IFNγ- and IL10/TGFβ-activated human macrophages (THP1, primary blood-derived) on mitochondrial function in human subcutaneous white adipocytes (SGBS, primary) was determined by extracellular flux analysis (Seahorse technology) and gene/protein expression. Stepwise regression analysis of human WAT gene expression data revealed that a linear combination of CD40 and CD163 was the strongest predictor for mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) levels, independent of BMI. IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs displayed high CD163 and low CD40 expression and secreted factors that decreased UQCRC2 gene/protein expression and ATP-linked respiration in human white adipocytes. In contrast, LPS/IFNγ-activated MΦs showed high CD40 and low CD163 expression and secreted factors that enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial activity resulting in a total difference of 37% in ATP-linked respiration of white adipocytes (p = 0.0024) when comparing the effect of LPS/IFNγ- vs IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs. Our data demonstrate that macrophages modulate human adipocyte energy metabolism via an activation-dependent paracrine mechanism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  6. The Influence of Human Factor in Aircraft Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Virovac

    2017-06-01

    during aircraft maintenance. In the EASA approved aircraft maintenance organisation, which includes in its working system the human factor as well, the tendency is to apply the approach by continuous monitoring and analysis of errors in aircraft maintenance. Such approach achieves advance prevention or reduction of the occurrence of harmful events, such as accidents, incidents, injuries and in a wider sense damages related to aircraft operation and maintenance. The research presented in this paper is a result of gathering and systematization of errors caused by human factors over the last five years in one organisation for aircraft maintenance certified according to the European standards. The study encompasses an analysis of 28 (twenty-eight investigations of individual cases and provides insight into the main factors of errors. The results of analyses on the cause of occurrence of human error show similar results like the Boeing study which was carried out for the world fleet.

  7. [Human factors and crisis resource management: improving patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, M; Oberfrank, S

    2013-10-01

    A continuing high number of patients suffer harm from medical treatment. In 60-70% of the cases the sources of harm can be attributed to the field of human factors (HFs) and teamwork; nevertheless, those topics are still neither part of medical education nor of basic and advanced training even though it has been known for many years and it has meanwhile also been demonstrated for surgical specialties that training in human factors and teamwork considerably reduces surgical mortality.Besides the medical field, the concept of crisis resource management (CRM) has already proven its worth in many other industries by improving teamwork and reducing errors in the domain of human factors. One of the best ways to learn about CRM and HFs is realistic simulation team training with well-trained instructors in CRM and HF. The educational concept of the HOTT (hand over team training) courses for trauma room training offered by the DGU integrates these elements based on the current state of science. It is time to establish such training for all medical teams in emergency medicine and operative care. Accompanying safety measures, such as the development of a positive culture of safety in every department and the use of effective critical incident reporting systems (CIRs) should be pursued.

  8. Review of Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight from a Human Factors Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne; Ellenberger, Richard; Dory, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to identify poor human factors design decisions that led to error-prone systems, or did not facilitate the flight crew making the right choices; and to verify that NASA is effectively preventing similar incidents from occurring again. This analysis was performed by reviewing significant incidents and close calls in human spaceflight identified by the NASA Johnson Space Center Safety and Mission Assurance Flight Safety Office. The review of incidents shows whether the identified human errors were due to the operational phase (flight crew and ground control) or if they initiated at the design phase (includes manufacturing and test). This classification was performed with the aid of the NASA Human Systems Integration domains. This in-depth analysis resulted in a tool that helps with the human factors classification of significant incidents and close calls in human spaceflight, which can be used to identify human errors at the operational level, and how they were or should be minimized. Current governing documents on human systems integration for both government and commercial crew were reviewed to see if current requirements, processes, training, and standard operating procedures protect the crew and ground control against these issues occurring in the future. Based on the findings, recommendations to target those areas are provided.

  9. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  10. Humans Are Still the Critical Factor in Aviation Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jenny Kathinka; Suchan, Boris

    2015-10-01

    In Germany, the German Federal Police assess the performance of aviation security screeners on a regular basis. These so-called "reality tests" are unannounced examinations which aim to investigate whether airport screeners can detect forbidden items in hand luggage or attached to the body. Recent alarming results of such inspections showed clearly that the overall detection rate is in need of improvement. To achieve this, it is important to identify specific factors that influence general screening performance. This especially includes basic cognitive functions like visual screening, alertness, and divided attention, which have come more and more into focus in current fundamental research projects. This brief commentary points out critical factors, contributes background conditions in aviation security screening, and shows possible approaches for enhancement and optimization. Finally, the human aspect is discussed as not only being the weakest factor in security screening, but also one of major importance.

  11. [Factors associated with job satisfaction of human resources in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Вежновець, Тетяна А; Парій, Валентин Д; Вишнивецький, Іван І; Москаленко, Максим В

    Healthcare employee satisfaction is an important criterion for the efficiency of human resource management and prognostic impact factor for high turnover of staff. Furthermore, job satisfaction positively affects patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator for quality of care. The goal of our study was to identify factors associated with job satisfaction in healthcare organizations in Ukraine. We conducted sociological and psychological survey of 190 healthcare professionals (81% response rate) in Kherson City Hospital. Job satisfaction and organizational climate was assessed through developed questionnaire, "Test Motype" method of Gerchikov (motivational profile designing) and "Diagnosis Syndrome emotional burnout" method of Boyko. Spearman rank correlation was used for analysis. Job satisfaction positively correlated with personnel age and time record, career prospects, professional development, superior-subordinate, peer-to-peer and patient communications (pJob satisfaction did not correlate with responsibility of executives, factors for satisfaction of job description, working conditions and range of wages (all p> 0.05). Based on findings we developed dual job satisfaction-dissatisfaction approach specific for healthcare employee in Ukraine. This model includes internal factors such as work experience, career prospects, professional motivation; external factors such as leadership, governance, work environment, customer satisfaction and preventive factors such as staff role, job description, company policies, salary and benefits.

  12. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  13. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi Ki Ngo,J.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.; Furie, B.; Furie, B.

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca(2+) and two Cu(2+) ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  14. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, J.C.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.A.; Furie, B.C.; Furie, B. (Wyeth); (MBL)

    2008-06-03

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca{sup 2+} and two Cu{sup 2+} ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  15. Workforce scheduling: A new model incorporating human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The majority of a company’s improvement comes when the right workers with the right skills, behaviors and capacities are deployed appropriately throughout a company. This paper considers a workforce scheduling model including human aspects such as skills, training, workers’ personalities, workers’ breaks and workers’ fatigue and recovery levels. This model helps to minimize the hiring, firing, training and overtime costs, minimize the number of fired workers with high performance, minimize the break time and minimize the average worker’s fatigue level.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, a multi objective mixed integer programming model is developed to determine the amount of hiring, firing, training and overtime for each worker type.Findings: The results indicate that the worker differences should be considered in workforce scheduling to generate realistic plans with minimum costs. This paper also investigates the effects of human fatigue and recovery on the performance of the production systems.Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the assumption of certainty of the demand in each period, and the linearity function of Fatigue accumulation and recovery curves. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work.Originality/value: In this research, a new model for integrating workers’ differences with workforce scheduling is proposed. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time to study the effects of different important human factors such as human personality, skills and fatigue and recovery in the workforce scheduling process. This research shows that considering both technical and human factors together can reduce the costs in manufacturing systems and ensure the safety of the workers.

  16. Normalization of Deviation: Quotation Error in Human Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jordan; Bearman, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to examine quotation error in human factors. Background Science progresses through building on the work of previous research. This requires accurate quotation. Quotation error has a number of adverse consequences: loss of credibility, loss of confidence in the journal, and a flawed basis for academic debate and scientific progress. Quotation error has been observed in a number of domains, including marine biology and medicine, but there has been little or no previous study of this form of error in human factors, a domain that specializes in the causes and management of error. Methods A study was conducted examining quotation accuracy of 187 extracts from 118 published articles that cited a control article (Vaughan's 1996 book: The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA). Results Of extracts studied, 12.8% ( n = 24) were classed as inaccurate, with 87.2% ( n = 163) being classed as accurate. A second dimension of agreement was examined with 96.3% ( n = 180) agreeing with the control article and only 3.7% ( n = 7) disagreeing. The categories of accuracy and agreement form a two by two matrix. Conclusion Rather than simply blaming individuals for quotation error, systemic factors should also be considered. Vaughan's theory, normalization of deviance, is one systemic theory that can account for quotation error. Application Quotation error is occurring in human factors and should receive more attention. According to Vaughan's theory, the normal everyday systems that promote scholarship may also allow mistakes, mishaps, and quotation error to occur.

  17. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencelle, Francois

    La compression de l'hydrogene est une etape incontournable de son utilisation dans l'industrie actuelle et dans les nouvelles applications energetiques de l'hydrogene (stockage stationnaire et transport). Les compresseurs mecaniques traditionnellement utilises posent plusieurs problemes d'ingenierie, de securite et de maintenance qui pourraient etre contournes en developpant de nouvelles technologies mieux adaptees a l'hydrogene. Dans cette these, notre objectif est de developper d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur les hydrures metalliques pouvant etre connecte a la sortie d'un electrolyseur fonctionnant a basse pression et d'ainsi repondre au besoin de productioncompression d'hydrogene decentralisee. La methodologie du projet comprend plusieurs etapes. Premierement, nous faisons la revue bibliographique des projets impliquant des compresseurs a hydrures metalliques. Deuxiemement, a travers des travaux experimentaux, nous recherchons des hydrures permettant une compression efficace entre 20 et 80°C. Les materiaux sont synthetises par fusion a arc electrique et caracterises sur bancs d'essais d'hydrogenation. La structure de certains materiaux est aussi investiguee par rayons X, methode de B.E.T. et microscopie electronique. Troisiemement, un reacteur d'hydrures est concu de maniere a promouvoir des echanges de chaleur rapides et efficaces. Quatriemement, le prototype et son interface de controle sont construits. Cinquiemement, le compresseur est caracterise pour en evaluer les performances en termes de debit et de capacite. Les resultats obtenus sont presentes dans trois articles publies et dans le chapitre 5 de cette these. Le compresseur (article I) est base sur trois hydrures (LaNi 4.8Sn0.2, LaNi5 et MMNi4.7Al0.3 ). Celui-ci permet d'atteindre un debit de compression de 10 a 20 L d'hydrogene par heure et son efficacite est, estimee a ˜5% par rapport a un compresseur adiabatique ideal. Il a ete demontre que l'efficacite pourrait etre augmentee en utilisant un

  18. Human Factors in Training - Space Medicine Proficiency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Erin; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to ISS, medical equipment will be located on ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight Surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at the Space Life Sciences Directorate and with Wyle Lab which provides medical training to crew members, Biomedical Engineers (BMEs), and to flight surgeons under the JSC Space Life Sciences Directorate s Bioastronautics contract. The space medical training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at Johnson Space Center have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground, and researchers at the Ames Research Center performed a literature review on medical errors. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with the Space Medical Training Group and previous research. This abstract focuses on two areas of work involving Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations. One area of research building on activities from FY08, involved the feasibility of just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. In Phase 1

  19. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    . Work on SFRM training has been conducted in collaboration with the Expedition Vehicle Division at the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) and with United Space Alliance (USA) which provides training to Flight Controllers. The space flight resource management training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at the Ames Research Center have been investigating team work and distributed decision making processes to develop a generic SFRM training framework for flight controllers. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with MOD and the USA Training Group as well as previous research in relevant domains such as aviation. In FY10, the work focuses on documenting and analyzing problem solving strategies and decision making processes used in MCC by experienced FCers.

  20. Conformal displays: human factor analysis of innovative landing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerwitz, Sven; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Peinecke, Niklas; Ernst, Johannes M.; da Silva Rosa, David L.

    2017-05-01

    In the past couple of years, research on display content for helicopter operations headed in a new direction. The already reached goals could evolve into a paradigm change for information visualization. Technology advancements allow implementing three-dimensional and conformal content on a helmet-mounted see-through device. This superimposed imagery inherits the same optical flow as the environment. It is supposed to ease switching between display information and environmental cues. The concept is neither pathbreaking nor new, but it has not been successfully established in aviation yet. Nevertheless, there are certainly some advantages to expect-at least from perspective of a human-centered system design. Within the following pages, the next generation displays will be presented and discussed with a focus on human factors. Beginning with recalling some human factor related research facts, an experiment comparing the former two-dimensional research displays will be presented. Before introducing the DLR conformal symbol set and the three experiments about an innovative drift, indication related research activities toward conformal symbol sets will be addressed.

  1. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Human Resource – Potential Factor of Organiztional Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Cristian Negrulescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At the level of any economic system, the change brings about the modification of the internal operating method of the relations between the actors and of the work habits. In other words, the substance (main, important modifications can be shaped on each of the organizational dominant of the system at a structural, functional or cultural level, in which the main actor, the human resource, intends to be part of this equation of changes. In this context, significant is the role played by the main organization actors, a role which can be materialized either as a factor of innovation, prevention and even progress, or as a conflict promoting factor, which, in time, generates a state of abnormality, of crisis. That is why major importance must be allotted to the human resources at the level of each organisation, considering the progress focused on knowledge, experience, experiments, attitude, behaviour and competences, these implying factors of correction and efficient reaction for the administration of the organizational crises.

  3. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  4. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  5. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from

  6. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  7. Developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pour precipiter les defauts latents de circuits electroniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Francois

    2003-08-01

    Le procede de deverminage, ou Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), est employe principalement dans le domaine de l'electronique pour reduire les mortalites infantiles des produits avant leur livraison. Il utilise usuellement des stimulations environnementales telles que les vibrations ou la temperature produites a l'aide d'equipements conventionnels d'essais qui sont tres couteux et difficiles a implanter. Le but de cette recherche est le developpement d'une nouvelle methode d'excitation vibratoire des plaques de circuits electroniques a moindre cout par l'emploi de l'excitation acoustique. Le projet a mene au developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pouvant etre utilise lors d'implantations du procede ESS en milieu industriel. L'utilisation de cette nouvelle technologie et des methodes novatrices de personnalisation des spectres ESS proposees dans cette these permettent la precipitation de defaillances latentes presentes dans les produits electroniques de facon efficace et securitaire et ce, a moindre cout par rapport aux technologies concurrentes. La methodologie des travaux presentes dans cette these inclus: (1) La generation acoustique des vibrations sur les circuits; (2) L'analyse modale acoustique des circuits par des methodes a reference unique et a references multiples; (3) La precipitation de defauts latents typiques des circuits electroniques; (4) Une methode d'individualisation des spectres vibratoires tenant compte des caracteristiques structurelles des circuits; (5) La presentation de la configuration de l'equipement acoustique et les resultats d'implantation du procede. Nonobstant la fabrication, l'installation et la mise en service d'un equipement en milieu industriel (depuis le mois de mai 2002), ces travaux ont permis l'obtention de trois familles de brevets et la publication de six articles de conference: trois portant sur l'analyse modale a reference unique, un portant sur l'analyse modale a references multiples, un autre portant sur la

  8. Development of biomechanical models for human factors evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara; Pandya, Abhilash; Maida, James

    1993-01-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) techniques are now well established and have become the norm in many aspects of aerospace engineering. They enable analytical studies, such as finite element analysis, to be performed to measure performance characteristics of the aircraft or spacecraft long before a physical model is built. However, because of the complexity of human performance, CAD systems for human factors are not in widespread use. The purpose of such a program would be to analyze the performance capability of a crew member given a particular environment and task. This requires the design capabilities to describe the environment's geometry and to describe the task's requirements, which may involve motion and strength. This in turn requires extensive data on human physical performance which can be generalized to many different physical configurations. PLAID is developing into such a program. Begun at Johnson Space Center in 1977, it was started to model only the geometry of the environment. The physical appearance of a human body was generated, and the tool took on a new meaning as fit, access, and reach could be checked. Specification of fields-of-view soon followed. This allowed PLAID to be used to predict what the Space Shuttle cameras or crew could see from a given point.

  9. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  10. EFFECTIVE HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AS KEY FACTOR OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Никита Сергеевич Иванов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues connected with particularities and mechanisms of human capital management are considered in the article; appropriateness of investments into it in the conditions of modern production is assessed. Motivation system to encourage high labor productivity, working experience, skills and the level of education, health – all this must be reflected in the wage size and facilitate formation of human capital in the process of company management. Education and activity aimed for health care include current costs for the sake of future benefits. Individuals and the companies differ by a degree of readiness to make such long-term investments. Proper use of natural abilities of a man as a function of human capital management is its integral part. It can be illustrated in such a way: natural abilities of a man to some extent are like lease of land which brings profit. The key factor here is investments into growth of human capital and its quality.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-13

  11. Thermal methodology: recent developments; Methodologie thermique: developpements recents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, J.; Lepoutre, F.; Balageas, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)]|[CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference day organized by the French society of thermal engineering (SFT) was devoted to the recent advances in thermal instrumentation. Eight papers were presented and were dealing with: the measurement of the microscopic thermal properties of C/C and C/C-SiC composite materials; the metrology of the local probe thermal microscopy (analysis of the probe-sample thermal interaction); the emission factor of semi-transparent materials at high temperature (2000 deg.C); the study of the tungsten-rhenium couples between 1000 and 2000 deg.C; the theoretical aspects of thermocouple instrumentation in the estimation of surface or interface thermal conditions; the microscale thermo-physical characterisation of metal coatings; the thermal microscopy measurement of the contact resistance of a metal inclusion in a thermoplastic matrix; and the application of laser-induced fluorescence in thermal metrology (from turbulence to combustion). (J.S.)

  12. Risk management with regard to the effect of human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components in today's market is a party decision-making under risk and uncertainty. The first step in making such decisions - to adequately process the information for estimating the future value of assets and the interests of investors probabilities of each particular scenario. The next step is to choose the alternative that has the greatest utility for the investor. Each of these steps is associated with numerous difficulties, the roots of which stem from the specificity of human psychology. The article notes that an integral part of professional risk management is to identify the nature of the object of management in the sphere of economy. Since the domestic theory of risk management is being formed-tion, the problem of a clear comprehensive definition of “risk” becomes now particularly relevant-ness. The article deals with along with economic forecasts of the risks and the human factor in decision-tions solutions. Along with economic forecasts, the report focuses on psychological problems and attempts to take into account the human factor in decision-making at the forecast of risks arising in the company. The important parameters are the status and position of the person in the society, as well as its social well-being. Analysis Meto-ing risk assessment concluded that the need to develop new models and methods of risk management, taking into account the four-lovecheskogo factor. Economic psychology and its applications have developed into a special branch of economic knowledge - the so-called behavioral economics, which surely develops a wide range of economic issues - from the actual theory of individual behavior to the problems of public choice and the financial economy. The most interesting item is the fact that the concept of “risk” is considered from different points of view - as the economist-mathematician with the position, and a psychologist.

  13. Morphology of Design of Aerospace Systems with Inclusion of Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Visual Indicators," Human Factors, 1971, 13(5), pp. 427-433. 22. Mayer, Sylvia R., "Trends in Human Factors Research for Military Information Systems...34The Standardi- zation of Human Factors Data," Human Factors, 1970, 12(1), pp. 55-62. 29. Plath , D.W., "Th’ Readability of Segmented and Con... Sylvia R., "Trends in Human Factors Research for Military Information Systems," Human Factors, 1970, 12(2), pp. 177-186. 35. Meister, David, Dennis 3

  14. Immunoassays of human trefoil factors 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E M; Brynskov, J; Ejskjaer, K

    2004-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where they play a critical role in mucosal protection and repair. The expression is up-regulated at sites of ulceration in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, we presented an ELISA method...... for measurement of TFF3. The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate ELISAs for the other two known human trefoil peptides, TFF1 and TFF2, and to carry out a cross-sectional study on serum TFF levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)....

  15. Overview of Human Factors and Habitability at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Janis; Arch, M.; Kaiser, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the ongoing work on human factors and habitability in the development of the Constellation Program. The focus of the work is on how equipment, spacecraft design, tools, procedures and nutrition be used to improve the health, safety and efficiency of the crewmembers. There are slides showing the components of the Constellation Program, and the conceptual designs of the Orion Crew module, the lunar lander, (i.e., Altair) the microgravity EVA suit, and the lunar surface EVA suit, the lunar rover, and the lunar surface system infrastructure.

  16. Advances in human factors and ergonomics in healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Vincent G

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent research, this book discusses how to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care through the application of human factors and ergonomics principles. It provides guidance for those involved with the design and application of systems and devices for effective and safe healthcare delivery from both a patient and staff perspective. Its huge range of chapters covers everything from the proper design of bed rails to the most efficient design of operating rooms, from the development of quality products to the rating of staff patient interaction. It considers

  17. Human factors in patient safety as an innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale

    2010-09-01

    The use of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) tools, methods, concepts and theories has been advocated by many experts and organizations to improve patient safety. To facilitate and support the spread of HFE knowledge and skills in healthcare and patient safety, we propose to conceptualize HFE as innovations whose diffusion, dissemination, implementation and sustainability need to be understood and specified. Using Greenhalgh et al. (2004) model of innovation, we identified various factors that can either hinder or facilitate the spread of HFE innovations in healthcare organizations. Barriers include lack of systems thinking, complexity of HFE innovations and lack of understanding about the benefits of HFE innovations. Positive impact of HFE interventions on task performance and the presence of local champions can facilitate the adoption, implementation and sustainability of HFE innovations. This analysis concludes with a series of recommendations for HFE professionals, researchers and educators. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Factors in Training: Space Medical Proficiency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Barshi, I.; Arsintescu, L.; Connell, E.

    2010-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to the ISS, medical equipment will be located on the ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the crew medical officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. The space medical training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). This is a joint project consisting of human factors team from the Ames Research Center (ARC) with Immanuel Barshi as Principal Investigator and the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Human factors researchers at JSC have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground, and researchers at the Ames Research Center performed a literature review on medical errors. Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and with Wyle Laboratories that provides medical training to crew members, biomedical engineers (BMEs), and to flight surgeons under the Bioastronautics contract. One area of research building on activities from FY08, involved the feasibility of just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. A second area of research involves FS performance support tools. Information needed by the FS during the ISS mission

  19. Factors Involved in Extracellular Matrix Turnover in Human Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregori Casals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The molecular mechanisms by which myocardial ischemia translates into ventricular remodeling remain unclear. Methods: We investigated whether hypoxia and proinflammatory cytokines are specific inducers of remodeling signals in an in vitro model of cultured adult human ventricular myocytes (AC16 cells. Results:Hypoxia modified the ratio of matrix remodeling factors by increasing the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP and reducing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 1 (TIMP-1 secretion in AC16 cells. These effects, however, were not associated with either modifications in expression of matrix metalloproteinase type 2, collagen-I or metalloproteinase activity. Hypoxia does, actually increase the production of the cardiac antifibrogenic growth factors, Apelin and VEGF, through an Hypoxia Inducible Factor type 1-dependent mechanism. Concerning proinflammatory signaling pathways, IL1β emerged as a powerful inducer of matrix turnover, since it significantly enhanced PIIINP, TIMP-1 and hyaluronic acid production and increased metalloproteinase activity. In contrast, TNFα did not modify matrix turnover but markedly induced the production of Apelin and VEGF. Conclusion: Hypoxia and increased TNFα activity likely exert cardioprotective actions by activating the cardiac antifibrogenic factors Apelin and VEGF. In contrast, IL1β is a strong promoter of interstitial collagen remodeling that may contribute to ventricular dilation and heart failure in the ischemic myocardium.

  20. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  1. Human factors/ergonomics implications of big data analytics: Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors annual lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Colin G

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in sensor technology, connectedness and computational power have come together to produce huge data-sets. The treatment and analysis of these data-sets is known as big data analytics (BDA), and the somewhat related term data mining. Fields allied to human factors/ergonomics (HFE), e.g. statistics, have developed computational methods to derive meaningful, actionable conclusions from these data bases. This paper examines BDA, often characterised by volume, velocity and variety, giving examples of successful BDA use. This examination provides context by considering examples of using BDA on human data, using BDA in HFE studies, and studies of how people perform BDA. Significant issues for HFE are the reliance of BDA on correlation rather than hypotheses and theory, the ethics of BDA and the use of HFE in data visualisation.

  2. Work, Productivity, and Human Performance: Practical Case Studies in Ergonomics, Human Factors and Human Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, T. M.; Pityn, P. J.

    This book contains 12 case histories, each based on a real-life problem, that show how a manager can use common sense, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to solve problems in human performance at work. Each case study describes a worker's problem and provides background information and an assignment; solutions are suggested. The following cases…

  3. Mutations and binding sites of human transcription factors

    KAUST Repository

    Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in any genome may lead to phenotype characteristics that determine ability of an individual to cope with adaptation to environmental challenges. In studies of human biology, among the most interesting ones are phenotype characteristics that determine responses to drug treatments, response to infections, or predisposition to specific inherited diseases. Most of the research in this field has been focused on the studies of mutation effects on the final gene products, peptides, and their alterations. Considerably less attention was given to the mutations that may affect regulatory mechanism(s) of gene expression, although these may also affect the phenotype characteristics. In this study we make a pilot analysis of mutations observed in the regulatory regions of 24,667 human RefSeq genes. Our study reveals that out of eight studied mutation types, insertions are the only one that in a statistically significant manner alters predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We also find that 25 families of TFBSs have been altered by mutations in a statistically significant manner in the promoter regions we considered. Moreover, we find that the related transcription factors are, for example, prominent in processes related to intracellular signaling; cell fate; morphogenesis of organs and epithelium; development of urogenital system, epithelium, and tube; neuron fate commitment. Our study highlights the significance of studying mutations within the genes regulatory regions and opens way for further detailed investigations on this topic, particularly on the downstream affected pathways. 2012 Kamanu, Medvedeva, Schaefer, Jankovic, Archer and Bajic.

  4. Human factors of flight-deck checklists: The normal checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1991-01-01

    Although the aircraft checklist has long been regarded as the foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety, it has escaped the scrutiny of the human factors profession. The improper use, or the non-use, of the normal checklist by flight crews is often cited as the probable cause or at least a contributing factor to aircraft accidents. An attempt is made to analyze the normal checklist, its functions, format, design, length, usage, and the limitations of the humans who must interact with it. The development of the checklist from the certification of a new model to its delivery and use by the customer are discussed. The influence of the government, particularly the FAA Principle Operations Inspector, the manufacturer's philosophy, the airline's culture, and the end user, the pilot, influence the ultimate design and usage of this device. The effects of airline mergers and acquisitions on checklist usage and design are noted. In addition, the interaction between production pressures and checklist usage and checklist management are addressed. Finally, a list of design guidelines for normal checklists is provided.

  5. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Human factors and error prevention in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleetman, Anthony; Sanusi, Seliat; Dale, Trevor; Brace, Samantha

    2012-05-01

    Emergency departments are one of the highest risk areas in health care. Emergency physicians have to assemble and manage unrehearsed multidisciplinary teams with little notice and manage critically ill patients. With greater emphasis on management and leadership skills, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of human factors in making changes to improve patient safety. Non-clinical skills are required to achieve this in an information-poor environment and to minimise the risk of errors. Training in these non-clinical skills is a mandatory component in other high-risk industries, such as aviation and, needs to be part of an emergency physician's skill set. Therefore, there remains an educational gap that we need to fill before an emergency physician is equipped to function as a team leader and manager. This review will examine the lessons from aviation and how these are applicable to emergency medicine. Solutions to averting errors are discussed and the need for formal human factors training in emergency medicine.

  7. Personal reflections from the fifth editor of Human Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williges, Robert C

    2008-06-01

    The fifth editor of Human Factors provides reflections on journal publication spanning four volumes printed from 1976 to 1980. During that period, most of the publication and management activities were handled by volunteer efforts of the editor, the editorial board, and the editor's organization. Electronic word processing was not readily available, and most publication tasks required laborious clerical support, resulting in long publication lags. The editor provides reflection on the steps taken by the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society to separate editorial and production activities during that period to provide more support for the journal editorial duties. This resulted in the Society becoming its own publisher, building the beginning of a publication staff in the central office, and increasing the published page count. Rigorous editorial reviews were used to improve the scientific quality of the journal. The publication emphasis was on empirical research, but theoretical articles and research reviews were also considered for publication. Regular journal articles, short research notes, and special topics were published as ways to broaden the scientific coverage and shorten the publication lag.

  8. Developpement d'une commande pour une hydrolienne de riviere et optimisation =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrault, Philippe

    Suivant le developpement des energies renouvelables, la presente etude se veut une base theorique quant aux principes fondamentaux necessaires au bon fonctionnement et a l'implementation d'une hydrolienne de riviere. La problematique derriere ce nouveau type d'appareil est d'abord presentee. La machine electrique utilisee dans l'application, c'est-a-dire la machine synchrone a aimants permanents, est etudiee : ses equations dynamiques mecaniques et electriques sont developpees, introduisant en meme temps le concept de referentiel tournant. Le fonctionnement de l'onduleur utilise, soit un montage en pont complet a deux niveaux a semi-conducteurs, est explique et mit en equation pour permettre de comprendre les strategies de modulation disponibles. Un bref historique de ces strategies est fait avant de mettre l'emphase sur la modulation vectorielle qui sera celle utilisee pour l'application en cours. Les differents modules sont assembles dans une simulation Matlab pour confirmer leur bon fonctionnement et comparer les resultats de la simulation avec les calculs theoriques. Differents algorithmes permettant de traquer et maintenir un point de fonctionnement optimal sont presentes. Le comportement de la riviere est etudie afin d'evaluer l'ampleur des perturbations que le systeme devra gerer. Finalement, une nouvelle approche est presentee et comparee a une strategie plus conservatrice a l'aide d'un autre modele de simulation Matlab.

  9. Development of wind energy in Morocco; Developpement de l'energie eolienne au Maroc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzili, M. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables de Maroc, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    Morocco's national energy policy includes the use of renewable energy sources to lessen its reliance on fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Legislation was recently passed to increase the threshold of electrical power from 10 MW to 50 MW. Solar and wind energy are the most abundant renewable energy resources in the country and are recommended for exploitation on a large scale. Feasibility studies conducted by the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables have shown that Morocco has enough wind energy to produce electricity on a large scale and interconnect it with the national power grid. Wind energy in the country could also be used for on-site power generation in remote villages or for desalination of seawater, particularly in the southern regions of Morocco which are most affected by drought. Essaouira, Tangier, Tetouan, Tarfaya, Dakhla, Laayoune and Taza were among the regions identified with significant wind resources. The total wind energy potential for Morocco is estimated to be 2,650 GW, while the technical wind energy potential is estimated to be 1,600 GW. Several projects have been realized in the areas of electricity production, interconnection to the national power grid, decentralized rural electrification and eventually the introduction of water pumping. It was concluded that exporting green energy to Europe, via the Morocco-Spain route after the restructuring of Morocco's electricity sector will create a viable market for the medium and long-term. 3 figs.

  10. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  11. Human factoring the procedures element in a complex manufacturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccamise, D.J.; Mecherikoff, M.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of Human Factors evaluations of procedures associated with incidents at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) it was determined that the existing procedure format created significant opportunities for confusion in their attempt to convey information about a work process. For instance, there was no mechanism to clearly identify the participants and their roles during the instructions portion of the procedure. In addition, procedure authors frequently used complex logic to convey a series of contingent actions within steps. It was also difficult to discern the actual procedure steps from other types of information in the procedure. These and other inadequacies prompted the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) department to propose solutions to these problems that followed well-researched principles of cognitive psychology, dealing with how humans process information. Format and style contribute to procedure usability, and therefore to safety and efficiency in operations governed by the procedures. Since it was difficult to tie specific performance failures to specific format and style characteristics and thereby dearly define costs and benefits, it was difficult on that basis to sell the idea that changes in procedure format and style were really necessary to improve safety and efficiency. In addition, we found that the socio-political systems governing this process, particularly at the subprocess interface level, were not functioning efficiently. Both the technological aspects of the process and the socio-political aspects were contributing to waste and considerable re-work. Fixing the customer feedback loop to the process owners not only minimized re-work and waste, but also provided the data to persuade subprocess owners to make the necessary changes that heretofore were being met with great resistance.

  12. A human factors evaluation of the operational demonstration flight inspection aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    These reports describe the data collection and analysis efforts performed by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's Human Factors Research Laboratory to assist the Office of Aviation System Standards (AVN) in the human factors evaluation of the Oper...

  13. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  14. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  15. Factors governing risk of cougar attacks on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the United States were rare (currently 4 to 6/year) compared to attacks by large felids and wolves (Canis lupus) in Africa and Asia (hundreds to thousands/year).

  16. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2017-01-01

    The study, discovery, and application of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics to the design of tools, devices, machines, systems, job tasks and environments for effective human performance.

  17. Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E; Moustaki, M

    2000-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are responsible for a substantial fraction of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for more years of life lost than most of human diseases. In this review, we have tried to delineate behavioral factors that collectively represent the principal cause of three out of five RTCs and contribute to the causation of most of the remaining. Although sharp distinctions are not always possible, a classification of behavioral factors is both necessary and feasible. Thus, behavioral factors can be distinguished as (i) those that reduce capability on a long-term basis (inexperience, aging, disease and disability, alcoholism, drug abuse), (ii) those that reduce capability on a short-term basis (drowsiness, fatigue, acute alcohol intoxication, short term drug effects, binge eating, acute psychological stress, temporary distraction), (iii) those that promote risk taking behavior with long-term impact (overestimation of capabilities, macho attitude, habitual speeding, habitual disregard of traffic regulations, indecent driving behavior, non-use of seat belt or helmet, inappropriate sitting while driving, accident proneness) and (iv) those that promote risk taking behavior with short-term impact (moderate ethanol intake, psychotropic drugs, motor vehicle crime, suicidal behavior, compulsive acts). The classification aims to assist in the conceptualization of the problem that may also contribute to behavior modification-based efforts.

  18. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PENTOSIDINE ACCUMULATION IN THE HUMAN VITREOUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2017-04-01

    To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular characteristics included pseudophakia, posterior vitreous detachment, and presence of intraocular fibrosis (epiretinal membrane, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, or both). Pentosidine concentration as a measure of accumulation of advanced glycation end products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Pentosidine concentrations were measured in 222 vitrectomy samples (118 female and 104 male patients [median age 66 years], treated for macular hole [n = 105] or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment [n = 117]). Pentosidine was found to accumulate significantly with age (P vitreous detachment (P = 0.018). The authors found no association with diabetes mellitus or gender. This study confirmed an age-related pentosidine accumulation in the vitreous and found new factors relating to pentosidine levels. Findings support the hypothesis of enzyme-induced vitreous liquefaction and the hypothesis of pentosidine as a pro-fibrotic factor.

  19. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  20. 77 FR 3500 - VTECH Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... the subject firm should read VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. New information also shows that the Human Factors Department does not include on-site leased workers...

  1. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  2. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  4. Challenges and Paradoxes of Human Factors in Health Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Plinio P; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    Usability testing allows human factors professionals to identify and mitigate issues with the design and use of medical technology. The test results, however, can be paradoxical and therefore be misinterpreted, limiting their usefulness. The paradoxical findings can lead to products that are not aligned with the needs and constraints of their users. We herein report on our observations of the paradox of expertise, the paradox of preference versus performance, and the paradox of choice. Each paradox explored is in the perspective of the design of medical technology, the issues that need to be considered in the interpretation of the test results, as well as suggestions on how to avoid the pitfalls in the design of medical technology. Because these paradoxes can influence product design at various stages of product development, it is important to be aware of the effects to interpret the findings properly.

  5. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Univ. of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs.

  6. Pluripotent stem cell transcription factors during human odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Juliana Malta; da Costa-Neves, Adriana; Kerkis, Irina; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Stem cells are capable of generating various cell lines and can be obtained from adult or embryonic tissues for clinical therapies. Stem cells from deciduous dental pulp are among those that are easily obtainable from adult tissues and have been widely studied because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lines in the presence of various chemical mediators. We have analyze the expression of several proteins related to the differentiation and proliferative potential of cell populations that compose the tooth germ of human fetuses. We evaluate 20 human fetuses of both genders. After being paraffin-embedded, cap and bell stages of tooth germ development were subjected to immunohistochemistry for the following markers: Oct-4, Nanog, Stat-3 and Sox-2. The studied antibodies showed nuclear or cytoplasmic immunnostaining within various anatomical structures and with various degrees of expression, indicating the action of these proteins during tooth development. We conclude that the interrelationship between these transcription factors is complex and associated with self-renewal and cell differentiation. Our results suggest that the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2 and Stat-3 are related to differentiation in ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  7. Human factors of powered flight: the Wright brothers' contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R

    2004-02-01

    Orville and Wilbur Wright of Dayton, OH, not only were the first to fly a powered aircraft, but also pioneered many human factors considerations. While others tried to develop aircraft with a high degree of aerodynamic stability, the Wrights intentionally designed unstable aircraft with "cerebralized" control modeled on bird flight. During 1901-03, the brothers worked with large gliders at Kill Devil Hills, near Kitty Hawk, NC, to develop the first practical human-interactive controls for aircraft pitch, roll, and yaw. On December 17, 1903, they made four controlled, powered flights over the dunes at Kitty Hawk with their Wright Flyer. During the next 2 yr, the Wrights made numerous flights in the Wright Flyers II and III at Huffman Prairie near Dayton. They later developed practical in-flight control of engine power, plus an angle-of-attack sensor and stick-pusher that reduced pilot workload. The brothers' flight demonstrations in the U.S. and Europe during 1908-09 awakened the world to the new age of controlled flight. Orville was the first aviator to use a seat belt. He also introduced a rudder boost/trim control that gave the pilot greater control authority. The Wrights' flight training school in Dayton included a flight simulator of their own design. The Wrights patented their practical airplane and flight control concepts, many of which are still in use today.

  8. Selection and characterization of a human neutralizing antibody to human fibroblast growth factor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jun [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Xiang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: txjj@jnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Technologies, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Deng, Ning; Wang, Hong; Gong, Yi-Ping [Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Technologies, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-04-09

    Compelling evidences suggest that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays important roles in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Molecules blocking the FGF-2 signaling have been proposed as anticancer agents. Through screening of a human scFv phage display library, we have isolated several human single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs) that bind to human FGF-2. After expression and purification in bacteria, one scFv, named 1A2, binds to FGF-2 with a high affinity and specificity, and completes with FGF-2 binding to its receptor. This 1A2 scFv was then cloned into the pIgG1 vector and expressed in 293T cells. The purified hIgG1-1A2 antibody showed a high binding affinity of 8 x 10{sup -9} M to rhFGF-2. In a set of vitro assays, it inhibited various biological activities of FGF-2 such as the proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. More importantly, hIgG1-1A2 antibody also efficiently blocked the growth while inducing apoptosis of glioma cells. For the first time, we generated a human anti-FGF-2 antibody with proven in vitro anti-tumor activity. It may therefore present a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cancers that are dependent on FGF-2 signaling for growth and survival.

  9. Humanized versus murine anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies for immunoscintigraphic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Duconge, Jorge; Alvarez-Ruiz, Daniel; Becquer-Viart, Maria de Los Angeles; Nunez-Gandolff, Gilda; Fernandez, Eduardo; Caballero-Torres, Idania; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando

    2000-02-01

    The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) humanized antibody h-R3 (IgG{sub 1}), which binds to an extracellular domain of EGF-R, was used to evaluate the biodistribution on nude mice xenografted with A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. Results are compared with its murine version ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Twenty-one athymic female 4NMRI nu/nu mice were injected intravenously with 10 {mu}g/100 {mu}Ci of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled mAbs. The mAb ior C5 that recognizes an antigen expressed preferentially on the surface of malignant and cytoplasm of normal colorectal cells was used as negative control. Immunoreactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled mAbs was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay on A431 cell line and the immunoreactive fractions determined by Lindmo method. Among all organs significant accumulation was found in tumor (6.14{+-}2.50 %ID/g, 5.06{+-}2.61 %ID/g for murine and humanized mAbs, respectively) 4 h after injection. The immunoreactive fractions were found to be 0.88 and 0.81 for murine and humanized mAb, respectively. Thus, we expect better results using the humanized mAb h-R3 for diagnostic immunoscintigraphy.

  10. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pDogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling.

  11. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  12. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  13. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  15. Sex differences in human mortality: the role of genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence concerning genetic factors that influence sex differences in human mortality, with attention to the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Some widely quoted earlier conclusions, for example, that males have consistently higher fetal mortality than females, are not supported by current evidence. For example, for late fetal mortality, males had higher rates than females in earlier historical data, but not in recent data for several advanced industrial countries. This reflects a changing balance between an inherently greater female vulnerability for one major type of late fetal mortality and inherently greater male vulnerability for several other types of late fetal mortality that have declined in importance as health care has improved. Males appear to be inherently more vulnerable than females to infant mortality, although the causes of this vulnerability are poorly understood. X-linked immunoregulatory genes appear to contribute to greater female resistance to infectious diseases. Despite these apparent inherent advantages for females, in some situations females have had higher infant mortality and higher infectious disease mortality than males, apparently due to environmental disadvantages for females, such as less adequate diet and health care. Inherent sex differences in reproductive physiology and anatomy contribute to higher female mortality for breast cancer and maternal mortality. For these causes of death, as for the other categories discussed, the death rates and thus the contributions to sex differences in total mortality vary considerably depending on environmental conditions. Several hypothesized contributions of sex hormones to sex differences in mortality are at present controversial due to contradictions and limitations in the available data. There may be effects of male sex hormones on sex differences in behavior which contribute to males' higher death rates for accidents and other violent causes. Women

  16. From human factors to HSI and beyond: operation centers and control rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.; Post, W.M.; Brake, G.M. te

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Human Factors does not just cover human performance and human centred design but also the evaluation and influencing of human behaviour in complex environments. In particular in the design of operations centres and control rooms, the functioning of humans and systems must be considered in

  17. Development of a Pilot Program for Human Factors Management in Operating Nuclear Power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong-Il; Kim, Dae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The human factors of operating NPPs have been reviewed as a part of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs). This human factors PSR covers a wide range of human factors including control room man-machine interfaces (MMIs), procedures, working conditions, qualification, training, information requirements and workload. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed human factors PSRs from the first PSR for Kori 1. It was determined in 2005 that for a Continuous Operation of the Korean NPPs an enhanced PSR should be performed and issues raised from the PSRs should be resolved. From the results of the PSR for Kori 1, several safety enhancement issues related to human factors were raised. KAERI is working on a resolution of some of the human factors issues for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP). As a part of the resolution, we are developing a human factors management program (HFMP) for Kori 1. This paper introduces the status of our development of HFMP.

  18. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  19. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  20. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  1. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user-product-environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. Results No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. Conclusions The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user–product–environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products. PMID:24732164

  3. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Human factors guidelines for large-screen displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Steve

    2005-09-15

    Any control-room project (including upgrades or evolutionary improvements to existing control-rooms) is well advised at the outset first to gather and update related background material for the design. This information-gathering exercise should also take into account experience from similar projects and operating experience. For these reasons, we decided to use our research, and experience in large-screen display design with several clients to update human factors guidance for large-screen displays, to take into account new ergonomics guidelines, operating experience, and work from similar projects. To write the updated guidelines, we drew on much of our experience across several departments at IFE, including research funded by the HRP programme, and experience with individual clients. Guidance here is accordingly focused mainly on recent areas of technical and human innovations in the man-machine interface. One particular area of focus was on the increasing use of large-screen display systems in modern control-rooms, and on how guidelines could be adapted and supplemented for their design. Guidance or reference to recommended sources is also given for control suite arrangement and layout, control-room layout, workstation layout, design of displays and controls, and design of the work environment, especially insofar as these ergonomic issues interact with the effectiveness of modern displays, in particular large screen displays. The work shows that there can be synergy between HRP research and bilateral activities: the one side offers a capability to develop tools and guidelines, while the other side gives an opportunity to test and refine these in practice, to the benefit of both parties. (Author)

  5. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  6. Evidence of human induce factors in automotive crashes in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidemi, Awopeju K

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa highly affected by automotive crashes which led to establishment of Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The organization fought and is fighting against reckless driving in the country to prevent loss of life through automotive crashes. The record of the organization and the Statistical investigation of the researcher reveal that most of the crashes were due to human error such as alcoholism, inexperience and peer influence on the high-way. The data for the research was collected from published report of FRSC 2012 and analyzed using chi-square dependency test and charts due to the nature of the presentation. Ratios were used to determine Number of people killed per Road Total Crashes (RTC), Casualty per RTC and RTC severity Index from 2007 to 2010 in the country. Among the human induced factors, it was discovered that most of the drivers involved in road crashes were drunk during the period and the years of experience play major role in the automotive crashes as drivers with less than 2years of experience were more involved than the other groups. In the consideration of life style of drivers involve in road crashes, it was discovered that drivers with less than 30years of age are vulnerable to road crashes than drivers with ages higher than 30years. Among the findings, the most common automobile in Nigeria road crashes is commercial buses in the years considered. It was recommended that proper and adequate training should be given to drivers on the high-way to prevent injuries and loss of life. Alcoholism should be discouraged in totality and age of obtaining drivers license could be increased in developing countries such as Nigeria.

  7. Comparative view on risk factor of human death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko; Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Human being, namely. 'living' get involved in risk factor. Even if risk is limited to lethal danger, human history is coresponding with numberless risks from ancient up to today. For example, there is increase in risk of death by car-crash owing to get high efficiency in transfer. In Japan, the death toll by car-accident is about ten thousands per year constantly. State of deaths by car-accident not only include driver itself but cyclist and pedestrian. Death rate of both the cyclist and pedestrian amounts to 40% of all. In the age, rate of fracture as result of fall-down while walking is very high. It shows that the aged who give up driving and get out of danger car-crush are attacked the another accident as walkers. On type of danger, the decrease in risk of one-side come to increase in risk of other side. That is 'risk trade-off'. Examples of risk trade-off as above are numerous in environment. Acceptable death rate of various causes is about 10{sup -4} per year in generally. Flight accident happens on rare occasions (10{sup -7} per year in Japan, usually). Spite of insignificant probability, people fear by both reasons that the possibility of rescue is very few and the size of accident is enormous. In the cases of flight and nuclear power plant, estimated accidents is sever, but its probability is very small. Therefore, risk of annual deaths by accident must be considered as multiplication of size of risk (deaths per year) by probability (frequency per year). Obtained result by such analysis shall conduct to right risk perception and stable 'risk acceptance'. (author)

  8. An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo

    2001-08-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper

  9. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  10. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  11. Mutational analysis of leucine 47 in human epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, R K; Yette, M L; Stevens, A; Niyogi, S K

    1991-07-01

    Seven site-specific mutants (including changes to other hydrophobic, charged, and heterocyclic amino acids) of leucine 47 of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) were generated by protein engineering and characterized for their activity in three assays: radioreceptor competition binding in membrane fractions, the stimulation of the EGF receptor's tyrosine kinase activity, and the stimulation of thymidine uptake in tissue culture cells. K1/2 (concentration required for half maximum response) values for each of the mutants are reported in the three assays. The results show that the native leucine residue is quite important for EGF activity. Substitutions are tolerated to different degrees, depending upon hydrophobicity and size of the side chain. Substitution with ionic residues led to the most drastic reduction in activity. One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, at physiological pH, of several of the mutants did not detect any major structural perturbations which would account for the loss of activity. The results suggest that the side chain of leucine 47, because of its charge neutrality, size, and hydrophobicity, is highly important, although not absolutely essential for the interaction of EGF with its receptor. A striking finding was the lower (compared with wild type) Vmax values of the mutants in the tyrosine kinase reaction, but these low Vmax mutants, in cell culture experiments, were able to stimulate at high concentrations a growth response equivalent to wild type EGF.

  12. Seventh enemy: the human factor in the global crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, R.

    1978-01-01

    During the next twenty-five years, Higgins says we and our children will face a world of mounting confusion and horror, including hardship, disorder, war, and the starvation of millions. Daring to see mankind's rapidly converging crisis for what it is, he starkly forecasts the course it is likely to take. He shows that there are six immense impersonal threats to the human future: overpopulation, famine, resource shortage, environmental degradation, nuclear abuse, and technologies racing out of control. Theoretically these six challenges are not beyond solving; but, asks Higgins, do we have the time, or the will, or the capacity to organize against them. The frightening inertia of our political institutions and our obstinate individual blindness to the realities of the late twentieth century are the critical factors. To avoid a holocaust, we need a remarkable transformation of the moral basis of our politics. The Seventh Enemy can be defeated, argues the author, and he concludes with a thoughtful and controversial discussion of the qualities of consciousness that mankind must bring to bear so urgently on its extraordinary situation. Thus, this cogent analysis ends on a note of cautious hope.

  13. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Training for planning tumour resection: augmented reality and human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S H; Chen, Elvis C S; Khan, Ali R; Peters, Terry M; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Planning surgical interventions is a complex task, demanding a high degree of perceptual, cognitive, and sensorimotor skills to reduce intra- and post-operative complications. This process requires spatial reasoning to coordinate between the preoperatively acquired medical images and patient reference frames. In the case of neurosurgical interventions, traditional approaches to planning tend to focus on providing a means for visualizing medical images, but rarely support transformation between different spatial reference frames. Thus, surgeons often rely on their previous experience and intuition as their sole guide is to perform mental transformation. In case of junior residents, this may lead to longer operation times or increased chance of error under additional cognitive demands. In this paper, we introduce a mixed augmented-/virtual-reality system to facilitate training for planning a common neurosurgical procedure, brain tumour resection. The proposed system is designed and evaluated with human factors explicitly in mind, alleviating the difficulty of mental transformation. Our results indicate that, compared to conventional planning environments, the proposed system greatly improves the nonclinicians' performance, independent of the sensorimotor tasks performed ( ). Furthermore, the use of the proposed system by clinicians resulted in a significant reduction in time to perform clinically relevant tasks ( ). These results demonstrate the role of mixed-reality systems in assisting residents to develop necessary spatial reasoning skills needed for planning brain tumour resection, improving patient outcomes.

  15. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  16. State of science: human factors and ergonomics in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, Sue; Carayon, Pascale; Buckle, Peter; Catchpole, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increase in the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) techniques to healthcare delivery in a broad range of contexts (domains, locations and environments). This paper provides a state of science commentary using four examples of HFE in healthcare to review and discuss analytical and implementation challenges and to identify future issues for HFE. The examples include two domain areas (occupational ergonomics and surgical safety) to illustrate a traditional application of HFE and the area that has probably received the most research attention. The other two examples show how systems and design have been addressed in healthcare with theoretical approaches for organisational and socio-technical systems and design for patient safety. Future opportunities are identified to develop and embed HFE systems thinking in healthcare including new theoretical models and long-term collaborative partnerships. HFE can contribute to systems and design initiatives for both patients and clinicians to improve everyday performance and safety, and help to reduce and control spiralling healthcare costs. There has been an increase in the application of HFE techniques to healthcare delivery in the past 10 years. This paper provides a state of science commentary using four illustrative examples (occupational ergonomics, design for patient safety, surgical safety and organisational and socio-technical systems) to review and discuss analytical and implementation challenges and identify future issues for HFE.

  17. Indoor human thermal adaptation: dynamic processes and weighting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, M; Cao, B; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we explore the correlations between indoor climate change and human thermal adaptation, especially with regard to the timescale and weighting factors of physiological adaptation. A comparative experiment was conducted in China where wintertime indoor climate in the southern region (devoid of space heating) is much colder than in the northern region (with pervasive district heating). Four subject groups with different indoor thermal experiences participated in this climate chamber experiment. The results indicate that previous indoor thermal exposure is an important contributor to occupants' physiological adaptation. More specifically, subjects acclimated to neutral-warm indoors tended to have stronger physiological responses and felt more uncomfortable in moderate cold exposures than those adapted to the cold. As for the driving force of thermal adaptation, physiological acclimation is an important aspect among all the supposed adaptive layers. However, the physiological adaptation speed lags behind changes in the overall subjective perception. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with human brucellosis in livestock professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufinda, Franco Cazembe; Boinas, Fernando; Nunes, Carla

    2017-06-22

    The objective of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence of human brucellosis in livestock professionals and analyze the factors associated with brucellosis focusing on sociodemographic variables and the variables of knowledge and practices related to the characteristics of the activities carried out in livestock. This is a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study with a population of 131 workers of butchers, slaughter rooms, and slaughterhouse and 192 breeders sampled randomly in Namibe province, Angola. The data were obtained from the collection of blood and use of questionnaires. The laboratory tests used were rose bengal and slow agglutination. The questionnaire allowed us to collect sociodemographic information and, specifically on brucellosis, it incorporated questions about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of livestock professionals. In addition to the descriptive statistical approach, we used the Chi-square test of independence, Fisher's test, and logistic regression models, using a significance level of 10%. The general weighted prevalence of brucellosis was 15.6% (95%CI 13.61-17.50), being it 5.3% in workers and 16.7% (95%CI 11.39-21.93) in breeders. The statistical significance was observed between human seroprevalence and category (worker and breeder) (p brucellosis in professionals was the professional category (OR = 3.54; 95%CI 1.57-8.30, related to breeders in relation to workers). Human brucellosis in livestock professionals is prevalent in Namibe province (15.6%), where the professional category was the most important factor. The seroprevalence levels detected are high when compared with those found in similar studies. Estimar a seroprevalência da brucelose humana em profissionais da pecuária e analisar os factores associados à brucelose com foco em variáveis sociodemográficas, de conhecimento e práticas relativas às características das actividades desenvolvidas na pecuária. Estudo transversal seroepidemiológico em população de

  20. Growth factor-induced contraction of human bronchial smooth muscle is Rho-kinase-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinout; Schaafsma, D.; Grootte Bromhaar, M.M; Vrugt, B.; Zaagsma, Hans; Meurs, Herman; Nelemans, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Growth factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the putative effects of these growth factors on human airway smooth muscle tone are still largely unknown. We performed contraction experiments using human bronchial smooth muscle ring preparations. The growth factor

  1. Human factors analysis and classification system-HFACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Human error has been implicated in 70 to 80% of all civil and military aviation accidents. Yet, most accident : reporting systems are not designed around any theoretical framework of human error. As a result, most : accident databases are not conduci...

  2. Hemoglobin is a co-factor of human trypanosome lytic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widener, Justin; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Shiflett, April

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosome lytic factor (TLF) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass providing innate protection to humans against infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Two primate-specific plasma proteins, haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) and apolipoprotein L-1 (ApoL-1), have been....... HDL particles recovered by immunoaffinity absorption, with either anti-Hpr or anti-ApoL-1, were identical in protein composition and specific activity for T. b. brucei killing. Here, we show that TLF-bound Hpr strongly binds Hb and that addition of Hb stimulates TLF killing of T. b. brucei...... that triggers the activation of TLF by the formation of Hpr-Hb complexes, leading to enhanced binding, trypanolytic activity, and clearance of parasites....

  3. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  4. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  5. Turning men into machines? Scientific management, industrial psychology, and the "human factor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Digital communication to support clinical supervision: considering the human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Marlow, Annette; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    During the last three years the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Tasmania has used a needs assessment survey to explore the needs of organizations and nursing professionals that facilitate and clinically supervise Bachelor of Nursing students in the workplace. Findings from the survey indicated that staff at healthcare organizations wanted a communication strategy that was easily accessible by clinicians who supervised students during work integrated learning placements. In particular they wanted to receive timely information related to the role and function of supervisors in practice. The development of the digital strategy to strengthen the development of a community of practice between the University, organizations, facilities and clinical supervisors was identified as the key method of improving communication. Blogging and micro blogging were selected as methods of choice for the implementation of the digital strategy because they were easy to set up, use and enable equity of access to geographically dispersed practitioners in urban and rural areas. Change champions were identified to disseminate information about the strategy within their workplaces. Although clinicians indicated electronic communication as their preferred method, there were a number of human factors at a systems and individual level identified to be challenges when communicating with clinical supervisors who were based off-campus. Information communication technology policies and embedded culture towards social presence were impediments to using this approach in some organizations. Additionally, it was found that it is necessary for this group of clinicians to be educated about using digital methods to undertake their role as clinical supervisors in their varied clinical practice environments.

  7. Leveraging Health Care Simulation Technology for Human Factors Research: Closing the Gap Between Lab and Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Dong, Yue; Halamek, Louis P; Rosen, Michael A; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Rice, John

    2016-11-01

    We describe health care simulation, designed primarily for training, and provide examples of how human factors experts can collaborate with health care professionals and simulationists-experts in the design and implementation of simulation-to use contemporary simulation to improve health care delivery. The need-and the opportunity-to apply human factors expertise in efforts to achieve improved health outcomes has never been greater. Health care is a complex adaptive system, and simulation is an effective and flexible tool that can be used by human factors experts to better understand and improve individual, team, and system performance within health care. Expert opinion is presented, based on a panel delivered during the 2014 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Health Care Symposium. Diverse simulators, physically or virtually representing humans or human organs, and simulation applications in education, research, and systems analysis that may be of use to human factors experts are presented. Examples of simulation designed to improve individual, team, and system performance are provided, as are applications in computational modeling, research, and lifelong learning. The adoption or adaptation of current and future training and assessment simulation technologies and facilities provides opportunities for human factors research and engineering, with benefits for health care safety, quality, resilience, and efficiency. Human factors experts, health care providers, and simulationists can use contemporary simulation equipment and techniques to study and improve health care delivery. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Abrupt Holocene climate change as an important factor for human migration in West Greenland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William J. D'Andrea; Yongsong Huang; Sherilyn C. Fritz; N. John Anderson

    2011-01-01

    .... However, the explanations for these large-scale human migrations are varied, including climatic factors, resistance to adaptation, economic marginalization, mercantile exploration, and hostile neighborhood interactions...

  9. Developpement d'une methode de Monte Carlo dependante du temps et application au reacteur de type CANDU-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Mehdi

    CANDU-6. Les sections efficaces dependantes du temps ont ete par la suite utilisees dans un calcul de diffusion espace-temps pour un reacteur CANDU-6 subissant un accident de type LOCA affectant la moitie du coeur afin d'observer son comportement durant toutes les phases de la perturbation. Dans la phase de developpement, nous avons choisi de demarrer avec le code OpenMC, developpe au MIT,comme plateforme initiale de developpement. L'introduction et le traitement des neutrons retardes durant la simulation ont presente un grand defi a surmonter. Il est important de noter que le code developpe utilisant la methode Monte Carlo peut etre utilise a grande echelle pour la simulation de tous les types des reacteurs nucleaires si les supports informatiques sont disponibles.

  10. Human Resource Managements as a part of the Human Factors Management Program(HFMP) for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, DaeHo; Lee, YongHee; Lee, JungWoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Younggab [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Programs for the effective implementation and management of human factor issues in nuclear power plants (NPPs) should contain technical criteria, an establishment of a job process, and activities for job improvements and be a system through which human factors can be managed in an integrated way. Human factors to be managed should include those related to an operation of plants as well as those related to a plant design as mentioned in NUREG-0800(2004), NUREG- 0711(2004), and NUREG-0700(2002). Human factor items to be managed for an operation of plants are listed in the PSR (Periodic Safety Review) items defined in the Enforcement of Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act. They are procedures, a work management system including a shift work management, a qualification management of plant personnel, training, a work amount assessment, a MMI (Man Machine Interface), and the use of experience. Among these factors, factors related to a human resource management include work management systems and the status of a work management including shift work, a qualification management ensuring qualified workers on duty at all times, and the systems for and the status of training and education. This paper addresses the scope of a human resource management, guidelines and procedures to be developed for a human resource management, and considerations critical in the development of guidelines and procedures.

  11. Semantic Language and Tools for Reporting Human Factors Incidents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incidents related to impaired human performance in space operations can be caused by environmental conditions, situational challenges, and operational deficiencies....

  12. Human Factors and Human-Computer Considerations in Teleradiology and Telepathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-19

    Radiology and pathology are unique among other clinical specialties that incorporate telemedicine technologies into clinical practice, as, for the most part in traditional practice, there are few or no direct patient encounters. The majority of teleradiology and telepathology involves viewing images, which is exactly what occurs without the "tele" component. The images used are generally quite large, require dedicated displays and software for viewing, and present challenges to the clinician who must navigate through the presented data to render a diagnostic decision or interpretation. This digital viewing environment is very different from the more traditional reading environment (i.e., film and microscopy), necessitating a new look at how to optimize reading environments and address human factors issues. This paper will review some of the key components that need to be optimized for effective and efficient practice of teleradiology and telepathology using traditional workstations as well as some of the newer mobile viewing applications.

  13. Human Factors and Human-Computer Considerations in Teleradiology and Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Krupinski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiology and pathology are unique among other clinical specialties that incorporate telemedicine technologies into clinical practice, as, for the most part in traditional practice, there are few or no direct patient encounters. The majority of teleradiology and telepathology involves viewing images, which is exactly what occurs without the “tele” component. The images used are generally quite large, require dedicated displays and software for viewing, and present challenges to the clinician who must navigate through the presented data to render a diagnostic decision or interpretation. This digital viewing environment is very different from the more traditional reading environment (i.e., film and microscopy, necessitating a new look at how to optimize reading environments and address human factors issues. This paper will review some of the key components that need to be optimized for effective and efficient practice of teleradiology and telepathology using traditional workstations as well as some of the newer mobile viewing applications.

  14. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  15. Do we need sustainability as a new approach in human factors and ergonomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.

  16. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    and contamination by other B12 binders. We tested the use of recombinant plants for large-scale production of pathogen-free human recombinant IF. Human IF was successfully expressed in the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Extract from fresh plants possessed high B12-binding capacity corresponding to 70 mg...

  17. Biophysical characterisation of GlycoPEGylated recombinant human factor VIIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Nielsen, Anders D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of GlycoPEGylation on the structural, kinetic and thermal stability of recombinant human FVIIa were investigated using rFVIIa and linear 10 kDa and branched 40 kDa GlycoPEGylated® recombinant human FVIIa derivatives. The secondary and tertiary structure of rFVIIa measured by circular...

  18. Human Resources Factor in the Development of Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussions on information literacy skills of the School child in Nigeria bring to mind a composite requirement of relevant human resource in the school library. The stakeholders have been identified as veritable human resource in the school library that should encourage the Teacher-Librarian to carry out effective library ...

  19. Pengalokasian Tenaga Kerja dengan Human Factor Engineering di PT. Pelindo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnawati Yusnawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia Port Corporation I (PT Pelabuhan Indonesia I (Persero or PT. Pelindo I is one of the Indonesian state-owned enterprises which manages port services in western Indonesia. Shipyard unit (Unit Galangan Kapal (UGK is a branch of PT. Pelindo I. At present, a problem arises if more than 2 ships are being repaired at once in the unit, UGK scheduling overlaps the repairing activities. In order to solve the problem, study of human factor is important. Human factor is the study of the limitations, capabilities, and human behavior, as well as its interaction with the product, environment, equipment and the establishment of tasks and activities. One part of the human factor is the human factor in system design. In order to improve the effectiveness of the system, the human factor must be involved in each phase of the design process in the system design. This includes a number of activities to obtain input specification work, therefore the working methods and the optimal amount of labor can be determined. Human factors engineering is the application of science that utilizes research on the human factor and use the basic knowledge to design, to repair and to install the system. This research method is causal, searching for the causes which led to delays in the completion of ship repairing. Through human factor engineering approach to the allocation of labor increased by 12.23 per cent of the actual conditions, so that the delay of ship repair were not found during normal conditions.

  20. Vestibular factors influencing the biomedical support of humans in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Byron K.

    This paper will describe the biomedical support aspects of humans in space with respect to the vestibular system. The vestibular system is thought to be the primary sensory system involved in the short-term effects of space motion sickness although there is increasing evidence that many factors play a role in this complex set of symptoms. There is the possibility that an individual's inner sense of orientation may be strongly coupled with the susceptibility to space motion sickness. A variety of suggested countermeasures for space motion sickness will be described. Although there are no known ground-based tests that can predict space motion sickness, the search should go on. The long term effects of the vestibular system in weightlessness are still relatively unknown. Some preliminary data has shown that the otoconia are irregular in size and distribution following extended periods of weightlessness. The ramifications of this data are not yet known and because the data was obtained on lower order animals, definitive studies and results must wait until the space station era when higher primates can be studied for long durations. This leads us to artificial gravity, the last topic of this paper. The vestibular system is intimately tied to this question since it has been shown on Earth that exposure to a slow rotating room causes motion sickness for some period of time before adaptation occurs. If the artificial gravity is intermittent, will this mean that people will get sick every time they experience it? The data from many astronauts returning to Earth indicates that a variety of sensory illusions are present, especially immediately upon return to a 1- g environment. Oscillopsia or apparent motion of the visual surround upon head motion along with inappropriate eye motions for a given head motion, all indicate that there is much to be studied yet about the vestibular and CNS systems reaction to a sudden application of a steady state acceleration field like 1- g

  1. SULFs in human neoplasia: implication as progression and prognosis factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schved Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfation pattern of heparan sulfate chains influences signaling events mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans located on cell surface. SULF1 and SULF2 are two endosulfatases able to cleave specific 6-O sulfate groups within the heparan chains. Their action can modulate signaling processes, many of which with key relevance for cancer development and expansion. SULF1 has been associated with tumor suppressor effects in various models of cancer, whereas SULF2 dysregulation was in relation with protumorigenic actions. However, other observations argue for contradictory effects of these sulfatases in cancer, suggesting the complexity of their action in the tumor microenvironment. Methods We compared the expression of the genes encoding SULF1, SULF2 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in a large panel of cancer samples to their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the data obtained from two cohorts of newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma patients, the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database, the Amazonia data base and the ITTACA database. We also analysed prognosis data in relation with these databases. Results We demonstrated that SULF2 expression in primary multiple myeloma cells was associated with a poor prognosis in two independent large cohorts of patients. It remained an independent predictor when considered together with conventional multiple myeloma prognosis factors. Besides, we observed an over-representation of SULF2 gene expression in skin cancer, colorectal carcinoma, testicular teratoma and liver cancer compared to their normal tissue counterpart. We found that SULF2 was significantly over-expressed in high grade uveal melanoma compared to low grade and in patients presenting colorectal carcinoma compared to benign colon adenoma. We observed that, in addition to previous observations, SULF1 gene expression was increased in T prolymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia

  2. Capillary growth in human skeletal muscle: physiological factors and the balance between pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Hoier, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either by me...... addresses physiological signals and angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle with a focus on human data.......In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either...... angiogenesis. A number of such regulatory proteins have been described in skeletal muscle in animal and cell models but also in human skeletal muscle. Important pro-angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle are vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiopoietin 2, whereas...

  3. Extraction of human factors issues caused by application of the advanced HSI technology and development of human factor issue management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey was performed in this study to collect human performance issues related to the advanced HSI design features. The literature from not only nuclear industry but also other industries was collected and reviewed. The issues were categorized into the following advanced HSI design features: devices characteristics, levels of automation, information design and management, display management, computerized controls, alarm systems, computerized procedures, staffing and crew coordination, and operator support systems. The classified issues were described with the description framework. Then, the relationship of issues to HSI design process such as human factors analyses, human factors design, and human factors verification and validation was investigated. Finally, the issue management system of server-client environment was developed using Microsoft's Active Server Page technology and Access 97. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Morris; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, even after controlling for traditional risk factors. Shift workers frequently undergo circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the endogenous circadian system and 24-h environmental/behavioral cycles). This misalignment has been proposed to explain, in part, why shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of circadian misalignment pe...

  5. Role of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Human Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebecca L. Elliott; Gerard C. Blobe

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous and essential regulator of cellular and physiologic processes including proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell survival, angiogenesis, and immunosurveillance...

  6. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iris Schöberl; Manuela Wedl; Andrea Beetz; Kurt Kotrschal

    2017-01-01

    .... We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting...

  7. Information and Communication Space as Human Society Development Factor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevostrueva, A F

    2016-01-01

    .... Special role of these changes in the life of human society such as the origin of speech, first forms of communal life, elementary forms of world view and later religious thought and other have been highlighted...

  8. A Human Factors Evaluation of Exoskeleton Boot Interface Sole Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Abduction Adduction Adduction Abduction Flexion Extension Flexion Extension Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion 23 Appendix B. Comfort, Stability, and...sense is affected by shoe sole thickness but only in dorsiflexion . Our investigation sought to identify, through biomechanical evaluation, human

  9. Human Colon-Derived Soluble Factors Modulate Gut Microbiota Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia, Arancha; Bernardo, David; Montalvillo, Enrique; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Garrote, Jose A.; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Arranz, Eduardo; Knight, Stella C.; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    The commensal microbiota modulates immunological and metabolic aspects of the intestinal mucosa contributing to development of human gut diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. The host/microbiota interaction often referred to as a crosstalk, mainly focuses on the effect of the microbiota on the host neglecting effects that the host could elicit on the commensals. Colonic microenvironments from three human healthy controls (obtained from the proximal and distal colon, both in resting c...

  10. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  11. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine; Hoffman, Robert R.; Moon, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a

  12. The Impacts of System and Human Factors on Online Learning Systems Use and Learner Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…

  13. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  14. Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness was correlated with environmental factors but not related to historical land use and road disturbance. Understanding the complex effects of geo-physical factors and anthropogenic disturbance is important for developing and implementing conservation strategies for the protection and restoration of ...

  15. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Factors Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a primitive motion capture library. The library will be used by human factors engineering analysts to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the primitive models are being developed for the library, the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the motion capture of unique ground systems activities is being used to verify the human factors engineering requirements for ground systems used to process the SLS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  16. Molecular cloning of a human gene that is a member of the nerve growth factor family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Reichardt, L.F. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Cell death within the developing vertebrate nervous system is regulated in part by interactions between neurons and their innervation targets that are mediated by neurotrophic factors. These factors also appear to have a role in the maintenance of the adult nervous system. Two neurotrophic factors, nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, share substantial amino acid sequence identity. The authors have used a screen that combines polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA and low-stringency hybridization with degenerate oligonucleotides to isolate human BDNF and a human gene, neurotrophin-3, that is closely related to both nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. mRNA products of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes were detected in the adult human brain, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the maintenance of the adult nervous system. Neurotrophin-3 is also expected to function in embryonic neural development.

  17. Human factors review of CFMS displays for Ulchin Nuclear Power Unit 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Joon Whan; Jung, Kwang Tae; Cha, Hye Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the human factors review of CFMS displays for Ulchin 3 and 4 by the following four subjects; At first, by reviewing issues regarding the design process of present CFMS, human factors engineering program plan (HFEPP) and human factors verification and validation plan Were proposed to accomplish the completeness of design word; Secondly, researches and developments were integrated into the review results at the point of suitability of CFMS design concept and basic function; For the third, availability and suitability were assessed according to human factors evaluation criteria on the CFMS display design, and overall effectiveness was also evaluated in parts; For the fourth, recommendations were made to human factors problems in accordance with their importance and an implementation plan was suggested for the resolution of problems. 54 refs., 34 tabs., 42 figs. (author)

  18. Human breast adipose tissue: characterization of factors that change during tumor progression in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sabrina Johanna; Sacca, Paula Alejandra; Pistone-Creydt, Mercedes; Coló, Federico Andrés; Serra, María Florencia; Santino, Flavia Eliana; Sasso, Corina Verónica; Lopez-Fontana, Constanza Matilde; Carón, Rubén Walter; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Pistone-Creydt, Virginia

    2017-02-07

    Adipose microenvironment is involved in signaling pathways that influence breast cancer. We aim to characterize factors that are modified: 1) in tumor and non tumor human breast epithelial cell lines when incubated with conditioned media (CMs) from human breast cancer adipose tissue explants (hATT) or normal breast adipose tissue explants (hATN); 2) in hATN-CMs vs hATT-CMs; 3) in the tumor associated adipocytes vs. non tumor associated adipocytes. We used hATN or hATT- CMs on tumor and non-tumor breast cancer cell lines. We evaluated changes in versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression on cell lines or in the different CMs. In addition we evaluated changes in the morphology and expression of these factors in slices of the different adipose tissues. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post-hoc tests were performed within each individual treatment. hATT-CMs increase versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression in breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, hATT-CMs present higher levels of versican expression compared to hATN-CMs. In addition, we observed a loss of effect in cellular migration when we pre-incubated hATT-CMs with chondroitinase ABC, which cleaves GAGs chains bound to the versican core protein, thus losing the ability to bind to CD44. Adipocytes associated with the invasive front are reduced in size compared to adipocytes that are farther away. Also, hATT adipocytes express significantly higher amounts of versican, CD44 and Adipo R1, and significantly lower amounts of adiponectin and perilipin, unlike hATN adipocytes. We conclude that hATT secrete a different set of proteins compared to hATN. Furthermore, versican, a proteoglycan that is overexpressed in hATT-CMs compared to hATN-CMs, might be involved in the tumorogenic behavior observed in both cell lines employed. In addition, we may conclude that adipocytes from the tumor microenvironment show a less differentiated

  19. The chemokine CXCL12 mediates the anti-amyloidogenic action of painless human nerve growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Capsoni, Simona; Malerba, Francesca; Carucci, Nicola Maria; Rizzi, Caterina; Criscuolo, Chiara; Origlia, Nicola; Calvello, Mariantonietta; Viegi, Alessandro; Meli, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nerve growth factor is a therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer?s disease. Due to its pain-inducing activity, in current clinical trials nerve growth factor is delivered locally into the brain by neurosurgery, but data on the efficacy of local nerve growth factor delivery in decreasing amyloid-? deposition are not available. To reduce the nerve growth factor pain-inducing side effects, thus avoiding the need for local brain injection, we developed human painless nerve growth factor (hNG...

  20. Human Factors Consideration for the Design of Collaborative Machine Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    Recent improvements in technology have facilitated the use of robots and virtual humans not only in entertainment and engineering but also in the military (Hill et al., 2003), healthcare (Pollack et al., 2002), and education domains (Johnson, Rickel, & Lester, 2000). As active partners of humans, such machine assistants can take the form of a robot or a graphical representation and serve the role of a financial assistant, a health manager, or even a social partner. As a result, interactive technologies are becoming an integral component of people's everyday lives.

  1. Designing first-in-human dose of coagulation factors: application of pharmacokinetic allometric scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, I

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the predictive performance of pharmacokinetic interspecies scaling of coagulation factors to predict clearance (CL) and (ii) project first-in-human dose based on the predicted human CL. Human CL of nine coagulation factors was predicted using two or three animal species using two methods: (i) CL vs. body weight (simple allometry) and where applicable (ii) the product of CL and brain weight vs. body weight. Based on the predicted human CL, four methods were used to project the first-in-human dose. The predicted pharmacokinetic parameters and the estimated first-in-human dose of coagulation factors were compared with the observed human values obtained from clinical trials. The results of the study indicated that the CL of coagulation factors can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in humans and a good estimate of first-in-human dose can be obtained from the predicted human CL. The suggested methods in this study are not only time and cost-effective but also provide rational alternatives to the somewhat arbitrary dose selection process for coagulation factors often used. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Advanced Video Activity Analytics (AVAA): Human Factors Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    editors. Human Mental Workload. Amsterdam: North Holland Press; 1988. Johnson RR, Popovic DP, Olmstead RE, Stikic M, Levendowski DJ, Berka C. Drowsiness ...E2929 DESERT STORM DRIVE FORT BRAGG NC 28310 59 1 ARMY G1 (PDF) DAPE MR B KNAPP 300 ARMY PENTAGON RM 2C489 WASHINGTON DC 20310

  3. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papdopoulus AG, Devaja O, Cason J, Raju KS. The clinical implications of human papilloma virus infection in cervical cancinogenesis and emerging therapies. In: Studd J, editor. Prorgess in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol. 14. Edinburgh: Churchhill Livingstone Publications; 2000. p. 281‑93. 2. Ijaiya MA, Aboyeji PA, ...

  4. CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the subcommit......The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected...... a tremendous amount of work from all areas of the human-computer interaction community. As co-chairs of the process, we are amazed at the ability of the community to organize itself to accomplish this task. We would like to thank the 2680 individual reviewers for their careful consideration of these papers. We...... that you enjoy these papers and notes, which represent the best research in human-computer interaction....

  5. Human factors aspects of ICT for crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van der

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a closer look at how to support humans in the crisis loop, based on a thorough understanding of the macrocognitive functions that have to be fulfilled, such as naturalistic decision making, sensemaking, coordination and communication, and planning and adaptation. The objectives

  6. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  7. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  8. Analyzing the impact of human capital factors on competitivenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óhegyi Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of approaches to measure national competitiveness. However, in these reports human capital typically appears indirectly. The author's purpose is to uncover how human capital contributes to competitiveness of economies and to propose an approach to identify the most effective improvement opportunities for countries, illustrated on the example of Hungary. The analysis is based on the data of the Global Talent Index Report (2011 and the Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. The components of the Global Talent Index (GTI and their relation to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI were analyzed with a linear programming based similarity analysis method, component-based object comparison for objectivity (COCO. Based on the output of the analysis it was identified how sensitive the Global Competitiveness Index is to the components of the GTI. Hungary's position was analyzed further to quantify improvement opportunities and threats based on the step function resulted by the COCO analysis. The author concludes that the human resource of a country is a pivotal element of national competitiveness. By developing human capital of the country the overall competitive position may be improved. Areas of priorities may be identified and the level of intervention may be quantified specific to a country. This could help policy makers to decide in the allocation of resource to maximize effectiveness, leading to improve (or protect a country's overall competitive position in the global arena.

  9. Inhibition of inflammatory factors by parthenolide in human renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of parthenolide (PTN) in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) under high ambient glucose conditions. First we determined the noncytotoxic concentration of PTN in HRMCs by performing the MTS assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) analysis ...

  10. Human factor as operating safety dominant of ATM navigation support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.В. Зайцев

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of specifying individual psychophysical characteristics of the human higher nervous activity has been studied to match professional fitness. Information processing rate is being estimated considering peculiarities of the nervous system of the operators working in extreme situations, and providing fluent knowledge of Ukrainian, Russian and English.

  11. Factors Contributing to Human Trafficking, Contexts of Vulnerability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking has recently emerged as an exceedingly intricate international crime. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most vulnerable region from which a substantial amount of victims has been recruited for both continental and intercontinental transaction. This also holds true for Ethiopian men, women and children who have ...

  12. Touch five factors to growing and leading a human organization

    CERN Document Server

    Maffin, Tod

    2014-01-01

    For better or worse, digital business has fundamentally changed how organizations hire, market their services, and connect with stakeholders. The problem is, in an effort to use technology to connect more effectively, we have lost the humanity - that critical person-to-person connection. This book will show you how to restore that connection.

  13. Factoring tradotronic media communication for human security management and social stability in Nigerian communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of killing and bloodletting in Nigeria is increasing every second, minute, hour, day, month and year. Man, animals, properties etc are increasingly under threat in contemporary Nigerian society. The causes of the massive insecurity of lives and properties remain multi-dimensional. This paper is centered on the need to factor tradotronic media for human security management in Nigeria. It reveals that the dimensions of human insecurity in Nigeria, include but not limited to assassination-based human insecurity, robbery/kidnapping related human insecurity, political-related human insecurity, ethnic-based human insecurity, inter-communal conflict-related human insecurity, religious-motivated human insecurity and multi-dimensional conflict related human insecurity. The paper calles on all lovers of life and human dignity to rise up and defend the survival and existence of every breathing soul around him or her in this sovereign entity, called Nigeria.

  14. Identification of the human factors contributing to maintenance failures in a petroleum operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovsky, Ari; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-03-01

    This research aimed to identify the most frequently occurring human factors contributing to maintenance-related failures within a petroleum industry organization. Commonality between failures will assist in understanding reliability in maintenance processes, thereby preventing accidents in high-hazard domains. Methods exist for understanding the human factors contributing to accidents. Their application in a maintenance context mainly has been advanced in aviation and nuclear power. Maintenance in the petroleum industry provides a different context for investigating the role that human factors play in influencing outcomes. It is therefore worth investigating the contributing human factors to improve our understanding of both human factors in reliability and the factors specific to this domain. Detailed analyses were conducted of maintenance-related failures (N = 38) in a petroleum company using structured interviews with maintenance technicians. The interview structure was based on the Human Factor Investigation Tool (HFIT), which in turn was based on Rasmussen's model of human malfunction. A mean of 9.5 factors per incident was identified across the cases investigated.The three most frequent human factors contributing to the maintenance failures were found to be assumption (79% of cases), design and maintenance (71%), and communication (66%). HFIT proved to be a useful instrument for identifying the pattern of human factors that recurred most frequently in maintenance-related failures. The high frequency of failures attributed to assumptions and communication demonstrated the importance of problem-solving abilities and organizational communication in a domain where maintenance personnel have a high degree of autonomy and a wide geographical distribution.

  15. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  16. The impact of human factor on labor productivity at the mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinigina Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the term “human factor” which implies a person involved in the organizational process in the diversity of his natural and socio-psychological characteristics. The necessity to identify the impact of human factor on labour productivity at the mining enterprises is proved. It is assumed that considering human factor can be one of the ways to increase labour productivity. A research technique of the complex – mechanized team in order to identify the impact of human factor on its productivity is described. Definite research results and analysis which strongly support the assumption are given. The stages at which the human factor should be considered are analyzed. Based on the fact that person's mood determines all his vital functions, the following interpretation of the human factor was propose: to consider the human factor means to take into account everything that might spoil the mood of a person starting from his coming to the place of work till the work is finished. If it is necessary to provide high productivity, take care of the human mind. This thesis does not require proof and justification, it is obvious.

  17. Enhancing the Human Factors Engineering Role in an Austere Fiscal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jack W.

    2003-01-01

    An austere fiscal environment in the aerospace community creates pressures to reduce program costs, often minimizing or sometimes even deleting the human interface requirements from the design process. With an assumption that the flight crew can recover real time from a poorly human factored space vehicle design, the classical crew interface requirements have been either not included in the design or not properly funded, though carried as requirements. Cost cuts have also affected quality of retained human factors engineering personnel. In response to this concern, planning is ongoing to correct the acting issues. Herein are techniques for ensuring that human interface requirements are integrated into a flight design, from proposal through verification and launch activation. This includes human factors requirements refinement and consolidation across flight programs; keyword phrases in the proposals; closer ties with systems engineering and other classical disciplines; early planning for crew-interface verification; and an Agency integrated human factors verification program, under the One NASA theme. Importance is given to communication within the aerospace human factors discipline, and utilizing the strengths of all government, industry, and academic human factors organizations in an unified research and engineering approach. A list of recommendations and concerns are provided in closing.

  18. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  19. Human Factors In the Joint Typhoon Warning Center Watch Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    detailed standard operating procedures for the forecast process, perhaps in the form of checklists (see Appendix, Section 5-3-2, informed by results of...necessarily indicate an opportunity for the human to intervene). For example, do bifurcated model tracks versus a “squashed spider ” indicate a situation...with associated checklists . 5-3-3. Minimizing non-mission critical interruptions of the TDO on the JTWC watch floor. 5-4. Technology to allow

  20. Introduction to Human Factors and Wide Area Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    to produce commonly used groupings of characters. An early 35 attempt at increasing speed on keyboards was the Dvorak keyboard [Figure 3] which...clearest presentation of information possible. 36 4!3009000000 OOO4Q~OOO9D0 Figure 3 Comparison of Standard Keyboard (Top) and DVORAK Keyboard (Bottom) b...from and provides output to the human using the system; this could be a keyboard -display pair for a computer or the instrument panel in the driver’s

  1. Communication as the determination factor of human resources management

    OpenAIRE

    LAVIČKOVÁ, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The work is divided into a theoretical and a practical part. In the first chapter of the theoretical part I focus on social communication, its definition and sublayers of verbal and nonverbal communication. The second chapter brings definitions of the terms ?management? and ?human resources management?. I also concentrate on communication in organisations. The end of the second chapter is devoted to motivation and to the theories of motivation. In the practical part I addressed myself to a re...

  2. Human Factors in Software Development Processes: Measuring System Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahão, Silvia; Baldassarre, Maria Teresa; Caivano, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction look at the development process from different perspectives. They apparently use very different approaches, are inspired by different principles and address different needs. But, they definitively have the same goal: develop high quality software...... in the most effective way. The second edition of the workshop puts particular attention on efforts of the two communities in enhancing system quality. The research question discussed is: who, what, where, when, why, and how should we evaluate?...

  3. Identification of Epigenetic Factor Proteins Expressed in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Trophoblasts and in Human Placental Trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Mischler, Adam; Randall, Shan M; Collier, Timothy S; Dorman, Karen F; Boggess, Kim A; Muddiman, David C; Rao, Balaji M

    2016-08-05

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been used to derive trophoblasts through differentiation in vitro. Intriguingly, mouse ESCs are prevented from differentiation to trophoblasts by certain epigenetic factor proteins such as Dnmt1, thus necessitating the study of epigenetic factor proteins during hESC differentiation to trophoblasts. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and quantitative proteomics to study changes in the nuclear proteome during hESC differentiation to trophoblasts and identified changes in the expression of 30 epigenetic factor proteins. Importantly, the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B were downregulated. Additionally, we hypothesized that nuclear proteomics of hESC-derived trophoblasts may be used for screening epigenetic factor proteins expressed by primary trophoblasts in human placental tissue. Accordingly, we conducted immunohistochemistry analysis of six epigenetic factor proteins identified from hESC-derived trophoblasts-DNMT1, DNMT3B, BAF155, BAF60A, BAF57, and ING5-in 6-9 week human placentas. Indeed, expression of these proteins was largely, though not fully, consistent with that observed in 6-9 week placental trophoblasts. Our results support the use of hESC-derived trophoblasts as a model for placental trophoblasts, which will enable further investigation of epigenetic factors involved in human trophoblast development.

  4. Protective Effect of Modified Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether modified acidic fibroblast growth factor (MaFGF) can protect NRK52E cell against apoptotic death induced by actinomycin D (Act D) and the effect of MaFGF on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods: NRK52E cell apoptotic death was measured by several methods including cell morphologic ...

  5. Human Factors Engineering Bibliographic Series. Volume 5, 1967 Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    chemicai therapeutics in dealing with memory pathology, Such &a In mental retardat ion, aphasia , and senile dementia. There Is justification FU. the...td. An obverse factor analysis was pci formed. uspon a cor- relation anrix rot &,ong tests out s- song suejects. A general-suseeptibility grouping

  6. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two parti...

  7. Factors likely to enhance mycotoxin introduction into the human diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include eating habits, existing marketing problems which encourage long storage periods; the pre and post harvest practices that encourage build up of ... Mechanisms put in place to deal with such situations can be successful, only if the several factors that contribute towards this situation are well understood.

  8. Effects of recombinant human nerve growth factor on cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... The biologic effects of NGF on neural cells are mediated by 2 different receptor classes; the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) of tyrosine kinase receptor and the neurotrophin receptor p75, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family (Frade and. Barde, 1998; Frade et al., 1996; Rabizadeh et al., ...

  9. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinkyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper.

  10. Comparing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor secretion of induced neurotrophic factor secreting cells from human adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2013-08-01

    Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) may be equally beneficial in treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, ADSCs have practical advantages. In this study, we aimed to induce neurotrophic factors secreting cells in human ADSCs. Then, we compared the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) secretion in neurotrophic factors secreting cells from human adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Isolated human ADSCs and BMSCs were induced to neurotrophic factor (NTF)-secreting cells. The levels of expression and secretion of BDNF and CTNF of induced cells were assessed using immunocytochemical, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of BDNF significantly increased in both the induced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) relative to ADSCs and the BMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, ELISA analysis showed that the release of BDNF in the induced BMSCs was almost twofold more than the induced ADSCs. Overall, NTF-secreting factor cells derived BMSCs and ADSCs could secret a range of different growth factors. Therefore, the variation in neurotrophic factors of different induced MSC populations suggest the possible beneficial effect of each specific kind of neurotrophic factor secreting cells for the treatment of a particular neurodegenerative disease. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. Caracterisation des melanges developpes pour le moulage basse pression des poudres metalliques (LPIM) =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareh, Fouad

    la cire (de paraffine, d'abeille et de carnauba) et de faible teneur en acide stearique et en ethylene-vinyle acetate. Par ailleurs, les lois physiques preexistantes ont permis de confirmer les resultats des essais rheologiques et thermogravimetriques, mais aussi de mettre en evidence l'influence de la segregation sur les proprietes rheologiques des melanges. Ces essais ont aussi montre l'effet de constituants de liant et du temps passe a l'etat fondu sur l'intensite de la segregation dans les melanges. Les melanges contenants de l'acide stearique segregent rapidement. La caracterisation des melanges developpes pour le moulage basse pression des poudres metalliques doit etre obtenue a l'aide d'une methode de courte duree pour eviter la segregation et de mesurer precisement l'aptitude a l'ecoulement de ces melanges.

  12. Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control: a Human Factors Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology into the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system has the potential to improve overall safety and efficiency. However, because ASR technology is inherently a part of the man-machine interface between the user and the system, the human factors issues involved must be addressed. Here, some of the human factors problems are identified and related methods of investigation are presented. Research at M.I.T.'s Flight Transportation Laboratory is being conducted from a human factors perspective, focusing on intelligent parser design, presentation of feedback, error correction strategy design, and optimal choice of input modalities.

  13. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  14. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF ATHLETES AS A HUMANIZING FACTOR OF SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Čokorilo; Zoran Milošević

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role and importance of modern psychological preparation to achieve the best possible athletic performance while maintaining mental health and well being of athletes. In this sense, psychological preparation is perceived as an equal factor with the physical and technical-tactical preparation at all levels of competition. The achievement of equality can be achieved only by specialized (licensed) psychologists for specific areas that must understand the psychology of sport...

  16. The role of human fatigue factor towards maritime casualties

    OpenAIRE

    Xhelilaj Ermal; Lapa Kristofor

    2010-01-01

    The international studies on maritime accidents has shown that fatigue is continuing to be either the main cause or a contributory factor in a considerable number of casualties at sea resulting in the loss of life and damage to the environment and property. In fact, fatigue??s detrimental role toward performance at work is leading to errors being made and consequently resulting in fatalities. In light of these considerations, fatigue issue is of great importance to seafarers, the shipping ind...

  17. Human Factors in Command-and-Control System Procurement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Information Flow Diagrams 15 2.6 Operational Sequence Diagrams 20 2.7 Network Digrams 23 2.8 HIPO Charts 26 2.9 Job Process Charts 28 2.10 Process Control...diagrams (e) Operational sequence diagrams (f) Network diagrams (g) HIPO charts (h) Job process charts (I) Process control diagrams TABLE 2 - Types of...modelling of the effects of both stimulus uncertainty and consequence-of-action uncertainty on human performaInce. 2.8 HIPO Charts Hierarchical input

  18. Human Factors Topics in Flight Simulation: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    NASA TN-D-1924, 1963. HUMAN PERFORMANCE. IAMPIETRO, P.F., MELTON, C.E., HIGGINS, E.A., VAUGHAN, J.A., HOFFMAN, S.M., FUNKHOUSER, G.E. and SALDIVAR , J.T...CONTROLS and DISPLAYS. MELTON, C.E., McKENZIE, J.M., KELLN, J.R., HOFFMAN, M. and SALDIVAR , J.T, Effect of a general aviation trainer on the stress of...dusk capability and unlimited changes in visibility and ceiling height. MELTON, C.E., McKENZIE, J.M., KELLN, J.R., HOFFMAN, M. and SALDIVAR , J.T. Effect

  19. Evaluation of the role of genetic factors in human radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telnov, Vitaliy I.; Sotnik, Natalie V. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    This study was focused on evaluation of the role of genetic factors in development of chronic radiation sickness (CRS) due to occupational exposure to external {gamma} -rays. This study was based on results of molecular-genetic studies for 985 nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association. CRS occurrence was related to the genetic haptoglobin (Hp) system among a number of studied genetic markers. Excess risk of CRS was revealed at similar exposure doses for individuals-carriers of Hp 2-2 (1.96) versus lower risks for carriers of Hp 1-1 and 2-1 (0.64). The contribution of genetic factors to CRS development was implemented in a rather narrow dose range, i.e. it was of a relative nature. A scheme of the relationship of affecting factor and differences in genetic radioresistance was presented in terms of deterministic effects. The obtained data did not confirm the idea that A-bomb survivors were more radioresistant, thus being not representative for radiation risk estimation.

  20. Human factors studies for injectable combination products: from planning to reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, John K

    2014-01-01

    Interest in human factors usability testing has seen a sharp increase from manufacturers bringing new injectable pharmaceutical combination products to market and from regulators reviewing and approving submissions. This paper highlights the special regulatory considerations in the planning, execution, and reporting of human factor usability studies for injectable combination products. The paper describes recent human factors examples that capture and convey important sponsor learning for drug/device combination products. Special emphasis is placed on the recent focus across U.S. Food and Drug Administration centers, offices, and divisions in issuing new draft guidance outlining expectations in the execution and reporting of usability testing. Insight is provided into how the new guidance has been put into practice in the development and review of injectable combination products, and some of the unwritten recommendations/expectations that have been gleaned from these regulatory interactions are identified. The paper also describes future areas of opportunity for regulatory guidance based on reflections from over two dozen recent combination product human factor studies covering from early design development and testing through to the reporting of human factors results in the final submission. Human factors is the study of the interaction of people and technology to ensure the safety and effectiveness of that interaction and to improve human/device compatibility, including the user interface, instructions, and training programs to avoid use error. The enhanced focus on human factors usability assessments for injectable combination products is an acknowledgement by regulators and industry that the device mechanics are typically quite reliable and that device risk hazards are likely due to device usability. Use errors can occur when the device is not being used as intended or the design features are less than optimal. Human factors testing, analysis, and validation

  1. The contributions of human factors and ergonomics to a sustainable minerals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.

  2. Human Factors and Their Effects on Human-Centred Assembly Systems - A Literature Review-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Abubakar, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    If a product has more than one component, then it must be assembled. Assembly of products relies on assembly systems or lines in which assembly of each product is often carried out manually by human workers following assembly sequences in various forms. It is widely understood that efficiency of assembling a product by reducing assembly times (therefore costs) is vital particularly for small and medium-sized manufacturing companies to survive in an increasingly competitive market. Ideally, it is helpful for pre-determining efficiency or productivity of a human-centred assembly system at the early design stage. To date, most research on performance of an assembly system using modelling simulation methods is focused on its “operational functions”. The term used in a narrow sense always indicates the performance of the “operational system”, which does not incorporate the effect of human factors that may also affect the system performance. This paper presents a research outcome of findings through a literature review-based study by identifying possible human factors that mostly affect the performance on human-centred manufacturing systems as part of the research project incorporating parameters of human factors into a DES (discrete event simulation) tool.

  3. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruisong; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Zhihong; Wu, Kun

    2011-01-01

    Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored. To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030milk. S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  4. Capillary growth in human skeletal muscle: physiological factors and the balance between pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Hoier, Birgitte

    2014-12-01

    In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either by mechanical or by chemical signalling. Mechanical signals originate from shear stress forces on the endothelial cell layer induced by the blood flowing through the vessel, but include also mechanical stretch and compression of the vascular structures and the surrounding tissue, as the muscle contracts. Depending on the mechanical signal provided, capillary growth may occur either by longitudinal splitting (shear stress) or by sprouting (passive stretch). The mechanical signals initiate angiogenic processes by up-regulation or release of angioregulatory proteins that either promote, modulate or inhibit angiogenesis. A number of such regulatory proteins have been described in skeletal muscle in animal and cell models but also in human skeletal muscle. Important pro-angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle are vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiopoietin 2, whereas angiostatic factors include thrombospondin-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase. Which of these angiogenic factors are up-regulated in the muscle tissue depends on the mechanical and chemical stimulus provided and, consequently, the process by which capillary growth occurs. The present review addresses physiological signals and angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle with a focus on human data.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of human complement factor P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis

    The complement system is of great importance for the innate immune response, which can lead to opsonization and removal of invading pathogens, as well as immune complexes and damaged self-cells. Factor P (FP), also known as properdin, acts as a positive regulator of the alternative pathway...... of complement by stabilizing the C3 convertase complex (C3bBb). FP has also been suggested to serve as a pattern recognition molecule for the initiation of the alternative pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of FP remain unclear due to its oligomeric nature and hence the atomic structure of FP has...

  6. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  7. Impact of environmental factors on biometric matching during human decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolme, David S [ORNL; Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL; Saul, Tiffany B [ORNL; Sauerwein, Kelly A [ORNL; Steadman, Dawnie W [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition systems are a valuable tool for identifying unknown deceased individuals. Immediately af- ter death fingerprint and face biometric samples are easy to collect using standard sensors and cameras and can be easily matched to anti-mortem biometric samples. Even though post-mortem fingerprints and faces have been used for decades, there are no studies that track these biomet- rics through the later stages of decomposition to determine the length of time the biometrics remain viable. This paper discusses a multimodal dataset of fingerprints, faces, and irises from 14 human cadavers that decomposed outdoors under natural conditions. Results include predictive models relating time and temperature, measured as Accumulated Degree Days (ADD), and season (winter, spring, summer) to the predicted probably of automatic verification using a commercial algorithm.

  8. Flexible Automatic Discretization for Finite Differences: Eliminating the Human Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranger, Casper

    2017-04-01

    In the geophysical numerical modelling community, finite differences are (in part due to their small footprint) a popular spatial discretization method for PDEs in the regular-shaped continuum that is the earth. However, they rapidly become prone to programming mistakes when physics increase in complexity. To eliminate opportunities for human error, we have designed an automatic discretization algorithm using Wolfram Mathematica, in which the user supplies symbolic PDEs, the number of spatial dimensions, and a choice of symbolic boundary conditions, and the script transforms this information into matrix- and right-hand-side rules ready for use in a C++ code that will accept them. The symbolic PDEs are further used to automatically develop and perform manufactured solution benchmarks, ensuring at all stages physical fidelity while providing pragmatic targets for numerical accuracy. We find that this procedure greatly accelerates code development and provides a great deal of flexibility in ones choice of physics.

  9. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  10. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ha, Mina; Hauptmann, Michael; Bhatti, Parveen; Sram, Radim J.; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E. Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A.; Lindholm, Carita; Nakano, Mimako; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Nori; Vorobtsova, Irena; Oestreicher, Ursula; Stephan, Günther; Yong, Lee C.; Bauchinger, Manfred; Schmid, Ernst; Chung, Hai Won; Darroudi, Firouz; Roy, Laurence; Voisin, Phillipe; Barquinero, Joan F.; Livingston, Gordon; Blakey, David; Hayata, Isamu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chunyan; Bennett, L. Michelle; Littlefield, L. Gayle; Edwards, Alan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Tucker, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes. PMID:18337160

  11. Human factors considerations for integrating traffic information on airport moving maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to identify human factors considerations in the integration of traffic information and surface indications and alerts for runway status on airport moving maps for flight deck displays. The information is primar...

  12. Influence of topical human epidermal growth factor on postkeratoplasty re-epithelialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Dellaert; T.A. Casey; S. Wiffen; J. Gordon (Jocelynne); P. Johnson (Jürgen); A.J. Geerards (Annette); W.J. Rijneveld (Wilhelmina); L. Remeijer (Lies); W.H. Beekhuis (Houdijn); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To test the efficacy and safety of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) on corneal re-epithelialisation following penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study was carried out in which patients were

  13. Liquid Pipeline Operator's Control Room Human Factors Risk Assessment and Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of this guide is to document methodologies, tools, procedures, guidance, and instructions that have been developed to provide liquid pipeline operators with an efficient and effective means of managing the human factors risks in their con...

  14. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  15. Optimizing the Design of Preprinted Orders for Ambulatory Chemotherapy: Combining Oncology, Human Factors, and Graphic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E.; Hunt, Richard G.; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L.; Easty, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and provide health care professionals with tools to minimize those hazards.

  16. A Primary Human Critical Success Factors Model for the ERP System Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksander Jenko; Matjaž Roblek

    2016-01-01

    ...) and the different causes of ERP implementation project failures. Despite a detailed literature preview, we were unable to find an appropriate research with a comprehensive overview of the true causes behind CSFs, observed from a human factors perspective...

  17. Driving automation forward : human factors for limited-ability autonomous driving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, there has been a : steady progression of innovations that : enhance the driving experience, in particular : the continuing trend toward automating more : driving tasks. Human Factors for Limited-Ability : Autonomous Drivin...

  18. Human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection : "information exchange and communications".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration sponsored a 2-day meeting in December 1989 as part of a continuing program to address issues of human factors and personnel performance in aviation maintenance and inspection. This meeting focused on issues of "inf...

  19. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that o...

  20. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  1. Human factors process failure modes and effects analysis (HF PFMEA) software tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Faith T. (Inventor); Valentino, William D. (Inventor); Philippart, Monica F. (Inventor); Relvini, Kristine M. (Inventor); Bessette, Colette I. (Inventor); Shedd, Nathaneal P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods, computer-readable media, and systems for automatically performing Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for a process are provided. At least one task involved in a process is identified, where the task includes at least one human activity. The human activity is described using at least one verb. A human error potentially resulting from the human activity is automatically identified, the human error is related to the verb used in describing the task. A likelihood of occurrence, detection, and correction of the human error is identified. The severity of the effect of the human error is identified. The likelihood of occurrence, and the severity of the risk of potential harm is identified. The risk of potential harm is compared with a risk threshold to identify the appropriateness of corrective measures.

  2. Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Systems - Human factors research and implications for future systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Ahumada, Albert J.; Larimer, James; Sweet, Barbara T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews recent human factors research studies conducted in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA Ames Research Center related to the development and usage of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision Systems. Research discussed includes studies of field of view (FOV), representational differences of infrared (IR) imagery, head-up display (HUD) symbology, HUD advanced concept designs, sensor fusion, and sensor/database fusion and evaluation. Implications for the design and usage of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision Systems are discussed.

  3. Missing focus on Human Factors - organizational and cognitive ergonomics - in the safety management for the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Stig O; Kilskar, Stine Skaufel; Fossum, Knut Robert

    2017-08-01

    More attention has recently been given to Human Factors in petroleum accident investigations. The Human Factors areas examined in this article are organizational, cognitive and physical ergonomics. A key question to be explored is as follows: To what degree are the petroleum industry and safety authorities in Norway focusing on these Human Factors areas from the design phase? To investigate this, we conducted an innovative exploratory study of the development of four control centres in Norwegian oil and gas industry in collaboration between users, management and Human Factors experts. We also performed a literature survey and discussion with the professional Human Factors network in Norway. We investigated the Human Factors focus, reasons for not considering Human Factors and consequences of missing Human Factors in safety management. The results revealed an immature focus and organization of Human Factors. Expertise on organizational ergonomics and cognitive ergonomics are missing from companies and safety authorities and are poorly prioritized during the development. The easy observable part of Human Factors (i.e. physical ergonomics) is often in focus. Poor focus on Human Factors in the design process creates demanding conditions for human operators and impact safety and resilience. There is lack of non-technical skills such as communication and decision-making. New technical equipment such as Closed Circuit Television is implemented without appropriate use of Human Factors standards. Human Factors expertise should be involved as early as possible in the responsible organizations. Verification and validation of Human Factors should be improved and performed from the start, by certified Human Factors experts in collaboration with the workforce. The authorities should check-back that the regulatory framework of Human Factors is communicated, understood and followed.

  4. Missing focus on Human Factors – organizational and cognitive ergonomics – in the safety management for the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Stig O; Kilskar, Stine Skaufel; Fossum, Knut Robert

    2017-01-01

    More attention has recently been given to Human Factors in petroleum accident investigations. The Human Factors areas examined in this article are organizational, cognitive and physical ergonomics. A key question to be explored is as follows: To what degree are the petroleum industry and safety authorities in Norway focusing on these Human Factors areas from the design phase? To investigate this, we conducted an innovative exploratory study of the development of four control centres in Norwegian oil and gas industry in collaboration between users, management and Human Factors experts. We also performed a literature survey and discussion with the professional Human Factors network in Norway. We investigated the Human Factors focus, reasons for not considering Human Factors and consequences of missing Human Factors in safety management. The results revealed an immature focus and organization of Human Factors. Expertise on organizational ergonomics and cognitive ergonomics are missing from companies and safety authorities and are poorly prioritized during the development. The easy observable part of Human Factors (i.e. physical ergonomics) is often in focus. Poor focus on Human Factors in the design process creates demanding conditions for human operators and impact safety and resilience. There is lack of non-technical skills such as communication and decision-making. New technical equipment such as Closed Circuit Television is implemented without appropriate use of Human Factors standards. Human Factors expertise should be involved as early as possible in the responsible organizations. Verification and validation of Human Factors should be improved and performed from the start, by certified Human Factors experts in collaboration with the workforce. The authorities should check-back that the regulatory framework of Human Factors is communicated, understood and followed. PMID:29278242

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Training and organizational analysis. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of system-user interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present work focuses solely on training and qualifications of personnel (e.g., training received before and during employment), and the potential impact of organizational factors on the performance of teletherapy. Organizational factors include such topics as adequacy of staffing, performance evaluations, commonly occurring errors, implementation of quality assurance programs, and organizational climate.

  6. Factors affecting human colostrum fatty acid profile: A case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilia J Sinanoglou

    Full Text Available The role of maternal colostrum to infant development has been extensively studied and presented. Among the main factors which contribute to breast milk composition are maternal diet, age and body mass index, parity, duration of pregnancy and stage of lactation. This study aims to investigate the potential impact of several factors including demographic (i.e. maternal age and nationality on the colostrum fatty acid profile. Colostrum was collected the third day postpartum in a Greek maternity hospital. Certain lipid quality indices and fatty acid ratios were estimated and results were statistically processed. The main identified fatty acids were palmitic (C16:0, oleic (C18:1ω-9, and linoleic (C18:2ω-6 acids. Among fatty acids, saturated fatty acids predominated (47.61%, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (39.26%, while polyunsaturated fatty acids had the lowest proportion (13.13%. Values of lipid quality indices were within the reported in the literature ranges. Maternal body mass index, nationality, age, mode of delivery, gender and fetal weight percentile were studied in respect to their potential influence on the fatty acid profile of colostrum fat. Results suggest that colostrum fatty acid profile was mainly dependent on maternal nationality and age rather than mode of delivery and maternal BMI. Regarding the effect of maternal nationality, significant differences were found for saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Of the most interesting findings is that colostrum fat from older (≥35 years mothers had less saturated fat and more appropriate LQIs values. Finally, a reversed correlation was observed between the customized centile of the infants and the colostrum fat content.

  7. The human insulin-like growth factor II gene contains two development-specific promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagter-Holthuizen, P. de; Jansen, M.; Schaik, F.M.A.; Kammen, R. van der; Oosterwijk, C.; Brande, J.L. van den; Sussenbach, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF) play an important role in fetal and postnatal development. Recently, the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs encoding IGF-I and IGF-II and part of the human IGF genes were reported. In this communication we describe two distinct IGF-II cDNAs isolated from a human

  8. Roles of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Meeting the Challenge of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics research focuses on questions pertaining to the design of devices, systems, and procedures with the goal of making sure that they are well suited to human use and focuses on studies of the interaction of people with simple and complex systems and machines. Problem areas studied include the allocation of function to…

  9. Human factors issues in the design of stereo-rendered photorealistic objects: a stereoscopic Turing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Collin D.; Clewlow, John C.; Kessel, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We present visual acuity metrics, human factors issues, and technical considerations in the construction of a stereorendered reality test in the spirit of the Turing test, Alan Turing's famous artificial intelligence test designed to explore the boundaries between human and machine interaction. The overall aim of this work is to provide guiding principles in the design of a stereoscopic reality test.

  10. Research Progress on the Risk Factors and Outcomes of Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiang-Dong; Xiong, Wei-Dong; Xiong, Shang-Shen; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2017-03-20

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with distal atheromatous debris embolization, causes cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to explore research progress on the risk factors and outcomes of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention. We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to June 2016, with the key words of "risk factors", "outcomes", "blood components", "molecular mechanisms", "cellular mechanisms", and "human carotid atherosclerotic plaques". The articles, regarding the latest developments related to the risk factors and outcomes, atherosclerotic plaque composition, blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention, were selected. This review described the latest researches regarding the interactive effects of both traditional and novel risk factors for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, novel insights into human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid plaque biology and serologic biomarkers of vulnerability can be used to predict the risk of cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, plaque composition, rather than lesion burden, seems to most predict rupture and subsequent thrombosis.

  11. Increasing epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human melanocytic tumor progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, P. E.; Moretti, S.; Koenders, P. G.; Weterman, M. A.; van Muijen, G. N.; Gianotti, B.; Ruiter, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Different results have been reported on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human melanocytic lesions, which may be due to different methodologic approaches. Therefore, we compared EGFR expression in six human melanoma cell lines by utilizing the monoclonal antibodies 2E9,

  12. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  13. HCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    The term human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) refers to a group of 5 molecules, each sharing the common amino acid sequence but each differing in meric structure and carbohydrate side chain structure. The 5 molecules are each produced by separate cells and each having separate biological functions. hCG and sulfated hCG are hormones produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG is an autocrine produced by placental cytotrophoblast cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG drives malignancy in placental cancers, and in testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are autocrines produce by most advanced malignancies. These molecules, particularly the malignancy promoters are presented in this review on hCG and cancer. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are critical to the growth and invasion, or malignancy of most advanced cancers. In many ways, while hCG may appear like a nothing, a hormone associated with pregnancy, it is not, and may be at the center of cancer research. PMID:22206043

  14. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  15. A review of human factors challenges of complex adaptive systems: discovering and understanding chaos in human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Waldemar

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the author explores a need for a greater understanding of the true nature of human-system interactions from the perspective of the theory of complex adaptive systems, including the essence of complexity, emergent properties of system behavior, nonlinear systems dynamics, and deterministic chaos. Human performance, more often than not, constitutes complex adaptive phenomena with emergent properties that exhibit nonlinear dynamical (chaotic) behaviors. The complexity challenges in the design and management of contemporary work systems, including service systems, are explored. Examples of selected applications of the concepts of nonlinear dynamics to the study of human physical performance are provided. Understanding and applications of the concepts of theory of complex adaptive and dynamical systems should significantly improve the effectiveness of human-centered design efforts of a large system of systems. Performance of many contemporary work systems and environments may be sensitive to the initial conditions and may exhibit dynamic nonlinear properties and chaotic system behaviors. Human-centered design of emergent human-system interactions requires application of the theories of nonlinear dynamics and complex adaptive system. The success of future human-systems integration efforts requires the fusion of paradigms, knowledge, design principles, and methodologies of human factors and ergonomics with those of the science of complex adaptive systems as well as modern systems engineering.

  16. Global mapping of transcription factor motifs in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfego, David; Rodeck, Ulrich; Kriete, Andres

    2018-01-01

    Biological aging is a complex process dependent on the interplay of cell autonomous and tissue contextual changes which occur in response to cumulative molecular stress and manifest through adaptive transcriptional reprogramming. Here we describe a transcription factor (TF) meta-analysis of gene expression datasets accrued from 18 tissue sites collected at different biological ages and from 7 different in-vitro aging models. In-vitro aging platforms included replicative senescence and an energy restriction model in quiescence (ERiQ), in which ATP was transiently reduced. TF motifs in promoter regions of trimmed sets of target genes were scanned using JASPAR and TRANSFAC. TF signatures established a global mapping of agglomerating motifs with distinct clusters when ranked hierarchically. Remarkably, the ERiQ profile was shared with the majority of in-vivo aged tissues. Fitting motifs in a minimalistic protein-protein network allowed to probe for connectivity to distinct stress sensors. The DNA damage sensors ATM and ATR linked to the subnetwork associated with senescence. By contrast, the energy sensors PTEN and AMPK connected to the nodes in the ERiQ subnetwork. These data suggest that metabolic dysfunction may be linked to transcriptional patterns characteristic of many aged tissues and distinct from cumulative DNA damage associated with senescence.

  17. Role of Human Factors in Awareness Enhancing in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Ability of employees to maintain awareness of the work situation, understand the information it holds, and predict how situations will develop are important factors in prevention of industrial accidents. The aim of current research was to investigate the relationship of safety climate and work overload with work situation awareness. Instrument & Methods: This cross sectional study was administrated between October and November 2015 in the National Petrochemical Company (NPC. 190 persons were selected by stratified random sampling method. Validated instruments were used for data collection on work situation awareness, safety climate and work overload. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis. Findings: Safety climate (68.67±7.13 had significant (p<0.01 correlations with work overload (16.17±3.21; r=0.26 and work situation awareness (65.55±6.22; r=0.5. Also, work overload and work situation awareness had a significant negative correlation (r=-0.39; p<0.01. Safety climate and work overload both predicted 33% of work situation awareness. Individually, safety climate predicted 21% (t=6.81; β=0.43 and work overload predicted 10% (t=- 4.43; β=-0.28 of the work situation awareness. Conclusion: Safety climate and work overload affect the work situation awareness among workers.

  18. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

  19. Oxygen-dependent injury by a human plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    The mechanism by which a human plasma factor associated with proteinuria is able to cause experimental glomerular albumin leakage is unknown. This factor (called 100KF) is able to induce glomerular alterations in the rat kidney, similar to those seen in minimal change disease, including loss of

  20. Human projected area factors for detailed direct and diffuse solar radiation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubaha, K.; Fiala, D.; Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Projected area factors for individual segments of the standing and sedentary human body were modelled for both direct and diffuse solar radiation using detailed 3D geometry and radiation models. The local projected area factors with respect to direct short-wave radiation are a function of the solar...

  1. Discussion and theoretical summarization of the experimental data. [psychophysiology in human factors engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of research on psychological factors that cause substantial changes in the reliability indicators of an operators work is followed by a conclusion that strong moral-volitional qualities are the basic factors that make the human behavior under conditions of stress effective; emotional subcortical subdominants affect a person's conscious organization and self control in a man machine environment.

  2. An assessment system for rating scientific journals in the field of ergonomics and human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W. Karwowski

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA method for selecting and rating scientific and professional journals representing the discipline of ergonomics and human factors is proposed. The method is based upon the journal list, impact factors and citations provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), and the

  3. 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

    CERN Document Server

    Duckwitz, Sönke; Flemisch, Frank; Frenz, Martin; Kuz, Sinem; Mertens, Alexander; Mütze-Niewöhner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.

  4. First International Workshop on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo 2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald; Chaudron, Michel R. V.; Amaral, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Modeling is a human-intensive enterprise. As such, many research questions related to modeling can only be answered by empirical studies employing human factors. The International Workshop Series on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo) is dedicated to the discussion of empirical research involving......, the workshop organizers explicitly encouraged researchers new to empirical methods to discuss study designs before conducting their empirical evaluations. The rationale was to create a constructive environment where the HuFaMo participants could contribute to improving the proposed study designs so...

  5. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  6. Host cell restriction factors that limit transcription and replication of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Samuel S; Stepp, Wesley H; Stamos, James D; McBride, Alison A

    2017-03-02

    The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is tightly regulated by the differentiation state of mucosal and cutaneous keratinocytes. To counteract viral infection, constitutively expressed cellular factors, which are defined herein as restriction factors, directly mitigate viral gene expression and replication. In turn, some HPV gene products target these restriction factors and abrogate their anti-viral effects to establish efficient gene expression and replication programs. Ironically, in certain circumstances, this delicate counterbalance between viral gene products and restriction factors facilitates persistent infection by HPVs. This review serves to recapitulate the current knowledge of nuclear restriction factors that directly affect the HPV infectious cycle. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Human Factors Engineering Requirements for the International Space Station - Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Blume, J.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced technology coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer human space missions. Indeed, any exploration mission outside of Earth's neighborhood, in other words, beyond the moon, will necessarily be several months or even years. The International Space Station (ISS) serves as an important advancement toward executing a successful human space mission that is longer than a standard trip around the world or to the moon. The ISS, which is a permanently occupied microgravity research facility orbiting the earth, will support missions four to six months in duration. In planning for the ISS, the NASA developed an agency-wide set of human factors standards for the first time in a space exploration program. The Man-Systems Integration Standard (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000, a multi-volume set of guidelines for human-centered design in microgravity, was developed with the cooperation of human factors experts from various NASA centers, industry, academia, and other government agencies. The ISS program formed a human factors team analogous to any major engineering subsystem. This team develops and maintains the human factors requirements regarding end-to-end architecture design and performance, hardware and software design requirements, and test and verification requirements. It is also responsible for providing program integration across all of the larger scale elements, smaller scale hardware, and international partners.

  8. Are "Human Factors" the Primary Cause of Complications in the Field of Implant Dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Franck; Amalberti, René; Renouard, Erell

    Complications in medicine and dentistry are usually analyzed from a purely technical point of view. Rarely is the role of human behavior or judgment considered as a reason for adverse outcomes. When the role of human factors is considered, these are usually described in general terms rather than specifically identifying the factors responsible for an adverse event. The impact of cognitive and behavioral factors in the explanation of adverse events has been studied in other high-stakes areas such as aviation and nuclear power. Specific protocols have been developed to reduce rates of human error, and, where human error is unavoidable, to lessen its impact. This approach has dramatically reduced the incidence of accidents in these fields. This article aims to review how a similar approach may prove valuable in the reduction of complications in implant dentistry.

  9. Splenic embolization in a Jehovah's Witness: role of recombinant human factor VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Anantharaju, Abhinandana; George, Magdalene; Leone, Nancy; Bejna, Judy; Van Thiel, David H

    2003-01-01

    A case of a 50-year-old Jehovah's Witness with cryptogenic cirrhosis, severe portal hypertension and a coagulopathy, who underwent splenic embolization to improve the platelet count after receiving recombinant human Factor VIIa, is reported. Following the infusion of recombinant human Factor VIIa, the coagulopathy was rapidly corrected and it became possible to safely embolize her spleen. The changes in prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time as well as thrombomodulin, tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor after the infusion are presented. As a result of the splenic embolization, her platelet count normalized and she has been listed for liver transplantation.

  10. A Primary Human Critical Success Factors Model for the ERP System Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenko Aleksander

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Many researchers have investigated various Critical success factors (CSFs and the different causes of ERP implementation project failures. Despite a detailed literature preview, we were unable to find an appropriate research with a comprehensive overview of the true causes behind CSFs, observed from a human factors perspective. The objective of this research was therefore to develop and evaluate the Primary human factors (PHFs model and to confirm the significant impact of PHFs on traditional CSFs and on the project success.

  11. [Expression of human β-defensin and its relationship with inflammatory factor in human dental pulp tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhai; Huang, Jian-Ying; Hyun, Park; Ji, Fang; Fei, Zhao-Liang; Tao, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the expression of human β-defensin(HBD) in human dental pulp tissue and to explore the regulation of HBD in pulp inflammation and the relationship among HBD family members. The gene expression of HBD in human dental pulp tissue was assessed in NCBI GEO profiles and was verified by RT-PCR. Human dental pulp cells were stimulated with TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6 in different combinations and the expression of HBD2 was analyzed by qPCR. Human dental pulp cells were pretreated with HBD110 and then stimulated with LPS and the expression of TNF-α,IL-1α and HBD2 were analyzed by qPCR. GraphPad Prism 5.01 was used to analyze the results of the experimental and the control groups. 27 HBDs were found to express in human dental pulp tissue in NCBI GEO Profiles. The joint overexpression of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6 increased the expression of HBD2; HBD110 increased the expression of HBD2 by increasing the expression of TNF-α and IL-1α. Many other HBDs have positive expression in human dental pulp issue besides of HBD1, HBD2, HBD3, HBD4 and the inflammation factors and other HBDs can regulate the expression of HBD2 in dental pulp.

  12. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  13. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  14. A Human Factors Analysis of Proactive Support in Human-Robot Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    kits. We impose two constraints on the agents: 1) either robot X or Mary can carry only one medical kit or one casualty at one time. 2) The triage can...kits to the medical rooms even before finding any casualties. or the human subject may walk robot X to the medical room empty-handed. These can...of Proactive Support inHuman- robot Teaming It has long been assumed that for effective humanrobot teaming, it is desirable for assistive robots to

  15. Receptor mediated agglutination of human spermatozoa by spermagglutinating factor isolated from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Siftjit; Prabha, Vijay; Sarwal, Abha

    2010-12-01

    We examined spermagglutinating factor isolated from Staphylococcus aureus for evidence of receptor mediated agglutination of human spermatozoa. Binding to spermatozoa by spermagglutinating factor isolated from S. aureus with a high degree of specificity indicates receptor-ligand interaction. To examine this interaction we isolated and purified the ligand and the receptor. To assess receptor mediated agglutination of spermatozoa further we blocked spermagglutination induced by spermagglutinating factor in the presence of receptor. Spermagglutinating factor induced spermagglutination was competitively inhibited by adding purified receptor, indicating that sperm agglutinating factor isolated from S. aureus attaches to specific receptors on human spermatozoa. The spermagglutinating factor receptor was a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 57 kDa. Spermagglutinating factor induced spermagglutination and at higher concentrations had a spermicidal effect, which was inhibited by introducing the receptor. As observed on scanning electron microscopy studies, incubating spermatozoa with spermagglutinating factor showed profound morphological alterations. However, spermatozoa with normal morphology were noted when incubated with spermagglutinating factor in the presence of receptor, indicating that morphological alterations may account for spermatozoa agglutination by spermagglutinating factor. Results suggest that spermagglutinating factor isolated from S. aureus may bind specifically to sperm surface receptor sites before causing spermagglutination. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  17. Risk Factors for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Detection Among HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women From Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Munk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The prevalence is dependent on several known factors notably sexual behavior and age, and factors still under scrutiny.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The prevalence is dependent on several known factors notably sexual behavior and age, and factors still under scrutiny....

  18. Complement regulator Factor H mediates a two-step uptake of Streptococcus pneumoniae by human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M; Luo, Shanshan; Jensch, Inga; Zipfel, Peter F; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-07-23

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a human pathogen, recruits complement regulator factor H to its bacterial cell surface. The bacterial PspC protein binds Factor H via short consensus repeats (SCR) 8-11 and SCR19-20. In this study, we define how bacterially bound Factor H promotes pneumococcal adherence to and uptake by epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) via a two-step process. First, pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells was significantly reduced by heparin and dermatan sulfate. However, none of the glycosaminoglycans affected binding of Factor H to pneumococci. Adherence of pneumococci to human epithelial cells was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies recognizing SCR19-20 of Factor H suggesting that the C-terminal glycosaminoglycan-binding region of Factor H mediates the contact between pneumococci and human cells. Blocking of the integrin CR3 receptor, i.e. CD11b and CD18, of PMNs or CR3-expressing epithelial cells reduced significantly the interaction of pneumococci with both cell types. Similarly, an additional CR3 ligand, Pra1, derived from Candida albicans, blocked the interaction of pneumococci with PMNs. Strikingly, Pra1 inhibited also pneumococcal uptake by lung epithelial cells but not adherence. In addition, invasion of Factor H-coated pneumococci required the dynamics of host-cell actin microfilaments and was affected by inhibitors of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In conclusion, pneumococcal entry into host cells via Factor H is based on a two-step mechanism. The first and initial contact of Factor H-coated pneumococci is mediated by glycosaminoglycans expressed on the surface of human cells, and the second step, pneumococcal uptake, is integrin-mediated and depends on host signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

  19. Complement Regulator Factor H Mediates a Two-step Uptake of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Human Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M.; Luo, Shanshan; Jensch, Inga; Zipfel, Peter F.; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a human pathogen, recruits complement regulator factor H to its bacterial cell surface. The bacterial PspC protein binds Factor H via short consensus repeats (SCR) 8–11 and SCR19–20. In this study, we define how bacterially bound Factor H promotes pneumococcal adherence to and uptake by epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) via a two-step process. First, pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells was significantly reduced by heparin and dermatan sulfate. However, none of the glycosaminoglycans affected binding of Factor H to pneumococci. Adherence of pneumococci to human epithelial cells was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies recognizing SCR19–20 of Factor H suggesting that the C-terminal glycosaminoglycan-binding region of Factor H mediates the contact between pneumococci and human cells. Blocking of the integrin CR3 receptor, i.e. CD11b and CD18, of PMNs or CR3-expressing epithelial cells reduced significantly the interaction of pneumococci with both cell types. Similarly, an additional CR3 ligand, Pra1, derived from Candida albicans, blocked the interaction of pneumococci with PMNs. Strikingly, Pra1 inhibited also pneumococcal uptake by lung epithelial cells but not adherence. In addition, invasion of Factor H-coated pneumococci required the dynamics of host-cell actin microfilaments and was affected by inhibitors of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In conclusion, pneumococcal entry into host cells via Factor H is based on a two-step mechanism. The first and initial contact of Factor H-coated pneumococci is mediated by glycosaminoglycans expressed on the surface of human cells, and the second step, pneumococcal uptake, is integrin-mediated and depends on host signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PMID:20504767

  20. Biochemical characterization of AMG 102: a neutralizing, fully human monoclonal antibody to human and nonhuman primate hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Teresa L; Sun, Jan; Meyer, Susanne; Tsuruda, Trace S; Sun, Jilin; Elliott, Gary; Chen, Qing; Haniu, Mitsuru; Barron, Will F; Juan, Todd; Zhang, Ke; Coxon, Angela; Kendall, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    AMG 102 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets and neutralizes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). A detailed biochemical and functional characterization of AMG 102 was done to support its clinical development for the treatment of cancers dependent on signaling through the HGF/SF:c-Met pathway. In competitive equilibrium binding experiments, AMG 102 bound to human and cynomolgus monkey HGF with affinities of approximately 19 pmol/L and 41 pmol/L, respectively. However, AMG 102 did not detect mouse or rabbit HGF on immunoblots. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that AMG 102 preferentially bound to the mature, active form of HGF, and incubation of AMG 102/HGF complexes with kallikrein protease indicated that AMG 102 had no apparent effect on proteolytic processing of the inactive HGF precursor. AMG 102 inhibited human and cynomolgus monkey HGF-induced c-Met autophosphorylation in PC3 cells with IC(50) values of 0.12 nmol/L and 0.24 nmol/L, respectively. AMG 102 also inhibited cynomolgus monkey HGF-induced migration of human MDA-MB-435 cells but not rat HGF-induced migration of mouse 4T1 cells. Epitope-mapping studies of recombinant HGF molecules comprising human/mouse chimeras and human-to-mouse amino acid substitutions showed that amino acid residues near the NH(2)-terminus of the beta-chain are critical for AMG 102 binding. Bound AMG 102 protected one trypsin protease cleavage site near the NH(2)-terminus of the beta-chain of human HGF, further substantiating the importance of this region for AMG 102 binding. Currently, AMG 102 is in phase II clinical trials in a variety of solid tumor indications. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(2); 400-9.

  1. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Review article: the influence of psychology and human factors on education in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Ronnie; Flin, Rhona

    2012-02-01

    We look at the changing nature of medical education in the developed world with particular reference to those areas of the new curriculum frameworks which have introduced topics from the psychosocial realm. Research in the branch of psychology dealing with human factors has developed a useful body of working knowledge which applies to other industries where humans interact with the complex systems in which they function. Some findings are already being applied to facets of anesthesia performance, including situation awareness, effective teamwork, countermeasures against active errors and latent pathogens, and limitations of human performance. However, existing lessons and practices from industrial or military research may not translate directly into effective strategies for anesthesiologists. Collaborative studies between psychologists and clinicians should continue in order to provide the anesthetic curriculum with an effective body of knowledge for each role of the anesthesiologist. Although individual anesthesiologists have made important contributions in this field, such material has not been formally incorporated into the curricula serving anesthesiologists in the developed world. There is a gap between the human factors psychologists now know and the human factors anesthesiologists need to know. As that gap closes, anesthesiologists may come to think more like human factor psychologists as well as biomedical scientists.

  3. Development and application of spaceflight performance shaping factors for human reliability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer

    The ability of crewmembers to perform various critical functions during spacecraft operations is widely recognized as being essential to mission success. This necessity motivates the desire to better characterize factors that can influence crewmember performance so that those with positive effects can be enhanced, while those with negative impacts can be minimized. Established Human Reliability Analysis methods exist for analyzing performance within the context of myriad terrestrial scenarios. Many of the existing methods have their roots in nuclear power plant operations. While perhaps similar, the factors influencing performance traditionally used in these methods do not take into account the unique conditions encountered during spaceflight. Therefore, this research has identified a tailored set of factors that influence human task performance during space missions. This thesis describes an organizational scheme developed to aid in classifying and communicating the factors across disciplines and organizations. Definitions of identified factors are given for the spaceflight-specific context. A visual display of the factors, called the Contributing Factor Map, is presented and its use as a risk communication tool is discussed. The Bayesian Network is discussed as a quantification approach allowing relationships between factors, in addition to the factor relationships to performance outcomes, to be modeled. A method for determining a network structure was developed for domains such as human spaceflight, in which a global set of data for analysis is not available. This method applied the Analytic Hierarchy Process, and causal latency concepts from the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in a novel way to guide choices for modeling the dominant set of factors and relationships in a simplified Bayesian Network structure. In addition, an approach for modeling the factors as statistical variables in a Bayesian Network making use of existing design

  4. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  5. Synergistic Action of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Enhances Bioprinted Human Neocartilage Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Breitenkamp, Kurt; Lotz, Martin; D’Lima, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Bioprinting as a promising but unexplored approach for cartilage tissue engineering has the advantages of high throughput, digital control, and highly accurate placement of cells and biomaterial scaffold to the targeted 3D locations with simultaneous polymerization. This study tested feasibility of using bioprinting for cartilage engineering and examined the influence of cell density, growth and differentiation factors. Human articular chondrocytes were printed at various densities, stimulated transiently with growth factors and subsequently with chondrogenic factors. Samples were cultured for up to 4 weeks to evaluate cell proliferation and viability, mechanical properties, mass swelling ratio, water content, gene expression, ECM production, DNA content, and histology. Bioprinted samples treated with FGF-2/TGF-β1 had the best chondrogenic properties among all groups apparently due to synergistic stimulation of cell proliferation and chondrogenic phenotype. ECM production per chondrocyte in low cell density was much higher than that in high cell seeding density. This finding was also verified by mechanical testing and histology. In conclusion, cell seeding density that is feasible for bioprinting also appears optimal for human neocartilage formation when combined with appropriate growth and differentiation factors. PMID:22508498

  6. Human Resource Efficiency as a Development Factor for the Kaliningrad Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various studies of economic and geographical relations in Russian regions often overemphasise the role of economy. However, the quality and quantity of human resources is one of the key factors behind distribution and development of production. Human resources are of even more importance in the Kaliningrad exclave. This paper aims to increase understanding of the role of human resources in the economic development of the Kaliningrad region. The study uses the cohort component method, scenario-based forecasting of the development and application of human resources, and econometric calculations of the comparative efficiency of human resources application across a range of economic activities. The author puts forward a number of recommendations for a better application of labour resources through sectoral restructurization of economy (which requires a higher value-added standard and has to be consistent with local natural, human, and innovation resources and through improvement of the professional training system.

  7. Risk factors for human-directed canine aggression in a referral level clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, M; Casey, R A; Loftus, B A; Blackwell, E J

    2017-07-07

    Risk factors for human-directed aggression were investigated using retrospective analysis of data from a referral-level clinical behaviour population in the UK. A sample of 200 cases involving human-directed canine aggression and 200 control cases involving no instance of human-directed aggression were selected at random from a population of 746 cases. The final model suggested that clinical cases with human-directed aggression were significantly younger than those presenting with other undesired behaviours (P=0.008) and that male dogs were 1.4 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings than female dogs (P=0.019). Dogs were 1.7 times more likely to be aggressive towards people if they had attended more than five puppy classes than if they had never attended puppy class (P=0.015) and that dogs were 2.8 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings if there was another dog between 0 months and 24 months of age in the home (P=0.004). These factors only account for 7 per cent to 10 per cent of the variance between the human-directed aggression population and the control population, but factors such as attendance at puppy classes and numbers of dogs in the household suggest the need for longitudinal studies to investigate temporal relationships.

  8. The F309S mutation increases factor VIII secretion in human cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daianne Maciely Carvalho Fantacini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The capacity of a human cell line to secrete recombinant factor VIII with a F309S point mutation was investigated, as was the effect of the addition of chemical chaperones (betaine and sodium-4-phenylbutyrate on the secretion of factor VIII. METHODS: This work used a vector with a F309S mutation in the A1 domain to investigate FVIII production in the HEK 293 human cell line. Factor VIII activity was measured by chromogenic assay. Furthermore, the effects of chemical drugs on the culture were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of the F309S mutation to a previously described FVIII variant increased FVIII secretion by 4.5 fold. Moreover, the addition of betaine or sodium-4-phenylbutyrate increased the secretion rate of FVIIIΔB proteins in HEK 293 cells, but the same effect was not seen for FVIIIΔB-F309S indicating that all the recombinant protein produced had been efficiently secreted. CONCLUSION: Bioengineering factor VIII expressed in human cells may lead to an efficient production of recombinant factor VIII and contribute toward low-cost coagulation factor replacement therapy for hemophilia A. FVIII-F309S produced in human cells can be effective in vivo.

  9. Human chromosome 21 determines growth factor dependence in human/mouse B-cell hybridomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebeling, S. B.; Bos, H. M.; Slater, R.; Overkamp, W. J.; Cuthbert, A. P.; Newbold, R. F.; Zdzienicka, M. Z.; Aarden, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) serves as a growth factor for mouse plasmacytomas. As a model for IL-6-mediated growth of plasmacytomas, we study IL-6-dependent B-cell hybridomas, which can be generated through fusion of B lymphocytes with a plasmacytoma cell line, e.g., SP2/0. In the present report, we have

  10. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R

    1985-01-01

    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that of normal Factor IXa beta. In the present study we have prepared activated Factor IX by incubating human Factor IX with calcium and Russell's viper venom covalently bound to agarose. Fractionation of the activated Factor IX by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of both Factors IXa alpha and IXa beta. On the basis of active site concentration, determined by titration with antithrombin III, the clotting activities of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill and IXa alpha were similar, but both activities were less than 20% of the clotting activity of Factor IXa beta. Activated Factor IX activity was also measured in the absence of calcium, phospholipid, and Factor VIII, by determination of the rate of Factor X activation in the presence of polylysine. In the presence of polylysine, the rates of Factor X activation by activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, Factor IXa alpha, and Factor IXa beta were essentially identical. We conclude that the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is reduced when compared with that of Factor IXa beta but essentially normal when compared with that of Factor IXa alpha.

  11. International multicenter international sensitivity index (ISI) calibration of a new human tissue factor thromboplastin reagent derived from cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdijk, W P M; Van Den Besselaar, A M H P

    2004-02-01

    The international sensitivity index (ISI) of the first working standard of Simplastin HTF, a new human tissue factor thromboplastin derived from cultured human cells, has been assessed in a calibration exercise in two Canadian and five European laboratories. Calibrations against international reference preparations (IRP) were performed for the manual method and six types of automated coagulometers that cover the majority of clotting endpoint principles in routine use. The ISI was method-dependent and varied between 1.03 and 1.29 when calibrated against rTF/95 (human IRP). The ISI was also dependent on the route of calibration. Compared with calibration against rTF/95, the ISIs obtained by calibration against RBT/90 (rabbit IRP) were on average 4.4% higher (P < 0.005). Considering the principle of 'like vs. like', the ISIs obtained by calibration against rTF/95 should be preferred.

  12. Design of RNA-Binding Proteins: Manipulate Alternative Splicing in Human Cells with Artificial Splicing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    The majority of human genes undergo alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms with distinct functions. The dysregulations of alternative splicing have been found to be closely associated with various human diseases; thus new approaches to modulate disease-associated splicing events will provide great therapeutic potentials. Here we report protocols for constructing novel artificial splicing factors that can be designed to specifically modulate alternative splicing of target genes. By following the method outlined in this protocol, it is possible to design and generate artificial splicing factors with diverse activities in regulating different types of alternative splicing. The artificial splicing factors can be used to change splicing of either minigenes or endogenous genes in cultured human cells, providing a new strategy to study the regulation of alternative splicing and function of alternatively spliced products.

  13. Human Factors Operability Timeline Analysis to Improve the Processing Flow of the Orion Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Schlierf, Roland; Miller, Darcy; Posada, Juan; Haddock, Mike; Haddad, Mike; Tran, Donald; Henderon, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Human factors and timeline analysis to have a more efficient and effective processing flow. The solution involved developing a written timeline of events that included each activity within each functional flow block. Each activity had computer animation videos and pictures of the people involved and the hardware. The Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool (HFEAT) was improved by modifying it to include the timeline of events. The HFEAT was used to define the human factors requirements and design solutions were developed for these requirements. An example of a functional flow block diagram is shown, and a view from one of the animations (i.e., short stack pallet) is shown and explained.

  14. A framework to support human factors of automation in railway intelligent infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, Nastaran; Wilson, John R; Golightly, David; Sharples, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Technological and organisational advances have increased the potential for remote access and proactive monitoring of the infrastructure in various domains and sectors - water and sewage, oil and gas and transport. Intelligent Infrastructure (II) is an architecture that potentially enables the generation of timely and relevant information about the state of any type of infrastructure asset, providing a basis for reliable decision-making. This paper reports an exploratory study to understand the concepts and human factors associated with II in the railway, largely drawing from structured interviews with key industry decision-makers and attachment to pilot projects. Outputs from the study include a data-processing framework defining the key human factors at different levels of the data structure within a railway II system and a system-level representation. The framework and other study findings will form a basis for human factors contributions to systems design elements such as information interfaces and role specifications.

  15. Some human factors issues in the development and evaluation of cockpit alerting and warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Larsen, W. E.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A set of general guidelines for evaluating a newly developed cockpit alerting and warning system in terms of human factors issues are provided. Although the discussion centers around a general methodology, it is made specifically to the issues involved in alerting systems. An overall statement of the current operational problem is presented. Human factors problems with reference to existing alerting and warning systems are described. The methodology for proceeding through system development to system test is discussed. The differences between traditional human factors laboratory evaluations and those required for evaluation of complex man-machine systems under development are emphasized. Performance evaluation in the alerting and warning subsystem using a hypothetical sample system is explained.

  16. Functional Analyses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites that Differ between Present-Day and Archaic Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Sven; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-02-01

    We analyze 25 previously identified transcription factor binding sites that carry DNA sequence changes that are present in all or nearly all present-day humans, yet occur in the ancestral state in Neandertals and Denisovans, the closest evolutionary relatives of humans. When the ancestral and derived forms of the transcription factor binding sites are tested using reporter constructs in 3 neuronal cell lines, the activity of 12 of the derived versions of transcription factor binding sites differ from the respective ancestral variants. This suggests that the majority of this class of evolutionary differences between modern humans and Neandertals may affect gene expression in at least some tissue or cell type. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Recombinant human factor VIIa-induced alterations in tissue factor and thrombomodulin in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thiel, David H; Farr, Deborah E; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Todo, Akira; George, Magdalene M

    2005-06-01

    Recombinant human factor VIIa (rhFVIIa) is used to treat hemophilia and occasionally individuals with liver disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences of rhFVIIa in individuals with advanced liver disease in an attempt to understand the mechanism of action of rhFVIIa in this unique population. Levels of plasma tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, fibrin split products, D-dimers and free thrombomodulin were measured following the administration of rhFVIIa in 17 subjects. The results were compared to normal controls. The prothrombin time declined from 20.2 +/- 2.8 s to 14.3 +/- 3.9 s (P < 0.01). No change in the activated partial thromboplastin time occurred. A 15.6% reduction in thrombomodulin was observed (P < 0.05). A mean 75.2% reduction in plasma tissue factor occurred (P < 0.01). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels declined to less than the control value (P < 0.05). No changes in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibrin split products or D-dimer levels occurred. These data demonstrate that rhFVIIa administration to individuals with liver disease results in (i) a transient improvement in the prothrombin time; (ii) no change in the activated partial thromboplastin time; and (iii) a marked reduction in the levels of thrombomodulin and tissue factor. These data suggest that rhFVIIa binds tissue factor and enhances tissue factor and thrombomodulin clearance from the circulation. (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  19. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  20. Glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin activates nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 in cultured human aortic smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Concepcion; Matesanz, Nuria; Nevado, Julian; Lafuente, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Azcutia, Veronica; Vallejo, Susana; Rodriguez-Manas, Leocadio; Sanchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2003-10-01

    Diabetic vessels undergo structural changes that are linked to a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell signalling in the vasculature, where they can promote cell growth and activate redox-regulated transcription factors, like activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which are involved in remodelling and inflammation processes. Amadori adducts, formed through nonenzymatic glycosylation, can contribute to ROS formation in diabetes. In this study, we analysed whether Amadori-modified human oxyhaemoglobin, glycosylated at either normal (N-Hb) or elevated (E-Hb) levels, can induce cell growth and activate AP-1 and NF-kappaB in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). E-Hb (1 nm-1 x microm), but not N-Hb, promoted a concentration-dependent increase in cell size from nanomolar concentrations, although it failed to stimulate HASMC proliferation. At 10 nm, E-Hb stimulated both AP-1 and NF-kappaB activity, as assessed by transient transfection, electromobility shift assays or immunofluorescence staining. The effects of E-Hb resembled those of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). E-Hb enhanced intracellular superoxide anions content and its effects on HASMC were abolished by different ROS scavengers. In conclusion, E-Hb stimulates growth and activates AP-1 and NF-kappaB in human vascular smooth muscle by redox-sensitive pathways, thus suggesting a possible direct role for Amadori adducts in diabetic vasculopathy.