WorldWideScience

Sample records for human factors affecting

  1. Factors affecting transmission of mucosal human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Veldhuijzen; P.J. Snijders; P. Reiss; C.J. Meijer; J.H. van de Wijgert

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The effect of HPV on public health is especially related to the burden of anogenital cancers, most notably cervical cancer. Determinants of exposure to HPV are similar to those for most sexually transmitted infections, but

  2. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  3. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  4. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  5. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pNeuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  6. Factors affecting distribution of airflow in a human tracheobronchial cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B S; Sussman, R G; Lippmann, M

    1993-09-01

    Air velocity was measured at end airways of hollow replicate casts of the human tracheobronchial tree in order to determine the flow distribution within casts extending to 3 mm diameter airways. Measurements were made by hot-wire anemometry for constant inspiratory flow rates of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 L.min-1. Average flow distribution among the lung lobes was as follows: right upper, 18.5%; right middle, 9.2%; right lower, 32.3%; left upper, 15.7%; and left lower, 24.3%. An empirical model derived from the experimental flow distribution data demonstrated the effect of various morphometric parameters of the hollow cast on the distribution of airflow. Airway cross-sectional area, branching angle and total path-length were found to have the greatest influence. As the tracheal flow rate decreased from 60 to 7.5 L.min-1, the influence of branching angle was reduced, while total path-length became more influential. These results provide evidence for the transition of flow regimes within the TB tree within normal physiological flow ranges.

  7. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2008-01-01

    be delayed at natural migration barriers. Often, the magnitude of delay is not predictable; fish may be considerably delayed at barriers that appear to humans to be easily passable, or they may quickly pass barriers that appear difficult. Stressful events like catch-and-release angling may affect upstream...... migration. Impacts of human activities may also cause altered migration patterns, affect the within-river distribution of the spawning population, and severe barriers may result in displacement of the spawning population to other rivers. Factors documented to affect within-river migration include previous......We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential...

  8. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  9. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010–2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979–2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and ...

  10. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L A

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  11. Research into human factors affecting the railway system; Studien zu menschlichen Einflussfaktoren im Eisenbahnsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerl, Malte; Feldmann, Frederike; Rumke, Axel; Pelz, Markus [DLR e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2010-07-01

    The Institute for Transportation Systems (ITS) at the German Aerospace Center DLR in Braunschweig has for many years been conducting research into current and future topics relating to railway transportation. Supplementing the in-house technical infrastructure including e.g. RailSiTe {sup registered} (Rail Simulation and Testing) and RailDriVE {sup registered} (Rail Driving Validation Environment), a new test environment for Rail Human Factors Research has been established to investigate such factors as they affect locomotive drivers. The aim is to analyse current issues and new concepts regarding human-machine interaction and test them under conditions that are as true-to-life as possible without exposure to real-life safety-critical situations. The test environment allows for investigation across the spectrum, starting with workplace analysis and going on from potential modifications to existing user interfaces through to the analysis of prototype assistance systems. (orig.)

  12. Factors Affecting the Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Cocoa Flavanols in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Gonzalez-Salvador, Isidro; Alañon, María Elena; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-09-09

    Cocoa is rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, the cardiovascular health benefits of which have been extensively reported. The appearance of flavanol metabolites in the systemic circulation after flavanol-rich food consumption is likely to mediate the physiological effects on the vascular system, and these levels are influenced by numerous factors, including food matrix, processing, intake, age, gender, or genetic polymorphisms, among others. This review will focus on our current understanding of factors affecting the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in humans. Second, it will identify gaps in these contributing factors that need to be addressed to conclusively translate our collective knowledge into the context of public health, dietary guidelines, and evidence-based dietary recommendations.

  13. Trisomy 21- affected placentas highlight prerequisite factors for human trophoblast fusion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation pathway and is a multifactorial and dynamic process finely regulated and still poorly known. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in numerous pathological clinical conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and trisomy 21. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion, which we identified by using the physiological model of primary culture of villous trophoblastic cells. Connexin 43 and gap junctional intercellular communication point to the role of molecular exchanges through connexin channels preceding membrane fusion. Zona occludens-1, which can interact with connexin 43, is also directly involved in trophoblast fusion. The recently identified fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins syncytin 1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin 2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development . We describe the increasing number of factors promoting or inhibiting trophoblast fusion and differentiation and emphasize the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its receptor. Indeed, in trisomy 21 the dynamic process leading to membrane fusion is impaired due to an abnormal hCG signaling. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro. Trisomy 21 trophoblastic cell culture may therefore be useful to identify the possible large number of prerequisite factors involved in trophoblast fusion, the limiting step of trophoblast differentiation.

  14. A survey to study and compare factors affecting human resources efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSEN KHADEMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human resources are considered the main asset of any society. If used properly and effectively, it will create other sources and above all the added value. The quality of the life is usually dependent on the quality of human professional life including factors such as job security, services and welfare pensions, health services, income, and job quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and priority of the above-mentioned factors on efficacy of the staff members of the Fars Office of Education. Methods: The research sample comprised the staff members of the Fars Office of Education across the state, including 61 districts. Based on the Cochran Formula, 25 districts were randomly selected. In order to measure the factors, the Likert-type instrument designed by Hossainpoor to compare the Ideal and current situation, was used. Results: The staff rated job security as the most important factor affecting their efficacy in both current and ideal situations followed by income. Discussion: Based on the previous research and review of literature, success of the educational organizations is fully dependent on their personnel. If executives of such organizations try to attract the qualified personnel and keep them motivated, their success will be guaranteed.

  15. A whole-genome RNA interference screen for human cell factors affecting myxoma virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferi, Wondimagegnehu M; Dodd, Kristopher; Maranchuk, Rob; Favis, Nicole; Evans, David H

    2013-04-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) provides an important model for investigating host-pathogen interactions. Recent studies have also highlighted how mutations in transformed human cells can expand the host range of this rabbit virus. Although virus growth depends upon interactions between virus and host proteins, the nature of these interactions is poorly understood. To address this matter, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens for genes affecting MYXV growth in human MDA-MB-231 cells. By using siRNAs targeting the whole human genome (21,585 genes), a subset of human phosphatases and kinases (986 genes), and also a custom siRNA library targeting selected statistically significant genes ("hits") and nonsignificant genes ("nonhits") of the whole human genome screens (88 genes), we identified 711 siRNA pools that promoted MYXV growth and 333 that were inhibitory. Another 32 siRNA pools (mostly targeting the proteasome) were toxic. The overall overlap in the results was about 25% for the hits and 75% for the nonhits. These pro- and antiviral genes can be clustered into pathways and related groups, including well-established inflammatory and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, as well as clusters relating to β-catenin and the Wnt signaling cascade, the cell cycle, and cellular metabolism. The validity of a subset of these hits was independently confirmed. For example, treating cells with siRNAs that might stabilize cells in G(1), or inhibit passage into S phase, stimulated MYXV growth, and these effects were reproduced by trapping cells at the G(1)/S boundary with an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6. By using 2-deoxy-D-glucose and plasmids carrying the gene for phosphofructokinase, we also confirmed that infection is favored by aerobic glycolytic metabolism. These studies provide insights into how the growth state and structure of cells affect MYXV growth and how these factors might be manipulated to advantage in oncolytic virus therapy.

  16. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  17. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  18. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation

  19. Factors affecting in vitro bond strength of bonding agents to human dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John M; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Pinzon, Lilliam M

    2003-09-01

    Four generations of total-etch (fourth, fifth) and self-etching (sixth, seventh) bonding agents for use with resin composites are commercially available in the United States. Innovations in bonding agents include: filled systems, release of fluoride and other agents, unit dose, self-cured catalyst, option of etching with either phosphoric acid or self-etching primer, and pH indicators. Factors that can affect in vitro bond strength to human dentin include substrate (superficial dentin, deep dentin; permanent versus primary teeth; artificial carious dentin), phosphoric acid versus acidic primers, preparation by air abrasion and laser, moisture, contaminants, desensitizing agents, astringents, and self-cured restorative materials. This article reviews studies conducted at the Houston Biomaterials Research Center from 1993 to 2003. Results show that in vitro bond strengths can be reduced by more than 50% when bonding conditions are not ideal.

  20. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation ...... often mentioned post-human condition....

  1. Genetic factors affecting gene transcription and catalytic activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanqing; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Gamazon, Eric R; Mirkov, Snezana; Chen, Peixian; Wu, Kehua; Sun, Chang; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin; Das, Soma; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to discover cis- and trans-acting factors significantly affecting mRNA expression and catalytic activity of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Transcription levels of five major hepatic UGT1A (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) and five UGT2B (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) genes were quantified in human liver tissue samples (n = 125) using real-time PCR. Glucuronidation activities of 14 substrates were measured in 47 livers. We genotyped 167 tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in UGT1A (n = 43) and UGT2B (n = 124), as well as the known functional UGT1A1*28 and UGT2B17 CNV (copy number variation) polymorphisms. Transcription levels of 15 transcription factors (TFs) known to regulate these UGTs were quantified. We found that UGT expression and activity were highly variable among the livers (median and range of coefficient of variations: 135%, 74-217% and 52%, 39-105%, respectively). CAR, PXR and ESR1 were found to be the most important trans-regulators of UGT transcription (median and range of correlation coefficients: 46%, 6-58%; 47%, 9-58%; and 52%, 24-75%, respectively). Hepatic UGT activities were mainly determined by UGT gene transcription levels. Twenty-one polymorphisms were significantly (FDR-adjusted P transcription and testosterone glucuronidation rate, in addition to that attributable to the UGT2B17 CNV. Our study discovered novel pharmacogenetic markers and provided detailed insight into the genetic network regulating hepatic UGTs.

  2. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation embryo

  3. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed.

  4. A meta-analysis of factors affecting trust in human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter A; Billings, Deborah R; Schaefer, Kristin E; Chen, Jessie Y C; de Visser, Ewart J; Parasuraman, Raja

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate and quantify the effects of human, robot, and environmental factors on perceived trust in human-robot interaction (HRI). To date, reviews of trust in HRI have been qualitative or descriptive. Our quantitative review provides a fundamental empirical foundation to advance both theory and practice. Meta-analytic methods were applied to the available literature on trust and HRI. A total of 29 empirical studies were collected, of which 10 met the selection criteria for correlational analysis and 11 for experimental analysis. These studies provided 69 correlational and 47 experimental effect sizes. The overall correlational effect size for trust was r = +0.26,with an experimental effect size of d = +0.71. The effects of human, robot, and environmental characteristics were examined with an especial evaluation of the robot dimensions of performance and attribute-based factors. The robot performance and attributes were the largest contributors to the development of trust in HRI. Environmental factors played only a moderate role. Factors related to the robot itself, specifically, its performance, had the greatest current association with trust, and environmental factors were moderately associated. There was little evidence for effects of human-related factors. The findings provide quantitative estimates of human, robot, and environmental factors influencing HRI trust. Specifically, the current summary provides effect size estimates that are useful in establishing design and training guidelines with reference to robot-related factors of HRI trust. Furthermore, results indicate that improper trust calibration may be mitigated by the manipulation of robot design. However, many future research needs are identified.

  5. Freezing adversely affects measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor levels in human aqueous samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarathi Balaiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sankarathi Balaiya Sandeep Grover Ravi K Murthy Kakarla V ChalamDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAPurpose: Aqueous levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF can be a surrogate marker of intraocular VEGF activity and a measure of efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment in a variety of vasoproliferative retinal disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and central retinal vein occlusion. Measurement of the VEGF level may be adversely affected by premeasurement variables, such as freezing and delay, in sample analysis. We aim to evaluate the effect of storage and delayed measurement of human aqueous VEGF levels in these conditions.Methods: Aqueous samples collected from patients receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for various retinal diseases were divided into two groups. In Group 1, the VEGF levels were analyzed on the same day; in Group 2, the VEGF levels were analyzed after 21 days of freezer storage (-80°C using immunobead assay. Statistical comparison using a paired t-test was performed between the two groups.Results: Thirty-one aqueous humor samples were collected, and the VEGF concentration for fresh samples was 7.8 ± 5.9 pg/mL (mean ± SD compared to 6.5 ± 6.0 pg/mL in frozen samples, resulting in a statistically significant difference (P = 0.03.Conclusions: Accurate measurement of the VEGF level is a vital component of clinical decision-making. Delayed analysis of VEGF levels in aqueous samples may result in significant sample degradation and lower levels of measured VEGF.Keywords: VEGF level, aqueous humor, immunobead assay, VEGF storage

  6. Human and environmental factors affecting Aedes aegypti distribution in an arid urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathleen R; Joy, Teresa K; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ramberg, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Aedes aegypti has reappeared in urban communities in the southwestern U.S.A. in the 1990s after a 40-year absence. In 2003 and 2004, a systematic survey was conducted throughout metropolitan Tucson, AZ, to identify human and environmental factors associated with Ae. aegypti distribution within an arid urban area. Aedes aegypti presence and abundance were measured monthly using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention enhanced oviposition traps at sampling sites established in a grid at 3- to 4-km intervals across the city. Sampling occurred in the summer rainy season (July through September), the peak of mosquito activity in the region. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine relationships between mosquito density and factors that could influence mosquito distribution. House age was the only factor that showed a consistent significant association with Ae. aegypti abundance in both years: older houses had more mosquito eggs. This is the 1st study of Ae. aegypti distribution at a local level to identify house age as an explanatory factor independent of other human demographic factors. Further research into the reasons why mosquitoes were more abundant around older homes may help inform and refine future vector surveillance and control efforts in the event of a dengue outbreak in the region.

  7. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  8. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-12-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg-1.

  9. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  10. Glycosaminoglycans affect the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with plasminogen, factor XII and inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozzo A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma kallikrein, a serine proteinase, plays a key role in intrinsic blood clotting, in the kallikrein-kinin system, and in fibrinolysis. The proteolytic enzymes involved in these processes are usually controlled by specific inhibitors and may be influenced by several factors including glycosaminoglycans, as recently demonstrated by our group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (30 to 250 µg/ml on kallikrein activity on plasminogen and factor XII and on the inhibition of kallikrein by the plasma proteins C1-inhibitor and antithrombin. Almost all available glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced (1.2 to 3.0 times the catalytic efficiency of kallikrein (in a nanomolar range on the hydrolysis of plasminogen (0.3 to 1.8 µM and increased (1.9 to 7.7 times the enzyme efficiency in factor XII (0.1 to 10 µM activation. On the other hand, heparin, heparan sulfate, and bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate improved (1.2 to 3.4 times kallikrein inhibition by antithrombin (1.4 µM, while chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced it (1.3 times. Heparin and heparan sulfate increased (1.4 times the enzyme inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (150 nM.

  11. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  13. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  14. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Libuse A

    2007-11-01

    60°C did not affect the activity. Conclusion MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis.

  15. Characterization of human seminomas : apoptosis, stem cell factor and mutant RAS affect in vitro behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Olie (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis contains the results of a research project aimed at obtaining cell lines of seminomas, relatively rare human tumors. Seminoma cell lines, thus far lacking, would be important in the study of the pathobiology of human genn cell tumors. Seminomas represent one of the two types

  16. Characterization of human seminomas : apoptosis, stem cell factor and mutant RAS affect in vitro behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Olie (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis contains the results of a research project aimed at obtaining cell lines of seminomas, relatively rare human tumors. Seminoma cell lines, thus far lacking, would be important in the study of the pathobiology of human genn cell tumors. Seminomas represent one of the two types

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Trust in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND... validating metrics for the evaluation of a wide spectrum of human-robot interactions (HRI) issues (Steinfeld et al., 2006); designing human-robot...almost exclusively via subjective response, measured one time after a specific interaction. However, physiological indicators, such as oxytocin -related

  18. Cognitive and Tactile Factors Affecting Human Haptic Performance in Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Kalisch; Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth; Rebecca Kowalewski; Martin Tegenthoff; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vision and haptics are the key modalities by which humans perceive objects and interact with their environment in a target-oriented manner. Both modalities share higher-order neural resources and the mechanisms required for object exploration. Compared to vision, the understanding of haptic information processing is still rudimentary. Although it is known that haptic performance, similar to many other skills, decreases in old age, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. It is yet...

  19. Multiple factors affect immunogenicity of DNA plasmid HIV vaccines in human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Morgan, Cecilia; Yu, Xuesong; DeRosa, Stephen; Tomaras, Georgia D; Montefiori, David C; Kublin, James; Corey, Larry; Keefer, Michael C

    2015-05-11

    Plasmid DNA vaccines have been licensed for use in domesticated animals because of their excellent immunogenicity, but none have yet been licensed for use in humans. Here we report a retrospective analysis of 1218 healthy human volunteers enrolled in 10 phase I clinical trials in which DNA plasmids encoding HIV antigens were administered. Elicited T-cell immune responses were quantified by validated intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) stimulated with HIV peptide pools. HIV-specific binding and neutralizing antibody activities were also analyzed using validated assays. Results showed that, in the absence of adjuvants and boosting with alternative vaccines, DNA vaccines elicited CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses in an average of 13.3% (95% CI: 9.8-17.8%) and 37.7% (95% CI: 31.9-43.8%) of vaccine recipients, respectively. Three vaccinations (vs. 2) improved the proportion of subjects with antigen-specific CD8+ responses (p=0.02), as did increased DNA dosage (p=0.007). Furthermore, female gender and participants having a lower body mass index were independently associated with higher CD4+ T-cell response rate (p=0.001 and p=0.008, respectively). These vaccines elicited minimal neutralizing and binding antibody responses. These findings of the immunogenicity of HIV DNA vaccines in humans can provide guidance for future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-06

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  1. Factors affecting the soil arsenic bioavailability, accumulation in rice and risk to human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Shah Md Golam Gousul; Sarker, Tushar C; Naz, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic (As), a class one carcinogen, reflects a disastrous environmental threat due to its presence in each and every compartment of the environment. The high toxicity of As is notably present in its inorganic forms. Irrigation with As contaminated groundwater in rice fields increases As concentration in topsoil and its bioavailability for rice crops. However, most of the As in paddy field topsoils is present as As(III) form, which is predominant in rice grain. According to the OECD-FAO, rice is the second most extensively cultivated cereal throughout the world. This cereal is a staple food for a large number of populations in most of the developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, South and South-east Asia. Rice consumption is one of the major causes of chronic As diseases including cancer for Asian populations. Thus, this review provides an overview concerning the conditions involved in soil that leads to As entrance into rice crops, phytotoxicity and metabolism of As in rice plants. Moreover, the investigations of the As uptake in raw rice grain are compiled, and the As biotransfer into the human diet is focused. The As uptake by rice crop represents an important pathway of As exposure in countries with high rice and rice-based food consumption because of its high (more than the hygienic level) As levels found in edible plant part for livestock and humans.

  2. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001 following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethyl arsenic (MMA, dimethyl arsenic (DMA, and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD: 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60–1.40; p< 0.00001 and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21–0.77; p = 0.0006 also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.80–−0.31; p< 0.0001, primary methylation index (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.94–−0.20; p = 0.002, and secondary methylation index (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–−0.90; p = 0.004 decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  3. Different Factors Affecting Human ANP Amyloid Aggregation and Their Implications in Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millucci, Lia; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Laschi, Marcella; Consumi, Marco; Spreafico, Adriano; Tanganelli, Piero; Lupetti, Pietro; Magnani, Agnese; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Aims Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)-containing amyloid is frequently found in the elderly heart. No data exist regarding ANP aggregation process and its link to pathologies. Our aims were: i) to experimentally prove the presumptive association of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Isolated Atrial Amyloidosis (IAA); ii) to characterize ANP aggregation, thereby elucidating IAA implication in the CHF pathogenesis. Methods and Results A significant prevalence (85%) of IAA was immunohistochemically proven ex vivo in biopsies from CHF patients. We investigated in vitro (using Congo Red, Thioflavin T, SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy) ANP fibrillogenesis, starting from α-ANP as well as the ability of dimeric β-ANP to promote amyloid formation. Different conditions were adopted, including those reproducing β-ANP prevalence in CHF. Our results defined the uncommon rapidity of α-ANP self-assembly at acidic pH supporting the hypothesis that such aggregates constitute the onset of a fibrillization process subsequently proceeding at physiological pH. Interestingly, CHF-like conditions induced the production of the most stable and time-resistant ANP fibrils suggesting that CHF affected people may be prone to develop IAA. Conclusions We established a link between IAA and CHF by ex vivo examination and assessed that β-ANP is, in vitro, the seed of ANP fibrils. Our results indicate that β-ANP plays a crucial role in ANP amyloid deposition under physiopathological CHF conditions. Overall, our findings indicate that early IAA-related ANP deposition may occur in CHF and suggest that these latter patients should be monitored for the development of cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:21814559

  4. Cognitive and tactile factors affecting human haptic performance in later life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision and haptics are the key modalities by which humans perceive objects and interact with their environment in a target-oriented manner. Both modalities share higher-order neural resources and the mechanisms required for object exploration. Compared to vision, the understanding of haptic information processing is still rudimentary. Although it is known that haptic performance, similar to many other skills, decreases in old age, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. It is yet to be determined to what extent this decrease is related to the age-related loss of tactile acuity or cognitive capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the haptic performance of 81 older adults by means of a cross-modal object recognition test. Additionally, we assessed the subjects' tactile acuity with an apparatus-based two-point discrimination paradigm, and their cognitive performance by means of the non-verbal Raven-Standard-Progressive matrices test. As expected, there was a significant age-related decline in performance on all 3 tests. With the exception of tactile acuity, this decline was found to be more distinct in female subjects. Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between haptic and cognitive performance for all subjects. Tactile performance, on the contrary, was only significantly correlated with male subjects' haptic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Haptic object recognition is a demanding task in old age, especially when it comes to the exploration of complex, unfamiliar objects. Our data support a disproportionately higher impact of cognition on haptic performance as compared to the impact of tactile acuity. Our findings are in agreement with studies reporting an increase in co-variation between individual sensory performance and general cognitive functioning in old age.

  5. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  6. Factors affecting emotional divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Said Shabanlou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Divorce is the most important factor in the rupture of the most fundamental structures of society, the family.Due to the sensitivity and position of the familyAnd its functions specifically to investigate the factors underlying emotional divorce has of particular importance.Emotional Divorce phenomenon is not a single factor, but rather a set of related factors together led to Emotional Divorce.In this paper the role of psychological factors such as early maladaptive schemas, negative body image, perfectionism is discussed on an emotional divorce.Also quality of life and family relationships of couples with emotional divorce,Such as quality of health, sexual dissatisfaction, ignoring the needs, expectations and opinions of women by men or vice versa,And also social and economic factors such as subcultures families, couples, the quality of social relationships, social networks couple,Economic situation of the families of the couple, financial crisis, unemployment and economic revenues couples studied and some suggestions are presented based on the findings.

  7. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  8. Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Humans and Rodents to Hantaviruses and the Clinical Course of Hantaviral Disease in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Charbonnel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA allele 2 and IL-1β (-511 allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin. The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.

  9. Factors affecting the sensitivity of human-derived esophageal carcinoma cell lines to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Minegaki, Tetsuya; TAKARA, KOHJI; HAMAGUCHI, RYOHEI; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2012-01-01

    Effective chemotherapy against esophageal carcinoma is considered achievable with a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP). However, chemo-therapy remains ineffective in certain patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors which affect sensitivity to 5-FU and CDDP. The effects of factors known to influence sensitivity to 5-FU and CDDP, namely transporters, DNA repair enzymes and metabolic enzymes, were examined. mRNA levels of four transporters, SLC22A2, SLC23...

  10. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  11. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  12. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Qu...

  13. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhib...

  14. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  15. Factors affecting disease-free survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer who receive adjuvant trastuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜNDÜZ, SEYDA; GÖKSU, SEMA SEZGIN; ARSLAN, DENIZ; TATLI, ALI MURAT; UYSAL, MÜKREMIN; GÜNDÜZ, UMUT RIZA; SEVINÇ, MERT MAHSUNI; COŞKUN, HASAN SENOL; BOZCUK, HAKAN; MUTLU, HASAN; SAVAS, BURHAN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. A total of 20–30% of patients with early-stage breast cancer develop recurrence within the first 5 years following diagnosis. Trastuzumab significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early and locally advanced breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect DFS following adjuvant transtuzumab therapy. A total of 62 patients treated with trastuzumab for early and locally advanced breast cancer were included in our study. Data, including pathology, treatment and treatment outcome, rate of recurrence and laboratory tests, were retrospectively collected. There was no significant association between DFS and age, menopausal status, disease stage and hormone receptor status. The median follow-up was 48.4 months. The median DFS of patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab was 64.1 months. In addition, the median DFS was 44.3 vs. 66.8 months in patients with platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≤200 vs. >200, respectively (log-rank test; P=0.001), and 70 vs. 45 months in patients with eosinophil count ≤70 vs. >70×103/mm3 (log-rank test; P=0.001). Our data revealed the prognostic relevance of a decrease in the peripheral blood eosinophil count and PLR value following trastuzumab therapy in breast cancer. PLR and eosinophil count measurements are cost-effective, readily available worldwide, non-invasive and safe. Combined with other markers, such as patient age, tumor stage and tumor histology, may be effectively used for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26623060

  16. The forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 is sumoylated in both human and mouse: sumoylation affects its stability, localization, and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Marongiu

    Full Text Available The FOXL2 forkhead transcription factor is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, and mutated FOXL2 causes the blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES and predisposes to premature ovarian failure. Inactivation of Foxl2 in mice demonstrated its indispensability for female gonadal sex determination and ovary development and revealed its antagonism of Sox9, the effector of male testis development. To help to define the regulatory activities of FOXL2, we looked for interacting proteins. Based on yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that FOXL2 interacts with PIAS1 and UBC9, both parts of the sumoylation machinery. We showed that human FOXL2 is sumoylated in transfected cell lines, and that endogenous mouse Foxl2 is comparably sumoylated. This modification changes its cellular localization, stability and transcriptional activity. It is intriguing that similar sumoylation and regulatory consequences have also been reported for SOX9, the male counterpart of FOXL2 in somatic gonadal tissues.

  17. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  18. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  19. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  20. Factors Affecting the Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Transport of Difenoconazole, Hexaconazole, and Spirodiclofen in Human Caco-2 Cells Following in Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Feng, Rong-Peng; Liu, Yu-Ying; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2017-10-04

    This study examined how gastrointestinal conditions affect pesticide bioaccessibility and intestinal transepithelial transport of pesticides (difenoconazole, hexaconazole, and spirodiclofen) in humans. We used an in vitro model combining human gastric and intestinal digestion, followed with Caco-2 cell model for human intestinal absorption. Bioaccessibility of three tested pesticides ranged from 25.2 to 76.3% and 10.6 to 79.63% in the gastric and intestinal phases, respectively. A marked trend similar to the normal distribution was observed between bioaccessibility and pH, with highest values observed at pH 2.12 in gastric juice. No significant differences were observed with increasing digestion time; however, a significant negative correlation was observed with the solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, following a logarithmic equation. R(2) ranged from 0.9198 to 0.9848 and 0.9526 to 0.9951 in the simulated gastric and intestinal juices, respectively, suggesting that the S/L ratio is also a major factor affecting bioaccessibility. Moreover, significant dose- and time-response effects were subsequently observed for intestinal membrane permeability of difenoconazole, but not for hexaconazole or spirodiclofen. This is the first study to demonstrate the uptake of pesticides by human intestinal cells, aiding quantification of the likely effects on human health and highlighting the importance of considering bioaccessibility in studies of dietary exposure to pesticide residues.

  1. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  2. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  3. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  4. Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

    1998-01-01

    Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation.

  5. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  6. Knockdown of asporin affects transforming growth factor-β1-induced matrix synthesis in human intervertebral annulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our results have verified a functional feedback loop between TGF-β1 and asporin in human intervertebral annulus cells indicating that TGF-β1-induced annulus matrix biosynthesis can be significantly upregulated by knockdown of asporin. Therefore, asporin could be a potential new therapeutic target and inhibition of asporin could be adopted to enhance the anabolic effect of TGF-β1 in human intervertebral annulus cells in degenerative IVD diseases.

  7. A Preliminary Analysis of Human Factors Affecting the Recognition Accuracy of a Discrete Word Recognizer for C3 Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    accuracy. I1. A user’s reccgnition accuracy will be affected oy socio-eccnomic class standing. H. : Past oral-surgery or orthodontal care will not affect...8217 EIGHT NINE GOLF MIKE LAUNCH ’ ’ SHOOT SPEEL CCURSI 2. 11NO SYLLABLE UTTERANCES (35) EUROPE LOGCUT ZERO SEVEN ALPHA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO IOXTRCT HOTEL...Teams During Cc- Operative Proolerr-Solving," Internatinal Journal fl. an- r acniLe Studiies,, Voi.rc, Seiteiyter 19474 l6d t 12. Operating

  8. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  9. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  10. Factors Affecting the Use of Human Tissues in Biomedical Research: Implications in the Design and Operation of a Biorepository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Sexton, Katherine C; Otali, Dennis; Bell, Walter C; Grizzle, William E

    2016-01-01

    The availability of high-quality human tissues is necessary to advance medical research. Although there are inherent and induced limitations on the use of human tissues in research, biorepositories play critical roles in minimizing the effects of such limitations. Specifically, the optimal utilization of tissues in research requires tissues to be diagnosed accurately, and the actual specimens provided to investigators must be carefully described (i.e., there must be quality control of each aliquot of the tissue provided for research, including a description of any damage to tissues). Tissues also should be collected, processed, stored, and distributed (i.e., handled) uniformly under a rigorous quality management system (QMS). Frequently, tissues are distributed to investigators by tissue banks which have collected, processed, and stored them by standard operating procedures (SOPs). Alternatively, tissues for research may be handled via SOPs that are modified to the specific requirements of investigators (i.e., using a prospective biorepository model). The primary goal of any type of biorepository should be to ensure its specimens are of high quality and are utilized appropriately in research; however, approaches may vary based on the tissues available and requested. For example, extraction of specific molecules (e.g., microRNA) to study molecular characteristics of a tissue may require less clinical annotation than tissues that are utilized to identify how the molecular expression might be used to clarify a clinical outcome of a disease or the response to a specific therapy. This review focuses on the limitations of the use of tissues in research and how the design and operations of a tissue biorepository can minimize some of these limitations.

  11. Factors Affecting Children Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, the author points out some theoretical defects of the CPH on which the policy was based. CPH is the conceptualization formulation of the maturational constraints for SLA. The paper, based on the reality of China, put forward some suggestion, which includes the time factor, the teacher's factor and the content factor.

  12. Application of a tracer gas challenge with a human subject to investigate factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, B A; Flynn, M R; Sprankle, J

    1998-05-01

    The results of a "user" tracer gas test were applied to investigate the effects of various parameters on hood containment ability and to evaluate accepted methods to classify hood performance. This user tracer gas test was performed with a human subject standing in front of the hood. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its variability, and cross drafts are important in determining hood leakage. Results indicate that the temporal variability of face velocity may deserve as much consideration as its spatial variability, a parameter more traditionally recognized as being important. The data collected indicate that hoods with horizontally sliding sash doors perform better with the doors positioned to provide a center opening rather than when all of the doors are pushed to one side. The observed smoke patterns suggest that this trend is caused by the location and instability of vortices formed along the perimeter edge when all doors are pushed to one side. The results of manikin tracer gas tests and the user tracer gas test are inconsistent, suggesting that more research is needed to determine how best to evaluate whether a hood protects its users.

  13. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  14. Factors affecting dosimetry in pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V.

    1981-06-01

    Society has made attempts to reduce fetal exposure. Of note recently in the practice of medicine is the use of diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics to supplant radiographic procedures. During the incident at Three Mile Island pregnant women were removed from the immediate vicinity to minimize internal contamination and thus fetal exposure. BRH is currently launching a public campaign to heighten public awareness of the need to question diagnostic x-ray procedures during pregnancy or suspected pregnancy. Despite these admirable intentions our pursuit of knowledge, at least when concerned with the fetal dose from internally deposited radionuclides, has been less than exemplary. There is a paucity of biological information available to determine the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus when the mother's body contains radioactivity, either by intent or by accidental exposure. The government has severely limited fetal research on humans with a net result of preventing the accumulation of valuable information. The delivered placenta, the study of which would yield currently unavailable information, has historically been treated with disrespect. Even in a well regulated American hospital, it is the only human tissue that can be discarded with the impunity. Unpredictable interspecies differences cause animal data to be tenuous and unreliable when quantitatively extrapolated to humans.

  15. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  16. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  17. Maritime Factors Affecting Iberian Security,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    AFECTAN LA SECURIDAD IBERICA FACTORES MARITIMOS QUE AFECTANJ LA SEGURIDAD IBE RICA Introduccion En lo que ataine a la seguridad ibe~rica, la realidad ...fuerzas naval.. sera~n de significado periferico. Aquella part. do la marina do guerra sovietica quo esta ya desplegada en el oce’ano sera/ aumentada ...nota de la realidad consabida de que tanto la hora de introduccion como la escala de emplec de las armas nlu- cleares en una guerra general anibas

  18. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  19. Factors Affecting Temporal and Spatial Variations of Microcystins in Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu, with Potential Risk of Microcystin Contamination to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of the seasonal variation of microcystin (MC concentration was performed in Gonghu Bay (a total of 15 sampling sites of Lake Taihu from January to December 2008. Microcystis spp. biomass and intra-/extracellular MCs were significantly correlated with water temperature, suggesting the importance of temperature in cyanobacterial blooming in the lake. Higher MC concentration was found in summer and autumn, and peaks of Microcystis biomass and intra-/extracellular MC concentrations were all present in October. Spatially, risk of MCs was higher in littoral zones than in the pelagic area. There were significant correlations between N or P concentrations, and Microcystis biomass or MC content, suggesting that N and P levels affected MC production through influencing Microcystis biomass. Intra-/extracellular MCs and Microcystis biomass had negative exponential relationships with TN:TP, and the maximum values all occurred when TN:TP was <25. Multivariate analyses by pcca indicated that intra- and extracellular MC concentrations had better correlations with biological factors (such as Microcystis biomass and chl-a than physicochemical factors. The maximum concentration reached up to 17 µg/L MC-Lreq, considerably higher drinking water safety standard (1 µg/L recommended who. So it is necessary take measures reduce exposure risk of cyanobacterial toxins human beings.

  20. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  1. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  2. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  3. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  4. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  5. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: galectin-1 is involved in differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole N; Moiseeva, Elena P

    2003-01-01

    to be proteins with molecular weights between 20 and 30 kDa, but the identity of the osteoblastic mitogenic factor or factors produced by prostate cancer cells is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the protein profile of conditioned medium (CM) from PC3 cells in the molecular......, by affecting the matrix mineralization....

  6. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area.

  7. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Brini, Anna Teresa [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Girolamo, Laura de [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Niada, Stefania [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal

  8. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  9. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  10. Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers' organizations in the ... Linkages are vital for effective achievement of purposes and most RPOs (80%), had established them ..... Success: Learning from Instructive Experiences in Ru-.

  11. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  12. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58) and two state schools (n= 217)...

  13. EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

  14. Helicopter human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is elevated in metabolically unhealthy obesity and affects lipid deposition, adipogenesis, and adipokine secretion of human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Berti

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.

  17. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  18. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  19. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  20. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  1. Alendronate affects osteoprotegerin/receptor of activator of nuclear factor κB-ligand expression in human marrow stroma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of alendronate on osteoprotegerin(OPG)and receptor of activator of nuclear factor κB-ligand(RANKL)expression in human marrow stroma cells(hMSCs)in vitro.Methods hMSCs were isolated from human marrow,cultured in vitro,and randomly divided into two groups:alendronate group,hMSCs culture fluid containing 1×10-7mol/L alendronate;control group,no special treatment but culturing hMSCs in DMEM.Two weeks after treatment,the expressions of OPG and RANKL were evaluated by RT-PCR and W...

  2. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  3. Factors Affecting the Income of Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of factors affecting the income level of farmers in China,a total of 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipality cities are taken as samples to select 13 factors affecting the income level of farmers,which are arable land area(X1),disaster area(X2),effective irrigation area(X3),fertilizer application(X4),mobile phone(X5),personal computer(X6),people joining in the new rural cooperative medical care(X7),rural investment(X8),household-use machine(X9),agricultural product price(X10),proportion of labor force with above junior high school education(X11),rural delivery route(X12),and rural electricity consumption(X13).At the same time,factor analysis method is used to analyze the factors affecting the income level of farmers.Result shows that common factors affecting the income of farmers are the agricultural production factor F1,the expanded reproduction factor F2,the information use factor F3,and the output reduction factor F4.At present,education degree of farmers and ability of farmers in grasping information have relatively great impact on the income of farmers,and can effectively promote the income growth of farmers.Scores of F1 in Henan,Shandong and Hebei are generally higher;Jiangsu,Guangdong,Zhejiang and Shandong Provinces have relatively high scores of F2;Shanghai,Beijing and Guangdong have relatively high scores of F3;and Hunan,Hubei and Xinjiang have relatively high scores of F4.Finally,countermeasures are put forward to improve the income of farmers based on empirical study.

  4. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  6. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  7. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  8. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  9. Human Sexuality: An Affective Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Kathi; Gumaer, Jim

    1976-01-01

    The affective education program on human sexuality in this study increased students' awareness about the human body without increasing feelings of anxiety. The sessions provided an atmosphere which helped students understand themselves better and increase their knowledge about personal interests. (Author)

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE IN STUDENTS' LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenPanyang

    2004-01-01

    It is one thing that currently in China English learning persists through a student's whole study life, but it is another how long his persistence, an important factor in any language learning, can last. The factors affecting a student's persistence in this regard practically merits our attention. This paper traces and observes twenty students chosen by random. The research conducted here included their study motivation, academic excellence, psychological aspects relating to language learning and established corresponding models showing how these factors affect a student's persistence in his English learning. Although a small sample number was taken,of different students in China.the twenty students were typical of different students in China. The students' backgrounds were varied including both educational and environmental. Some suggestions are given indicating three separate but inter-related ways in how to further develop a student's persistence.

  11. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  12. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  14. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  15. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  16. Factors affecting home delivery in rural Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Schellenberg, Joanna A; Mushi, Adiel K.; Obrist, Brigit; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of factors affecting place of delivery have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study combines an understanding of gender issues relating to health and help-seeking behaviour with epidemiological knowledge concerning place of delivery. METHODS In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to explore determinants of home delivery in southern Tanzania. Quantitative data were ...

  17. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  18. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  19. How Does Human Capital Affect on Growth in Different Economies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safdari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to investigate how human capital can affect growth in different economies. Approach: For this purpose, we investigated the model, which the growth rate of total factor productivity depends on human capital stock level using a cross-country panel approach for 104 countries in five-year intervals during the 1980-2005. Results: The finding of this study showed that human capital through its effect on the speed of technology adoption from abroad has positive effect and significantly on growth in total samples of countries while human capital directly in developed countries enter negatively inverse developing countries. Conclusion: Moreover human capital affects growth in different ways it has more effects on per capital growth through technology/catch-up component than domestic innovation component. Moreover human capital of different ways has different effects on growth but in total it has positive effect on economic growth.

  20. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham

    2014-06-01

    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  2. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  3. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  4. BAY 81-8973, a full-length recombinant factor VIII: Human heat shock protein 70 improves the manufacturing process without affecting clinical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas Enriquez, Monika; Thrift, John; Garger, Stephen; Katterle, Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    BAY 81-8973 is a full-length, unmodified recombinant human factor VIII (FVIII) approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. BAY 81-8973 has the same amino acid sequence as the currently marketed sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII (rFVIII-FS) product and is produced using additional advanced manufacturing technologies. One of the key manufacturing advances for BAY 81-8973 is introduction of the gene for human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the rFVIII-FS cell line. HSP70 facilitates proper folding of proteins, enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and potentially impacts rFVIII glycosylation. HSP70 expression in the BAY 81-8973 cell line along with other manufacturing advances resulted in a higher-producing cell line and improvements in the pharmacokinetics of the final product as determined in clinical studies. HSP70 protein is not detected in the harvest or in the final BAY 81-8973 product. However, because this is a new process, clinical trial safety assessments included monitoring for anti-HSP70 antibodies. Most patients, across all age groups, had low levels of anti-HSP70 antibodies before exposure to the investigational product. During BAY 81-8973 treatment, 5% of patients had sporadic increases in anti-HSP70 antibody levels above a predefined threshold (cutoff value, 239 ng/mL). No clinical symptoms related to anti-HSP70 antibody development occurred. In conclusion, addition of HSP70 to the BAY 81-8973 cell line is an innovative technology for manufacturing rFVIII aimed at improving protein folding and expression. Improved pharmacokinetics and no effect on safety of BAY 81-8973 were observed in clinical trials in patients with hemophilia A. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Affecting Current and Future CSA Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vassalos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is one of the widely used direct marketing strategies for small- and midsized farmers. CSA programs are an important option for sustainable production and consumption. It helps growers generate income (improve financial security and consumers obtain fresh local foods. Sustaining and growing CSA participation is critical in order to continue enjoying these benefits. We used a national online survey in conjunction with discrete choice models to investigate the impact of demographic characteristics, lifestyle preferences, and different information outlets on the probability that a consumer is or will become a CSA member. The results indicate that the factors affecting current and future CSA participation differ substantially. While none of the demographic characteristics has a significant impact on current CSA participation, some of them significantly affect the probability that a consumer will become a CSA member in the future. Lifestyle preferences have a significant impact on current and future CSA participation. Although none of the information outlets examined affect current CSA participation, word-of-mouth and online sources significantly influence the probability that a consumer will join a CSA program in the future. These findings may have important implications for policy makers’ and CSA farm managers’ efforts to sustain future CSA development.

  6. An inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor function does not affect the ability of human papillomavirus 11 to form warts in the xenografted immunodeficient mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Tanya; Howett, Mary K; Welsh, Patricia A; Patrick, Susan D; Neely, Elizabeth B; Flanagan, Neil; Pollack, Vincent A; Pustilnik, Leslie R; Moyer, Jim; Perros, Manos

    2007-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) has been shown to be induced and activated in cells infected with HPV, suggesting that it may play a physiological role in viral replication or in the formation or maintenance of warts. To investigate this possibility, human foreskin tissue was infected with HPV11 and transplanted onto the renal capsule and the dermis of immunodeficient mice. The animals were treated orally or topically with the potent EGFr inhibitor CP-545130, with treatment starting either immediately following graft attachment, or following a 70 day period to allow development of warts. The rate of appearance of warts, wart size and number were monitored. In addition, we measured intra-lesional HPV replication levels and examined the morphology of the graft tissues. Analysis of the results showed no significant difference between placebo and compound-treated groups, despite high levels of compound present in the graft tissue. We conclude that EGFr kinase activity is not required for the development and maintenance of HPV-11-induced warts in this model.

  7. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  8. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  9. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  10. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and

  11. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  12. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  13. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  15. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  16. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  17. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  19. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  20. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  1. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  2. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  3. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  4. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  5. Human factors and simulation in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W

    2017-09-19

    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida on May 16, 2017 focused on the use of human factors and simulation in the field of emergency medicine. The human factors discipline is often underutilized within emergency medicine but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of human factors, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for human factors work in emergency medicine, and how emergency medicine can collaborate with human factors professionals to affect change. Implementing human factors in emergency medicine through healthcare simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between human factors professionals and emergency medicine, such as in this breakout group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  7. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  8. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  9. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of β-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  10. Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2010-02-28

    Novozym 234 was the most frequently used enzyme for production of Rhizoctonia solani protoplasts. Since manufacture of this enzyme was discontinued in the late 1990s, a new procedure was developed by testing lytic enzymes from Sigma and by examining factors affecting protoplast formation. The combination of 20 mg/mL Driselase and 10mg/mL lysing enzyme was effective in releasing protoplasts from R. solani. The optimal condition for enzyme treatment of mycelium was incubation at 37 degrees C for 15 min followed by 34 degrees C for 105 min. The amount of protoplasts produced was positively correlated with growth rate and negatively correlated with mycelial density. Under favorable conditions, R. solani mycelia released 1.68 x 10(6) protoplasts/mL that is comparable with that produced with Novozym 234. Among various media tested, the best solid medium for protoplast regeneration was 1% V-8 juice agar, while the best liquid medium was 10% potato dextrose broth. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  12. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  13. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home ... Your Pregnancy FAQ027, September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy ...

  14. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  15. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Cytoplasmic Domain Affects ErbB Protein Degradation by the Lysosomal and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Glogowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic domains of EGF-like ligands, including EGF cytoplasmic domain (EGFcyt, have important biological functions. Using specific constructs and peptides of human EGF cytoplasmic domain, we demonstrate that EGFcyt facilitates lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation, and this coincided with growth inhibition of human thyroid and glioma carcinoma cells. EGFcyt and exon 22–23-encoded peptide (EGF22.23 enhanced procathepsin B (procathB expression and procathB-mediated lysosomal degradation of EGFR/ErbB1 as determined by inhibitors for procathB and the lysosomal ATPase inhibitor BafA1. Presence of mbEGFctF, EGFcyt, EGF22.23, and exon 23-encoded peptides suppressed the expression of the deubiqitinating enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1. This coincided with hyperubiquitination of total cellular proteins and ErbB1/2 and reduced proteasome activity. Upon small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of endogenously expressed UCH-L1, a similar hyperubiquitinylation phenotype, reduced ErbB1/2 content, and attenuated growth was observed. The exon 23-encoded peptide region of EGFcyt was important for these biologic actions. Structural homology modeling of human EGFcyt showed that this molecular region formed an exposed surface loop. Peptides derived from this EGFcyt loop structure may aid in the design of novel peptide therapeutics aimed at inhibiting growth of cancer cells.

  17. Kidney growth in normal and diabetic mice is not affected by human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Cingel-Ristic; B.F. Schrijvers; A.K. van Vliet (Arlène); R. Rasch; V.K. Han; S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); A. Flyvbjerg (Allan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractInsulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) accumulates in the kidney following the onset of diabetes, initiating diabetic renal hypertrophy. Increased renal IGF-I protein content, which is not reflected in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, suggests that renal IGF-I accumulation is

  18. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  20. Factors affecting pelvic rotation in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established. This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73–1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87–1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = −0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = −0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR. There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation

  1. Identification of Factors Affecting Educational Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the variables that tend to affect educational performance among ... The population for the study consisted of students of Lagos State University, ... These were: Circumstances, Parental Authority, Socio- Economic Label, Self ...

  2. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  3. Human Factors and IT Competitive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the system of relationships that may explain the impact of information technology (IT on competitive advantage. In this social and economic system, the study focuses on the human factors that play a key role in IT effectiveness. This is a first step to empirically specifying which human resources can complement the effect of IT on organizations. The paper revisits the main theoretical frameworks that can explain the research issue and proposes an empirical model to test the hypotheses. The results, obtained from a Data Envelopment Analysis, show that there are some human factors that positively affect the influence of IT utilization on competitive advantage. Nevertheless, other structural, industrial and internal factors may play an important role in the relationship.

  4. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  5. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of zooplankton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Massa Lagoon, zooplankton, environmental factors. ... and Lucena, 2001) have also mentioned the influence of .... positive correlation with water temperature (r = 0.41) and .... carnivore species copepod, Acanthocyclops robustus.

  6. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  7. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF WILD UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Wildlife Science - Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ... The major factors considered are vegetation, water, fire, cattle grazing, ... reproduction of ungulates on three ranches and then to relate these data to ...

  9. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  10. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  11. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low...

  12. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  13. Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa N

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

  14. Factors Affecting Postsurgery Hip Fracture Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Wallace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After hip fracture surgery, patients seldom return to their prefracture functional state and there is a 43% rate of mortality and institutionalisation of postsurgery hip fracture patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and psychosocial factors that may hinder postsurgery hip fracture patients from returning to previous functionality. Factors that were identified as being associated with postsurgical outcomes were age, muscle strength, prefracture living arrangements, number of daily medications taken, oxygen levels, fracture type and location, haemoglobin (Hb level, wait time prior to surgery, length of hospital stay (LOS, and dementia or depression.

  15. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  16. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sec...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  17. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  18. Factors affecting the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌德

    2001-01-01

    @@Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) occurs more frequently in young males than in females. The prevalence of AS in Taiwan, according to our previous study, is about 0.3%.1 AS mainly affects the spine, however, it can also result in peripheral arthritis that occurs in the toes, ankles, knees, hip joints and the tendon and ligaments around those joints.2 In addition, the spine of some AS patients may develop kyphoscoliosis due to late diagnosis or failure to cooperate in following the routine medication and exercises prescribed by their doctors.

  19. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  20. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  1. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  2. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  3. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  4. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  5. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  6. Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam

    The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Avian Reproduction and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Darcy Fay Kato

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate timing of reproduction is crucial to animals’ reproductive success and fitness. Animals living in unpredictable environments do not constrain their breeding to one season, but rather breed any time of the year in which good conditions occur. These animals, termed “opportunistic” breeders, cannot predict when good conditions will occur based on the seasons, and must instead respond quickly to proximate environmental factors to successfully breed and raise young. Animals may resp...

  8. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  9. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  10. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  11. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan FERENCZ; František JÚN; Dušan KEVICKÝ

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  12. Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. ... the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous ... structure and gender are the significantly effective factors on dental anxiety and fear.

  13. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  14. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  15. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  16. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  17. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  18. Factors affecting frontline workers' satisfaction with supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2009-02-01

    Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision.

  19. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  20. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  1. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  2. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  3. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  4. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  5. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  6. Quran Literacy Barriers and Factors Affecting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Holy Quran is the greatest gift of God to mankind and is the most precious legacy of So, in order to govern a society guided by Quran and the teachings of Quran by life style based on it, it is necessary that academic community pays attention to Quran education on their pattern Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate Quran literacy of the academic community. This study is intended to provide information to the student community planning principles for designing and implementing Quran based activities. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. A researcher-made questionnaire with content validation was used to collect data. The population consisted of 840 students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive statistics by SPSSS 11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Analysis of the findings indicated that 37.2% of the participants were male and 62.8% were females. Thirty percent were non-native students and 69.6% of them were natives. More than 80% of the participants had Quran literacy. The results  showed no significant relationship between academic major (p>%94, gender( p>%07 and familiarity with Quran and being native or non-native( p>%79  Individuals who had Tajvid voice and tone literacy with 35.5%, common meanings and interpretations with 23.1%, translation with 12.9%, sound and tone with 13.4% and Tajvid with 1.5%, respectively. Determinants affecting on Quran literacy includes father’s job, school education, high interest in Quran education and family members’ familiarity with Quran. The most frequent obstacle include:  educational priorities, lack of time, apathy and no interest in Quran. Conclusion: Since Quran is for everyone and Quran activities are distributed among different academic majors, no significant relationship was found between gender (p>%07, academic major (p>%94 and being native or non-native (p>%79. As a result, paying attention to Quran verses

  7. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  8. Toward an affective pedagogy of human rights education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Ruyu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas under the Confucian tradition. The paper’s first section explores the thinking of three philosophers - Rorty, Merleau-Ponty, and Beardsley - who serve as sources for APHRE. The second section explains how their concepts contribute to APHRE’s development. In the third section, a practical curricular framework is presented. Finally, the paper discusses implementing the framework and concludes by recognizing APHRE as a pedagogic approach for crossing borders among nationalities, cultures, and languages

  9. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  10. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  11. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  12. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei

    2004-01-01

    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  13. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pascal Belin; Shirley Fecteau; Ian Charest; Nicholas Nicastro; Marc D Hauser; Jorge L Armony

    2008-01-01

    .... Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys...

  14. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  15. Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca J.; Dagostino, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination,…

  16. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  17. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  18. The Application of Affective Factors to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩茹

    2015-01-01

    Education should aim at promoting students’all-round development and unifying cognitive and emotional aspects. However, the reality is that teachers pay too much attention on language cognitive factors and neglect the influence of emotional factors in language learning. This article tries to discuss how to use the affective factors in English teaching so as to enhance students’ comprehensive development.

  19. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  20. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  1. Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2007-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

  2. Factors Affecting Food Safety of Animal Origin in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Indonesian Regulation Number 7 year 1996, food is defined as everything derived from biological sources and water, either processed and non-processed materials to be used as food and drinks, including food additives, food raw materials and other materials for preparation process, processing and production of food or drinks . Furthermore, food safety is a condition and an approach required to prevent the food from contamination of pathogenic microbes, toxic compounds and other xenobiotics that may affect and hazardous to human health . Food safety is basically a complexity and close related to policy . toxicity, microbiology, chemicals, nutrition status, health and public welfare . On the other hand, food safety problem is a dynamic process following the changing of public society including socioculture, health, development of science and technology as well as everything related to human life . In general, there are three main stages of process as the critical point in food safety of animal origin, namely : (1 preharvest ; (2 production ; and (3 postharvest . The main factors of these stages are discussed in this paper .

  3. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  4. Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

  5. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  6. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  7. Spatial factors affecting wayfinding and orientation in a shopping mall

    OpenAIRE

    Doğu, Güler Ufuk

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. The aim of this thesis is to study the main factors which affect the wayfinding and orientation of individuals in a shopping mall and explain how their behaviors are influenced by these factors. The spatial and individual factors and their properties are defined. Among the spatiaf factors, shape and dimensions, light and color, bu...

  8. On the Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程墨芳

    2010-01-01

    The paper talks about the effective factors functioning in the field of education,psychology and foreign language teaching.And it also specifically elaborates the principles of helping language learners overcome negative affections and develop positive ones.

  9. Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the College of ... students, respondents from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were ... between doctors' career expectations and the country's healthcare needs.

  10. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    Regression analysis showed that only two of the variables; level of education ... were predicted to have significant relationship with the yield of oil palm. ..... Table 5: Multiple Regression analysis of factors affecting oil palm production in.

  11. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.

  12. Factors affecting the consumer trust for shopping through electronic media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Ariel Sánchez Alzate; Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo

    2016-01-01

      In this article the main factors affecting consumer trust in online purchases are proposed, it demonstrates how consumers feel less fear and more willingness to purchase through electronic media...

  13. Socio-economic factors affecting the participation of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the socio-economic factors affecting women's ... About 41% attended up to secondary school level of education while 4% attended tertiary ... would go a long way in removing some of the barriers to effective participation.

  14. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small Holder Farmers ... 61.3% of the respondents had a minimum of secondary school education. ... Also, it can be inferred that effective utilization of loan is directly influenced by ...

  15. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A ... In Ethiopia, the teaching and learning process of map reading skills is based on ... identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school ...

  16. Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation Of Major ... Level of respondents' education, participation in on-farm trials, contact with extension ... The study therefore recommended intensification of adequate and effective ...

  17. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian University Students. ... Design: Cross-sectional survey. ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of ...

  18. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre ... the objective of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the poor and commonages. ... marketing and management to adequately service the land reform programs.

  19. Humanistic Approach and Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗馨

    2010-01-01

    For a long time,Chinese EFL teaching has been following the teacher-centered model,which emphasizes the cognitive aspect but ignores the affective factors. So "emotional illiteracy" is a common phemenon and harmful to language learning and students' all-round development. This essay lays special stress on humanistic approach and analyzes the influence of some important affective factors on language learning,for the purpose of inviting teachers' attention to students' emotions in fulfilling their teaching task.

  20. Analysis of Affective Factors and Corresponding Solution in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松

    2009-01-01

    Affect is the related issues that influence the students' learning progress and result, including one's interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on. Affective factors are the motivation for the students' learning. In the past few decades, people have always been pursuing the effective methods of teaching, from the Grammar Translation Method, to Communicative Language Teaching. Now people start to focus on affective teaching and have got some good result.

  1. VOL 6. NO. 1 2015 EXTRINSIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    The general objective of this study was to identify the extrinsic factors affect employee ... individual mechanisms that directly affect job performance in an organization(Colquitt, ... Benjamin (2010) posits that fringe benefits are significant and positive ... Mouly (2009) asserts that questionnaires add value to research because.

  2. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  3. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  4. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  5. Study design for the identification of loci affecting human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, B.T.; Kluft, C.; Bots, M.L.; Lagaay, A.M.; Brand, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Knook, D.L.; Slagboom, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The genetic component of human longevity is estimated at 30%. Which genes are involved in determining human longevity, however, is largely unknown. Genes that may affect human survival are susceptibility loci for major age related pathologies. Many studies are being performed to identify such loci f

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING CHINESE POST-GRADUATE EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL PROFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The article investigates factors affecting Chinese postgraduate EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Little practice, fear of errors and unscientific classroom management are found to be the major factors. Also an overemphasis on written English instruction seems to be another root cause. After the discussion of the results of this investigation a series of methods are suggested for reference.

  7. Genetic and environmental factors affecting the coumarin anticoagulant level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Visser (Loes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis introductory chapter has illustrated that various factors, such as genetic factors, drugs, diet and intercurrent diseases may affect anticoagulation levels. Most of the clinical and pharmacological data related to coumarin anticoagulants have so far been obtained from studying warfa

  8. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  9. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  10. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  11. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi......-public place. Our analysis of the interactions with casual users shows that it is not enough to focus on modeling behavior that is similar to successful human interactions but that we have to take more deviant ways of interaction like abuse and impoliteness into account when we send robots into the users......’ environments. The analysis uses impoliteness theory as an analytical toolbox and exemplifies which strategies are employed by users in unexpected encounters with a humanoid robot....

  12. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  13. Design and Factors Affecting State Supervision of the Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jeżowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that affect the development of the models of financial market state supervision and to identify the factors that have influenced the evolution of the supervision model in Poland. Methodology: critical analysis of literature, legal provisions and documents. Findings: The completely integrated and the fully dispersed model of supervision are located at the opposite ends of the spectrum. A variety of the hybrid models can be identified between them. Factors that affect supervision organization are both economic and non-economic. Factors that have influenced the Polish model of supervision include political aspects, administration costs and, in due course, also the development of the financial market. Research implications: The variety of state supervision structures, combined with the ambiguity and multiplicity of factors that affect their evolution create a new research challenge. Significant problems in accessing documents have been identified. Originality: The author presents an overview of models of state supervision of financial markets and factors affecting the evolution and structure of supervision. Conclusions drawn from the analysis were used to identify factors that influence the evolution and supervision of the Polish financial market.

  14. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  15. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  16. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  17. Factors affecting acceptance of smartphone application for management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2015-04-01

    The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general.

  18. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  19. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-09

    Dec 9, 2015 ... In this experiment, the researchers studied animals ... if proper withdrawal times are not observed, which could negatively affect human health. ... Briefly, two lines of sheep that differ in reproductive performance were developed from 1986. .... with other fixed effects were excluded from the operational model.

  20. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American

  1. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2017-03-06

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  3. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  4. Factors Affecting the Value Relevance of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...

  5. [Factors affecting the educational environment in undergraduate medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave P, Guisela; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortiz M, Liliana; Bastías V, Nancy; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Educational environment has an important effect on the quality of learning and student satisfaction in medicine. Most of previous studies have been conducted using questionnaires that assess the phenomenon considering overall dimensions, without paying attention to the specific manifestations of this topic, especially those aspects that are related to the protagonists of the learning process: teachers and students. To describe factors that affect the educational environment in the preclinical Medical formation, according to Medical teachers in Concepción, Chile. Qualitative study, using the Grounded theory method. Semi-structured interviews were performed to 10 medical teachers in Concepcion, Chile. They were selected by theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed using open coding. Four emerging categories about the factors that affect the learning environment were identified: Personal factors of students, academic factors of students, personal factors of teachers and academic factors of teachers. According to interviewed teachers, both personal factors in teachers and students that promote a positive learning environment are related with an attitude oriented towards others and communication skills. Academic factors are related with the responsible exercise of student and teacher roles and with the promotion of participation in the educational process.

  6. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2011) > ... companies; and determine motivating factors affecting employees' job performance in selected oil ... promotion ( x = 4.86), random sack of workers ( x = 4.40) and absence of staff training ( x = 4.07).

  7. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  8. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  9. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  10. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  11. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  12. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  13. Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as

  14. Factors Affecting Entrapment in Escalating Conflicts: The Importance of Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Joel; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Conducted two studies to test the notion that various factors, i.e., situation-personal, may differentially affect degrees of entrapment (amount invested) depending upon the point in time at which they are introduced. The results of both studies suggest amount invested depends upon timing in the entrapment process. (RC)

  15. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a rural ... to gender (p=0.889, OR=1.04; 0.55-2.00), educational level (p=0.707, OR=1.16; 0.50-2.79) and ... Identified barriers to access and effective use of qualitative health care ...

  16. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  17. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ... The study established the following: Students who have positive attitude, interest and ... OTHER RESOURCES. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. An Analysis of the Social Distance Factor Affecting Language Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宇

    2015-01-01

    The social distance is the main social factor that influences language use.This paper explores how the social distance affects language use in different ways based on solidarity,status and formality,in order to achieve a better understanding of language use.

  19. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  20. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  1. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  2. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  3. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Stress Levels Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current research shows that stress levels among the teaching personnel has ... to determine: (1) factors that affect stress levels of teachers in primary school as a ... and gender of teachers; (2) coping strategies that are used by these teachers ...

  5. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  6. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  7. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  8. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  9. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  11. Intestinal microbial ecology and environmental factors affecting necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Murgas Torrazza

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61% two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3% 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.

  12. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  13. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  14. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  15. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  16. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  17. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  18. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  19. Factors Affecting the Disposition of Ivermectin in the Target Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffont, Céline Marielle

    2002-01-01

    It was the aim of the thesis to contribute to the understanding of the diverse factors involved in the pharmacokinetics of ivermectin, a very potent antiparasitic drug widely used in both human and veterinary medicine. Ivermectin is extensively eliminated in faeces as parent drug and less active

  20. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  1. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  2. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N Zozus

    Full Text Available Medical record abstraction (MRA is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA.Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature.Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted. Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered.The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated

  3. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  4. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  5. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER E-READING TO EMBRACE AUTO E-INSURANCE IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Bromideh

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of attention has been taken to e-readiness from customer point of view, despite extensive studies in e-readiness topics. This study examined the factors influencing customer e-readiness to adopt e-insurance. we used a questionnaire and analyzed the data uing SEM. We found that age and human interaction negatively affected customer e-readiness and perceived compatibilty, ease of use and role clarity were at the top of positively influencing factors.

  7. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    . A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients...... to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially...

  8. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  9. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  10. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-Cheng Luo; Jean-François Bilodeau; Anne Monique Nuyt; Fraser, William D; Pierre Julien; Francois Audibert; Lin Xiao; Carole Garofalo; Emile Levy

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24–28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), p...

  11. Human factors in healthcare level one

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    The majority of errors, litigation, and complaints in the health service are due to 'human factors', yet the term is still not widely understood and is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to team training or communication skills. Although including these, the subject of 'human factors' goes far beyond this to look at systems, environmental influences, and interactions with equipment, in addition to self-awareness and human interaction. All of these aspects are captured inHuman Factors in Healthcare and are built into a new framework: the SHEEP model, which breaks down into five key areas:

  12. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  13. Investigating the factors affecting knowledge management application in new ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shahidifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is extensively used in large, medium and small firms. However, the larger the scale, the more knowledge management practices might be used in organizations. Unfortunately, application of knowledge management in new ventures is not sufficiently discussed in the extant literature. Thus this paper attempts to concentrate on this issue. Therefore, environmental, organizational and individual factors are enumerated and their effect on application of knowledge management in new ventures is examined. Findings revealed that all these factors significantly affect knowledge management application is new ventures.

  14. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  15. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  16. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  17. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  18. Success factors affecting E-business:case Taobao

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    E-business has aroused great concern and become a hot topic in both information technology and business field. With many companies’ success in doing e-business, there are also abundant of failure cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the success factors that can affect e-business so as to provide beneficial guidance to companies. Virtually, many researchers have also studied e-business relating to its success from different perspectives and in various areas. However, ...

  19. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  20. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  1. Classification tree analysis of factors affecting parking choices in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban, K.; Pande, A

    2015-01-01

    Qatar has experienced a significant population growth in the past decade. The growth has been accompanied by an increase in automobile ownership rates leading to parking problems especially in the capital city of Doha. The objective of this study was to find the factors affecting people's choice of parking in this rich developing country when different parking options are available. Two commercial centers located in the city of Doha, Qatar were selected for this study; the City Center mall an...

  2. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  3. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  4. What makes listening difficult? Factors affecting second language listening comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vocabulary. Additional speech rate measures in the literature include realized phones per second (or the actual consonant and vowel segments in the...differences in neuromuscular control. At the level of languages, studies such as Robb et al. (2004) raise the possibility that differences in vowel ...factors may reflect aspects of the individual or the spoken text. For example, Murray and Arnott’s (1993) review article on human vocal emotion suggests

  5. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  6. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  7. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing.

  8. Factors affecting enamel and ceramic wear: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suck; Delong, Ralph; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-04-01

    Enamel wear by ceramics may adversely affect maintenance of the vertical dimension of occlusion and can increase the potential for thermal sensitivity. In this article, factors related to the abrasion of enamel by dental ceramics are critically reviewed. Concepts of physical, microstructural, chemical, and surface characteristics of dental ceramics on wear are presented based on research published since 1950. A PubMed search for key words (wear of enamel and ceramic) was supplemented with a hand search to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published in English. Based on the literature, it can be concluded that material factors, their proper handling, and control of the patient's intrinsic risk factors related to wear are critically important to the reduction of enamel wear by dental ceramics.

  9. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  10. Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Florke, M.F.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  11. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.; Masaki, Y.; Schewe, J.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Wisser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  12. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.; Masaki, Y.; Schewe, J.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  13. Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Florke, M.F.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  14. Factors affecting the long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Hang; REN Liang; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decades, the one-year graft survival of cadaveric renal allografts has been markedly improved,but their long-term survival has not kept pace. The attrition rate of renal allografts surviving after one year remains almost unchanged. The causes for late graft loss are multiple. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive factors that impact long-term survival of grafts after kidney transplantation.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 524 kidney transplantation patients who were treated in our hospital between January 1991 and January 2000, including 254 patients who had lived more than 10 years with normal graft function (long survival group), and 270 cases whose renal graft had survived less than 10 years (control group). Specifically, we analyzed 10 factors that may potentially affect graft survival by both univariate and Logistic model multivariate analyses to pinpoint the independent risk factors.Results Univariate analyses showed that no significant differences existed in the age or gender of recipients, dialysis time, lymphotoxin levels, or cold ischemia time between the two groups. However, the ratio of delayed graft function and acute rejection, and the uric acid levels of patients in the long survival group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.01). Furthermore, we found that the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation and the histocompatibility antigen match of donor-recipients for patients within the long survival group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.01 ). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that these four factors were independent risk factors that impact patient survival.Conclusions The ratios of delayed graft function and acute rejection, the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation, and serum uric acid levels are very important factors that affect the long-term survival of renal grafts.

  15. Survey on Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Multiple sclerosis Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system. The identification of effective factors and patient education on the prevention of exposure to these factors can be effective in reducing relapses. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors that affect recurrence in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 MS patients referred to the MS Association of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The study participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and a 40-item researcher-made questionnaire concerning factors affecting the recurrence of MS. The 40-item questionnaire consisted of 4 domains personal factors, medical condition, pharmaceutical conditions, and environmental factors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 21 and Mann Whitney, Pearson correlation, Kruskal Wallis, and chi-square statistical tests. Results: Among the patients, 21/4% were male and 78/6% female. Most patients were 20-29 years old. The highest prevalence of recurrence of MS was observed in the summer (70.8% and in August (50.3%. There was no significant relationship between patient’s gender and their views about the relationship between infections, fatigue, and heat and recurrence of MS. However, a higher rate of women believed stress (P < 0.029 and sexual development (P < 0.001 to be effective on the incidence of MS recurrence, in comparison to men. Conclusion: Most patients with MS are women, and they believe stress to be more effective on the incidence of MS attack recurrence. Therefore, nurses, as the primary care educators, can improve the patients’ capability, disease management, and quality of life through training of stress management techniques.

  16. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  17. The use of human resources literature regarding the relationship between affect and student academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In human resources literature affect, or affectivity, has been identified as contributing, either negatively or positively, to different forms of performance in a range of different contexts.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically test theory that predicts that affect can influence performance; in this case the academic performance of students in the South African higher education context.Motivation for the study: Human resources job performance theory seems to offer important insights when extended into other contexts of individual performance. The specific potential influence of affect on student performance is unclear in this context.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability comprehensive sample of all students registered for first-year accountancy (n = 719 was used. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis and bivariate tests of association were used to empirically test theory predicting relationships between affect and student academic performance.Main findings: In general the findings support the predications derived from affect theory, that negative affect is negatively associated with student performance and that positive affect is positively associated with student performance. Yet, the results suggest that affect might not, in this context, reflect the two-dimensional theoretical structure. In particular, negative affectivity might better be considered as a three-dimensioned construct.Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that proactive measures may need to be taken by higher education institutions to support first-year students affectively. Student advisors or counsellors should be appointed, with a specific focus on providing support for student anxiety and other contextual frustrations to which individuals with higher levels of negative affect might be particularly vulnerable.Contribution: These findings provide new insights into the importance of

  18. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  19. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  20. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  1. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  2. Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2011-01-01

    The Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design covers basic human factors issues relating to screen design, input devices, and information organization and processing, as well as addresses newer features which will become prominent in the next generation of Web technologies. These include multimodal interfaces, wireless capabilities, and agents that can improve convenience and usability. Written by leading researchers and/or practitioners in the field, this volume reflects the varied backgrounds and interests of individuals involved in all aspects of human factors and Web design and includes chap

  3. Selecting measures for human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H

    1992-08-01

    Selecting measures is a necessary component of human factors research. Proper selection must take into account the representation problem (how is the assignment of numbers to objects or phenomena justified?) and the uniqueness problem (to what degree is this assignment unique?). Other key human factors measurement issues include subject representativeness, variable representativeness, and setting representativeness. It is difficult to create a single measure that captures essential characteristics of complex systems. Several examples illustrate how theory can guide measurement selection in such diverse human factors research as vigilance, turning off warning alarms, information requirements for military command centers, subjective workload, heart-rate signal analysis, and heat stress in nuclear power plants.

  4. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  5. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  6. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  7. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  8. Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.

  9. 跨国经营人力资源配置策略选择的影响因素研究%Factors Affecting the Selection of Managerial Models in Human Resources Allocation in Multinational Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗舒哲

    2012-01-01

    针对全球化背景下跨国经营企业人员配置选择时受到的内外部影响因素,进行剖析。梳理了在内部动因和外部环境的双重影响下,跨国经营企业在人员母国化、本土化和全球化配置策略之间进行选择所面临的理念、文化、法律、成本、沟通和控制等方面的利弊。跨国经营企业在综合权衡内外部条件后,应依据其竞争优势选取有利的人力资源配置模式,而这一配置模式会随着跨国经营企业发展进程、跨国经营能力的提升而发展变化。%This paper analyzes the internal and external factors that influence the selection of strategies in allocating human resources in multinational companies.Many multinational companies are confronting difficulties in making decisions on how to allocate human resources.In terms of conceptions,cultures,legal systems,costs,communications,controls,etc.,this paper summarizes the pros and cons in selecting different managerial models between expatriation,localization and globalization.After integrating the internal and external factors,and considering their competitive advantages in multinational operations,many companies will choose favorable allocation models.However,such allocation models will have to be adjusted as multinational companies expand and their multinational operations improve.

  10. Determination of factors affecting seafood consumption pattern and consumption frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tolga Tolon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current seafood consumption pattern, consumer profile and factors affecting seafood consumption amount and frequency of the consumers residing in coastal region (İzmir, mixed region (Adana and countryside region (Ankara of Turkey were researched in this study. It is aimed to provide source to researchers and relevant institutions who are willing to guide the future sectoral initiatives and conduct more extensive research on seafood consumer habits. In this context, the research population was determined according to their distance to the sea and their populations by purposive sampling method. 43 % of total 400 survey was conducted in Ankara, 36% in İzmir and 21% in Adana by face to face interviews. According to the survey results, 6% of respondents never consume seafood, 25% once a month, 28% once every two weeks, and 42% consume once and more than once in a week. The most seafood consumption frequency was identified in Izmir. Nearly 90% of consumers in the entire regions prefer to consume seafood in fresh type. According to the answers of all consumers 4 major factors affecting seafood consumption preferences and habits in a negative way were "high price, cannot be easily found in the market, not recognition of seafood varieties and disfavor of the flavor of seafood". The relationship between frequency of seafood consumption and education level of consumer’s variables is determined as linear and strong but the relationship between consumer age and seafood consumption frequency is determined as reverse. On the factors affecting choice of seafood consumption in a positive way, 71% of consumers stated the beneficial to health perception and taste of seafood as the most important reason for their preference. Therefore, the relationship between consumption trend and beneficial to health perception of seafood is determined as linear and strong.

  11. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  12. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  13. Factors Affecting Fertility – New Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Atif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates long and short term determinants of fertility rates in Malaysia based on basic macroeconomic variables for the period 1980-2014 using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL method. The study reveals that over a long term period, all the selected variables (GDP, infant mortality rate, females’ education and employment have had significant and negative impact on total fertility rates. Whilst during the short term period, only the infant mortality rate has had a positive impact. Since population growth is partly determined by fertility rates, efforts to increase population in Malaysia should consider factors that affect those rates.

  14. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  15. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  16. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  17. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  18. Econometric Analysis of Factors Affecting Special Purpose Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanhui; Cai Fei

    2003-01-01

    The forest estate is one of our most important natural resources. It is also the material foundation for sustainable forestry development in China. It is a timely topic of concern within the forestry community and touches the entire society. From a social economic point of view, the sustainable development has been promoted by the efficient use of the forest resources in a continuing improvement of the environment. The objective of the present analysis is to measure the effect of various factors, such as population, economic development and related policies on the use of the forest resources. The 29 provinces of Mainland China are classified in three regions, based largely on their level of economic development. For each region, the factors which affect the area of special purpose forests (SPF) are analyzed. Some recommendations are made for further improvement.

  19. A review of factors affecting antler composition and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Estevez, Jose A; Ceacero, Francisco; Garcia, Andres J; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-06-01

    Antlers constitute the only mammal model for limb regeneration. A number of factors affect antler regeneration. In this review, we examine such factors and the potential consequences for organ regeneration. As body mineral stores are depleted to grow antlers, physiological exhaustion is shown in the mineral composition, mechanical performance and, according to preliminary studies, porosity of the antler bone material. Nutrition plays an important role in antler characteristics. Thus, antler composition can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess mineral deficiencies in deer. Studies on ecological effects of exceptional weather in plants suggest that minor minerals, particularly Mn, may play disproportionately roles in mechanical performance of bone material. This suggests that Mn (and perhaps other minerals) is essential to incorporate Ca and P from resorbed skeleton material in antlers. Apart from implications for game management, some effects may have applications for medicine.

  20. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed.

  1. Factors of affecting the spring back of compressed Paulownia wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to increase its hardness and gravity as well as dimension stability, the technology of hotcompressing on Paulownia wood was studied. The main factors of affecting the spring back of the compressed Paulownia samples were discussed. It was discovered that every factor in the experiment had obvious effects on wood hardness and dimension stability of compressed wood. When the MC (Moisture Content) of experimental specimens was 13.89%, it was useful to spray water on the surface of samples before hot pressing. The best resuit was the recovery of compression set could decrease from 90.69% of untreated wood to 45.51% of soaking specimens into PF (Phenol Formaldehyde) water solution. The hot pressing time was 8 min at 190 ℃.

  2. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  3. Factors affecting adult feeding in a Drug rehabilitation Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Troncoso Pantoja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To interpret the perception of the determining factors that influence the diet of a group of intern patients in a drug rehabilitation center in Concepción, Chile, during the year 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach, intern patients of a drug rehabilitation facility, who fulfilled the study assigned criteria, were interviewed. The collection of data was conducted through semi structured interviews; which were validated by experts and subject to a pilot test. Nonprobability convenience sampling was performed. The sample size was determined through theoretical saturation, which was completed at the eighth interview. The results were subject to triangulation of informants, and were analyzed using the technique of discourse analysis. RESULTS: The participants identify positive and negative factors that condition their diet. They claim that having a fixed schedule is positive since this helps them to have a more organized diet. However, some stressful situations within the facilities are described as limiting factors in their mood, thus affecting their appetite and reducing their food intake. Additionally, not being with their families, especially at the beginning of the treatment, is considered a negative aspect. The lack of variety in terms of food preparation is also negative since this does not correspond to their food preferences. During the drug withdrawal stage, the intake of food containing carbohydrates of rapid absorption was increased. CONCLUSIONS: It is interpreted that the interviewees at the drug rehabilitation facility identify conditioning factors that influence their diet, which promote or inhibit food intake, and affect the attitude they present towards their diet in the drug withdrawal stage.

  4. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  5. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  6. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality ...00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the basis for situation awareness or—in combina- tion with visual cues—a navigation task. Tactile tasks. Via haptic devices, we can apply vir- tual

  7. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  8. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  10. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  11. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  13. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  14. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  15. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  16. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  17. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  18. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Erdoğan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  19. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  20. Factors affecting QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly home-bound patients. Data were collected from 56 chronically disabled elderly persons (mean age of 76.7 years) who needed a long-term home-based care. They were assessed on QOL, range of activity, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning as well as socio-economic condition. The QOL was evaluated by using Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGC Morale Scale). The activities of daily living (ADL) and handicaps were evaluated by the Barthel index and the ESCROW profile, respectively. The capacity of family care functioning was also recorded according to the "Family Care Scale" developed by Hamamura. As a result, there was a significant difference between PGC Morale Scale score and Barthel index score (P QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled were determined by the motivation, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning (P QOL, ADL must be improved, therefore, rehabilitation should be continued to maintain their function after discharging from hospitals and that we should take these factors into consideration, such as living environments and social conditions of the family care. The results also indicate how the patient's independence in the daily life influences social and economic status, and consequently it affects the quality of life.

  1. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  3. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  4. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  5. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  6. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  7. Factors Affecting Job Motivation among Health Workers: A Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers’ motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed ques...

  8. A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities

  9. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth L; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (ANPS), described here. The ANPS was conceptualized as a potential clinical research tool, which would help experimentalists and clinicians situate subjects and clients in primary-process affective space. These emotion systems are reviewed in the context of a multi-tiered framing of consciousness spanning from primary affect, which encodes biological valences, to higher level tertiary (thought mediated) processing. Supporting neuroscience research is presented along with comparisons to Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Suggestions are made for grounding the internal structure of the FFM on the primal emotional systems recognized in affective neuroscience, which may promote substantive dialog between human and animal research traditions. Personality is viewed in the context of Darwinian "continuity" with the inherited subcortical brain emotion systems being foundational, providing major forces for personality development in both humans and animals, and providing an affective infrastructure for an expanded five factor descriptive model applying to normal and clinical human populations as well as mammals generally. Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed.

  10. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers

  11. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  12. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  13. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability.

  14. Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners.

  15. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT AFFECTING THE WORK COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsofiyati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors that affecting the work commitment of teachers.The research use descriptive quantitative method. The problem are the teachers who work without commitment, just to teach according to what was ordered by the principal. By having a high work commitment that is evident in the behavior of painstaking work, passionate, integrity of the work, responsibility, and maintain morale as educators. The results are: commitment to working both seen from the achievement an average score of 71.61, completion of the task is the highest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 79.67, and development of self-efficacy is the lowest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 73.00.Suggestions are: schools should give rewards to the teachers who complete the task on time and to sanction teachers who did not complete the task on time, provide education and training to the teachers continuously and sustainably as efforts to develop self-efficacy ofteachers, the teacher involvement in school activities further improved, so that the visible concern for the fate of school teachers and Teacher work program should be set up and executed in accordance with a predetermined plan.

  16. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  17. Factors Affecting Mortality After Major Nontraumatic Lower Extremity Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Tolga; Polat Duzgun, Arife; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Erdogan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Zeynep; Coskun, Faruk

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the factors affecting the mortality of patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower limb amputation due to ischemic and/or diabetic causes. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Among these patients, 70 (70%) underwent below-knee amputation, whereas 30 (30%) underwent above-knee amputation. Eleven (15.7%) of the 70 patients who underwent below-knee amputation and 12 (40%) of the 30 patients who underwent above-knee amputation (P = .008) were deceased. After multivariable Poisson regression analysis, female gender (risk ratio [RR] = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.74) and a neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) less than 6.8 (RR = 5.12, 95% CI = 1.86-14.08) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The value of 6.8 was used as a cutoff point for the NLR (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 83%, 66%, 57%, and 92%, respectively. The NLR and female gender were found to be independent factors that are related to increased mortality in patients who underwent lower limb amputation due to diabetic and/or ischemic causes. The coexistence of congestive heart failure and the amputation level (above knee) were found to be predictors of mortality in univariable analysis, but significance could not be demonstrated in multivariable analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  19. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction

  1. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  2. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  3. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  4. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  5. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  6. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  7. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  9. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  10. Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mazza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

  11. Factors Affecting Information Security Focused on SME and Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the field of information and communication technology is a source of advantage that improves quality of business services; increases productivity levels and brings competitive advantage to enterprises and organisations related to agricultural production. However, the use of information and communication technology (ICT is connected with information security risks that threaten business continuity and information assets. The ICT in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME and agricultural enterprises is the source of several advantages as well as the risks resulting from information security violation and security incidents. This paper aims at the current situation of information security in SME and agricultural enterprises. Furthermore, the paper provides results of a survey focusing on identification and evaluation of the effects of internal and external factors affecting existence of risks in information security in Slovak SME and agricultural enterprises. Until now, there had not been a similar survey carried out.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  13. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  14. Factors affecting the predictive validity of the Braden Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, M L; McDonald, D D

    1996-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study explored the predictive validity of the Braden Scale and factors affecting it A Braden score was determined within 4 hours of admission for 50 adult medical/surgical inpatients. Independent skin assessments were made three times a week and at discharge. Fourteen patients (28%) developed pressure ulcers. A Braden score cutoff of 18 or less resulted in a 71% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 63% predictive value of a positive test, and 88% predictive value of a negative test. Three of the four patients incorrectly predicted to be not at risk scored "inadequate" on the nutrition subscale. Two of the four also were underweight. Of the six patients incorrectly predicted at risk for a pressure ulcer, three had been placed on air mattresses and were receiving levothyroxine (Synthroid). This study provides further evidence of the Braden Scale's predictive validity. The results suggest that patients who are underweight or getting inadequate nutrition be considered at increased risk for pressure ulcers.

  15. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  16. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribb, G.L.; Goude, W.H.; Cool, P.; Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mangham, D.C. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  17. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  18. Factors affecting the deterioration of concrete pavement slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Morozov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of constructions under actual operating conditions is affected by exposure to the environment. It is important that concrete roads and airport pavings are resistant not only to mechanical damage, but also to the effects of alternate freezing and thawing. The causes of early failure in concrete have been shown using prefabricated road slabs as an example. The causes of loss of performance properties of the roadway have been established, which are primarily dependent on the quality of raw materials in the concrete. It was found that, aside from durability, uniformity and porosity are important factors in determining the frost resistance of concrete roadways. It was shown that high aluminate content in the cement leads to concrete destruction in the first year of structure use. The results may also indirectly indicate a violation of forming technology during slab production.

  19. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

  20. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  1. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  2. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Job satisfaction (JS in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using of stratified random sampling. In this study JSS questioner was used for measuring JS, ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc and SPSS and Excel software were used for statistical analysis and data analysis respectively. Results In this study, age, work experience, type of job and work position shown relationship with JS but gender, marriage status and education were not shown any statistical significant relationship with JS. In this study technician operating room and anesthesia (TORA had less, physicians and specialist and par clinical jobs had more and handy jobs and administrative jobs had same JS compare with nurses. Conclusions According to results of this study, we propose actions like modified and increased salaries and benefits of employees, making effective communication, improved working conditions, reform official promotion and more attention to TORA and nurses can be useful way for improving JS.

  3. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Informal Payments in the Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MESKARPOUR-AMIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments are a signifi cant source for fi nancing health systems in many developing and transition countries. The aim of our study was the assessment of the infl uence of patients’ socioeconomic status on their informal payment for health care. This article presents a cross-sectional and applied research that was conducted in a general public hospital in Iran during April 2014. The population of the study was all the 1,035 patients discharged during April 2014. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire. An ordered logistic regression model based on a truncated method was estimated to investigate factors affecting informal health payments. About 48% of respondents reported at least one experience of informal payment for health care during the previous year. The results showed that the patients’ socioeconomic status can signifi cantly affect the likelihood and frequency of informal payments for health care. Older people, members of small and wealthier families, employed persons, and those who are under coverage of only basic medical insurance are more at risk of making such payments. Policymakers should pay more attention to such socioeconomic groups in order to improve the effectiveness of policies.

  5. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  6. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  7. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  8. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  9. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  10. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  11. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  12. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  13. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  14. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  15. Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salarifar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

  16. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  17. Factors affecting mortality among victims of electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Çağrı; Haksal, Mustafa Celalettin; Yazıcıoğlu, Murat Burç; Çiftçi, Ali; Esen, Osman; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Güven, Murat

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting mortality rate among patients with an electrical burn. A total of 115 patients admitted to the emergency department and hospitalized in the Burn Treatment Center or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the electrical burn, were included in the study. A total of 115 patients (4 female and 111 male) with a mean age of 32.88±12.87 years were included in the study. The mean hospitalization period was 25.03±20.50 days, and the mean total body surface area burned (% TBSA) was 22.83±15.54%. Among those patients, 9 (8.5%) expired, and the remaining 106 were discharged after treatment. In a logistic regression analysis, TBSA >20% (p=0.02, OR: 11.7, CI: 1.38-99.16); ICU requirement (p=0.005, OR: 1.28, CI: 1.08-1.58); erythrocyte transfusion requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.48, CI: 1.44-107.83); fresh frozen plasma (FFP) requirement (p=0.03, OR: 10.23, CI: 1.18-88.17); albumin requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.60, CI: 1.44-109.85); admission serum albumin level patients with electrical burns. In clinical practice, defining a mortality risk analyzer using these factors may be helpful in the management of patients with electrical burns. Additional, more comprehensive studies are required to define the risk factors for mortality and long-term morbidities in patients with electrical burns.

  18. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  19. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  20. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  1. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  2. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...... of a study will depend on the integrity of the biospecimens. Preanalytical preparations should be planned with consideration of the effect on downstream analyses. Currently such preanalytical variables are not routinely documented in the biospecimen research literature. Future studies using biobanked...

  3. Identifying Factors Affecting Professional Motivation of Iranian Seafarers onboard ocean Going Merchant Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadolah Mehrara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human force employed in organizations is the main resources available to the managers. Management of human resources is perhaps the most important obligation of the manager activities and behaviors of human being are due to his needs and motivations. Since reinforcing motivations can lead to more improvements and achievements of every organization, the identification of factors affecting on motivation can help managers and supervisors to be aware of the origin of their staff’s motivations and lead their behavior towards the desired organizational aims. For this reason, this research tries to identify the most important factors affecting on professional motivation of the Iranian seafarers working on ocean-going merchant vessels (case study: National Iranian Tanker Company and to prioritize those factors in the next step. This research is of an "applied" and "descriptive-survey" type according to the goal and the methodology respectively. Statistical community of this research includes 540 of N.I.T.C. expert seafarers consisting:1- key officers (high rank officers with at least 10 years of experience, 2- low rank officers with at least 5 years of experience, 3-rating with diploma and at least 10 years of experience. Statistical sample mass based on "Kerjcie-Morgan" table includes 224 seafarers and the sampling method is the "simple random sample" method. The collecting method of data is field and library work. Further to the study of the available texts and researches about motivation and decision-making techniques and also interviewing with experts and lecturers who are masters and chief engineers of ocean-going vessels, a questionnaire has been prepared according to "Delphi method" to the scale of "Likert 5 degrees" and distributed among the statistical community. After analyzing the first questionnaire using the statistical methods and "SPSS" software, 20 affecting variables and also the final factors have been identified. Then the second

  4. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  5. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-04

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.

  6. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  7. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  8. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  9. The Factors Affecting Performance of Nurse at Paniai General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Tatogo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available General hospital of Paniai regency health service institution under Local Government Paniai Regency with amount of nurse resource counted 69 one who have duty to remain to can improve more certifiable service and reached by society, so to be form degree of health which at the farthest, so that nurse performance of vital importance in giving of health service. The goal of research: To knowing of factors affecting performance of nurse at Paniai general hospital. Method: Type research is causal associative by using quantitative approach. Sample is all of nurse as much 69 nurse with date implemented in October 2016. Data obtained used questioner and analyzed by chi square test. Result of research is obtained that factor’s affecting of nurse performance in Paniai General Hospital is motivation (p-value = 0,001; RP = 3,000; CI95%= 1,607 - 5,601, [job/activity] discipline (p-value = 0,043; RP = 2,068; CI95%= 1,150 - 3,719, reward (p- value = 0,001; RP = 5,008; CI95%= 1,656 - 15,142, punishment (p- value = 0,000 ; RP= 16,839; CI95%= ( 4,310 - 65,784 and style leadership [of] director (p- value = 0,000; RP = 3,333; CI95%= 1,742 - 6,380. The factor’s not related of nurse performance at Paniai general hospital is age (p- value = 1,000 ; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806, long working (p- value = 1,000; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806 and job rotation (p- value = 0,843; RP = 1,190; CI95%= 0,603 – 2,348.

  10. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  12. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  13. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease,smoking, duration of Crohn's disease before surgery,prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants),anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and postoperative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of 'short' among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants.Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non

  14. Are organisational factors affecting the emotional withdrawal of community nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Cheng, Cindy; Donohue, Lisa; Bartram, Timothy; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review. The fit of the proposed model was assessed via structural equation modelling using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; IMB).Results Community nurses with higher levels of emotional dissonance were less likely to be satisfied with their job and work organisation and had a higher tendency to exhibit withdrawal behaviours. Work organisational factors mediated this relationship.Conclusion Emotional dissonance can be a potential stressor for community nurses that can trigger withdrawal behaviours. Improving work organisational factors may help reduce emotional conflict and its effect on withdrawal behaviours.What is known about the topic? Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, very few studies have addressed the effect of the quality of work organisation on nurses' withdrawal behaviours in a nursing setting.What does this paper add? This paper provides evidence that work organisation affects levels of emotional dissonance and has an effect on job neglect through stress-related presenteeism.What are the implications for practitioners? In order to minimise stress-related presenteeism and job neglect, healthcare organisations need to establish a positive working environment, designed to improve the quality of relationships with management, provide appropriate rewards, recognition and effective workload management and support high-quality relationships with colleagues.

  15. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface

  16. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  17. Factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mou-wang; GU Li; CHEN Ya-ping; YU Chang-long; AO Ying-fang; HUANG Hong-shi; YANG Yan-yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proprioception plays an important role in knee movements.Since there are controversies surrounding the overall recovery time of proprioception following surgery,it is necessary to define the factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the relationship between proprioception and muscle strength.Methods A total of 36 patients who had their ACL reconstructed with a semitendinosus/gracilis graft (reconstructed group:6 months post-surgery) and 13 healthy adults without any knee injury (control group) were included in the study.Knee proprioception was evaluated with a passive reproduction test.Isokinetic strength was measured using the Biodex System.Statistical analysis was used to compare proprioception of the reconstructed group versus the control group,and to define causal factors,including sex,hamstring/quadriceps ratio,and the course of injury before reconstruction.We also investigated the correlation between the passive reproduction error and quadriceps index.Results There was a significant difference in proprioception between the reconstructed and control groups (P <0.05).When the course of injury before reconstruction was less than 4 months,there was a linear correlation with proprioception 6 months after the operation (r=0.713,P <0.05).There was a positive correlation between post-surgery proprioception and the quadriceps index at 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Impaired knee proprioception is observed 6 months after ACL reconstruction.Within 4 months of injury,early undertaking of reconstruction is associated with better proprioception outcome.Patients with enhanced proprioception have a better quadriceps index.

  18. Risk factors for injuries in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of occurrence of natural disasters has increased over the past several decades, which necessitates a better understanding of human vulnerability, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper assesses risk factors for injury in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda, and compares the effects of location, injury type, and severity. A stratified cluster survey of the disaster-affected populations was conducted five months after onset of the disasters. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to sample 800 households, including 400 affected by floods in Butaleja District and 400 affected by landslides in Bududa District. Flood- and landslide-affected populations were surveyed in July 2010 using a stratified cluster design. The odds of injury were 65% higher in the flood-affected groups than the landslide-affected groups in a logistic regression (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P landslide-affected population, and injuries were more severe. This study illustrates differences between populations injured by flood and landslide disasters that occurred simultaneously in Eastern Uganda in 2010. In areas where landslides are prone to occur due to massive rainfalls or floods, preventative measures, such as early warning systems and evacuation, are more likely to increase the likelihood of people surviving, while for areas with massive floods, immediate and effective medical attention can save lives and improve injury outcomes.

  19. Runway Incursion: Human Factors In Runway Incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    R. S., & Harbeson, M. M. (1981). Effects of Extended Practice on Dual-Task Tracking Performance. Human Factors, 23(5), 627- 631. David , H. (1997...investigated, and test results obtained from the installation at Long Beach airport. Edwards, V., Daskalakis, A. C., Oswald, L. J., Brading , J

  20. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2005-03-01

    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain-mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional "gift of nature" rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill acquisition via various felt reinforcements. Affective consciousness, being a comparatively intrinsic function of the brain, shared homologously by all mammalian species, should be the easiest variant of consciousness to study in animals. This is not to deny that some secondary processes (e.g., awareness of feelings in the generation of behavioral choices) cannot be evaluated in animals with sufficiently clever behavioral learning procedures, as with place-preference procedures and the analysis of changes in learned behaviors after one has induced re-valuation of incentives. Rather, the claim is that a direct neuroscientific study of primary process emotional/affective states is best achieved through the study of the intrinsic ("instinctual"), albeit experientially refined, emotional action tendencies of other animals. In this view, core emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamic attractor landscapes of a variety of extended trans-diencephalic, limbic emotional action systems-including SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Through a study of these brain systems, the neural infrastructure of human and animal affective consciousness may be revealed. Emotional feelings are instantiated in large-scale neurodynamics that can be most effectively monitored via the ethological analysis of emotional action tendencies and the accompanying brain neurochemical/electrical changes. The

  1. Study on some factors affecting survivability of airborne fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hameed, A A; Khoder, M I; Ibrahim, Y H; Saeed, Y; Osman, M E; Ghanem, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of some air pollutants and meteorological parameters on the survivability of airborne fungi. Fungi were collected by using a slit impactor sampler calibrated to draw 20 L/min, for 3 min. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), relative humidity (RH %), temperature (T °C) and wind speed (WS) were also measured. Air samples were taken during the period from March 2006 to February 2007. Fungal concentrations ranged between 45 and 451 CFU/m(3) with an annual mean concentration of 216 CFU/m(3). The lowest fungal concentration was found in the summer, however the highest one was found in the autumn. NO(2,) SO(2) and PM averaged 83.66 μg/m(3), 67.01 μg/m(3), and 237.69 μg/m(3), respectively. T °C was positively and negatively correlated with Aspergillus (P = 0.000) and Penicillium (P = 0.007), respectively. RH% was positively correlated with total fungi (P = 0.001), Aspergillus (P = 0.002) and Cladosporium (P = 0.047). Multiple regression analysis showed that T °C and RH% were the most predicted variants. Non-significant correlations were found between fungal concentrations and air pollutants. Meteorological parameters were the critical factors affecting fungal survivability.

  2. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  3. Factors affecting consultation length in a Japanese diabetes practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Uchida, Junko; Toyoda, Masao; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Kato, Kiyoe; Kawai, Toshihide; Shimada, Akira; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Higaki, Megumu

    2017-04-01

    Sufficient consultation time is important for establishing good doctor-patient relationship. We examined the factors that affect consultation length in Japanese diabetes practice. This was a cross-sectional study performed at a diabetes clinic in central Tokyo, Japan. Regular diabetes consultations of 1197 patients with 22 physicians were analyzed. Consultation time and clinical characteristics were obtained from the electronic records. A negative binomial model, which included patient and physician characteristics, was constructed to examine the association of the variables with consultation length. Of the 1197 patients (mean age, 66; women, 25%; type 1 diabetes, 10%), the mean consultation time was 10.1min. In the multivariate model, longer consultation time was recorded in patients with type 1 diabetes, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), use of insulin injections, and use of hypnotics/anxiolytics. The consultation time was longer in patients with HbA1c of ⩾7.0 to consultation. Older and female physicians provided longer consultation. Clinical consultation length in diabetes practice was associated with certain patient and physician characteristics. The findings can be used for making diabetes consultation more efficacious, which could eventually lead to the provision of the most appropriate consultation time for individual patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed.

  5. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, J. I.; Barker, H. A.

    1964-01-01

    Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504–509. 1964.—Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 × 10−5m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 × 10−6m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production. PMID:14127565

  7. Factors affecting length of stay following colonic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Mostafa, Gamal; Lincourt, Amy E; Camp, Steven M; Kercher, Kent W; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2008-05-15

    In-hospital length of stay (LOS) has become a valuable measure of outcomes following any operation, which also directly impacts cost. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that affect LOS after colonic resection. A retrospective analysis was performed of adult patients who underwent colonic resection over an 8-y period at a tertiary institution. Data collected included demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative comorbidities and medications, operative management, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and LOS. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression to identify variables predictive of prolonged LOS. A total of 899 consecutive patients were identified. One hundred eighty-seven resections were performed urgently, and 712 were elective. Two-hundred forty-five cases were performed laparoscopically. Complications occurred in 205 cases (23%), and there were 32 deaths (4%). The median LOS was 7 d. Logistic analysis showed 15 variables to be predictive of prolonged LOS. These included advanced age, warfarin sodium use, ASA score >or=3, alcoholism, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, illicit drug use, total colectomy (versus segmental), open resections (versus laparoscopic), and postoperative complications. In addition, the presence of at least one postoperative complication was predictive of prolonged LOS (P = 0.0002, OR 2.4 95% CI 1.5-3.8). ASA score and the incidence of postoperative complications are the only significant categories of variables that predict prolonged LOS after colectomy. Laparoscopic approach and the extent of the resection are predictive as well.

  8. Microflora of Processed Cheese and the Factors Affecting It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2015-09-11

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese". During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but they are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  9. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  10. Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child′s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

  11. Factors Affecting the Resinification of Liquefied Phenolated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie1; Hu Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    Wood of Chinese fir and poplar were liquefied in phenol at 150℃ and atmospheric pressure. The liquefied wood were reacted with formaldehyde to synthesize the liquefied wood-based resin. The factors affecting the resinification and the properties of new resin were investigated. The results show that the formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio have important influence on the resin characteristics. With the increase of formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, the yield of resin increases, and the free phenol content of resins decreases, showing that the resinification of liquefied wood is more complete at higher formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratios. The reaction temperature on the viscosity of the liquefied resin has considerable effect; the viscosity of resin increased with increasing reaction temperature,and the amount of liquefied poplar resin increased more quickly than that of liquefied Chinese fir resin. The resinification time also has obvious influence on the viscosity of resin; the viscosity of liquefied poplar resin is more sensitive to resinification time compared with that of liquefied Chinese fir. The amount of sodium hydroxide can improve the water miscibility of liquefied wood resin.The optimum sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio for preparation of liquefied wood-based resins exceeds 0.4.

  12. Factors affecting the dairy industry's products export in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Yazdaninasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Export dairy products as an important part of non-oil exports can play an important role in improving the economic situation of Iran. Therefore, in this study factors affecting the exports of dairy products in the period 2002-2014 will be discussed. The results indicate a trend of increasing exports of dairy products during the 13 year study. This reflects the fact that the dairy industry of great potential capacity to provide part of the non-oil revenues in the agricultural subsector. In this study, the dependent variable was the amount of exports of dairy products. Independent variables included: investment in large dairy factories, the price of goods and services consumed by this sector, GDP, exchange rate, export prices for dairy products. The results showed that the effect of all independent variables on the dependent variable is positive and rising: such as investment and exchange rate. So that with an increase of 10 percent each of the indicators the country's exports of dairy products will be increase. The original proposal of the present study is: the use of policies and financial instruments and non-financial, such as paying attention to the comparative advantages of export, focusing on the right target export markets in order to support the country's dairy industry to increase production and exports.

  13. Factors Affecting Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN En-hui; ZHANG Ping; ZUO Shi-min; LI Ai-hong; ZHANG Ya-fang; CHEN Zong-xiang; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    Several important factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation were studied with several predominant commercial indica and japonica rice cultivars. As far as indica rice callus was concerned, CC medium was the best and the quality of callus was improved with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0 mg/L ABA. It decreased the percentage of browning calli and improved the callus growing state by addition of a certain amount of sorbitol to the subculture medium. NB medium was the best for callus initiation of japonica rice, but the improvement in the quality of callus of japonica subspecies was not obvious by adding ABA. During the period of subculture, to a certain degree, increasing the sucrose concentration could improve the proportion of hygromycin resistant calli. Furthermore, the transformation efficiency would be higher by applying selection pressure in the selection stage, removing selection pressure during the plantlet differentiation period and applying selection pressure again during seedling hardening period. Besides, suitable combination of plant hormones was beneficial for callus differentiation. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation system had been established for several rice cultivars and a lot of transgenic rice plants had been obtained.

  14. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  15. Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    El-Shanshoury, A I

    2003-01-01

    The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elazıg Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.

  17. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  18. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  19. Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4 ± 6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n = 44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p = 0.014), neuroticism (p = 0.049), agreeableness (p = 0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p = 0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n = 41) or sub-SAD (n = 33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p = 0.017) and openness (p = 0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r = 0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity

  20. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  1. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  2. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care.

  3. Study on the spatiotemporal variability and affecting factors in soil moisture at a humid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yu, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture and its affecting factors in a humid area were examined based on the field measuring date in the Tai lake drainage basin, China. 24 sensors near the soil surface and 12 sensors in 2 profiles (6 in each) were set up for collecting hourly soil moisture data with the Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) sensors in 2006. Coefficient of variation (CV) and semi-variogram were calculated to evaluate the temporal variability in different locations and the spatial variability in different periods. The surface soil moisture appears middle or weak variability, and most of the CV values are in the range of 0.13-0.26. Soil characteristics, topography, vegetation, meteorological factors and human activities influenced the soil moisture spatiotemporal variability significantly. The factors appear having different affecting abilities on the spatiotemporal variability, and the domain factors are different in four seasons. Soil characteristics mainly influence the temporal variability in the scale of hill slope. Coarser texture on the upper part of the slope results in a larger variability. Topography and micro-topography affects the spatial variability in all 3 dimensions. The variability is larger at upper locations and chine of the slope. The effect of vegetation on the soil moisture variability is stronger in spring, summer, and autumn than in winter, according to the different growth activities and water demand. The trees on the slope influence the CV values along the slope. Meteorological factors are the forcing factors of the soil water variation. Higher rainfall and evaporation variations produce higher variability in soil moisture while the rainfall has more influence in the summer and the evaporation has more in the fall. The results provide better understanding of soil moisture variation and base for further study on how the soil moisture variation could affect the rainfall runoff partitioning.

  4. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggr...

  5. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  6. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  7. Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P genetics (P genetics, students should take biology from Kansas State, perform well in biology, and wait until at least sophomore standing to enroll in genetics.

  8. Factors affecting the cryosurvival of mouse two-cell embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D

    1988-01-01

    A series of 4 experiments was conducted to examine factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed 2-cell mouse embryos. Rapid addition of 1.5 M-DMSO (20 min equilibration at 25 degrees C) and immediate, rapid removal using 0.5 M-sucrose did not alter the frequency (mean +/- s.e.m.) of blastocyst development in vitro when compared to untreated controls (90.5 +/- 2.7% vs 95.3 +/- 2.8%). There was an interaction between the temperature at which slow cooling was terminated and thawing rate. Termination of slow cooling (-0.3 degrees C/min) at -40 degrees C with subsequent rapid thawing (approximately 1500 degrees C/min) resulted in a lower frequency of blastocyst development than did termination of slow cooling at -80 degrees C with subsequent slow thawing (+8 degrees C/min) (36.8 +/- 5.6% vs 63.9 +/- 5.7%). When slow cooling was terminated between -40 and -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were achieved with rapid thawing. When slow cooling was terminated below -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were obtained with slow thawing rates. In these comparisons absolute survival rates were highest among embryos cooled below -60 degrees C and thawed slowly. However, when slow cooling was terminated at -32 degrees C, with subsequent rapid warming, survival rates were not different from those obtained when embryos were cooled to -80 degrees C and thawed slowly (52.4 +/- 9.5%, 59.5 +/- 8.6%). These results suggest that optimal cryosurvival rates may be obtained from 2-cell mouse embryos by a rapid or slow thawing procedure, as has been found for mouse preimplantation embryos at later stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in pancreatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Z; Kapan, M; Ulger, B V; Turkoglu, A; Uslukaya, O; Oğuz, A; Aldemir, M

    2016-04-01

    Difficulties in the detection of pancreatic damage result in morbidity and mortality in cases of pancreatic trauma. This study was performed to determine factors affecting morbidity and mortality in pancreatic trauma. The records of 33 patients who underwent surgery for pancreatic trauma between January 2004 and December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The types of injury were penetrating injury and blunt abdominal trauma in 75.8 and 24.2 % of all cases, respectively. Injuries were classified as stage 1 in 6 cases (18.2 %), stage 2 in 18 cases (54.5 %), stage 3 in 5 cases (15.2 %), and stage 4 in 4 cases (12.1 %). The average injury severity scale (ISS) value was 25.70 ± 9:33. Six patients (18.2 %) had isolated pancreatic injury, 27 (81.2 %) had additional intraabdominal organ injuries and 10 patients (30.3 %) had extraabdominal organ injuries. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.24 ± 9 days. Various complications were observed in eight patients (24.2 %) and mortality occurred in three (9.1 %). Complications were more frequent in patients with high pancreatic damage scores (p = 0.024), additional organ injuries (p = 0.05), and blunt trauma (p = 0.026). Pancreatic injury score was associated with morbidity, while the presence of major vascular injury was associated with mortality. Complications were significantly more common in injuries with higher pancreatic damage scores, additional organ injuries, and blunt abdominal trauma. Pancreatic injury score was associated with morbidity, while the presence of major vascular injury was associated with mortality.

  10. Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie

    2005-04-01

    The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

  11. Pelleting of feed for broiler chickens: Factors affecting pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Antoniol Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.

  12. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  13. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect...... on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P

  14. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  15. HIV-1 p17 matrix protein interacts with heparan sulfate side chain of CD44v3, syndecan-2, and syndecan-4 proteoglycans expressed on human activated CD4+ T cells affecting tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, Maria A; Baronio, Manuela; Poiesi, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    HIV-1 p17 contains C- and N-terminal sequences with positively charged residues and a consensus cluster for heparin binding. We have previously demonstrated by affinity chromatography that HIV-1 p17 binds strongly to heparin-agarose at physiological pH and to human activated CD4(+) T cells. In this study we demonstrated that the viral protein binds to heparan sulfate side chains of syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and CD44v3 purified from HeLa cells and that these heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) co-localize with HIV-1 p17 on activated human CD4(+) T cells by confocal fluorescence analysis. Moreover, we observed a stimulatory or inhibitory activity when CD4(+) T cells were activated with mitogens together with nanomolar or micromolar concentrations of the matrix protein.

  16. Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, Joan

    If solar variability affects human culture it most likely does so by changing the climate in which the culture operates. Variations in the solar radiative input to the Earth's atmosphere have often been suggested as a cause of such climate change on time scales from decades to tens of millennia. In the last 20 years there has been enormous progress in our knowledge of the many fields of research that impinge on this problem; the history of the solar output, the effect of solar variability on the Earth's mean climate and its regional patterns, the history of the Earth's climate and the history of mankind and human culture. This new knowledge encourages revisiting the question asked in the title of this talk. Several important historical events have been reliably related to climate change including the Little Ice Age in northern Europe and the collapse of the Classical Mayan civilization in the 9th century AD. In the first section of this paper we discus these historical events and review the evidence that they were caused by changes in the solar output. Perhaps the most important event in the history of mankind was the development of agricultural societies. This began to occur almost 12,000 years ago when the climate changed from the Pleistocene to the modern climate of the Holocene. In the second section of the paper we will discuss the suggestion ( Feynman and Ruzmaikin, 2007) that climate variability was the reason agriculture developed when it did and not before.

  17. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  18. Affection for Patients as a Factor in Therapists' Outcome Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility of separating psychotherapists' judgments of treatment outcome from their affective reactions to their patients. If therapists' judgments of symptom remission cannot be utilized independently of their affection for their patients, this would present reason to doubt the utility of such judgments despite their current…

  19. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  20. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Schmidt, H. G. Computer Experience and Computer Anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior 2003, 19, 785-797. Bluedorn, A. C.; Kalliath, T. J.; Strube...Training. Computers in Human Behavior 2002, 18, 241-255. Salthouse, T. A. Influence of Experience on Age Differences in Cognitive Functioning... Computers in Human Behavior 1999, 15, 227-242. Todman, J.; Drysdale, E. Effects of Qualitative Differences in Initial and subsequent Computer